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Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‫



according to Iraqi TV sources. 2006. forces on December 13. 1979 until April 9. . 2003. economic modernization. Iraqi government sources plan to release photographic evidence of the hanging. particularly those of ethnic or religious groups that sought independence or autonomy along tribal lines. was the President of Iraq. he was convicted of crimes against humanity by the Iraq Special Tribunal and was sentenced to death by hanging.[5] According to media sources. 2003. As a leading member of the Iraqi Baath Party. As president. He repressed movements deemed threatening to the his regime. 1937[2] . Saddam was eventually captured by U. During his rule the Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988) and the Gulf War (1991) occurred. his rule lasting from July 16. On November 5. As vice president under his cousin. 2006[3]). Saddam tightly controlled conflict between the government and the armed forces by creating repressive security forces and cementing his own firm authority over the apparatus of government. which espoused secular pan-Arabism. Saddam ran an authoritarian government and maintained power and stability in the country.[4] On December 30.S. lawyers and officials. He was an integral part of the 1968 coup that brought his party to long-term power. the frail General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr. in front of doctors. Saddam's appeal was rejected and the death sentence upheld. when he was deposed during the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. ا‬Saddām Husayn Aabdu-Al-majīd al-tikrītī[1]. Saddam played a key role modernizing Iraq and giving the country stability within the region.December 30. April 28. After the US invasion of Iraq. He was and remains a popular hero among many Sunni Iraqis and Arabs for standing up to Israel and the United States. He was reported to have been hanged. just before 06:00 local time (03:00 UTC). and Arab socialism.

1 Escape  8.2 Capture  8.1 The Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988) o 5.Contents [hide] • 1 Youth • 2 Marriage and family relationships • 3 Rise to power o 3.2 Tensions with Kuwait • 6 The Gulf War o 6.1.1 Gulf War aftermath • 7 1991–2003 • 8 2003 invasion of Iraq o 8.3 Incarceration • 9 Trials • 10 Execution • 11 Government positions held by Saddam Hussein • 12 Notes • 13 References • 14 See also • 15 External links .1.1 Modernization o 3.2 Succession • 4 Saddam Hussein as a secular leader • 5 Foreign affairs o 5.1 Escape and capture  8.1.

The stranglehold of the old elites (the conservative monarchists. His stepfather. until he was three. . Shortly afterward. at age 20. Saddam joined the revolutionary pan-Arab Ba'ath Party. he learned many things from his uncle. In 1957. treated Saddam harshly after his return. army officers led by General Abdul Karim Qassim overthrew Faisal II of Iraq. He never knew his father. Nasser challenged the British and French. His mother. From there he moved to Cairo where he made frequent visits to the American embassy. The rise of Nasser foreshadowed a wave of revolutions throughout the Middle East in the 1950s and 1960s.[12] Saddam was shot in the leg. Saddam's 13-year-old brother died of cancer. nationalized the Suez Canal. which would see the collapse of the monarchies of Iraq. At about the age of 10. Kharaillah Tulfah. During this time the CIA placed him in an upper-class apartment observed by CIA and Egyptian operatives. Hussein 'Abd al-Majid. 13 kilometres (8 mi) from the Iraqi town of Tikrit in the Sunni Triangle. Ibrahim al-Hassan. the populist pan-Arab nationalism of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt would profoundly influence the young Ba'athist. and Saddam gained three half-brothers through this marriage. Moreover. Later in his life. In 1958. leaving his mother severely depressed in the final months of the pregnancy. but escaped to Tikrit with the help of CIA and Egyptian intelligence agents. the father of Saddam's future wife. a year after Saddam had joined the Ba'ath party. Saddam fled the family and returned to live in Baghdad with his uncle. to a family of shepherds. Khairallah Talfah. Tulfah. Saddam studied law at the Cairo University during his exile. he attended a nationalistic secondary school in Baghdad. named her newborn son "Saddam". Under the guidance of his uncle. and Libya. Saddam then crossed into Syria and was transferred to Beirut for a brief CIA training course. The Ba'athists opposed the new government. established families. who disappeared six months before Saddam was born. and merchants) was breaking down in Iraq.Youth Saddam Hussein was born in the town of Al-Awja. was a devout Sunni Muslim. even up to the present day. (UPI 'analysis' article) He was sentenced to death in absentia. of which his uncle was a supporter. Subha Tulfah al-Mussallat. According to Saddam. and strove to modernize Egypt and unite the Arab world politically. relatives from his native Tikrit would become some of his closest advisors and supporters. The infant Saddam was sent to the family of his maternal uncle. Egypt. a militant Iraqi nationalist.[6] His mother remarried. and in 1959. which in Arabic means "One who confronts". Revolutionary sentiment was characteristic of the era in Iraq and throughout the Middle East. Saddam was involved in the attempted United States-backed plot to assassinate Qassim.

Sajida is the daughter of Khairallah Talfah. Rana. Saddam Kamel al-Majid. 1996. Raghad and Hala. whom he married in 1986 after forcing her husband to divorce her (she is rumored to be his favorite wife). however. Within three days of their return in February 1996. both of the Majid brothers were attacked and killed in a gunfight with other clan members who considered them traitors. Saddam with his daughter. and was named Journalist of the Century by the Iraqi Union of Journalists.Marriage and family relationships Saddam married Sajida Talfah in 1963. taking their children with them. Both brothers made a fortune smuggling oil. . the general manager of the Solar Energy Research Center in the Council of Scientific Research. and Nidal al-Hamdani. Uday controlled the media. Saddam's uncle and mentor. They had two sons (Uday and Qusay) and three daughters. There have apparently been no political issues from these latter two marriages. Rana and her husband Hussein Kamel al-Majid and Raghad and her husband. and was considered Saddam's heir. In August 1995. General Adnan Khairallah Tuffah. the two didn't meet until their wedding. Their marriage was arranged when Saddam was 5 and Sajida was 7. They were married in Egypt during his exile. defected to Jordan. Saddam also married two other women: Samira Shahbandar. Sajida's brother and Saddam's childhood friend. whose husband was apparently also persuaded to divorce his wife. Qusay ran the elite Republican Guard. Ali. was allegedly executed because of his growing popularity. Saddam has another son. and Rana were put under house arrest because they were suspected of being involved in an attempted assassination of Uday on December 12. from Samira. Sajida. they would lose all status and would not receive any protection. Rana Hussein. Raghad. They returned to Iraq when they received assurances that Saddam Hussein would pardon them. Saddam had made it clear that although pardoned.

has a big heart." who was accused of ordering the use of poison gas in 1988. Raghad told CNN. "He was a very good father. Saddam's daughters Raghad and Rana received sanctuary in Amman. loving. "He had so many feelings and he was very tender with all of us. also known in the United States as "Chemical Ali. Jordan. custody. Another cousin was Ali Hassan al-Majid. where they are currently staying with their nine children. When asked about her father. she said: "I love you and I miss you. the deputy head of Iraq's Tribal Affairs Office. troops in April 2003.S. Neither has been known to be involved in politics." Her sister Rana also remarked.Saddam's daughter Hala is married to Jamal Mustafa Sultan al-Tikriti. In August 2003. That month." [7] . they spoke with CNN and the Arab satellite station Al-Arabiya in Amman." Asked if she wanted to give a message to her father. Ali is now in U.S. Jamal surrendered to U.

tribal chief versus urban merchant. but was imprisoned in 1964. al- Bakr was named president and Saddam was named his deputy.[8] Army officers with ties to the Ba'ath Party overthrew Qassim in a coup in 1963. and economic fault lines: Sunni versus Shi'ite. the CIA gave assistance to the Ba'ath Party and other regime opponents. He escaped prison in 1967 and quickly became a leading member of the party. which informed his measures to promote Ba'ath party unity as well as his ruthless resolve to maintain power and programs to ensure social stability. In 1968. Saddam returned to Iraq. Arif dismissed and arrested the Ba'athist leaders later that year. Saddam soon became the regime's strongman. Saddam demanded and received the rank of four-star general despite his lack of military training. Long before Saddam. Saddam actively fostered the modernization of the Iraqi economy along with the creation of a strong security apparatus to prevent coups within the power structure and insurrections apart from it.Rise to power Concerned about Qassim's growing ties to Communists. he closely followed the administration of state welfare and development programs. Iraq had been split along social. Arab versus Kurd. . Saddam participated in a bloodless coup led by Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr that overthrew Abdul Rahman Arif. Ba'athist leaders were appointed to the cabinet and Abdul Salam Arif became president. religious. Saddam never forgot the tensions within the first Ba'athist government. Soon after becoming deputy to the president. Saddam moved up the ranks in the new government by aiding attempts to strengthen and unify the Ba'ath party and taking a leading role in addressing the country's major domestic problems and expanding the party's following. Ever concerned with broadening his base of support among the diverse elements of Iraqi society and mobilizing mass support. ethnic. nomad versus peasant. Stable rule in a country rife with factionalism required the improvement of living standards.[9] Saddam Hussein (left) talking with Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (right) Modernization Saddam consolidated power in a nation riddled with profound tensions. According to biographers.

and developing other industries.[10] The Ba'athists established farm cooperatives. at the time. the government established universal free schooling up to the highest education levels. though not to the levels Saddam had hoped for. [13] [14] To diversify the largely oil-based economy. Saddam supervised the modernization of the countryside. The government's commitment to agrarian reform was demonstrated by the doubling of expenditures for agricultural development in 1974-1975. Iraq created one of the most modernized public-health systems in the Middle East. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 1972. The government also supported families of soldiers. Saddam focused intensely on fostering loyalty to the Ba'athist government in the rural areas. Saddam established and controlled the "National Campaign for the Eradication of Illiteracy" and the campaign for "Compulsory Free Education in Iraq. Electricity was brought to nearly every city in Iraq. Saddam's organizational prowess was credited with Iraq's rapid pace of development in the 1970s. where Saddam himself was born and raised. and distributing land to peasant farmers. Nevertheless. . most of Iraq's people lived in the countryside. agrarian reform in Iraq improved the living standard of the peasantry and increased production. granted free hospitalization to everyone." and largely under his auspices. After nationalizing foreign oil interests. in which profits were distributed according to the labors of the individual and the unskilled were trained. widening his appeal both within his traditional base and among new sectors of the population. and many outlying areas. Within just a few years. promoting mining. A year later. But this number would decrease quickly during the 1970s as the country invested much of its oil profits into industrial expansion. mechanizing agriculture on a large scale. These programs were part of a combination of "carrot and stick" tactics to enhance support in the working class. On June 1. Saddam implemented a national infrastructure campaign that made great progress in building roads. and roughly two-thirds were peasants. and within the party and the government bureaucracy. Iraq was providing social services that were unprecedented among Middle Eastern countries. Saddam oversaw the seizure of international oil interests. Saddam became personally associated with Ba'athist welfare and economic development programs in the eyes of many Iraqis. the peasantry.At the center of this strategy was Iraq's oil. development went forward at such a fevered pitch that two million persons from other Arab countries and Yugoslavia worked in Iraq to meet the growing demand for labor. Moreover. Before the 1970s. had a monopoly on the country's oil. and skyrocketing revenues enabled Saddam to expand his agenda. world oil prices rose dramatically as a result of the 1973 energy crisis. and gave subsidies to farmers. hundreds of thousands learned to read in the years following the initiation of the program. which. The campaign revolutionized Iraq's energy industries. earning Saddam an award from the United Nations Educational.

Syrian President Hafez al-Assad would become deputy leader in a union. During the assembly. Succession In 1979 al-Bakr started to make treaties with Syria. Saddam took on an increasingly prominent role as the face of the government both internally and externally. Saddam acted to secure his grip on power. At the time Saddam was considered an enemy of Communism and radical Islamism. a policy which sought to weaken the influence of Iran and the Soviet Union. and 22 were sentenced to execution for treason. He slowly began to consolidate his power over Iraq's government and the Ba'ath party. Saddam rose to the position of general in the Iraqi armed forces. Shortly afterwards. and Saddam soon accumulated a powerful circle of support within the party. Saddam claimed to have found spies and conspirators within the Ba'ath Party and read out the names of 68 members who he thought could oppose him. 1979. also under Ba'athist leadership. He was the de facto ruler of Iraq some years before he formally came to power in 1979. . and this would drive Saddam to obscurity. which he ordered videotaped. that would lead to unification between the two countries. and formally assumed the presidency. Saddam congratulated those still seated in the room for their past and future loyalty. he convened an assembly of Ba'ath party leaders on July 22. policy in the region. After the list was read. and rapidly became the strongman of the government. 1979. He forced the ailing al-Bakr to resign on July 16.S.[citation needed] As the weak.In 1976. These members were labeled "disloyal" and were removed from the room one by one and taken into custody. He soon became the architect of Iraq's foreign policy and represented the nation in all diplomatic situations. elderly al-Bakr became unable to execute his duties. The 68 people arrested at the meeting were subsequently put on trial. Relationships with fellow party members were carefully cultivated. Saddam was integral to U.

Saddam also created a Western-style legal system. and shops. He also promoted Iraq's pre-Islamic role as Mesopotamia. making Iraq the only country in the Persian Gulf region not ruled according to traditional Islamic law (Sharia). and the Ba'ath Party was increasingly concerned about potential Sh'ia Islamist influence following the Iranian Revolution of 1979. the People's Army acted as a counterweight against any coup attempts by the regular armed forces. alluding to such historical figures as Nebuchadrezzar II and Hammurabi. Saddam's personality cult pervaded Iraqi society. As a sign of his consolidation of power. and lower middle class Sunnis. He appeared in the costumes of the Bedouin. Since 1982. Thousands of portraits. posters. foreign observers believed that this department operated both at home and abroad in their mission to seek out and eliminate Saddam's perceived opponents. peasant.[11] Saddam justified Iraqi nationalism by claiming a unique role of Iraq in the history of the Arab world. schools. the . The major instruments for accomplishing this control were the paramilitary and police organizations. when Baghdad was the political. In addition to the People's Army. His face could be seen on the sides of office buildings. The Shi'a majority were long a source of opposition to the government's secular policies. Beginning in 1974. except for personal injury claims. Saddam sought to combine pan- Arabism and Iraqi nationalism. or to take repressive measures against them. a close associate of Saddam. statues and murals were erected in his honor all over Iraq. As president. cultural. Taha Yassin Ramadan. As the Ba'ath Party's paramilitary. Saddam made frequent references to the Abbasid period.Saddam Hussein as a secular leader Saddam saw himself as a social revolutionary and a modernizer. It was commanded by Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti. following the Nasser model. his government gave women added freedoms and offered them high-level government and industry jobs. Saddam's personality cult reflected his efforts to appeal to the various elements in Iraqi society. In effect. by promoting the vision of an Arab world united and led by Iraq. He devoted resources to archaeological explorations. and economic capital of the Arab world. airports. Saddam's younger half-brother. To maintain his regime Saddam tended either to provide them with benefits so as to co-opt them into the regime. Domestic conflict impeded Saddam's modernizing projects. religion and ethnicity. commanded the People's Army. the Department of General Intelligence (Mukhabarat) was the most notorious arm of the state security system. The Kurds of northern Iraq (who are Sunni Muslims but not Arabs) were also permanently hostile to the Ba'athist party's pan- Arabism. the ancient cradle of civilization. which was responsible for internal security. Saddam abolished the Sharia law courts. continuing a pattern that dates back at least to the British mandate authority's reliance on them as administrators. To the consternation of Islamic conservatives. as well as on Iraqi currency. Saddam's government rested on the support of the 20% minority of largely working class. feared for its use of torture and assassination. Iraqi society is divided along lines of language.

projecting the image of an urbane and modern leader. and even Kurdish clothing. . but also appeared in Western suits. praying toward Mecca. Sometimes he would also be portrayed as a devout Muslim. wearing full headdress and robe.traditional clothes of the Iraqi peasant (which he essentially wore during his childhood).

Saddam did negotiate an agreement in 1970 with separatist Kurdish leaders. cementing close ties with some French business and conservative political circles. In 1975 he negotiated an accord with Iran that contained Iraqi concessions on border disputes. Saddam initiated Iraq's nuclear enrichment project in the 1980s. then special envoy of President Ronald Reagan. in Baghdad on December 20. though Saddam continued to receive the largest share of his armaments from the Soviet bloc. Iraq signed an aid pact with the Soviet Union in 1972. 1983 Main article: Iran-Iraq War . the 1978 executions of Iraqi Communists and a shift of trade toward the West strained Iraqi relations with the Soviet Union. with French assistance. which caused Iraqi relations with Iran to deteriorate. After Saddam had negotiated the 1975 treaty with Iran. the name of the French experimental reactor that served as template and "Irak". Iraq has had to deal with Kurdish separatists in the northern part of the country. Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi withdrew support for the Kurds. a portmanteau formed from "Osiris". leading to a more Western orientation from then until the Gulf War in 1991. who suffered a total defeat. The first Iraqi nuclear reactor was named by the French "Osirak". giving them autonomy. Iran agreed to stop supporting opposition Kurds in Iraq. Osirak was destroyed by an Israeli air strike (Operation Opera).Foreign affairs In foreign affairs. However. but the agreement broke down. He made a state visit to France in 1976. the French spelling of "Iraq". The Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988) Saddam Hussein greets Donald Rumsfeld. and arms were sent along with several thousand advisers. Saddam led Arab opposition to the 1979 Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel. because Israel suspected it was going to start producing weapons- grade nuclear material. Saddam sought to have Iraq play a leading role in the Middle East. In return. Nearly from its founding as a modern state in 1920. The result was brutal fighting between the government and Kurdish groups and even Iraqi bombing of Kurdish villages in Iran.

However. Ibrahim’s chopped up body was delivered to his wife the next day. took up residence in Iraq. Iraq's permanent ambassador to the United Nations. There he involved himself with Iraqi Shi'ites and developed a strong. Iraq used Western supplied chemical weapons against Iranian forces fighting on the southern front and Kurdish separatists who were attempting to open up a northern front in Iraq with the help of Iran. The attack occurred in conjunction with the 1988 al-Anfal campaign designed to reassert central control of the mostly Kurdish population of areas of northern Iraq and defeat the Kurdish peshmerga rebel forces.[13] On March 16. which divides the two countries. in a private meeting with Salah Omar Al-Ali. at the Shi'ite holy city of An Najaf. disfiguring. By 1982. which also has a sizeable Arab minority. on September 22. Iraq was on the defensive and looking for ways to end the war. (see Halabja poison gas attack) [15]. The United States now maintains that Saddam ordered the attack to terrorize the Kurdish population in northern Iraq ([16]).In 1979 Iran's Shah. or seriously debilitating 10.[12] Iraq quickly found itself bogged down in one of the longest and most destructive wars of attrition of the twentieth century. Most Arab nations and the United States supported him with artillery and medical supplies during this time. and that it was in the interests of both nations to maintain peaceful relations. Health Minister Riyadh Ibrahim suggested that Saddam temporarily step down to promote peace negotiations. and maiming. particularly in countries with large Shi'ite populations. Saddam feared that radical Islamic ideas — hostile to his secular rule — were rapidly spreading in southern Iraq among the majority Shi'ite population. After making some initial gains. killing 5.000 civilians. At this point. thus giving way to an Islamic republic led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. During the war. the Kurdish town of Halabja was attacked with a mix of mustard gas and nerve agents. 1980 and declared it a new province of Iraq. After Khomeini gained power. The influence of revolutionary Shi'ite Islam grew apace in the region. Iraq invaded Iran by attacking Mehrabad Airport of Tehran and entering the oil-rich Iranian land of Khuzestan. having been exiled from Iran in 1964. was overthrown in the Islamic Revolution.000 more. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. he revealed that he intended to invade and occupy a large part of Iran within months. During this period. Under pressure from the Shah. Iraq's troops began to suffer losses from human wave attacks by Iran. There had also been bitter enmity between Saddam and Khomeini since the 1970s. Khomeini. but Saddam's regime claimed at the time . worldwide religious and political following. Saddam asked his ministers for candid advice. skirmishes between Iraq and revolutionary Iran occurred for ten months over the sovereignty of the disputed Arvandrud/Shatt al-Arab waterway. there was heavy ground fighting around strategic ports as Iraq launched an attack on Khuzestan. In the first days of the war. 1988. especially Iraq. who had agreed to a rapprochement between Iraq and Iran in 1975. Saddam agreed to expel Khomeini in 1978. Saddam Hussein continually maintained that it was in Iraq's interest not to engage with Iran.

Faced with rebuilding Iraq's infrastructure. The bloody eight-year war ended in a stalemate. .7 million died on both sides. and thus keeping prices low. perhaps upwards of 1. claiming that the international community should force Iraq to pay war reparations to Iran. he argued. They continued the war until 1988. and France. For at least half a century. Saddam saw his war with Iran as having spared Kuwait from the imminent threat of Iranian domination. Saddam borrowed a tremendous amount of money from other Arab states during the 1980s to fight Iran and was stuck with a war debt of roughly $75 billion. Saddam desperately sought out cash once again. Since the struggle with Iran had been fought for the benefit of the other Gulf Arab states as much as for Iraq. The Iranians. Saddam reached out to other Arab governments for cash and political support during the war. Tensions with Kuwait The end of the war with Iran served to deepen latent tensions between Iraq and its wealthy neighbor Kuwait. refused any suggestions for a cease-fire. Iraqi nationalists were espousing emphatically the belief that Kuwait was historically an integral part of Iraq. were left in ruins. this time for postwar reconstruction. In addition to refusing the request. claiming that Saddam was responsible to pay off his debts for the war he started. but the Kuwaitis refused. One of the few articles of faith uniting the political scene in a nation rife with sharp social. the Soviet Union. from the United States. Meanwhile. previously healthy and expanding. Iraq successfully gained some military and financial aid. particularly after Iraq's oil industry severely suffered at the hands of the Iranian navy in the Persian Gulf. Saddam pushed oil-exporting countries to raise oil prices by cutting back oil production. ethnic. Kuwait spearheaded the opposition in OPEC to the cuts that Saddam had requested. which together feared the prospects of the expansion of revolutionary Iran's influence in the region. when Iraq needed to sell high-priced oil from its wells to pay off a huge debt. Both economies. Kuwait refused to cut production. some $30 billion. Also to raise money for postwar reconstruction. The desperate search for foreign credit would eventually humiliate the strongman [citation needed] who had long sought to dominate Arab nationalism throughout the Middle East. a share of Iraqi debt should be forgiven. Kuwait was pumping large amounts of oil. and socioeconomic divides was the belief that Kuwait had no right to even exist in the first place.that Iran was responsible for the attack[14] and the US supported the claim until the early 1990s. hoping to bring down Saddam's secular regime and instigate a Shi'ite rebellion in Iraq. Saddam showed disdain for the Kuwait-Iraq boundary line (imposed on Iraq by British imperial officials in 1922) because it almost completely cut Iraq off from the sea. as well as diplomatic and moral support. religious. Saddam urged the Kuwaitis to forgive the Iraqi debt accumulated in the war. There were hundreds of thousands of casualties.

The colossal extent of Kuwaiti oil reserves also intensified tensions in the region. indicating that while George H. [citation needed] The U. The Kuwaiti monarchy further angered Saddam by allegedly slant drilling oil out of wells that Iraq considered to be within its disputed border with Kuwait. however. For one. Saddam was receiving conflicting information about how the U. Later. Saddam now needed oil money to stem a looming economic crisis. Saddam was able to complain about the alleged slant drilling to the U. or foreknowledge of the invasion. Saddam still had an experienced and well-equipped army.S. ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie met with Saddam in an emergency meeting on July 25. holds 25%.S. officials attempted to maintain a conciliatory line with Iraq.S. Given that at the time Iraq was not regarded as a pariah state. Bush and James Baker did not want force used. would respond to the prospects of an invasion. also sent billions of dollars to Saddam to keep him from forming a strong alliance with the Soviets.and that Kuwait had only come into being through the maneuverings of British imperialism. .S. [15] U. Although this had continued for years. acceptance of. Iraq and Kuwait sat on top of some 20% of the world's known oil reserves. The transcript. The oil reserves of Kuwait (with a population of a mere 2 million next to Iraq's 25) were roughly equal to those of Iraq. does not show any explicit statement of approval of. they would not take any position on the Iraq-Kuwait boundary dispute and did not want to become involved. which failed. As Iraq-Kuwait relations rapidly deteriorated. Saudi Arabia. Washington had been taking measures to cultivate a constructive relationship with Iraq for roughly a decade. which he used to influence regional affairs. Iraq and Kuwait then met for a final negotiation session. Saddam then sent his troops into Kuwait. Taken together. where the Iraqi leader stated his intention to continue talks. by comparison. 1990. U. W.S. He later ordered troops to the Iraq-Kuwait border. State Department.

the U.The Gulf War Main article: Gulf War On August 2. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher underscored the risk the invasion posed to Western interests to Bush in an in-person meeting one day after the invasion. U. and British armored and infantry divisions ejected Saddam's army from Kuwait in February 1991 and occupied the southern portion of Iraq as far as the Euphrates. A ground force comprised largely of U. W. Saddam focused renewed attention on the Palestinian problem by promising to withdraw his forces from Kuwait if Israel would relinquish the occupied territories in the West Bank. On the other hand. Saddam's proposal further split the Arab world. freedom. Bush announced: "What is at stake is more than one small country. During the period of negotiations and threats following the invasion.a new world order.[16] and the invasion triggered fears that the price of oil. beginning January 16. a U. deployed massive amounts of troops along the Saudi border with Kuwait and Iraq in order to encircle the Iraqi army. Saddam ignored the Security Council deadline. was at stake.S. President George H. and a group of allies.S. 1991. George". where diverse nations are drawn together in common cause to achieve the universal aspirations of mankind: peace and security. Accordingly.S. The United Kingdom was also concerned. had been a virulent enemy of Israel and was on friendly terms with the Soviets." . dating back to British colonialism in the region. With unanimous backing from the Security Council. pitting U. interests were heavily invested in the region. though subjected to attack by Iraqi missiles. Saddam invaded and annexed the oil-rich emirate of Kuwait. The allies ultimately rejected any connection between the Kuwait crisis and Palestinian issues. Syria and Czechoslovakia. 1991. refrained from retaliating in order not to provoke Arab states into leaving the coalition. Israel. the largest in the Middle East. On March 6. and Western-supported Arab states against the Palestinians. Bush responded cautiously for the first several days after the invasion. U.-led coalition launched round-the-clock missile and aerial attacks on Iraq. including countries as diverse as Egypt. and also benefited from billions of dollars in Kuwaiti investment. "Don't go wobbly on me. Kuwait. Iraq controlled ten percent of the world's crude oil reserves and with the invasion had doubled the percentage. for the Saudis' opposition to the invasion of Kuwait. On the one hand. Before leaving. the Golan Heights. it is a big idea . and the Gaza Strip. Britain had a close historical relationship with Kuwait. and the rule of law. [17] U. famously telling him.S. a close ally of Washington since the 1940s. Saddam ordered the oil wells across Kuwait to be torched (see Kuwaiti oil fires). prior to this point.S. referring to the conflict.S. 1990. [citation needed] Cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union made possible the passage of resolutions in the United Nations Security Council giving Iraq a deadline to leave Kuwait and approving the use of force if Saddam did not comply with the timetable. and therefore the world economy.S. officials feared that Iraq would retaliate against oil-rich Saudi Arabia.

and dissident military units threatened the stability of Saddam's government. in an effort to co-opt the conservative religious segments of society. having survived the immediate crisis in the wake of defeat and a car crash. In the aftermath of the fighting. such as the 2001 edict imposing the death penalty for sodomy. did nothing to assist the rebellions and even lifted the Iraqi no-fly zones which allowed Saddam's forces to crush the rebellions. ally Turkey opposed any prospect of Kurdish independence. laid the groundwork for new rebellions within the country. and the Saudis and other conservative Arab states feared an Iran-style Shi'a revolution. U. Kurds.000 persons had been killed during the 1991 uprisings [18].S.In the end. . Saddam increasingly portrayed himself as a devout Muslim. was added to the national flag. in Saddam's handwriting. according to his now defected personal doctor. Iraq agreed to abandon all chemical and biological weapons and allow UN observers to inspect the sites. This message earned Saddam a great deal of popularity in many sectors of the Arab world. Saddam routinely cited his survival as "proof" that Iraq had in fact won the war against America. "God is the greatest". Saddam. with other sources pinning the number as high as 100. the over-manned and under-equipped Iraqi army proved unable to compete on the battlefield with the highly mobile coalition land forces and their overpowering air support. although the country never recovered either economically or militarily from the Persian Gulf War. Some 175. Some elements of Sharia law were re- introduced. Gulf War aftermath Main article: 1991 uprisings in Iraq Iraq's ethnic and religious divisions. the legalization of "honor killings" and the ritual phrase "Allahu Akbar". rape. was left firmly in control of Iraq.000 according to U. and prostitution. As part of the cease-fire agreement. which left a small scar in his face and a injury on a finger. The United States. UN trade sanctions would remain in effect until Iraq complied with all terms. data. social and ethnic unrest among Shi'a Muslims. but were ruthlessly repressed. In 2005 the BBC reported that as many as 30.S.000. Uprisings began in the Kurdish north and Shi'a southern and central parts of Iraq.000 Iraqis were taken prisoner and casualties were estimated at approximately 20. which had urged Iraqis to rise up against Saddam. together with the resulting postwar devastation.

They likely had a leading hand when. On June 26. and British warplanes struck harder at sites near Baghdad in February. Limited amounts of income from the United Nations started flowing into Iraq through the UN Oil-for-Food Programme. U. Bush during a visit to Kuwait. 2001. and other supporters were divided after the war.S. refusing to give out adequate information on these weapons.S. Iraq accused Butler and other UNSCOM officials of acting as spies for the United States.1991–2003 Relations between the United States and Iraq remained tense following the Gulf War. it is alleged. the U. Domestic repression inside Iraq grew worse. by developing weapons of mass destruction and other banned weaponry. without the permission of the UN. two of Saddam Hussein's sons-in-law (Hussein Kamel and Saddam Kamel).S. officials continued to accuse Saddam Hussein of violating the terms of the Gulf War's cease fire. citing anonymous sources. Saddam's support base of Tikriti tribesmen. Both were killed after returning to Iraq the following February. December 16-December 19. and Saddam's sons. This was supported by reports in the Washington Post and the Boston Globe. Isolated military strikes by U. 1998. Only smuggling across the Syrian border and humanitarian aid (the UN Oil-for-Food Programme) ameliorated the humanitarian crisis. culminating in intensive U. blocking Iraqi oil exports. [19][20] The UN sanctions placed upon Iraq when it invaded Kuwait were not lifted. W. attempted to assassinate former President George H. Iraqi cooperation with UN weapons inspection teams was questioned on several occasions during the 1990s and UNSCOM chief weapons inspector Richard Butler (diplomat) withdrew his team from Iraq in November 1998 citing Iraqi non-cooperation. U. in August 1995. Charges of Iraqi impediment to UN inspection of sites thought to contain illegal weapons were claimed as the reasons for crises between 1997 and 1998. After two years of intermittent activity. defected to Jordan. This caused immense hardship in Iraq and virtually destroyed the Iraqi economy and state infrastructure. Kuwaiti security forces apprehended a group of Iraqis at the scene of an alleged bombing attempt.S. this contributed to the government's increasingly repressive and arbitrary nature. In April of 1993 the Iraqi Intelligence Service. the largest being Operation Desert Fox in 1998. and British forces continued on Iraq sporadically. 1993.S. launched a missile attack targeting Baghdad intelligence headquarters in retaliation for the alleged attempt to attack former President Bush. which said that Butler had known of and co-operated with a US electronic eavesdropping operation that allowed intelligence agents to monitor military communications in Iraq. Uday Hussein and Qusay Hussein. and violating the UN- imposed sanctions and no-fly zones.S. Saddam resumed . family members. After a crisis ensued and the U. In the following years. and British missile strikes on Iraq. contemplated military action against Iraq. became increasingly powerful and carried out a private reign of terror. although a UN spokesman subsequently stated that "the bulk of" the Security Council supported the move [21]. who held high positions in the Iraqi military.

President Clinton signed the Iraq Liberation Act. Saddam is also known to have had contacts with Palestinian terrorist groups. . a three-day air-strike to hamper Saddam's weapons-production facilities and hit sites related to weapons of mass destruction. no conclusive evidence concerning links between Saddam and bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization has ever been produced by any US government official. In October 1998. Ambassador Peter Burleigh. Several journalists have reported on Saddam's ties to anti-Israeli and Islamic terrorism prior to 2000. but were withdrawn again on 16 December [17]. Three out of five of the Permanent Members of the U."[26] The Senate Committee concluded that there was no evidence of any Iraqi support of al-Qaeda and that there was convincing evidence of hostility between the two entities. to Western oil supplies from the Gulf states. U. Saddam told Faroq al-Kaddoumi. Security Council subsequently objected to Butler's withdrawal. acting on instructions from Washington.cooperation. President Bill Clinton maintained economic sanctions. suggested he pull his team from Iraq in order to protect them from the forthcoming U.S.[23] The act called for "regime change" in Iraq and authorizes the funding of opposition groups. Clinton authorized Operation Desert Fox. as well as air patrols in the "Iraqi no-fly zones". and to Middle East stability generally. Following the issuance of a UN report detailing Iraq's failure to cooperate with inspections.000 instead of $10. The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence was able to find evidence of only one such meeting. The official assessment by the U. and British airstrikes. Abu Abbas and Osama bin Laden. Butler reported in his biography that U. as well as evidence of two occasions "not reported prior to the war. Butler had given a report the UN Security Council on 15 December in which he expressed dissatisfaction with the level of compliance.S.[25] However. in which Saddam Hussein rebuffed meeting requests from an al-Qa'ida operative.S. head of the Palestinian political office. The Intelligence Community has not found any other evidence of meetings between al-Qa'ida and Iraq.N. Intelligence Community is that contacts between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda over the years did not lead to a collaborative relationship.000. Early in 2002. Abu Nidal.S. [22] The inspectors returned. Saddam continued to loom large in American consciousness as a major threat to Western allies such as Israel and oil-rich Saudi Arabia. he would raise the sum granted to each family of Palestinians who die as suicide bombers in the uprising against Israel to $25. including Carlos the Jackal.[24] Some news reports detailed links to terrorists.

" Bush went on to say "Iraq continues to flaunt its hostility toward America and to support terror. which bolstered the influence of the neoconservative faction in the presidential administration and throughout Washington. . a smiling Saddam Hussein greeted cheering. "The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax. He was last seen in a video which purported to show him in the Baghdad suburbs surrounded by supporters. Coalition forces occupied much of Iraq. Bush stated. and nerve gas.S. 2003. 2001 attacks. after the September 11. Bush announced that he would possibly take action to topple the Iraqi government. Saddam was still preparing to leave[citation needed]. The United States made at least two attempts to kill Saddam with targeted air strikes. When Baghdad fell to the Coalition on April 9. and Iraq. As U. Saddam Hussein talked with CBS News anchor Dan Rather for more than three hours — his first interview with a U.-led ground troops were marching toward the capital. By the beginning of April.[18] Main article: 2003 invasion of Iraq The domestic political situation changed in the U.S. reporter in over a decade. but both failed to hit their target. Smoke was emanating from oil fires in the distance. North Korea. chanting crowds in the streets of Baghdad. satellite channels worldwide broadcast footage of the besieged Iraqi leader touring the streets of his bombed capital. and nuclear weapons for over a decade."[19] As the war was looming on February 24. Bush spoke of an "axis of evil" comprised of Iran.S. Moreover.2003 invasion of Iraq On April 4. The Iraqi government and military collapsed within three weeks of the beginning of the 2003 invasion of Iraq on March 20. and it appeared that Saddam had lost control of Iraq. 2003.[7] CBS aired the taped interview later that week. The resistance of the much-weakened Iraqi Army either crumbled or shifted to guerrilla warfare. In his January 2002 state-of-the-union message to Congress.

In the BBC Panorama programme Saddam on the Run witnesses were found for these and other later events (see Note 15).Escape and capture Escape As the US forces were occupying the Republican Palace and other central landmarks and ministries on April 9. the former Information Minister who struggled to know what was actually happening after the US captured Baghdad International Airport. unfortunately. The walkabout was captured on film and broadcast several days after the event on Al-Arabiya Television and was also witnessed by ordinary people who corroborated the date afterwards. We moved in small cars. Missiles were falling on my left and my right . and realising that Baghdad was lost. We “ were told to get in. Raghad Hussein stated in an interview for Panorama: After about midday my Dad sent cars from his private collection for us. His wife Sajida Talfah and youngest daughter Hala had already left Iraq several weeks prior. ” (Attributed to Raghad Hussein) Then according to the testimony of a former bodyguard Saddam Hussein dismissed almost his entire staff: . He was accompanied by bodyguards and other loyal supporters including at least one of his sons and his personal secretary. As the Americans closed in. Saddam arranged for cars to collect his eldest daughters Raghad and Rana and drive them to Syria. I saw with my own eyes the [Iraqi] army withdrawing and the terrified faces of the Iraqi soldiers who. This version of events is supported by Muhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf.they were not more than fifty or one hundred meters away. There was a lot of confusion between Iraqi commanders in different sectors of the capital and communication between them and Saddam and between Saddam and his family were becoming increasingly difficult. The Americans had meanwhile started receiving rumours that Saddam was in Al A'Zamiyah and at dawn on April 10 they dispatched three companies of US Marines to capture or kill him. After the walk about Saddam returned to his bunker and made preparations for his family. I had a gun between my feet just in case. Saddam Hussein emerged from his command bunker beneath the Al A'Zamiyah district of northern Baghdad and greeted excited members of the local public. We had almost lost contact with my father and brothers because things had got out of hand. According to his eldest daughter Raghad Hussein he was by this point aware of the "betrayal" of a number of key figures involved in the defence of Baghdad. were running away and looking around them.

but extensive efforts to find him had little effect. One of these couriers was reported to have been his own nephew. How close he came to being captured during this period may never be made public. Ayad Allawi in interview stated that Saddam stayed in the Dialah bunker for three weeks as Baghdad and the rest of Iraq were occupied by US forces. Sometime in the middle of May he moved to the countryside around his home town of Tikrit. Why should we go? But he insisted. In June in a joint raid by special operations forces and the 1st Battalion. A series of audio tapes claiming to be from Saddam were released at various times. list of most-wanted Iraqis.S. There were numerous sightings of him in Beiji. In July 2003 in an engagement with U. the former president actually went to the grave himself on the evening of the funeral: • "After the funeral people saw Saddam Hussein visiting the graves with a group of his protectors. Safe houses and family homes were raided as soon as any tip came in that someone in Saddam's circle might be in the area. 22nd Infantry Regiment of 1st Brigade. he was definitely broken. each of you go to your homes. However. ” (Attributed to an anonymous former bodyguard) After this he changed out of his uniform and with only two bodyguards to guard him. “ We said: Sir. left Baghdad in a plain white Oldsmobile and made his way to a specially prepared bunker in Dialah on the northern outskirts of the city. He [Saddam] was trying not to show his feelings. forces after a tip-off from an Iraqi informant Saddam's sons were cornered in a house in Mosul and shot to death. Initially he and his entourage used satellite telephones to communicate with each other. Documents discovered with him enabled intelligence officers to work out who was who in Saddam's circle. No one recognized them and even the car they came in wasn't . The last time I saw him he said: My sons. As this became more risky they resorted to sending couriers with written messages. Manhunts were launched nightly throughout the Sunni triangle. Even his son. Ace of Diamonds and number 4 after Saddam and his sons Uday and Qusay. we want to stay with you. Saddam Hussein was at the top of the U. they captured the former president's personal secretary Abid Hamid Mahmud. but inside. Qusay. He was stressed but he didn't want to destroy the morale of the people who were watching him. although the authenticity of these tapes remains uncertain. their cover was given away when one of the couriers was captured and Saddam was forced to evacuate the Dialah bunker and resorted to changing location every few hours. 4th Infantry Division. Baquba and Tikrit to the north of Baghdad over the next few months as he shuttled between safe houses disguised as a shepherd in a plain taxi. and many of the other leaders of the Iraqi government were arrested.S. was crying a little. According to one of Saddam's bodyguards.

According to US sources it took just a few hours of interrogation for him to crack and betray Saddam. the CIA and Special Forces scoured Iraq for clues. At the grave Saddam read a verse from the Koran and cried. In August the US military released photo-fits of how Saddam might be disguising himself in traditional garb. 22nd Infantry Regiment in Tikrit and Auja. Meanwhile some Sunni Muslims showed their support for Saddam. Once more the trail was growing colder. By the early autumn the Pentagon had also formed a secret unit – Taskforce 121. He cried for his sons. The raids and arrests of people known to be close to the former President drove him deeper underground. 4th Infantry Division) together with US Special Operations Forces launched Operation Red Dawn and under cover of darkness made for the village of Ad-Dawr on the outskirts of Tikrit. Within hours Colonel James Hickey (1st Brigade. It appears Mohamed had taken control of Saddam on the run. had the cemetery heavily guarded. There were flags on the grave. even without his signature moustache. These flags now reside at the National Infantry Museum at Fort Benning. On December 12 Mohamed Ibrahim Omar al-Musslit was unexpectedly captured in Baghdad. Protests erupted in several towns in the Sunni triangle. After he finished reading. 22nd Infantry Regiment in Tikrit. By the beginning of November Saddam was under siege. Mohamed had been a key figure in the President's special security organization. . likely resulted to explain the missing flags." [citation needed] This story. spotted. the only person who knew where he was from hour to hour and who was with him. The flags were removed by US forces to prevent his sons being honored as martyrs. Georgia. His home town and powerbase were surrounded and his faithful bodyguards targeted and then arrested one by one by the Americans. however. hair died grey. The informer had told US forces the former president would be in one of two groups of buildings on a farm codenamed Wolverine 1 and Wolverine 2. His cousin Adnan had been captured in July by the 1st Battalion. The commander of the 1st Battalion. he took the flags and left. Using electronic surveillance and undercover agents. where the sons were buried.

Capture Saddam Hussein shortly after his capture After his capture. the U. and by British prime minister Tony Blair. citing Kurdish leader Jalal Talabani. in an underground "spider hole" at a farmhouse in ad-Dawr near his home town Tikrit." — to which an American soldier replied: "The President of The United States sends his regards. civil administrator in Iraq. by U.S. shortly afterwards.[27] During the arrest Hussein reportedly said: "I am the President of Iraq. in what was called Operation Red Dawn. the Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA) of Iran first reported that Saddam Hussein had been arrested. These reports were soon confirmed by other members of the Iraq Interim Governing Council. "Ladies and gentlemen.S."[20] . we got him. 2003. In a press conference in Baghdad. On December 13. military sources. the US military had Hussein's beard shaven to confirm his identity. Paul Bremer. Iraqi time on December 13. formally announced the capture of Saddam Hussein by saying." Bremer reported that Saddam had been captured at approximately 8:30 p.m.

At this base he was paraded before jubilant US soldiers and a series of photographs were taken. He was taken by a military HMMWV vehicle to a waiting helicopter and then flown to the US base located in and adjacent to one of his former palaces in Tikrit.Bremer presented video footage of Saddam in custody. Here he was photographed officially and had his long beard shaved. but that the details of his trial had not yet been determined. Saddam Hussein was shown with a full beard and hair longer and curlier than his familiar appearance. He was described as being in good health and as "talkative and co-operative".[citation needed] . claiming to have been a "firm but just ruler". His identity was later reportedly confirmed by DNA testing. Saddam Hussein was shown on a Department of Defense video on Al-Jazeera receiving a medical examination. which a barber later restored.[citation needed] After a brief pause he was loaded onto another helicopter and flown to the main US base at Baghdad International Airport and transferred to the Camp Cropper facility. Bremer said that Saddam would be tried. Incarceration According to US military sources. The next day he was visited in his cell by members of the Iraqi Governing Council including Ahmed Chalabi and Adnan Pachachi. It is believed that he has stayed at this high security location for the majority of time since his capture. immediately after his capture on December 13 Saddam was hooded and his hands were bound. There were rumours that he was flown out of Iraq during a dangerous upsurge in the insurgency during 2004 but this now seems unlikely. Later it emerged that the tip-off which led to his capture came from a detainee under interrogation. Details of his interrogation are unknown. Shortly after his capture. Members of the Governing Council who spoke with Saddam after his capture reported that he was unrepentant.

2006. Saddam Hussein (held in custody by U. Adel al-Zubeidi a defense attorney during the Hussein Trials on the legal team representing Taha Yassin Ramadan was killed. and genocide. • On July 1. Saddam was charged by the Special Tribunal with the first of an expected series of charges. The judge turned off Saddam's microphone and closed the trial to the public in response. Chief Judge Rizgar Mohammed Amin adjourned the trial until December 5 to allow time to find replacements for two defense lawyers who were slain and another who fled Iraq after he was wounded. and 11 senior Ba'athist officials were handed over legally[citation needed] (though not physically) to the interim Iraqi government to stand trial for war crimes. the lawyers walked out. 2005.S. forces the previous December.Trials Main article: Trial of Saddam Hussein • On June 30. On the stand.[22] . Rauf Rashid Abd al-Rahman was nominated interim chief judge of the tribunal. he made several political statements. Broadcast later on Arabic and Western television networks. • On November 28. saying he was still President of Iraq and calling on Iraqis to stop fighting each other and instead fight American troops. • On November 8. crimes against humanity. 2005. Particular attention will be paid to his activities in violent campaigns against the Kurds in the north during the Iran-Iraq War. and Saddam told the judge to "Go to hell. forces at Camp Cropper in Baghdad). relating to the mass killings of the inhabitants of the village of Dujail in 1982 after a failed assassination attempt against him. • On August 8. Hussein and his lawyers vehemently opposed the authority of the court. the family announced that the legal team had been dissolved and that the only Iraq-based member. • On December 5. 2005 and December 6." • On January 23. the first legal hearing in Saddam's case was held before the Iraqi Special Tribunal.S. also a Kurd. 2006. and against the Shiites in the south in 1991 and 1999 to put down revolts. • On July 18. • On March 15.[21] He replaced former chief judge Rizgar Amin. 2005. had been made sole legal counsel. Khalil al-Duleimi. 2004. who resigned after complaining of government interference. 2004. it was his first appearance in footage aired around the world since his capture by U. 2005. Saddam was called by the prosecution as a witness. 2005.

[23] Hussein began a hunger strike in protest to the assassination. 2006. a Shiite Arab. When the judge announced the verdict. • On June 21. the chief defense attorney for Hussein and his brothers. By July 23. 2006."[27] Iraqi law requires executions to take place within 30 days of the end of the appeal process." Demands from Kurdish and Shiite officials for his removal followed. would be next spring. Long live the Iraqi people! Down with the traitors!"[25][26] According to the New York Times. he was taken to the hospital and force-fed by tube. The court argued again that the verdict must be implemented "within 30 days.[citation needed] • On July 13. Saddam as he is being sentenced • On November 5. • On September 15. al-Amiri's court deputy and also a Shiite Arab. Saddam shouted "God is great!" and "Long live Iraq. 2006. Saddam Hussein was found guilty of crimes against humanity in ordering the deaths of 148 Shi'ite villagers in the town of Dujail in 1982 and sentenced to death by hanging. Iraq's highest appeals court upheld Saddam's verdict and sentence. however it also forbids the executions of people aged over 70 years old. replaced al-Amiri as a chief judge. "You were not a dictator. the judge already had rejected prosecution demands that he step down for allegedly favoring the defense. was kidnapped and killed. 2006. leaving the former leader with few if any options. 2006. 2006. [28] • On December 26. the age Saddam Hussein would have attained on 28 April 2007." according to chief . His half brother and the judge at the trial of the original case in 1982 were also convicted of similar charges. There is no time limit for the appeal court's review. Saddam Hussein's verdict and sentence would "come under review by the nine-judge appellate chamber of the trial court. assuming it stood up to review.[24] He later claimed this to have been against his will. told the ex-president. but Iraqi and American officials who work with the court said that the earliest realistic date for Saddam Hussein's execution. which he quit by June 23. The chief judge Abdullah al-Amiri. Khamis al-Obeidi. He was soon replaced by Mohammed al-Uraibiy. it was reported that Saddam and "other former regime members" had begun another hunger strike on July 7 to protest the lack of fairness in their trial including the murder of defense lawyer Khamis al-Obeidi.

S. 2007). Iraqi execution personnel said they wanted to execute Hussein before the start of Eid ul-Adha the evening of December 30. any day could be the day of implementation.[30] ." Noting that "Iraqi law requires executions to take place within 30 days of the end of the appeal process. Iraqis requested the transfer of Hussein from the U. "From tomorrow."[29] • On December 28. (The 30th day is January 26. Military to Iraqi jurisdiction for the execution in the following 48 hours. 2006. judge Aref Shahin.

2006 at 6:05am local time (0305 UTC).[28] Hussein's half-brother Barzan Hassan and former chief justice of the Revolutionary Court Awad Bandar were also hanged. according to Al-Arabiya.[31] CNN reported that Shiite Muslims danced and chanted around his body after execution. The media reported of rumors that Saddam might not have been executed.Execution Main article: Execution of Saddam Hussein The execution of Hussein occurred on December 30. .

2003 • Prime Minister of the Republic of Iraq (various non-continuous dates) • Head of the Revolutionary Command Council 1979 .Government positions held by Saddam Hussein • Head of Security (Mukhabarat) 1963 • Vice President of the Republic of Iraq 1968 .2003 .1979 • President of the Republic of Iraq 1979 .