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The Home Location Register is a database within the Home Public Land

Mobile Network.
1. It provides routing information for Mobile Terminated calls and Short Message
Service. It is also
responsible for the maintenance of user subscription information.
2. This is distributed to the relevant VLR -Visitor Location Register or SGSN Serving GPRS
Support Node through the attach process and mobility management procedures
such as Location
Area and Routing Area updates.
3. HLR stores and manages all mobile subscriptions belonging to a specific
operator. The HLR
is considered the most important database because it stores permanent data
about subscribers,
including subscribers supplementary services, location information, and.
authentication
parameters buys When a person a subscription, it is registered in the operators
HLR.
4. The HLR can be implemented with the MSC/VLR or as a stand-alone database.
5. A HLR contains user information such as account information, account status,
user
preferences, features subscribed to by the user, users current location, etc. The
data stored in
HLRs for the different types of networks is similar but does differ in some details.
6. HLRs are used by the Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs) to originate and deliver
arriving mobile
calls.
HLR Redundancy

When a single HLR fails, all subscribers with records in that HLR will not be able
to roam or receive
calls. HLR Redundancy can prevent such a loss of subscriber activity. This feature
is achieved by
having an additional HLR node for each HLR node in the network. HLR
Redundancy provides
protection against disaster situations such as fire at an HLR site. At the same
time, it will give
protection against Signalling failures towards an HLR and will also lower the lack
of availability
caused by HLR restarts.
With this feature, the subscriber can make and receive calls even in disastrous
situations like an
earthquake with little or no change in network continuity or functionality. The
HLR Redundancy
feature, allows failure to be invisible to the network and the subscriber. A mated
HLR is introduced
in such a way that subscribers and load are shared in normal operation, and
when one HLR fails,
the other picks up all traffic normally routed to the pair.

2. VLR

A VLR is a database, similar to a HLR, which is used by the mobile network to


temporarily hold
profiles of roaming users (users outside their home area). This VLR data is based
on the user
information retrieved from a HLR. MSCs use a VLR to handle roaming users.

Database contains information about all mobile stations currently located in the
MSC service area.
VLR contains temporary subscriber information needed by the MSC to provide
service for visiting

OBI OPERATOR DETERMINED BARRING OF ALL INCOMING CALLS 0-2 - L/P/S/D


0 = not active
1 = Operator determined barring of all incoming calls, active
2 = Operator determined barring of all incoming calls when roaming outside home PLMN
country, active
Incompatible with OBA when both SUD's are entered in command HGMCI (parameter
NEWSUD) and the values are different.
OBMCT OPERATOR DETERMINED BARRING OF FURTHER INVOCATION OF CALL TRANSFER IF
THERE IS ALREADY ONE ONGOING TRANSFERRED CALL FOR THE SERVED SUBSCRIBER IN
THE SERVING MOBILE SERVICES SWITCHING CENTRE (MSC)/VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER
(VLR) 0-1 - L/P/S/D
0 = not active
1 = active
The availability of this parameter value depends on commercial agreements.
OBO OPERATOR DETERMINED BARRING OF ALL OUTGOING CALLS 0-4 - L/P/S/ D/R
0 = not active
1 = Operator determined barring of all outgoing calls, active
2 = Operator determined barring of all outgoing international calls, active
3 = Operator determined barring of all outgoing international calls except for those directed
to home PLMN
4 = Operator determined barring of all outgoing calls when roaming outside home PLMN
country, active
Incompatible with OBA when both SUD's are entered in command HGMCI (parameter
NEWSUD) and the values are different.
OBOPRE OPERATOR DETERMINED BARRING OF OUTGOING PREMIUM RATE CALLS
(ENTERTAINMENT) 0-1 - L/P/S/
0 = not active
1 = active
OBOPRI OPERATOR DETERMINED BARRING OF OUTGOING PREMIUM RATE CALLS
(INFORMATION) 0-1 - L/P/S/ D/R
0 = not active
1 = active
OBP OPERATOR DETERMINED BARRING OF PACKET ORIENTED SERVICES 0-3 - L/P/S/ D/R
0 = not active
1 = Operator determined barring of all packet oriented services, active
2 = Operator determined barring of packet oriented services from access points that are
within the home PLMN whilst the subscriber is roaming in a visited PLMN, active
3 = Operator determined barring of packet oriented services from access points that are
within the roamed visited PLMN, active
The availability of this parameter value depends on commercial agreements.