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AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UNEMPLOYMENT AND

INCREASING IMMORALITY AMONG THE YOUTH IN MBALE


MUNICIPALITY: A CASE STUDY OF NORTHERN DIVISION.

BY
NAMBOZO ADIYA
412-023071-01409

A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT


OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF SOCIAL WORKS AND SOCIAL ADMINISTRATION OF
ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY IN UGANDA

APRIL 2015

DECLARATION
I Nambozo Adiya do hereby declare that this is my original work, except where
acknowledged and that it has not been submitted before to any other University or
institution of higher learning for approval.
Signature..

Date

APPROVAL

This research has been submitted for Examination with the approval of my supervisor.
Name:
Signature: ..

Date: ..

DEDICATION

I dedicate this research to my parents and to the younth of Northern division, Mbale
Municipality.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to my supervisor ............ for the valuable
time he has dedicated to supervising this study. I thank you for your wise counsel,
correction and critical but constructive advice you offered to me during the course of this
study.
Special mention is to my parents ..................... and .........................,
Am very grateful and thank you for the support and encouragement you have always
given to me that has propelled me to achieve this level. May the Almighty Allah reward
you abundantly?
I also wish to acknowledge the work of my colleagues; ...., ..... and .........
thank you all for your constructive and intellectual discussions that helped me complete
the research.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION..................................................................................................................2
APPROVAL.........................................................................................................................3
DEDICATION.....................................................................................................................4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...................................................................................................5
TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................................................6
LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................9
ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................10
LIST OF ACRONYMS......................................................................................................12
CHAPTER ONE..................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1
1.0 Overview....................................................................................................................1
1.1 Background................................................................................................................1
1.2 Statement of the problem...........................................................................................4
1.3 Purpose of the study...................................................................................................4
1.4 Objectives of the study...............................................................................................5
1.5 Research questions.....................................................................................................5
1.6 Scope of the study......................................................................................................5
1.7 Significance of the study............................................................................................6
CHAPTER TWO.................................................................................................................7
LITERATURE REVIEW.....................................................................................................7
2.0 Overview....................................................................................................................7
2.1 Causes of youth unemployment.................................................................................7
2.2 Effects of youth unemployment.................................................................................9
2.3 Solutions to youth unemployment...........................................................................10
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2.4 Unemployment and crime........................................................................................11


2.5 Morality and Immorality..........................................................................................12
2.6Unemployment and increasing immorality...............................................................13
CHAPTER THREE...........................................................................................................14
METHODOLOGY............................................................................................................14
3.0 Overview..................................................................................................................14
3.1 Research design.......................................................................................................14
3.2 Sampling procedure or technique............................................................................14
3.3 Survey Population and Sample size.........................................................................14
3.4 Data collection and instruments...............................................................................15
3.5 Data analysis............................................................................................................15
3.6 Study limitations......................................................................................................16
3.7 Ethical Issues...........................................................................................................16
CHAPTER FOUR..............................................................................................................17
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION...................................17
4.0 Introduction..............................................................................................................17
4.1 Response Rate..........................................................................................................17
4.2 Socio Demographic Data......................................................................................17
4.2.1 Category of youth respondents by sex......................................................................17
4.3 Effects of unemployment on youth..........................................................................22
4.3 Relationship between unemployment among youth and Immorality......................23
4.4 Solutions towards curbing youth unemployment and increasing immorality.........25
CHAPTER FIVE...............................................................................................................29
SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION........29
5.0 Introduction..............................................................................................................29
5.1 Summary of the findings..........................................................................................29
5.2 Conclusions and Recommendation..........................................................................32
5.2.1 Conclusion................................................................................................................32
5.2.2 Recommendations.................................................................................................32
5.3 Suggestions for Further Research............................................................................33
REFERENCES....................................................................................................................1
7

APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR YOUTH............................................................3


APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR STAKE HOLDERS.......................................7

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Response rate.......................................................................................................17
Table 2: Youth Respondents by sex...................................................................................17
Table 3: Respondents categorized by age..........................................................................18
Table 4: Residential status of respondents.........................................................................18
Table 5: Marital Status of the respondents.........................................................................18
Table 6: Education levels of respondents...........................................................................19
Table 7: Unemployment status of the respondents............................................................19
Table 8: Job seeking rate of the unemployed respondents.................................................20
Table 9: Existence of employment in Mbale Municipality................................................20
Table 10: Causes of unemployment...................................................................................21
Table 11: Does unemployment affect youth......................................................................22
Table 12: Effect of unemployment on youth among society generally..............................23
Table 13: Increasing Immorality a result of unemployment..............................................23
Table 14: Most of the immoral youths in this area are unemployed..................................24
Table 15: Reducing unemployment a responsibility of youth...........................................25
Table 16: Reducing Immorality a responsibility of the youth...........................................26
Table 17: Solutions to youth unemployment.....................................................................26

ABSTRACT
This study comes as a result of the increase in immorality among youth in Northern
division, Mbale municipality in Mbale District and Uganda as a country.
The main purpose of the study was to investigate if there is a relationship between
increasing immorality and unemployment among youth of Northern Division in Mbale
Municipality. The study was guided by the following specific objectives. First, to
establish the the effects of unemployment on youth living in Northern division, Mbale
Municipality. Secondly, to identify if there is a relationship between unemployment and
of increasing rate of immorality among the youth in Northern Division, and finally to
identify ways of addressing youth unemployment and increasing moral decay.
The study was able to administer and analyze 40 questionnaires to unemployed youth
living or working in Northern division, Mbale municipality and have 20 key informant
interviews.
From the study findings, its revealed that there is high unemployment among the youth
in Northern division, Mbale municipality and mostly those affected are youths aged
between 18 and 35 years these are in most cases males.
Lack of work and entrepreneurship skills was sighted as the major cause of youth
unemployment in Northern division, Mbale municipality and Uganda in general.
The study further found out that unemployment negatively affects youth as majority and
society as a whole, the most common effects of unemployment to society, was crime and
immorality However, the study revealed that the problem of increasing immorality cannot
be blamed solely on unemployment. Other factors contributed to the increase in
immorality among the youth for example upbringing, economic situation, dysfunctional
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religious institutions, education among others.


The study concludes and recommends that, there is need to review our education
curriculum and focus it on imparting into the youth practical skills, provision of training
facilities, provide credit facilities to youth, encourage foreign investment, control
population growth and address the strategic issues in the labour market like implementing
an effective employment policy with a set retirement age as to increase demand for
labour from the youth. Religious institutions also must strengthen their roles and drivers
of good morals in the society in order to curb the problem of moral decay in society.

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LIST OF ACRONYMS
HIV/AIDS

Human Innuno-deficiency Virus/Acquire Immune Deficidency

Syndrome
NGO

Non-Governmental Organisation

NRM

National Resistance Movement

UBOS

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

UN

United Nations

UNHHS

Uganda National Household Survey

UNODC

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Overview
This chapter presents a background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the
study, objectives, scope, and significance of the study.
1.1 Background
According to the Commonwealth (2007), youth is a person aged 15 to 29; UN take youth
to be persons aged 14 to 25 whereas the National Youth Policy defines youth as all young
persons female and male, aged 12 to 30 years. The youth in Uganda contribute nearly
78% of the total population. World Bank statistics (2012) show that Uganda has the
youngest population in the world, after Niger. This not only reveals that the youth are an
essential and vital force in the community but that their challenges and issues need to be
addressed timely and appropriately.
The youths form the essential segment of every human society. They are the driving force
that determines the future and hope of the society. Any human society devoid of the
youths is bound to collapse. The impact of the youths at home, church, community and
the society at large cannot be overemphasized for they are most cherished by the human
society. The youths require the utmost attention of the society .In an attempt to realize
themselves, youths are affected and influenced by the social environment and the social
structure in which they live. It is, therefore, pertinent to acquaint youths with the basic
veritable norms, values, social consciousness and code of conduct without which human
co-existence would be impossible. The family, church, educational institutions and the
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state have a stake in this regard.


The youths have unquenchable force in the socio-economic, political and religious
structures of the human society. It could also be noted that in spite of the overwhelming
population of the youth, their work force and vitality, youths still lean on the shoulders of
the adult in search of meaning in life, self-realization and survival.
Their dependence on the adult and the larger society for the realization of self however,
laid bare the need for both the adult and the society to live by example and up to the
standard norms and values of the society. The level of organization of the society
therefore, determines the stuff in terms of quality and productivity of the youth. Based on
the above point, it becomes imperative for the youth to be morally grounded, structured
and nurtured for a better society.
The global village today experiences an increase in immorality among the youth. This has
been more intense since the beginning of the 21 st century. Being the largest proportion of
the society, youth are the most affected
Moral deterioration among the youth is reported in different societies and cultures;
industrialized world to non-industrial world. Behaviours and actions denoting immorality
such as rape, sexual abuse, robbery, homosexuality, and drug abuse, school violence and
killings have been common among youth all over the world. For instance, recent statistics
on rape crime by UNODC indicates that France ranked first in the world having 10,277
rape crime cases in 2009 followed by Germany (7,292) and Russia (6,208). In Africa,
Lesotho leads with a total of 1, 878 cases in 2009, followed by Sudan (1,183) and
Morocco (1,130). In East Africa, Uganda leads with a total of 1,536 rape cases. In USA,
nearly one in five women surveyed had been raped or had experienced an attempted rape
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at some point, and one in four reported having been cheated by an intimate partner; one
in six women has been stalked (Rabin, 2011).
It is however astonishing that the rate is rising in several developing countries. Maithya
(2009) reported that children and youth aged between 11 and 13 in Kenya have been
recruited in homosexuality and drug abuse which is a crime and immoral according to the
cultural values and practices in Kenya. Immorality undermines the social and economic
development of individuals and the nation and contributes to poverty, instability, crime,
insecurity, and the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is estimated that in 2010 there were over
10000 new HIV infections globally as a result of homosexuality (UNODC, 2012).
Morality is one of the human pillars that guarantee the survival of any community.
However, when the youth lose a sense of morality the community becomes threatened
since part of the present and the future is dependent on them.
In Uganda, several strides have been made towards curbing this social vice. Debates and
bills have been tabled at national level to tackle the situation; prominent of these have
been the pornographic bill and the anti-gay bill that had a lot of controversy and
economic implications for the country.
Northern division located in Mbale municipality is one of the 3 divisions or sub-counties
located in Mbale municipality. It is a densely populated and highly youthful area
harboring the largest rate of unemployed youth in Mbale municipality. A large proportion
of the youth are involved in gambling activities in the form of betting and playing
draughts. The main economic activity in this area is retailing as shown by the many
kiosks located in this area. The people wallow in abject poverty manifested in the grass
thatched hats and dilapidated houses and schools. Over 57% of the people living in this
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area are unemployed and live on less than a dollar a day. The most affected are youths.
(Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS), 2011). Cases of sexual crime and immorality rank
highest in this area. 2 cases of rape are reported every single day (Police report, 2013) .
According to police reports, it is the attributed to the high number of local bars that
harbor idle youth. There have been both government and non-government programmes to
rehabilitate the youth and help create employment opportunities but this has had little
effect on the situation.
1.2 Statement of the problem
It has been observed that the Ugandan society in spite of her rich historical moral
uprightness and continuous efforts to reduce immorality led by the president himself
continues to be characterized by different kinds of social vices and ills, not acceptable as
normal or legal in society. These vices are felt at different spheres of the society. They
include homosexuality, child pregnancies, pre-marital sex, rape, drug abuse, corruption,
bribery, embezzlement, misappropriation of public fund, injustice and so on with their
end product as moral degeneration. The youths are the most devastatingly affected by
these cankerworms that bedeviled our society. The above observed situation is indicative
of the fact that Uganda as a nation is eroded of morality. These ugly trends inhibit healthy
human society. Some social analysts have attributed the problem with Uganda as a
problem of leadership; others blame the different religious institutions and families for
not imparting the right morals into society. Such assertion may not be disputed, but
suffice it to say that the fundamental problem with the Ugandan society is lack of moral
consciousness. The youth as the engine house and the future of the Ugandan society not
only need to be acquainted with the basic moral values without which the nation would
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collapse and crash but also a thriving livelihood that does not give room to the luring and
perceived benefits of immoral practices.
It is against this background that research seeks to examine if there is a relationship
between immorality and unemployment among youth.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of the study was to investigate if there is a relationship between
immorality and unemployment among youth of Northern Division in Mbale Municipality

1.4 Objectives of the study


The study was broken down into the following objectives;
1. To find out the effects of unemployment among the youth in Northern division of
Mbale Municipality
2. To identify if there is a relationship between unemployment and increasing youth
immorality in Northern division of Mbale Municipality.
3. To propose solutions towards curbing youth immorality and unemployment.
1.5 Research questions
1. What are the effects of unemployment among the youth in Northern division of
Mbale Municipality?
2. To what extent does unemployment cause immorality among the youth in
Northern division of Mbale Municipality?
3. What possible solutions can help to curb unemployment and increasing moral

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decay among youth?


1.6 Scope of the study
Geographically the study will be carried out within the boundaries of Northern division,
Mbale Municipality in Mbale district mainly around public areas such as markets,
football grounds and streets. The researcher intends to work hand in hand with various
people among who are; youths, parents, community civil servants, religious leaders,
youth leaders among others.
The time scope of the study will be confined to a period between the last two decades
reviewing the available publications on the subject.
1.7 Significance of the study
The findings of this study are expected to help the government realize the importance of
making policies that are favorable so as to increase moral uprightness of the society in
general.
The findings are also further expected to sensitize local authorities and other stakeholders
on the importance of considering youth key to the success of any development initiative.
The study is also expected to sensitize moral institutions on the issues youth face so that
focus of efforts to curb moral degradation are re-examined to include a holistic approach
rather-than one that empathizes on dos and donts.
There are a number of NGOs working in Mbale and Northern division to improve the
welfare of youths and to reduce youth immoral practices and the study will provide them
with information on ground which can help them redevelop their strategies and policies.
The results of the study are further expected to awaken the youth on the dangers of
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unemployment and immorality

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Overview
This chapter presents a review of related literature of the study. It therefore stresses
various themes from the study objectives including causes of unemployment, effects of
unemployment as well as solutions to unemployment.
2.1 Causes of youth unemployment
George Ogola (Oct, 1994) analyzed some characteristics of unemployment in Tororo and
the influence of some selected variables on employment growth. He attributed the
unemployment problem to factors like selectivity among school leavers whose
expectations/aspirations are to gain modern sector employment in spite of the limited
opportunities in the sector. He observed that of all the unemployed youth, 26.1% had
completed primary education and 38.6% had acquired secondary school education. These
large proportions of persons with secondary school education was a reflection of job
selectivity on their part because of their high expectations of well paying white collar
jobs and are often reluctant to accept low level jobs. The purpose of this research is to
find ways of addressing unemployment situations among the educated and uneducated
youth of Manyanya village.
At the International Youth Day Celebrations (2009), the youth in their memorandum
outlined challenges still being faced by them in finding employment. These included
influx of foreign workers brought by investors, lack of support for young entrepreneurs
especially in the rural areas, lack of access to resources like land and capital; lack of
focus by existing programs on the informal sector and agriculture, negative cultural
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practices such as gender discrimination among others. That all these limit their access to
profitable activities.
Lincoln (2007) identified that policies like structural adjustment which involve cutting
costs, shading labour or freezing public sector wages and cutting employment through
cutting public services affects youth so much. He added that governments tend to be
excessively bureaucratic which cause unnecessary delay for youth to at least start their
own businesses hence remaining unemployed.
Callaway (1971) also argues that, in many countries, the rapid extension of formal
education has itself has been a significant factor in the growth of youth unemployment.
This vigorous expansion took place in line with the generally held belief that massive
increase in education would help to generate economic growth. Gradually, it became
clear that large numbers of young people completing different stages of education were
not finding work that represented the years spent in classrooms. There is need to redesign
our education system to suit the changing situation.
Andre (1980) reported that youth with multiple social economic disadvantages, for
example, low education attainment, physical and mental handicaps and young girls with
early pregnancies are most likely to comprise the bulk of young people in this high risk
group of unemployment. The consequence for the children of young, unmarried mothers
can also be critical, as they may be growing up within a cycle of poverty, especially if the
young mother has no or a few marketable skills and/or no financial support from the
father of the child.
Nial (2001) focused on the characteristics of youth labour markets and young people as a
whole and also the behavioral and personal attributes of individuals that affect their
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chances of finding work. Odogi (1982) noted that since the cost of training is high, most
employees prefer ready materials; that is, those tutored in work ethics. Organizations
want flexible people who can do different tasks from different fields.
Cote and Allaher (2000) argued that youth unemployment is also as a result of
adolescence being extended through longer periods of education and child labour laws.
That the labour of young people is not needed except in the service industries and that
young people have to wait longer in order to be fully recognized as adults before gaining
better employment. He adds that, most of these youths in the long run, become idle.
Those in urban areas with little schooling and few job opportunities have ended up
playing part in conflicts.
2.2 Effects of youth unemployment
Balunzi (2001) argues that youth who fail to get jobs end up in urban slums and streets
and engage in unproductive activities like prostitution, thuggery, drugs and substance
abuse. Many young people experience serious difficulties during this transition period.
Owen (2009) argues that the implications of unemployment for young people may
include poverty, migration to urban areas, homelessness and housing problems, rising
crime rates in some areas, lack of youth participation in society and low morale among
young people. Implications that have impact on young women are adolescent prostitution
and higher rates of teenage pregnancies. Young women may find their life changes
particularly limited.
World Bank (2008) warns that unless Uganda scale up her efforts to create jobs, the youth
will find their way into crime and armed conflict given the challenges they face in the
labour market. It adds that, most of the rebel groups that ravage the country such as the
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Lords Resistance Army (LRA) and Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) take advantage of
the idle youth.
The Commonwealth Youth Program (2007) also argues that unemployment may force
young people to stay at home longer than they or their parents may wish and this in the
long results in to increased conflict and mental or financial stress within the family. That
unemployment may also mean that young women are forced to leave school early, stay
home and provide domestic services for the rest of the family. In a bid to secure income,
a young person may be tempted to turn to a career in crime. Depression associated with
unemployment may lead him/her to substance abuse.
2.3 Solutions to youth unemployment
Callaway (1971) noted that government needs to know the characteristics of job seekingyoung people: ages, educational positions, family backgrounds and living conditions,
migratory movements, aspirations, periods unemployed as well as incidence of
unemployment in different parts of the country. According to Bishop Ssekamaanya
(2009), the government should create jobs for graduates to reduce on the number of those
seeking greener pastures abroad.
According to Illi (1962) the solution to combating youth unemployment lies in
establishing youth clubs all over the country. Those clubs are intended to provide
education and social services and aim to discourage young persons from visiting
unsuitable places or hanging around streets. They do not offer professional training and
do not attempt to raise false hopes of youth by any pretence that they will find
employment. Creation of improved youth employment centers would also help to check
on unemployment through vocational schools where, young people receive theoretical
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and practical training in fields which they have freely chosen. It is hoped that the training
given would provide classes of persons qualified in various professions. At the end of the
training, members would return to their villages or the outskirts of towns where it is
hoped that with state aid, they would become better peasants, stock farmers or craftsmen.
Andre (1980) argues that youth unemployment policy should be conceived and designed
to prevent a further rise in the structural component of the current youth unemployment.
In the petition to the president at the International Youth Day celebrations held on 8 th
August 2009 presented by the National Youth Council chairperson Joseph Okwakol, the
main subject was to reduce the retirement age for civil servants from 60-55.Once this is
done, the problem of youth unemployment would be reduced significantly.
Mike Mukula (2011) argues that the government should develop policies and implement
programmes that can enable youths to employ themselves in career through enterprise
creation. Youth should embrace the entrepreneurship drive as it would reduce ignorance
that is fueling unemployment in Uganda. The youth should learn how to save thus
knowing how to save and invest is important for a successful enterprise and would assist
in the reduction of the high youth unemployment problem.
2.4 Unemployment and crime
Though various researches has been conducted in this area, still a consensus as to
whether a higher level of unemployment lead to a greater incidence of crime has not yet
been reached.
The empirical literature on the topic of crime and unemployment typically is based on
one of four types of data: aggregate (national) time series data, aggregate cross-section
data, regional panel data or individual level data (cross-sections or panel. While these
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studies to varying degrees attempt to control for other factors, they still are likely to be
affected by omitted variable bias. The availability of regional panel data can ameliorate
this problem and, indeed, when such data are used, the evidence is much less supportive
of a causal relationship. For example, Entorf and Spengler (1998) conducted a regional
panel study for Germany and found unemployment to have small, often insignificant
and ambiguous signs.
With individual level data, one observes the labour market status of a particular offender
at the time of committing a crime. Studies include Tauchen et al. (1994), and Grogger
(1991). There are several advantages of such data: the number of observations is large,
these datasets usually provide a large number of controls and it becomes possible to focus
on particular sub-populations, such as the socially less-advantaged, where an effect might
be more likely to occur. With individual level panel data, one can solve the most common
omitted variable problems by comparing the crime propensities of the same individuals in
different employment states. Unfortunately, such individual level panel data are rarely
available and, in their absence, the use of regional panel data is arguably the secondbest methodological option.
Economic crimes are those where the motivation is pecuniary gain, while anti- social
crimes are committed for some other reason. Most economic studies have focused on the
link between unemployment and economic crimes since such a relation is supported by
economic theory, which predicts that potential offenders compare the costs and benefits
associated with crime. Nevertheless, the notion that increases in unemployment lead to
increases in anti-social crime has been proposed by sociologists and others. As a
consequence, the total costs of unemployment may be higher than some studies predict.
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Lastly, the issue of whether reported crime accurately reflects the actual number of
committed crimes arises. Hence, this measure is dependent on the publics proclivity to
report crimes to the police. This would be of minor empirical importance unless the
likelihood that crimes are reported has changed significantly over time. There is some
evidence, however, that this was the case. For instance, surveys conducted by Market
Research Limited (M.R.L.) in 1993 and 1995 found that the proportion of victims who
had reported the most recent crime to the police increased from 67% to 77% between
these years.
2.5 Morality and Immorality
Moral development takes place in the so called moral contexts (Santrock, 2005). The
contexts include school, family (parenting) and religion. It is within the contexts where
moral values of what is right and wrong are learned by children. Bronfenbrenner (ibid),
put forward that children develop in five social systems (microsystem, exosystem,
macrosystem, mesosystem and chronosystem) which are interactive. From the model,
families, school, peers, church/mosque, media, government and international
organizations are responsible for children development and should relate to each other in
their upbringing. These are what in this study are referred to as stakeholders of moral
development.
The term moral/morality has been controversial and debatable among scholars in
philosophy, religion and psychology. For instance in philosophy, the descriptive
definition of morality which explain moral as a set of conduct put forward by any actual
group, including a society; and the normative definition which is based on the idea that
what is moral should have a code of conduct that is put forward by a society and that it
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should be accepted as a guide to behaviour by the members of that society (Gert, 2012).
In this study, the term immorality is sometimes referred to as moral decay/decline/erosion
and can easily be explained by referring to behaviours associated to it. For instance,
Turiel (2002) indicated that failure of many people, especially the youth; to incorporate
moral values and ideals of the society are indicators of moral decline.
Studies indicate that increased immorality is associated to a number of factors. These
include genetic factors such as inheritance of a difficult temperament; ineffective
parenting; and living in a neighbourhood where violence is a norm (Dodge & Petit 2003;
as cited in Santrock, 2005); poverty, lack of education, unemployment, family
background, and drug abuse ( Mbatia et al. 2009; Possi, 1996); media, culture and
technology (Kumar, 2010; Rwechungura, Olotu, Mathias, Minja & Goodluck, 2010).
2.6 Unemployment and increasing immorality
Various scholars have tried to ascertain a relationship been unemployment and increased
immorality. A study conducted by the Tanzania Media and Youth Development
Association (TAMEYODA) in 2001 revealed that many of the problems youth are
experiencing can be linked to the poverty that they face as a result of unemployment.
Many unemployed youth are engaging in criminal behaviors in order to financially
support themselves and/or to cope with the difficulties of living in poverty. this has led to
Increased drug trafficking and abuse rates, High HIV prevalence ,Unplanned and Early
pregnancies, abortions, Prostitution etc.

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
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3.0 Overview
This chapter is a representation of the methods and instruments that the research used in
data collection and data analysis. It deals with the research design, study area, study
population, sampling, data collection methods, research instruments, data analysis, ethical
issues and limitations.
3.1 Research design
The researcher employed a descriptive analytical research design. Both qualitative and
quantitative methods were used to acquire information on the causes, effects and
solutions to the persistent immorality problem among youth. This enabled the researcher
to gather a wide range of information required by the objectives of the study
3.2 Sampling procedure or technique
A sample technique is a way of gathering statistical information where few elements or
individuals are chosen out of the population to represent the whole population. The
research used both purposive and random sampling techniques to select the study group.
3.3 Survey Population and Sample size
The survey population was Northern Division Mbale municipality because it was an area
with the highest cases of immorality in Mbale municipality. A sample size is a part of a
population methodologically selected for purposes of drawing a conclusion about a
population and its characteristics (Allan, 1962). In this case, the sample size was made of
60 respondents; amongst who are 40 unemployed youths, 5 religious leaders, 5 civil
servants, 5 parents and 5 youth leaders from 5 parishes located in Northern Division of
Mbale Municipality. Youth were involved in the study because they were the main

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culprits; Religious leaders have been included because they play a great role in the moral
uprightness of the society, youth leaders are selected because they are at the forefront in
tackling effects of youth unemployment. Parents have been included because they know
most of the negative activities done by their sons and daughters due to unemployment
and also play a great role in moral education. Civil servants have also been included
because they are involved and have concern in youth affairs in the community. Purposive
sampling was used to select the unemployed youth since they are a target group in the
study, while random sampling will be used to select the rest of the study groups.
3.4 Data collection and instruments
Interview guides and questionnaires were used as instruments in collecting data where by
interviews will involve the use of well worked documents laying out question in a
particular order so as to enable the response and recording possible. This method is
favourable because the respondents are able to give accurate information.
Interview in qualitative research may be defined as conversation between the researchers
and the respondent. With the purpose of obtaining valid and valuable research
information. During the course of the conversation, clarification will be allowed there by
enabling the interviewee to clearly reveal his/her point of view. Formal interviews with
interview guides where used by for all parents, respondents and youth.
The questionnaires involved the use of close ended questions to enable the researcher as
specific research related questions.
Also secondary data was collected from the Newspapers, Articles, journals and
dissertations.

29

3.5 Data analysis


The collected data was analyzed manually using tallies and the responses of the subjects
where then categorized in frequency counts. This was done using Microsoft Excel and
score tables with varying percentages calculated and later tabulation method graphs and
pie charts were used to present data
3.6 Study limitations
Since the subject of the research was a sensitive one. The respondents, especially the
youth where not free or willing to reveal information that they felt was personal.
The sample size might not be representative of the bigger municipality but serves as a
reference point.
3.7 Ethical Issues
Consent was obtained from all respondents before participating and the researcher before
conducting interviews obtained permission from the local authorities to carry out the
study.

30

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.0 Introduction
This chapter presents the findings of this study. The findings are presented in line with
the objectives of this study and these include establishing the the effects of

of

unemployment among youth, identifying if there is a relationship between unemployment


and of increasing rate of immorality among the youth in Northern Division, and to
identify ways of addressing youth unemployment and increasing moral decay. The data
presentation and interpretation is also given.
4.1 Response Rate
The questionnaires were administered to the 3 categories of respondents. The findings of
the response rate are presented in Table 1
Table 1: Response rate
Type of Questionnaire Total Dispatched
Unemployed youths
40
Stake holders
20
Total
60
From the findings in Table 1, it is evident that
them returned making the response rate 100%.
31

Tools returned
%
40
100.0
20
100.0
60
100.0
of the 60 research tools dispatched, 60 of

4.2 Socio Demographic Data


4.2.1 Category of youth respondents by sex
Table 1: Youth Respondents by sex
Sex
Female
Male
Total

Frequency
15
25
40

percentage
35.5
62.5
100

Table 2 above shows the categories of respondents who were involved in the study by
sex. It is revealed from the table that out of the 40 youth respondents in the study,
(37.5%) were females and (62.5%) were males which means that males were more
willing to be involved in the study since they are the ones affected most by the
unemployment problem.
Table 1: Respondents categorized by age
Age bracket
Frequency
percentage
10-17
5
12.5
18- 35
35
87.5
Total
40
100
The table above presents the categorization of the respondents by age and the information
here indicates that (12.5%) of the respondents were aged between 10-17 years and a
majority of (82.5%) of the respondents involved in the study were aged between 18-35
years or above that.
Table 1: Residential status of respondents
Status
Frequency
Percentage
Resident
8
20
Non resident
32
80
Total
40
100
From the data in the table above it is revealed that out of the 40 respondents, only (20%)
were found to be Non-resident of Northern division, Mbale Municipality who reported
32

that they came to the place during the day to carry out different activities that can help
them to survive and majority (80%) of the respondents were residents.
Table 1: Marital Status of the respondents
Marital status
Frequency
Percentage
Married
12
30
Single
20
50.0
Divorced
8
20.0
Total
40
100
From the results from the study in the table, it was shown that out of the 40 respondents
only (30%) were found to be married and with stable families. (50%) respondents were
found to be single during the time the study was conducted.
The study also found out that (20%) of the respondents had been married at one point in
time but divorced or separated with their partners. For most of those with cases of
divorce or separation, they revealed that could not support families and that the divorce
or separation was mostly caused by financial constraints because of the unemployment
situation.
Table 1: Education levels of respondents
Education level
Frequency
Percentage
Primary
5
12.5
Secondary
7
17.5
Tertiary
20
50
Others
8
20
Total
40
100
In the table above respondents education background is shown as given by the
respondents themselves. The findings of the study revealed that (12.5%) of the
respondents had only attained basic elementary (primary) education, (17.5%) had gone
higher than primary levels and attained secondary school education. (50%) of the
respondents had either attained certificates, diplomas or degrees from universities or

33

other tertiary institutions and (20%) have either trained in different activities and others
practicing though under a situation of under employment. However, from the study, one
wonders why all these people with some education or training are unemployed: a
situation that either explains job selectivity among them or a big weakness in our
education system.
Table 1: Unemployment status of the respondents
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Unemployed
40
100.0
Part-time Employed
0
0
Full-Time Employed
0
0
Self-employed
0
0
Total
40
100.0
Respondents were asked on whether they where employed or not and the study findings,
revealed that (100.0%) of the 40 respondents admitted that they were unemployed and
agreed that they also appreciate that the problem is highly prevalent in Northern division
of Mbale Municipality especially among the youth. None of them reported being
employed or were not sure of what the term unemployment means although they say they
also see groups of young people in Northern division who take a day without meaningful
work.
The further understand the phenomenon of unemployment. The youth were asked if they
were actively seeking for employment. Table 8 below summaries the findings.
Table 1: Job seeking rate of the unemployed respondents
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
35
87.5%
No
5
12.5%
Total
40
100
From table 8 above it is clear that the majority of the youth (87.5%) are actively seeking
employment while only 12.5% are not. This is indicates that even if a good number of
34

youth remain unemployed, they still seeks means to earn a living in form of employment.
The youth were also asked to respond to the question whether or not employment existed
in the area they lived in. The youth had mixed responses on this. Some felt that
employment actually existed but the youth were not actively seeking for it while others
felt that youth were actively involved in seeking for employment but did not find jobs
that matched their skills. Findings are summarized in table 9 below.
Table 1: Existence of employment in Mbale Municipality
Response
Yes
No
Total
Youth were further asked what

Frequency
25
15
40
caused unemployment.

Percentage
62.5%
37.5%
100
Table 10 below summarizes the

findings.

Table 1: Causes of unemployment


Cause
Lack of skills/Unqualified
Job selectivity
Unwillingness to work
Lack of work
Total

Frequency
20
4
2
14
40

Percentage
50%
10%
5%
35%
100%

On what factors the respondents thought to be leading in causing the unemployment


problem, (50%) and majority of the 40 respondents attributed the problem of youth
unemployment on the lack of skills caused by poor university education which they said
should be the peak in education and its products should be finished products who must be
35

having skills an ability to create jobs and help the uneducated communities but they end
up joining the uneducated to compete for jobs in the informal sector. They said the
system of Uganda education is too theoretical as opposed to practical. They reason that
the education system right from primary to higher institutions concentrates much on
giving the students a lot of History than equipping them with practical skills that can
enable them to employ themselves to the extent that people leave school with more
History and Religion which they can not practically apply in the real life especially when
they get families and become bread winners.
(35%) of the respondents placed the blame on the government and private sector not
creating enough jobs to match the youth passed out as seeking employment.
However, (10%) of the respondents acknowledged that there is a problem of youth
unemployment in northern division, Mbale municipality but pointed out that many youths
have remained unemployed because of job selectivity. This they said is because even
where opportunities are available educated young people ignore them in anticipation of
better jobs in line with their education and decide to remain jobless until when they are
pushed into such poor living conditions.
(5%) of the respondents the study involved blamed the unemployment problem on
unwillingness to work. They explain that even when a youth manages to secure a job,
they put in very little effort and with time get fired or indulge in activities that are they
feel can easily generate income.
4.3 Effects of unemployment on youth
Objective 1 of the study sought to investigate the effects of unemployment on youth. To
understand the extent of effect of this phenomenon, the youth were asked if they felt
36

affected in any way by unemployment. Findings are revealed in table 11 below


Table 1: Does unemployment affect youth
Response
Yes
No
Not sure
Total

Frequency
36
1
3
40

Percentage
90.0
2.5
7.5
100.0

From the table 11 above, the study revealed from the respondents that that indeed
unemployment has got effects on the youth as majority (90%) of the 40 respondents
agreed that unemployment affects youth and mostly negatively although 1 respondent
(2.5%) of the respondents did not see any effect unemployment has on youth because to
him all people who come to town everyday are busy and eventually are able to survive he
did not mention how these people survive.
(7.5%) of the respondents according to the study findings, were not sure of whether
unemployment has any effects on youth but instead said that it is the society who is
affected and the youth does not feel the burden the society has.
To further understand the effects youth unemployment to both youth and society, the
youth were further asked to indicate the what most likely effect unemployment had on
youth if they thought that unemployment affected youth.
Table 1: Effect of unemployment on youth among society generally.
Response
Frequency
Percentage
crime
17
47.2
Immorality
9
25.0
Low country's productivity
6
16.6
Low national development
3
8.3
Total
36
100.0
When asked to give what they think are the effects of unemployment to society, majority
(47.2%) of the 36 respondents said that the increase in crime rates is due to youth
37

unemployment, (25.0%) said that unemployment is responsible for the rise in immorality
and social degeneration in the Mbale and the country as a whole citing an example of
prostitution at an increase because of unemployment. (16.6%) of the respondents said that
with high youth unemployment, the countrys productivity is lowered because in
countries like Uganda where the youth form the largest proportion approximately (65%)
of the labour force and youth unemployment is high there is always low productivity
which comes with many other negative consequences, and only (8.3%) respondent said
that youth unemployment has so many negative effects but what summarizes all is the
low national development.

4.3 Relationship between unemployment among youth and Immorality


Objective 2 sought to establish if there is a relationship between youth unemployment
and increasing immorality.
Respondents where asked if it was okay to blame the increasing rate of immorality
among youth on unemployment. Table 13 below summarizes the findings
Table 1: Increasing Immorality a result of unemployment
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
16
40.0
No
20
50.0
Not Sure
4
10.0
Total
40
100.0
The majority of the respondents (50%) said that it was not right to blame the increase in
immorality among youth on unemployment. They reasoned that morals of youth was as a
result of many actor and other conditions for example upbringing, economic situation,
dysfunctional religious institutions, education among others. Blaming unemployment
alone was not enough. 40% believed that the increasing immorality was as a result of
wide youth unemployment. They said that many unemployed youth end up looking for
38

money from other indulgences that are considered immoral to the society. For example a
single mother in an endeavor to meet her daily needs might get into the business of
prostitution. Male youths have also got involved in homosexuality because of promises of
money and other luxuries otherwise not achievable in their state of unemployment. They
believe that solving the problem of unemployment might curb the problem of increasing
immorality among the youth.
10% were not sure, reasoning that immorality was a vice that was a complex human
question involving issues around rights. They believed the society was it's self
responsible for immorality increase among youth through its tolerance of immoral
behavior.

The youth were also asked to indicate on a scale of five if they agreed in their opinion
that most of the immoral youth living in Northern division in Mbale Municipality are
unemployed. Below are the results of the findings.
Table 1: Most of the immoral youths in this area are unemployed
Response

Frequency

Percentage

Strongly Agree

22.5

Agree

12

30.0

Not sure

20.0

Disagree

12.5

Strongly Disagree

15.0

Total

40

100

The responses where mixed. However the majority (30%) agreed that most immoral
youth are unemployed while 22.5% strongly agreed with this statement. This means that a
good number of youth (52.5%) believed that most of the youth involved in immorality do
39

so because they have no employment.


20% of the respondents where not sure. They said immorality is a result of a number of
factors, unemployment being just one of them.
12.5% disagreed with the statement reasoning that a number of youth are immoral even
when employed. Actually 15% disagreed with the statement most of them stating that
even after getting money which is the ultimate purpose of employment immoral youth
still remain immoral. They blamed the situation to dysfunctional institutional and
government for failing to stop moral decadency in society. An example sighted by one of
the respondents is that laws are made but not implemented at all. For example the
pornographic bill which was enacted but not implemented in practice. Women are still
free to move with mini-skirts despite the perceived burn.
4.4 Solutions towards curbing youth unemployment and increasing immorality
Respondents were asked if reducing unemployment was a responsibility if the youth them
selves
Table 1: Reducing unemployment a responsibility of youth
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
28
70.0
No
12
30.0
Total
40
100.0
Majority of the respondents 70% agreed that reducing unemployment was a
responsibility of the youth and that the youth needed to pro-actively seek for employment
opportunities or seek for income generating activities in form of business. They believed
that a lot of opportunities exist for youth but youth are not willing to take advantage of
them.
However, 30% disagreed, citing that the structures of the society are not controlled by the
40

youth and therefore makes it hard for youth to decide on matters that affect them. They
felt that the state plays a big role in reducing unemployment and that systems should be
instituted to track youth unemployment
Furthermore, respondents where asked to indicate whether or not reducing immorality is
a responsibility of the youth themselves.
Table 1: Reducing Immorality a responsibility of the youth
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
39
97.5
No
1
2.5
Total
40
100.0
Almost all of the respondents 97.5% agreed that reducing immorality in society was a
responsibility of the youth. They argued that changed of society starts with the human
being, change of attitude and beliefs. They believed that youth could involve themselves
in more morality accepted practices through clubs and community involvement. However
2.5% believed that the atmosphere for reducing immorality is not controlled by the youth
and therefore makes it difficult for the youth to be the main actors in reducing
immorality.
Respondents were asked to propose possible solutions that can help to reduce the
problem of youth unemployment.
Table 1: Solutions to youth unemployment
Response

Frequency

Percentage

Control population growth

11

27.5

Reviewing the education curriculum

16

40.0

Financial assistance to youths

7.5

41

Attract more foreign investors

10

Forming youth groups

15

Total

40

100

From the proposals they gave as shown in the table above, the study showed that (27.5%)
of the respondents said there is a need to control the over ever fast growing youth
population in Mbale which they said can be done by authorities availing better social
services in villages they are ranked high at attracting large numbers of youths to the city
and also to set up activities that can keep people occupied in villages if the problem of
rural-urban migration is to be checked.
The study also found out that from the 40 respondents, majority (40%) were of the view
that Ugandas education curriculum needs to be revised to suit Ugandas situation
particularly to address the unemployment problem and they suggested that system has to
be changed from theory to practical in order to produce people who can start up some
thing with their hands and brains to support themselves instead waiting for jobs in the
formal sector which involve a lot of competition and technical know who besides
demands of working experience even when it is clear someone is a fresh university
product.
The study findings further revealed that of the 40 respondents, (7.5%) said that youth
unemployment comes because many of them have financial constraints that prevent them
from starting enterprises that would provided employment opportunities the owners and
other youths and suggested that government needs to take up the duty providing these
youths with financial assistance in form of credit and at low interest rates and reduce on
the bureaucracy and requirements for accessing these credit facilities.
42

From the responses to the study in the table above (10%) of the respondents suggested
that that government through the Uganda Investment Authority has to attract more
investors and industrialists to come and invest in Uganda so as to create jobs for the
Ugandan youths but cautioned government that such investors a clear policy to follow if
they are to benefit Ugandans for example they shouldn't staff their factories or businesses
with their fellow foreigners in order to employ Ugandans and (15%) of the respondents
said that to reduce youth unemployment in Mbale municipality and Uganda as a country,
youths should be brought together to form youth groups and explained that although
these can not fully eliminate the problem, they can help the youth to come together to
share ideas and experiences through which they can formulate solutions than other people
proposing solutions for them. Besides, they reason that if government was to provide
assistance or set up projects to help youths, it would be easier when they are together than
helping individual youths.

43

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0 Introduction
This chapter gives the summary of the findings gathered from the analysis of the data,
discussion, conclusions and recommendations. It also presents the key areas for further
research as informed by the findings of the study
5.1 Summary of the findings
The main purpose of the study was to investigate if there is a relationship between
increasing immorality and unemployment among youth of Northern Division in Mbale
Municipality. The study was guided by the following specific objectives which were:
First, to establish the the effects of unemployment on youth living in Northern division,
Mbale Municipality. Secondly, to identify if there is a relationship between
unemployment and of increasing rate of immorality among the youth in Northern
44

Division, and finally to identify ways of addressing youth unemployment and increasing
moral decay.
The study was able to administer and analyze 40 questionnaires to unemployed youth
living or working in Northern division, Mbale municipality and have 20 key informant
interviews.
From the study findings, its revealed that there is high unemployment among the youth
in Northern division, Mbale municipality and mostly those affected are youths aged
between 18 and 35 years these are in most cases males.
Lack of work and entrepreneurship skills was sighted as the major cause of youth
unemployment in Northern division, Mbale municipality and Uganda in general. To get
meaningful employment requires one to have appropriate practical and technical skills
for that particular job as explained during one of the interviews adding that the
inefficient capital base also limits youths from establishing income generating activities
and therefore accelerating the youth unemployment problem and suggested that youth
need to be organized in youth clubs as to identify the problems they face and draw plans
and strategies to address them and that these clubs make it easy for government to
mobilize and direct resources for their development. This leaves youth with no choice but
to indulge in immoral activities in a fit to earn income.
For another interviewee during the interviews, youth unemployment in Northern division
is a result of a combination of factors which include: the mismatch between skills and the
labour market, poor business and entrepreneurship skill among the youth and the general
information gap existing in Mbale municipality. She pointed out that many young people
joining the labour market everyday live without sufficient information about the
45

opportunities elsewhere and so remain unemployed for a long time as long as that
information is not availed to them.
The study further found out that indeed unemployment has got effects on the youth as
majority (90%) of the 40 respondents agreed that unemployment affects youth and mostly
negatively although 1 respondent (2.5%) of the respondents did not see any effect
unemployment has on youth because to him all people who come to town everyday are
busy and eventually are able to survive he did not mention how these people survive.
(7.5%) of the respondents according to the study findings, were not sure of whether
unemployment has any effects on youth but instead said that it is the society who is
affected and the youth does not feel the burden the society has.
The study findings further revealed that the most common effects of unemployment to
society, was crime. (47.2%) of the 36 respondents said that the increase in crime rates
was due to youth unemployment. (25.0%) said that unemployment is responsible for the
rise in immorality and social degeneration in the Mbale and the country as a whole citing
an example of prostitution at an increase because of unemployment. The respondents
believed that youth indulged in immoral activities as a result of poverty caused due to
unemployment. For example a single mother in an endeavor to meet her daily needs
might get into the business of prostitution. Male youths have also got involved in
homosexuality because of promises of money and other luxuries otherwise not achievable
in their state of unemployment. They believe that solving the problem of unemployment
might curb the problem of increasing immorality among the youth.
However, the study revealed that the problem of increasing immorality cannot be blamed
solely on unemployment. Other factors contributed to the increase in immorality among
46

the youth. Majority of the respondents (50%) said that it was not right to blame the
increase in immorality among youth on unemployment. They reasoned that morals of
youth was as a result of many factors and other conditions for example upbringing,
economic situation, dysfunctional religious institutions, education among others. Blaming
unemployment alone was not enough. 40% believed that the increasing immorality was
as a result of wide youth unemployment. They said that many unemployed youth end up
looking for money from other indulgences that are considered immoral to the society.
Furthermore, in the study, the respondents in Northern division Mbale Municipality
agreed that to reduce youth unemployment effectively and moral decay, there is need to
review our education curriculum and focus it on imparting into the youth practical skills,
provision of training facilities, provide credit facilities to youth, encourage foreign
investment, control population growth and address the strategic issues in the labour
market like implementing an effective employment policy with a set retirement age as to
increase demand for labour from the youth. Religious institutions also must strengthen
their roles.

5.2 Conclusions and Recommendation

5.2.1 Conclusion

The study concluded that the prevalence of youth unemployment in Northern division,
Mbale Municipality is high. It was noted that the male gender is adversely affected given
the responsibilities in their homes and society.
47

The study concluded that is a cost in a way that providing social services like education,
health services, and security becomes difficult since unemployment lowers the tax base.
The rate of economic and infrastructural development in this area is also low dew to
limited government revenue.
The study noted and concludes that the main effects of youth unemployment are crime,
immorality, low country productivity and low national development. Whereas immorality
was the second major effect of youth unemployment reported by the youth, it can not be
solely blamed on unemployment.
Further more the study concludes that increasing immorality is as a result of a
combination of factors, unemployment being one of them. A holistic approach to curbing
the situation must be adopted involving all stake holders including family and religious
institutions.
5.2.2 Recommendations
In order to address the problem of unemployment and increasing immorality among the
youth in Northern Division, Mbale Municipality the study has come out with some
recommendations that if put in place, the problem of youth unemployed and solutions to
curb it.
Measures should be put in place to control the rate of population growth especially
resulting from rural-urban migration since a number of youths were from distant areas
and ended up in this area. This habit needs to be checked.
The study recommends that if the problem of youth unemployment is to be reduced,
Ministry of Education should redesign the education curriculum to suit the situations in

48

Uganda and direct it towards the strategic issues that affect the youth with unemployment
being first priority. Construct practical skills training centers and make the cost of
training affordable to the youth as only this can help the system to produce job creators
than seekers.
Furthermore, the study also recommends that if the problem of immorality is to be
curbed, a holistic approached must be adopted. This involves all institutions; religious,
educational, the media, government, and the family working together to reduce moral
decadency. This approach must be backed well defined and clear laws regarding
immorality in the country.
5.3 Suggestions for Further Research
Based on the findings of the study, the researcher observed that there is still potential for
further research as the outcome of this study. Therefore, the researcher recommended that
1. A study to be conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and
awareness of Immorality phenomenon among the communities within Mbale
Municipality.
2. There is need to undertake further research on the factors that might cause an
increase in immorality in Northern Division, Mbale Municipality.

49

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Sekamanya.M. (2009). Daily Monitor: Thursday April 22nd 2009: Mukono: Published by
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51

52

APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR YOUTH


I am Nambozo Adiya a student of Islamic University In Uganda undertaking a study on
the relationship between immorality and unemployment among the youth of Mbale
Municipality the effects of this problem as well as solutions that can be put forward to
address the situation. You are kindly requested to fill this questionnaire exhaustively and
as honestly as possible to enable me achieve the objectives of this study
The information provided is strictly for academic purposes and will be treated with
maximum confidentiality.
Tick the most appropriate answer
Section A: Demographics
1. Sex
Male

female

2. Age bracket
10-17

18-30

3. Resident of Mbale Municipality?


Yes

No

4. Marital status
Married

Single

Divorced

5. Education level
None

Primary

secondary

tertiary

SECTION B: UNEMPLOYMENT STATUS


6. What is your current occupational status?
Unemployed

Part time employed

Full time employed


53

Self-employed

7. If you are unemployed, are you actively seeking for a job at the moment?
Yes

No

Not Applicable

8. Are you looking for work or trying to establish your own business [Desire for work]?
Yes

No

9. Does unemployment exist in this area?


Yes

No

10. Which of these do you believe are the causes of youth unemployment in Mbale
municipality?
Lack of skills

Job selectivity

unwillingness to work

Lack of jobs

11. (a)Is it true that rural-urban migration also contributes to unemployment?


Yes

No

b) If Yes, how..
12. Is it correct to say that most of the youths in this area are unemployed?
Strongly Agree

Agree

Not Sure

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree
13. How long have you been looking for a job?
<1month

1-6months

7-12months

>3yrs
54

1-2yrs

2-3yrs

14. What sort of job are you looking for (Occupation)?


Manual Job

Clerical Job

Technical Job

Professional

Job

SECTION C: EFFECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON YOUTH:


15. Does unemployment affect you as a youth?
Yes

No

16. Does unemployment have an effect on youth among society?


Yes

No

17. If yes, which of the following is the most result of unemployment affected on youth?
Crime

Immorality

Low productivity

Low development

18. a) Would you blame unemployment for the rising cases of immorality and other
crimes in this area?
Yes [ ] No [ ]
19. Is it correct to say that most of the immoral youths in this area are unemployed?
Strongly Agree [ ]

Agree [ ]

Not Sure [ ]

Disagree [ ]

Strongly

Disagree [ ]
b) If Yes, Please explain

21. a) Do you think problems caused by unemployment can be reduced?


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Yes

No

b) If Yes, which of these are the most appropriate ways of fighting unemployment?
Control population growth

[]

Review Education curriculum

[]

Credit provision

[]

Attract more foreign investors

[]

Forming youth groups

[]

22 a) Is reducing unemployment a responsibility of the youth themselves?


Yes

No

b) If No, please explain


23. Is reducing unemployment among the youth a responsibility of the state?
Yes

No

24. Do families and religious institution have a role in reducing immorality among youth
in this area?
Yes

No

If Yes, how
a) Can youth clubs help in fighting unemployment and immorality problem among the
youth in this area?
Yes

No

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Thank you for your cooperation

APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR STAKE HOLDERS


I am Nambozo Adiya a student of Islamic University In Uganda undertaking a study on
the relationship between immorality and unemployment among the youth of Mbale
Municipality the effects of this problem as well as solutions that can be put forward to
address the situation. Allow me to ask you a few questions. Please be as honest as
possible to enable me achieve the objectives of this study. The information provided is
strictly for academic purposes and will be treated with maximum confidentiality.

1. What are the causes of youth unemployment in the society?


2. What can be done to address the situation of youth unemployment in the society?
3. Is immorality among youth in the Mbale municipality increasing?
4. If yes, what do you think is responsible for increasing trend among the youth?
5. Do you think unemployment might cause youth to indulge in immoral activities?
6. How can we address the problem of increased immorality among youth in Mbale
municipality
Thank you for your coorperation
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