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MARKING SCHEME : CARBON COMPOUND

Activity
1

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Answer
6
saturated ;
7
saturated hydrocarbon
8
unsaturated hydrocarbon
9
petroleum
10 carbon dioxide ; water

carbon
organic ; inorganic
inorganic
Hydrogen ; carbon
nonhydrocarbon

a)

Refer to Form 5 text book page 37

b)

the relative molecular mass ; increase. Van Der Waals ; overcome

c)

molecules. ; freely

d)

(i) 2 C2H6 (g) + 7O2 (g)


(ii) C3H8 (g) + 5O2 (g)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

4CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)


3CO2 (g) + 4H2O (l)

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4
4
single covalent
methane
Cn H2n+2 n= 1,2,3.
refer to F5 textbook page 37
neutral
carbon dioxide , water
sooty
chlorine , bromine
- ane

Refer to F5 textbook page 39 -41

a)
b)

a) i)
ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Refer to F5 textbook page 45


i) unsaturated
ii) ene , Cn H2n n=1,2,3
iii)
low , increases
iv)
low
v)
immiscible, soluble
vi)
cannot
vii)
sooty , higher
viii)
more , double
ix)
bromine , potassium manganate(VII)
x)
polymerization
ethene
propene
but-1,3-diene
3-methylbut-1-ene

v)
vi)
vii)
viii)

chloroethene
2-methylpropene
1-chloropropene
but-2-ene

b) refer to F5 textbook page 55-56


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Refer to F5 textbook page 49 - change ethene to propene

a) Hexene burns with a yellow and a very sooty flame


Hexene decolorizes reddish- brown bromine
Hexene decolorizes purple acidified potassium manganate (VII)
solution
b) Hexane = 83.72 % ;

Hexene = 85.71 %

Hexane can be a good fuel because the percentage of carbon is low hence
produce less soot.
c) * cannot dissolve in water
* cannot conduct electricity
* low melting and boiling point
* neutral
* Produse CO2 and water when burnt in oxygen
d) - Alkene produce more soot - alkane produce less soot
- Alkene decolorized bromine water alkane colour unchange
- Alkene decolourized the purple colour of acidified KMnO4 solution Alkane does not change the purple colour.
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a) i) isomerisme
(ii)
iv) ethane and propene

Isomer
iii) alkyl group
v) butane

b i) 3 isomers : but-1-ene ; but-2-ene ; 2-methylpropene


ii) 2 isomers : butane ; 2-methylpropane
iii) 3 isomers ; pentane ; 2-methylbutane ; 2,2-dimethylpropane
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a)

i) hydroxyl / -OH
ii) Cn H2n+1OH
n, 1,2,3,3
iii)
Higher ; OH/hydroxyl
iv)
stronger,

v)
vi)
vii)
Viii)

molecular mass
alkene
solvents, cosmetics
non hydrocarbon / carbon / organic

b) i) methanol
ii) ethanol
iii) propan-1-ol
iv), v) vi) refer to F5 textbook page 56
c) (i) propan-1-ol ; propan-2-ol
(ii) butan-1-ol ;
butan-2-ol ;
2-methylpropan-2-ol
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2-methylpropan-1-ol;

a)
Physical
properties
Physical state at room
temperature
Smell and colour

Description
First 12 alcohols are liquid at room
temperature
Alcohols are colourless and has a pleasant
smell

Solubility in water

First three alcohols are very soluble in water


( miscible in all proportions)

Volatility

Alcohols are volatile

Boiling point

Boling point alcohols are higher than the


alkanes with the same number of carbon.
As the size of molecules increases ,the
boiling point of alcohols increases.

b) (i)

yeast released biological enzymes, zymase. Zymase decomposes


glucose to form ethanol and carbon dioxide.

(ii) Chemical equation : C6 H12 O6 (aq) 2CH3 CH2 OH(aq) + 2CO2 (g


(iii)
Temperature : 18-20 0 C
Catalyst
: yeast (zymase)
Other condition : absence of oxygen
(iv) Disadvantage : The yeast dies and the fermentation process stop
when the concentration of ethanol formed reaches about 15%. Hence
it is impossible to get pure ethanol
c) (i)

C2 H 4 (g) +

(ii) temperature
Pressure
Catalyst
12

a) 1

H2O (g)

CH3CH2OH (g)

: 3000 C
: 60 atm
: phosphoric acid.

In excess oxygen
In limited oxygen

: Carbon dioxide and water


: Carbon, carbon monoxide and water

2 Oxidation of ethanol : Ethanoic acid and water


Oxidation of propanol : Propanoic acid and water
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b)

Set of apparatus : refer to F5 practical book


1.T
2T
3.F
4T
5T

6
7
8
9
10

F
T
F
T
T

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an organic acid with carboxyl
group COOH ( )

Uses :
- food preservative ( benzoic
acid)
- food flavouring
- ethanoic acid and methanoic
acid are used to coagulate
latex in rubber industry
- making ester and soft drinks

General formula
CnH2n + 1 COOH

CARBOXYLIC
ACIDS

Ethanoic acid normally prepared


by oxidation of an alcohol
Ethanoic acid
- colourless liquid at room
conditions.
has sharp and pungent smell.
boiling point 118o C
soluble in water
pH 3 - 4

weak acid and names end with


oic acid . Eg. ethanoic acid.

b)
Methanoic acid

Ethanoic acid

O
O
H
II
I
H - C C - OH

II
H C - OH

I
H
Propanoic acid

Butanoic acid

O
H H
I
I
II
H - C - C C - OH
I
H

H H
I
I
H - C - CI
I
H
H

I
H

2-methylbutanoic acid
H
H O
H
II
I
I
I
H - C - C - C C - OH
I
I
I
H H CH
3

O
H
II
I
C C - OH
I
H

Methyl propanaoic acid


O
H H
II
I I
H - C - C C - OH
I I
H CH
3

c) i) General formula
ii) 60
iii) ethanoic acid

: CnH2n + 1 COOH

O
H
II
I
H - C C - OH
I
H
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a) hydration ; oxidation
b) refer to F5 textbook page 71
c)
Observation
1
The metal carbonate dissolves,
Efferverscence occurs
Gas turns lime water cloudy
2

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Magnesium dissolves
Bubbles of gas given off
Gas burns with a pop sound

Inferrence
Carbon
released

dioxide

gas

Hydrogen gas released

The black powder dissolves to


form a blue solution.
Blue solution shows the
presence of Cu2+

A colourless oily layer floats on Ester is formed,


the water and gives pleasant ethyl ethanoate
smell.

a)
Formula
HCOOC2H5

Name
Ethyl mathanoate

Carboxylic acid
Methanoic acid

Alcohol
Ethanol

a) CH3 COOCH3

Methyl ethanoate

Ethanoic acid

Methanol

b) CH3 COOC3H7

Propyl ethanoate

Ethanoic acid

propanol

c) C2H5 COOCH3

Methyl

Propanoic acid

Methanol

d) C3 H7COOC3H7

propanoate
Propyl butanoate

Butanoic acid

propanoll

b) i)

methylpropanoate

(ii) ethylbutanoate

(iii)

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prophylethanoat

a)
Ester is a nonhydrocarbon organic
compound

product of an esterification
reaction between a carboxylic
acid and an alcohol.

contain carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen

the functional
group is COOor carboxylate
group

ESTERS
The general formula is
CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1

uses of ester,
as food flavouring
to pleasant aromas for
making perfumes
as organic solvents for
glue, varnish and paint

found in flowers and fruits.


The fragrance of flowers
and fruits is due to the
presence of esters

the name of an ester consists of two


words. The first word originates from
alcohols, the second is from the
carboxylic acids. All of them end with oate

b) i) bananas

(ii) oranges

- esters are colourless liquids


- sweet and fruity smell
- volatile, insoluble
- less dense than water

(iii) pineapples

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18

a) i) alcohol
b)

ii) alkene

iii)

I)

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

lipid
ester
glycerol , fatty acids
solid , liquid
carbon
ester link

carboxylic acid

iv) ester

g)
h)
i)
j)

triglycerides
chloroform
energy
saturated, harden , stroke, High blood
pressure, heart attack
k) hydrogenation
l) margarine

II) Comparison of fats and oils


Comparison
Source

Oils

Fats

plants

Animals

Melting point C

< 20 / lower

> 20 / higher

Physical state at room


temperature
Cholesterol content

Liquid

Solid / semi solid

low

high

Examples

Peanut oil, soybean oil

Butter , lard

Molecular structure

Contain a high
percentage of
unsaturated carboxylic
acid

Contain a high
percentage of saturated
carboxylic acid

III) Similarities
In terms of
Molecular formula

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similarities

Type of compound

The molecules contain of elements carbon, hydrogen


and oxygen
They are naturally occurring esters

Type of bond

They are big covalent molecules.

a)
Sterilisation - The fresh fruit bunches are sterilized is large pressure vessels at
140o C for 60-90 min. The heat from the steam kills fungus and bacteria

Stripping - The oil palm fruit is separated from the bunch


Digestion - Breaking down the oil-bearing cells. Crush the palm oil fruits
Pressing - hydraulic press is used to press out as much oil as possible
Purification - The mixture is filtered to remove solid or coarse fibre and allow to
settle in an a large clarification tank. The oil is skimmed off and dried in a
vacuum drier.
b) State 5 benefits of palm oil compared to other vegetable oils
i) rich in vitamin A and E
ii) stable at high temperature
iii) cholesterol free and can lower the cholesterol level
iv) easily absorbed and digested by our body
v) cheap.

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(a )
(i) -Bacteria from the air slowly attack the protein on the membrane of the
colloidal particles to produce lactic acids.
-ionisation of lactic acids produce hydrogen ions, H+
-H+ ions from the acids neutralize the negatively charged membranes of
the bcolloidal particles. Repelling forces between colloidal particles
disappear.
-collisions of these neutral particles cause their membranes to break up,
rubber polymers are set free.
-the free rubber polymers combine together to form large lumps.
(ii)
- Positively charged H+ ions from the acids neutralise the negatively
charged membranes of the colloidal particles. Repelling forces between
colloidal particles disappear.
-collisions of these neutral particles cause their membranes to break up,
rubber polymers are set free.
-The free rubber polymers combine together to form large lumps.
(iii )
-Hydroxide ions, OH- from the aqueous ammonia solution neutralise the
lactic acids produced by the bacteria in the latex.
-the negatively charged on the membrane of the colloidal particles
remain.
-the repelling forces between the particles keep them apart.
-no coagulation of latex occurs

(b)
Aspect
Structure
Oxidation
Resistance of heat
Strengh
Elasticity

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Unvulcanised rubber
More C=C- bonds in
rubber molecule
Easily oxidised
Non-resistant
Easily melt and
decomposed
Soft and easily
changes shape
Less elastic
Easily stretched but
difficult to return to its
original shape

Vulcanised rubber
Less C=C bonds
Resist oxidation
More resistance
stronger
More elastic
Difficult to be stretched
but readily returns to
its original shape

(a) 1,2-dibromopropane
(b) (i) Propene gas and acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution
(ii) C3H6 + (O) + H2O C3H6(OH)2
(c) (i) Hydrogenation

(ii) Nickel

(d) (i) A mixture propane gas (C3H8) and chlorine gas (Cl2) is exposed to
ultraviolet light.
(ii) Steamy fumes are produced.
(e)

(f) (i)
(g)

Polymerisation

(ii) To make plastic bottles

% of carbon by mass in C3H6 12(3) = 85.71%


12(3) + 1(6) % of carbon by mass in C3H8 12(3) = 81.82%
12(3) + 1(8) % of carbon by mass in C3H6 is higher than that in C3H8.
Hence, C3H6 burns with a sootier flame than C3H8.

2 (a)

CnH2n + 2

; n = 1, 2, 3, .....

(b)

carbon-carbon double bond // - C = C

carboxyl group //

- COOH

(c)

(d) (i) Butyl propanoate


(ii) Sweet / pleasant /fragrance / fruity smell
(e) C4H8 + 6O2 4CO2 + 4H2O
mol A = 11.2 // 0.2
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mol CO2 = 4 x 0.2 // 0.8
No of molecule CO2 = 0.8 x 6.02 x 1023 // 4.816 x 1023

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