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Page No...

52
Expt. No...09
Date........08.12.09
Name of the experiment:
Measurement of energy band gap of the element semiconductor.
Theory:
Energy gap: At 00c temperature the valance band are filled with electrons and conduction
band are completely empty. They remain separated by an energy band gap. This gap is
called forbidden gap.
When the temperature is increased some electrons being excited are transferred from
higher energy state to conduction band. Thereby again possible conductivity i.e.
conductivity is increased of semiconductor diode can be expressed by the following
equation:
 eV 
I = I 0 exp  − 1 ……………… (1)
 nKT 
Where,
I = final current,
I0 = Initial current,
e = electron charge,
V = applied voltage,
T = temperature,
K = Boltzman constant,
n = ideality factor.
Here the current I0 is a function of diffusion length and diffusion coefficient of both hole
and electron and the function of no. of the hole & electron in equilibrium condition.
The dependence of I0 on temperature can be shown by the following equation
 − Eg 
I 0 = KT m exp   ……………… (2)
 nKT 
Where, K is constant and Eg is the energy band of intrinsic semiconductor.
For Ge, n = 1 & m = 2, for Si, n =2 and m = 3.
Taking log on both side of equn (2),
Eg
ln I 0 = ln( KT m ) −
nKT
Eg e
= ln( KT m ) − .
e nKT
e  Eg 
= ln( KT m ) −V g . as =V g 
nKT  e 
1.6 ×10 −19
= ln( KT m
) −V g
n ×1.38 ×10 −23 ×T
11594 Page No...53
= ln( KT m ) −V g
n ×T Expt. No...09
11 .60 1000  Date........08.12.09
= ln( KT m ) −V g × .......... ......( 3)
n  T 
Where, Vg is forbidden energy band gap expressed in eV. As the change of saturated
current is controlled by the exponential factor, we can consider log (KTm) as constant. i.e.
ln I0Vg1000/T will be a linear curve whose slope is m′ . This slope is

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Vg
m′ = ×11 .60
n
m ′ ×n
∴V g = .......... .......... ..( 4)
11 .60
Thus putting the value of m′ and n in equn (4) we can easily calculate Vg in eV.

Apparatus:
 Power supply
 Diode
 Multimeter
 Thermometer
 Water tank
 Heater, water etc.
Procedure:
1) All the connections were made as shown in fig_1.
2) Then at room temperature different values of currents were noted for different
forward voltages.
3) Raising the temperature of the diode at 400c with heater, another set of I-V were
noted.
4) We repeated the same procedure for temperature 500c & 600c.
5) Then we took the readings for falling temperature.
6) Then I-V graphs were plotted for every temperature readings.
7) A graph ln Is (saturation current) Vs 1/T was plotted. From which we determined
the energy band gap of the semiconductor by calculating the slope of this curve.

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Page No...54
Expt. No...09
Date........08.12.09
Experimental data:
Table 1: Data for I-V curve for rise & fall of temperature.

Forward Current at room Currents at different temperatures(uA)

Voltage temperature(mA 400C 500C 600C
) 300C Rise Fall Rise Fall Rise Fall
0.02 7.0 25 19 63 55 135 86
0.03 8.0 32 28 77 60 175 98
0.04 9.0 34 30 100 72 210 114
0.05 10.0 40 32 115 80 230 128
0.06 11.0 41 35 130 85 240 132
0.07 12.0 43 35 139 86 250 135
0.08 12.0 45 37 144 90 260 140
0.09 12.0 45 37 148 93 265 140
0.10 12.0 46 38 151 93 266 140
0.11 12.0 46 38 152 93 266 140
0.12 12.0 46 38 152 93 266 140

Temp in 0C Temperature in 1/T Saturation ln Is

0
k current Is
Rise Fall Rise Fall
40 313 3.19 ×10
−3
46 38 3.8 3.63
−3
50 325323 3.1 ×10 152 93 5.02 4.53
60 333 3.0 ×10
−3
266 140 5.58 4.94

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Page No...55
Expt. No...09
Date........08.12.09

Calculation:
From graph_3, for rising temperature,
The slope m = 1.1/0.12 =9.16
m × n 9.16 ×1
∴V g = = = 0.79 eV [ n =1]
11 .6 11 .6
The standard value of Vg is 0.7
0.79 − 0.70
Therefore % of error = ×100 = 12
0.70
Result:

Energy band gap of the semiconductor (Ge) is 0.79 eV& % of error is 12.

Discussion:
We took all the readings by connecting the carefully. We could not take the readings for
reverse configuration. Even through we increased voltages in a specific temperature. The
reason was that the temperature increases rapidly. So the experiment value deviates from
its ideal value. In the experiment the position of the Fermi level was considered as
independent of temperature. But ideally when the temperature increases, the Fermi level
also shifted towards the conduction band. The operational temperature of germanium
(Ge) diode is 700C. So during this experiment we controlled the temperature below 700C.