11 views

Uploaded by sajeeb liza

- CircuitWorks Conductive Pens
- EE305
- 1. IJAERD - Synthesis Characterization and Electrical Properties of. - Copy
- MIT8_04S13_ps10
- iaetsd Design of Optical Gates Using Photonic Crystals
- Geophysical Technologies for Detecting Underground Coal Mine Voids
- International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
- Conversion and Calculation-20100909
- Karakteristik Batuan Sedimen
- Concrete Electrical Resistivity
- PDF File
- Determination of Oxygen Stoichiometry in The
- Temperature Effects
- solid 1
- MODULE 4.1 4.3 Electricity
- Electronic Materials
- paper8
- Hatice Thesis
- Earthing1
- Thermelectric Ceramics for Energy Harvesting

You are on page 1of 4

52

Expt. No...09

Date........08.12.09

Name of the experiment:

Measurement of energy band gap of the element semiconductor.

Theory:

Energy gap: At 00c temperature the valance band are filled with electrons and conduction

band are completely empty. They remain separated by an energy band gap. This gap is

called forbidden gap.

When the temperature is increased some electrons being excited are transferred from

higher energy state to conduction band. Thereby again possible conductivity i.e.

conductivity is increased of semiconductor diode can be expressed by the following

equation:

eV

I = I 0 exp − 1 ……………… (1)

nKT

Where,

I = final current,

I0 = Initial current,

e = electron charge,

V = applied voltage,

T = temperature,

K = Boltzman constant,

n = ideality factor.

Here the current I0 is a function of diffusion length and diffusion coefficient of both hole

and electron and the function of no. of the hole & electron in equilibrium condition.

The dependence of I0 on temperature can be shown by the following equation

− Eg

I 0 = KT m exp ……………… (2)

nKT

Where, K is constant and Eg is the energy band of intrinsic semiconductor.

For Ge, n = 1 & m = 2, for Si, n =2 and m = 3.

Taking log on both side of equn (2),

Eg

ln I 0 = ln( KT m ) −

nKT

Eg e

= ln( KT m ) − .

e nKT

e Eg

= ln( KT m ) −V g . as =V g

nKT e

1.6 ×10 −19

= ln( KT m

) −V g

n ×1.38 ×10 −23 ×T

11594 Page No...53

= ln( KT m ) −V g

n ×T Expt. No...09

11 .60 1000 Date........08.12.09

= ln( KT m ) −V g × .......... ......( 3)

n T

Where, Vg is forbidden energy band gap expressed in eV. As the change of saturated

current is controlled by the exponential factor, we can consider log (KTm) as constant. i.e.

ln I0Vg1000/T will be a linear curve whose slope is m′ . This slope is

Vg

m′ = ×11 .60

n

m ′ ×n

∴V g = .......... .......... ..( 4)

11 .60

Thus putting the value of m′ and n in equn (4) we can easily calculate Vg in eV.

Apparatus:

Power supply

Diode

Multimeter

Thermometer

Water tank

Heater, water etc.

Procedure:

1) All the connections were made as shown in fig_1.

2) Then at room temperature different values of currents were noted for different

forward voltages.

3) Raising the temperature of the diode at 400c with heater, another set of I-V were

noted.

4) We repeated the same procedure for temperature 500c & 600c.

5) Then we took the readings for falling temperature.

6) Then I-V graphs were plotted for every temperature readings.

7) A graph ln Is (saturation current) Vs 1/T was plotted. From which we determined

the energy band gap of the semiconductor by calculating the slope of this curve.

Page No...54

Expt. No...09

Date........08.12.09

Experimental data:

Table 1: Data for I-V curve for rise & fall of temperature.

Voltage temperature(mA 400C 500C 600C

) 300C Rise Fall Rise Fall Rise Fall

0.02 7.0 25 19 63 55 135 86

0.03 8.0 32 28 77 60 175 98

0.04 9.0 34 30 100 72 210 114

0.05 10.0 40 32 115 80 230 128

0.06 11.0 41 35 130 85 240 132

0.07 12.0 43 35 139 86 250 135

0.08 12.0 45 37 144 90 260 140

0.09 12.0 45 37 148 93 265 140

0.10 12.0 46 38 151 93 266 140

0.11 12.0 46 38 152 93 266 140

0.12 12.0 46 38 152 93 266 140

0

k current Is

Rise Fall Rise Fall

40 313 3.19 ×10

−3

46 38 3.8 3.63

−3

50 325323 3.1 ×10 152 93 5.02 4.53

60 333 3.0 ×10

−3

266 140 5.58 4.94

Page No...55

Expt. No...09

Date........08.12.09

Calculation:

From graph_3, for rising temperature,

The slope m = 1.1/0.12 =9.16

m × n 9.16 ×1

∴V g = = = 0.79 eV [ n =1]

11 .6 11 .6

The standard value of Vg is 0.7

0.79 − 0.70

Therefore % of error = ×100 = 12

0.70

Result:

Energy band gap of the semiconductor (Ge) is 0.79 eV& % of error is 12.

Discussion:

We took all the readings by connecting the carefully. We could not take the readings for

reverse configuration. Even through we increased voltages in a specific temperature. The

reason was that the temperature increases rapidly. So the experiment value deviates from

its ideal value. In the experiment the position of the Fermi level was considered as

independent of temperature. But ideally when the temperature increases, the Fermi level

also shifted towards the conduction band. The operational temperature of germanium

(Ge) diode is 700C. So during this experiment we controlled the temperature below 700C.

- CircuitWorks Conductive PensUploaded byFerdinand Estanislao
- EE305Uploaded byapi-3853441
- 1. IJAERD - Synthesis Characterization and Electrical Properties of. - CopyUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- MIT8_04S13_ps10Uploaded byYul Lope
- iaetsd Design of Optical Gates Using Photonic CrystalsUploaded byiaetsdiaetsd
- Geophysical Technologies for Detecting Underground Coal Mine VoidsUploaded bySunday A. Dickson
- International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)Uploaded byIJERD
- Conversion and Calculation-20100909Uploaded byJean Bou Nassar
- Karakteristik Batuan SedimenUploaded byMatthew Fransteven
- Concrete Electrical ResistivityUploaded bysoulmateforeverforu
- PDF FileUploaded byRohit Kumar Singh
- Determination of Oxygen Stoichiometry in TheUploaded bySolo Eddie
- Temperature EffectsUploaded byPrabakaran Balaraman
- solid 1Uploaded byKishor Pasha
- MODULE 4.1 4.3 ElectricityUploaded byanjujobby
- Electronic MaterialsUploaded bycayusbonus
- paper8Uploaded byFahad Arefeen
- Hatice ThesisUploaded byDhivya Dhanalakshmi ECE
- Earthing1Uploaded byTheresa West
- Thermelectric Ceramics for Energy HarvestingUploaded byNavin Mathew
- High temperature oxidation of iron-chormium alloys.pdfUploaded bySamer Daradkh
- Soil ResistivityUploaded byRaj Venkatesan
- MRB_N Bose et alUploaded byNavonil Bose
- Connect Earth ElectrodesUploaded byGeorge Anibor
- SemiconductorsUploaded byMaría González Domínguez
- 17 1D Heat TransferUploaded byPravin Shinde
- Ani So Tropic Dependence of the Residual Electrical Resistivity on the Current Direction in Aluminium Single CrystalUploaded byHuanhoon
- Ref 2Uploaded byAashish Singhal
- CatalogueUploaded byOctavian Harnagea
- Valence and Conduction BandsUploaded byGilberto Manhattan

- FORWARDRoom Tempat 40 Degreet 50 Degreet 60Uploaded bysajeeb liza
- Solar Cell GraphUploaded bysajeeb liza
- LnIs vs 1/T CurveUploaded bysajeeb liza
- Solar CellUploaded bysajeeb liza
- Experimental SetupUploaded bysajeeb liza
- Global RadiationUploaded bysajeeb liza
- band i-v curveUploaded bysajeeb liza
- LN IO CURVEUploaded bysajeeb liza

- EE2208-QBUploaded byshadiqengineer
- Tesla Energy - Microwave Metamaterial With Integrated Power Harvesting Functionality - Tesla Idea - 1.4824473Uploaded byin59t
- Remote Control-Wiring DiagramUploaded byalan.sbts574
- 49 RMSUploaded byRyan Anthony Umali
- cell phone controlUploaded byJebaz Hebar
- BIT401Uploaded byAfshan Kaleem
- Tutorial AUploaded byhellobl
- JSS-2150 Installation Manual[1]Uploaded byMacro Love
- ADIC ExperimentsUploaded byTushar Patil
- xcsdmcUploaded bywawin
- mEsfet Noise ModelUploaded byGeorgios Sarris
- Xb4 6ds09 -Uploaded byBao Tan Dang
- ACTOM Outdoor MV Switchgear - SingleUploaded byKhashane Willy Mohale
- Time to digital converterUploaded bySrikanthKrishnamurthy
- Kenwood RDDV-7-L Service ManualUploaded bycibercan
- Huawei SUN2000 Series Solar Inverter Main SlideUploaded byFelipe Bauzá Urrutia
- Vlsi Questions 4Uploaded byGaurav Patel
- PE2-Lecture-HVDC-1Uploaded byAngel Samaniego
- Automation ManualUploaded byphild2na2
- mcrae xander hallam colin ineventionUploaded byapi-269414838
- Ece - III YearUploaded byyash_dk20083706
- 42le5500_42le5550_chassis_lj03dUploaded bySabastian Nakai
- Water Sprinkler Front 57114-14 Rev BUploaded byjohanna_341529511
- I S 3231-P3-S3Uploaded byHariprasad gantyala
- Principle of Operation of TransformerUploaded byKen Andrie Dungaran Guariña
- Sharp Lc 37a37mUploaded bynikola1660
- slup239Uploaded byAMSA84
- Modelo Antena Wcctrl 4g Rvvpx306_11rUploaded byisvo
- NWsu09_HamrickUploaded byNeha Reddy
- Utdrag Dunstabzug AnleitungUploaded bydjokanomca