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Grammar

1 A word order in questions


questions with do /does /did in present and past simple
Interrogative simple form
Did Subj. v. en infinitiu Complements
+?
Did I/you travell To Paris last
year?
Did He/she/it travell To Paris last
year?
Did We/you/they travell To Paris last
year?

Affirmative form
Do/does Subjecte verb CN
Do I play
Do You
Does He/she/it plays sport in the evening?
Do We
Do You play
do They
► In the present simple use the auxiliary verb do /does to make questions.
► In the past simple use the auxiliary verb did to make questions.
► In thes quewstions the subject goes aftrer the auxiliary verb.
Questions with be, present continuous , and going to

Interrogarive form
Question word To be + subject (adjective, noun, verb + ing, etc.)
Am I A student
What Are you Doing?
Is he/she/it Talking about?
Are we Going to live?
Where Are you
Are they

► In questions with be, make questons by inversting the verb and the subject.
If a verb is ollowed by a preposition listen to, talk about) , the prepositions gos at the end of
the question.
What are you talkin about?
Not About what are you talking.
1B present simple
Present simple

Affirmative form
Subjecte verb CN
I play
You
He/she/it plays Sport in the evening
We
You Play
They
Negative form
Subject Don’t ver CN
e /doesn’t b
I don’t pla
You don’t y
He/she/ doesn’t pla sport in the
it y evening
We don’t
You don’t pla
They don’t y

Les formes curtes negatives es formen amb el no + el subjecte + el don’t o doesn’t(el doesn’t per la
tercera persona del singular).

Normes ortogràfiques :3ª persona del singular: she/he it

-s : Per formar la tercera persona del singular normalment s’fegeix-s al verb:


speak/speaks say/says
-es : Si el verb acaba en s, sh, ch, x, s’afegeix –es.
Kiss/ kisses
Brush/ brushes
Watch/ watches
go /goes

Normes ortogràfiques :3ª persona del singular: she/he/ it


-ies : Si el verb acaba en consonant +i, safegeix -ies.
Study/studies Try/ tries
Recorda que si el verb acaba en vocal+ y, només s’afegeix-s: say/says

Affirmative form Short answers


Do/does Subjecte verb CN Yes, I/you/we/they do. No, I/you/we/they
Do I play don’t.
Do You
Does He/she/it plays sport in the evening?
Yes, he/she/it does. No, he/she/it
Do We
doesn’t.
Do You play
do They
El present simple de la forma afirmativa es forma amb el subjecte, el verb més els complements del nom.
En la tercera persona del singular al verb es posa en plural.
El present simple de la forma negativa es forma amb el subjecte el don’t o doesn’t més el verb més els
complements del nom. El don’t es posa amb I, you, we i they. El doesn’t es posa amb el he , she i it. A la
tercera persona del singular com que el plural ho porta l’auxiliar doesn’t no tenim que posar al verb
principal els plural.
El present simple de la forma interrogativa es forma amb el do o does el subjecte el verb i els
complements del nom. El do es posa devant de I, you, we, they . El does es posa devant de he , she , it.
Les formes curtes afirmatives es formen amb el yes el subjecte i el do o el does (el does per la tercera
persona del singular).
► Use the present simple for things you do every day , web, year, or which are always true.
Adverbs and expressions of frequency

► We often use the present simple with adverbs of frequency (always, often, sometimes,
usually, hardly ever, never).
► Adverbs of frequency go before the main verb, but after be.
He ogten goes out. NOT he goes often out.
She’s always late. Not She’s late always.
► Expressions of frequency (every day, once a week, etc.) usually go at the end of a
sentence.
I have English classes twice a week.

1cPresent continuous
Ús del present continuous
El present continu s’utilitza per descriure accions que s’estan realitzant en el moment en què estem
parlant o escrivint. Per exemple, utilitzarem aquest temps quan descrivim el temps que està fent ( It is
raining now), la roba que deum, una escena d’una fotografia o pel·lícula, o allò que estan fent els teus
companys de classe. El present continu sol anar acompaayat per les expressions now i at the moment.

Affirmative form
Subj. To be Verb en gerundi CN
I Am
You Are
He/she/it Is playing football.
We Are singing a song
You Are
They Are
La forma afirmativa del present continu es forma amb el subjecte + a forma del verb to be per a cadascú
adient + el verb en gerundi + els complements del nom.

Negative form
Subj. To be en negatiu Verb en gerundi CN
I ‘m no
You Aren’t
He/she/it Isn’t playing football.
We Aren’t singing a song
You Aren’t
They Aren’t
La forma negativa del present continu es forma amb el subjecte + el verb to be en negatiu + el
verb en gerundi + els complements del nom.
Interrogative form Short answers
To be Subj. Verb en gerundi CN
Am I Yes, I am No, I’m not.
Are You Yes, you are No, you aren’t
Is He/she/it playing football, Yes, he/she/it is No, he/she/it isn’t
Are We singing now? Yes, we are No, we aren’t
Are You a song, now? Yes, you are No, you aren’t
Are they Yes, they are No, they aren’t

La forma interrogativa del present continu es forma amb el verb to be + el subjecte + el verb en gerundi +
els complements del nom.

Normes ortogràfiques
1. com a norma general, per formar el gerundi s’afegeix –ing al verb: war/wearing.
2. quan el verb acaba en –e, la lletra -e es perd quan afegim –ing: have/having; make/making;
give/giving
3. quan el veb acaba en –ie, es canvia -ie per y: lie/lying
4. Quan un verb monosil·làbic acaba en vocal, consonant, vocal es duplica la consonant última: get/
getting.
5. Quan el verb acaba en y, x, w no es dobla la consonant: play/playing; snow/snowing; mix/
mixing.
Present continuous: be+ verb+ ing
► Use the present continuous for thegs happening now, at this moment. My brother is
workin in Germaniy.
A- What are you doing?
B- I’m sending a text messaje to Sarah.

Some verbs are no normally sued in the present continuous, for example like, want, have (= possess),
need.
I need talk yo you now.
Not I’m nedding to talk to you now.
1 D defining relative clauses with who, which, where

A cook is a person who workd in a restaurant.


A clock i a thing which tells the time.
A post office is a place where you can buy stambps.
► Use relative clauses to explanin what a place, thing, or person is or does.
► Use who for a person, which for a thing, and where for a place.
You can use that instead of who or which.
Sh’es the girl who / that words with my brother.
It’s a thing which /that connects two computers.

Exemples:
They’re people who make you laugh.
It’s a machin whitch cuts the grass.
It’s an animal whitch lives in the sea and has eight legs.
It’s a room wher people try on clothes.
He’es the person who helps you with your lauggage.
It’s a kind of thing keeps vapires away.

Devil’s dictionary
A dentist is a person who puts metal in your mouth ant takes coins out of your pocket.
Useeful expressions
It’s sombody who works in a restaurant. A waiter.
It’s the person who takes the food from the kitchen to the tables.
It’s a place where you go when you wnat to buy something. A shop
It’s a thing which you use to talk.
Its’a kind of machine.
It’s the oppossite of fat.
It’s like thin, but it means thin and attractive slim.
It’s similar to worried.
It’s how you feel when you have a lot of things to do.
For exemple, you do this with the TV.
A tourist is a person who visits another contri on holiday.
A sports centre is a place where people can do sports.
A key is a thing which you use to open or close the door.
It’s how you feel when you have a lot of problems.
You do this when you are happy/ people say soetimes thing.
A boring person is someone who isn’t interesting.
The brainis a organ, incide your head, which you use to think and feel.
A star is a famous person in films.
A friend is someone who is close to you/ you like and knows well.
A secret is somethin which only a fex people about.
A book shop is a place where you can buy books.
A library is a place where people can read or barrow books.
A hardresser is a person who cuts people’s hair.
A recepcionist is a person who answeres the pone in a hotel.
Scissors are a things which you use to cut paper with.