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livelihoods today and tomorrow

February 2009

Next Generation Leaders? - 10

Street Side Hotel Value Chain - 18

Sectors Manifesto - 22

Invite Change! Welcome to hope for change!

We are going ahead taking the economic recession in our stride.
Republic Day! ‘Do not forget’ says President! ‘There is no moment when we can not serve’ says Gandhiji! Elections are
coming. Election Code may start on 20 February itself.
Migration is an integral part of development process in history. Human race has been in migration from the age of
hunter-gatherer, searching opportunities, accessing the opportunities so found, fulfilling the needs and desires. As
human being moved from hunting to slash and burn agriculture to stable agriculture, from survival to prosperity and loss
of value to survival-based occupations, to classifying people based on occupations, in stead of communities, individuals,
families and groups began migrating going after opportunities and in search of wealth and prosperity, For education, for
jobs, for business, for luck, for treasure, for new recognition, and may be for salvation. All these are still ‘pull’ factors!
With the same reasons, Britishers came and gradually became rulers and finally exited by transferring power back to us.
Started small initially, the push migrations of the poor have become huge, with no work or not finding work, with less
number of work days, with lower wages, with going hungry with inability to buy and have food, with inability to meet the
basic needs. They are migrating as individuals, individual families and groups, making the children to leave schools,
leaving the elders to their fate. These are in large numbers – one out of ten in the country and include labour, market-
less skilled artisans turned into labour, uncultivated landed small and marginal farmers, tribals, fishermen etc., with
existence more difficult than hand-to-mouth despite forests and other resources. A good quarter of them migrate as they
dislike traditional occupations and unnecessary egos. Some migrate permanently, some long-term, some short-term,
some seasonally, some weekly and some daily. Migration has become necessary, inevitable, but with innumerable
hardships. Nobody likes it but there is no other way. In this context, it is the second sector looked into by ‘livelihoods’.
In the context of elections to Lok Sabha and some Legislative Assemblies in April/May, the ‘people’s manifesto’ is
further reflected upon through the lenses of the labor, artisans, farmers within the poor, with a hope that they find their
way into the common minimum program of the next government(s) at Union and State levels. ‘livelihoods’ compliments
all the associates of the poor making efforts in this direction!
Dr B D Sharma is the national coordinator of Bharat Jana Andolan. An inspiration to movements for tribal rights. A rare
and complete role model for the development workers living with and for poor. Aajeevika Bureau of Udaipur, Rajasthan
has become an example of a promising initiative towards bettering the conditions of the migrants. Adhikar’s Shramik
Sahajoga Project is helping the migrants in remitting the money home. A replicable effort. Dr Anil Gupta, founder ‘Shristi’
and founder vice-chair – National Innovation Foundation has been helping in searching, popularizing and
commercializing grassroots innovators and innovations all over the country and outside. A professor with a difference!
If we do not listen to ‘Voices of the Poor’, we will become the development workers who do not value the words of the
poor! It can not be skipped.
In the journey of India and the world with hope of change, ‘livelihoods’ is making an effort to be a candle light. With the
faith that this association of yours continues in this effort, I remain.

G. Muralidhar
the ‘livelihoods’ team

2 livelihoods February 2009

Inside ...

‘livelihoods’ team World Development Report 2009: Reshaping 7
Editor in Chief G Muralidhar
Economic Geography
Cover Story 12
Senior Editor T Nirmala

Working Editor K Bharathi MIGRATION
Migration is emerging as a significant part of the livelihood
Edit Associates G Bhargava portfolio for the poor. Income from migration has become more
significant for the poorest areas of the country. Recognizing that
B Madhusudhan migration is every individual’s choice, ‘livelihoods’ team attempts
to understand the patterns, trends and issues around migration.
V Muralidhar
People’s Sector-specific Manifestos 2009-14 22
M Vijaybhasker Srinivas
Interim Budget Highlights 2009-10 25
Cartoonist G Dayanand
Paying Volunteers at Grassroots 27

Response 4

News 5
Legend Merged in Tribal Cause - B D Sharma 8

Intervention Remitting Money - The Sharamik Sahajoga Way 9
Perspectives Next Generation Leaders? 10
For Private Circulation only
Interview These Problems Should End With Us... 17
Value Chain Street Side Hotel (Tiffin Centre) 18
Organization Ajeevika Bureau 20

Policy The Unorganized Sector Worker’s Social Security 26
The Contrasts Retaining Ground! 28
Losing Relevance! 28
Worker Friend of Grassroots Innovators, Anil Gupta 29
For enquiries contact: Books Voices Of The Poor - Crying Out For Change 30
AKSHARA Network for Development
Support Services, Resources Ways to Support Volunteerism 31
HIG II B-25 F-6, APHB Colony, Story Brahma Face To Face With Brahma 32
Baghlingampally, Hyderabad - 500044
Trends Productivity Deficit In India 33
Mobile: 09347802302
Case studies Jarnappa - Planned Out of Poverty! 34
Ill Health Brings Down Krishtappa!
‘Yoga’kshemam 35
February 2009 livelihoods 3

social. I had been through the contents of Prof. email or mail it to us. it is . belief. Baghlingampally. It is the biggest. If it contains pictures or files please remember to attach them to the email. India 500 044. WE. It has helped me a lot in Even at this juncture of turmoil. stupendous task to devote ourselves to such noble cause. expression. do. 4 livelihoods February 2009 . having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens JUSTICE . economic and political LIBERTY of thought. If your article is accepted an editor will prepare the article for publication and may edit it for accuracy. THE PEOPLE OF INDIA. APHB Colony. who engaged tirelessly for the betterment of the " Vasudaiva -Kutumbakam". HERE BY ADOPT. email. faith and worship EQUALITY of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of individual and the unity and integrity of the nation IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY the twenty-sixth day of November. please include “livelihoods Contribution” in the subject line . it is wonderful. grammar. of the present and future. Response Thanks for continuously updating me on the major livelihoods. and livelihoods Issues since long back. Mailing address is: HIG-II Block 25 Flat 6. ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.Mohammed Mujahid Ali the newsletter. and length. location (nation) and area of expertise. lively and bright. Email address is akshara@aksharakriti. Livelihoods team had been shouldering to really make the Contributions Solicited If you would like to contribute an article or have something interesting to share. HYDERABAD. Please include your name. style. 1949. women across the world. God had chosen some wonderful men and of rural India. the core and grassroots work. moral turpitude and gross developing Livelihood Perspective corruption. Hats Off !!! to Ritesh such people who are the Game-Changers and Change Agents as well. contact information such as phone .

Nearly two-thirds of the world’s Day. the global Isabel Guerrero. In sub-Saharan Africa. The union The current global economic crisis is India. The government Freedom For Cooperatives – The Agricultural Organization (FAO) figures.5 billion. conflict. This is a Rs.The Virtual Asia region.4700 crore hunger has reached 963 million Sunderlal Bhahuguna was honored project to provide online educational worldwide. Follower of facilitate interaction with professors. students or any interested individuals/ Economic Management Unit. the Bahuguna fought institutions of higher learning and the Democratic Republic of Congo. hungry live in Asia (583 million in Gandhi’s access to virtual laboratories and e- 2007). 973 million Zagha as the new services have been utilized for constitute the undernourished category. cooperative institutions.1 billion. satyagraha. While the prices of major with Padma Vibhushan. in Asia: According to recent Food and long term policy. the mission is expected to are chronically hungry. it will nominate 2008 as a Resources Development launched one person as its representative. they still civilian award on and satellite connectivity for e- remain high compared to previous the 60th Republic classrooms will be provided. The total number Padma Vibhushan For Bahuguna – Information and Communication of people suffering malnutrition and One of India’s early environmentalists’ Technology. country director for additional contingency work. on the International Conference On Food His famous slogan is “Ecology is heels of the food price crisis and oil Security – The International permanent economy”. one in philosophy of books through Sakshat web portal. Bank’s vice-president for the South for Anganwadi workers detailing their Virtual Resource Center . Brazilian national. would spell out the areas of work in the Jansankhya Sthirata Kosh helps president in the Poverty Reduction and Anganwadi centers. A manual will also be published financial crisis or climate change. According bringing pressure on the government to levels. spends Rs. as a tirelessly for the union government will bear 75% of the result of widespread and persistent preservation of forest of the Himalayas connectivity charge for 5 years. India was Bridge Course For AIDS-Affected institutions to access and contribute the largest International Development Children – Under Sarva Siksha information to the center about gender. The manual Resource Center initiated by the senior advisor to the bank’s vice. the practice of nominating officials and million people food and medicines in association with non-official members to taluk-level pushed into the Anti-Retro Viral Therapy Centers.10000 on each of these state government of Karnataka will end another 40 children per year towards education. Zagha was previously rights and responsibilities. Under this mission. could further Conference on Food Security was held behind the anti-Tehri dam protests exacerbate malnutrition and hunger in Spain in January this year. terrestrial from their peak in 2008. Association (IDA) borrower from the Abhiyan 276 AIDS-affected children maternal and infant health. have been admitted to residential health and birth-related issues. impact of the economic crisis. Zagha. pushed an additional 40 million people He undertook 74 days fast at Raj Ghat. To three people — or 236 million (2007) — non-violence and being with. poster and Two-Thirds of the World Hungry live decided to continue this measure as a photographs. This will years. The state government in the form of films. February 2009 livelihoods 5 . Anganwadi workers will have crisis did not receive the same attention position from January 1. a government is also considering job making it hard for farmers to get loans. The Bank’s $15. portfolio in the country covers 61 active bridge course schools in 2008-2009 in Students can access advocacy material investment projects. Sunderlal was price increases. News World Bank’s New Country Director More For Anganwadi Workers – The into hunger in 2008 and global food for India: The union government has notified the state production must double by 2050 to World Bank has governments to pay extra wages to avoid mass hunger. At the district poverty and National Education Mission level cooperative institutions where the hunger in Launched – The Ministry of Human government has shares. Of the total world appointed Roberto Anganwadi workers where their population of 6. The FAO predicts that the as a leader of the Chipko movement. who is now the World badge. adolescent bank in 2008. replacing uniforms in six different colors with a as the fight against AIDS. to the head of the FAO food crisis review ecological impacts of the dam. Andhra Pradesh. security and other welfare measures for The conference stated that hunger started in his new them. the country’s content to the remotest part of the cereals have fallen by more than 50% second highest country. provide network connectivity to 10000 Most of the increase in the number of Sunderlal university departments and 20000 hungry occurred in a single country. result of National Mission on Education through spiraling food prices.

government as well as private hospitals eligible for a monthly pension of Infrastructure is the biggest variable for serious ailments. 40% of the program in 100 districts across the institutional bottlenecks appear to be world’s child country on a pilot basis.500. crop but is worth less than the wool in environment. insurance cover indicators of cost Nadu – The state government of Tamil for members of self-help groups and and subjective Nadu launched the Chief Minister’s scholarships for their children. a decent accidental death of the owner. to instill courage among the workers by Year of Natural Fibres 2009.N Food and Agriculture in an event held at Delhi recently on awareness among the community and Organization launched the International employment guarantee scheme. The aim is providing them community support. Along with Dr Ajaria agricultural Investment Climate – According to Dr Meena K. animal is insured and Rs. biggest constraint in that category. the CBOs also teach them farmers’ incomes. The biggest crop is infrastructure and institutions were employment and also urban cotton. Haryana. 1 lakh in respect for the rights of women and case of two in the event of the NREGS Awards For Best children. of India 2009. The pension aspect of the distinguishing between the best and get up to Rs. Implementing Districts: Kurnool and standard of living. quality education. The Child Marraiges In India – According Cattle Insurance Scheme – The union second most important constraint is to UNICEF latest report – ‘State of the government will launch cattle insurance transportation. Each family can Rs. 30 million tons of natural fibres are 46 variables grouped into three This trend is attributed to increase in harvested from animals and plants categories including inputs.50000 if one to averting this situation requires and fourth places respectively. discrimination and Sex Workers Spread AIDS are nominated for awards for National violence and empowerment of women. The aim of the corruption. The awards were declared roping in sex workers to spread – The U. the preference for non-farm around the globe. about $40 Kerala in the second place. This indicators of Insurance Scheme for Life Saving program is launched by Andhra perception were Treatments. crime and tax regulations. including the assurance is a three-in-one program objective Health Insurance Scheme In Tamil that provides pension. exploitation. Index with electricity being the single the entire premium. Jain of Karnataka. Kerala is in second place. Dr Ajaria social stigma.In the Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme state of Andhra Pradesh. jute are India and Bangladesh. Jute is the second biggest fibre used to describe the business employment. While claims for death of high infant and Puducheri stands first in primary animals due to diseases or accidents maternal education. resulting in Primary Education: According to the The cattle owners can insure their gender National University of Educational animals for one or three year period discrimination. the scheme mortality rates. protection from Chittoor districts of Andhra Pradesh abuse. Planning and Administration 2007- with the government subsidizing half of illiteracy and 2008 Education Development Index. would be reimbursed. According to FAO Award 2008 from the Ministry of how to fight off excesses and combat the production of animal and vegetable Women and Child Welfare.1 lakh worth of free scheme is expected to cover at least worst states on the Investment Climate treatment. This scheme will enable Pradesh state government. Karnataka tops the list with received this award. Maharashtra and Delhi. The government will bear 1. hand of re. Andhra Pradesh.Dr to emphasize the value of fibres to Apart from educating about safer sec Ajaria Korabandi of Andhra Pradesh consumers and also to help sustain got Rajiv Gandhi Human Service practices. sector and World Bank’s Investment Climate Mahesh Bai S.News Abhaya Hastham For SHGs – terms of cash. 50% of the Indian the world’s farmers. Kothari of Gujarat also is worth Index. All SHG identified for the poor to get treatment in members attaining 60 years of age is each category. Awareness Through CBOs . Rajiv Gandhi Award to Dr Ajaria . population will be in the cities by 2030. The main producers of dimensions ‘Abhaya Hastham’. fibres is a strived for the welfare of poor and major WB Ranks Karnataka First In orphan children.25 crore members. According to the report Lakshadweep and Delhi are in third envisages payment of Rs. Tamil Nadu 50% Indians In Cities By 2030 - billion comes in the 9th place and is above According to the Urban Poverty Report annually to Gujarat. the CBOs are International Year Of Natural Fibres (NREGS). marriages take scheme is to extend support to farmers place in India Puducheri Bags First Position In to insure their high quality milch cattle. For each category two 6 livelihoods February 2009 . the premium. Every year about West Bengal. The most important World’s Children-2009’.

the economies enter world markets to take advantage of people should encourage to migrate to places doing eco- scale and specialization. producers especially agro- The Report’s. The drivers for these transformations are the poor live in poor places. Europe are now experiencing these changes. common institu- opportunity can benefit from the growing concentration of tions. As workers and businesses migrate lated in others like India they are densely populated. in that the poor areas. set up. integrat- took place at a noticeable level in developed countries. even people who start their lives far away from economic To make globalization work for all countries. the ing lagging and leading states within a nation. While these changes eas. the report such changes are essential for economic success the rapidly growing urban areas should have connective in- and should be encouraged. nomically well. market forces. migration and specialization and trade. According to While rural areas should be all urban amenities (like PURA). the division between countries be. The way to get both the benefits of appropriate preferential access to world markets should be uneven growth and inclusive development is through eco. regional institutions and where wealth in a few places. At global level developing countries in the East and South Asia and Eastern it can be integrating isolated and well-connected countries.World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography According to the World Development Report 2009. nomic integration. And finally as former case while basic services can be provided across. density. develop. main message is that economic growth will be based can be given incentives to set up establishments in unbalanced. integrating slums and other parts of the cities. India: High Poverty rates and densities go hand in hand February 2009 livelihoods 7 . apart from providing institutions. frastructure so that the benefits of development are more The Report states that people prosper when the changes are widely shared. more mobile people Economic integration can be integrating rural and urban ar- and increasingly specialized products. But development can still be inclusive. Higher densities are seen in While in some countries lagging areas are sparsely popu- the growth of cities. In cases like India were 60 per cent of the comes thinner. infrastructure and basic services. In the closer to density distances become shorter. distance and division. regional infrastructure. Targeted interventions can be made by the promoted along three dimensions of economic geography – governments to deal with slums. ment is characterized by growing cities.

Once the village National Coordinator. receive intensive training in the laws and the Constitution to Mizoram and Meghalaya and worked in that position from enable them to negotiate with the state. interest on the tribal issues continued. He suggested to the Ashok Mehta Committee that the and Dr. although its mass support Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act. he was responsible for the support from sympathetic and supportive individuals. Dr. a retired I. B. It encourages Since 1991. issues for tribals. The Andolan works on Sharma played a very significant role in the Panchayat the issues of peasants and tribals. But Dr B. The entitlements. The meeting was the gram sabha should be given the real powers. He was posted as Collector These contributions vary in form. This meeting was attended by Medha Dr Sharma has been pursuing the Panchayat Acts since Patkar. organization and then starting to spread the ideas. The youth the most enchanting tribal areas including Nagaland.Sharma Dr B. Dr B.D. However. the books written by Dr. its presence is very strong in Ranchi region amended. Dr Sarguja district of Madhya Pradesh.jungle Bharat Jan Andolan (Indian People's Movement) as its aur jamin’ (Water. The trained youth 1981 to 1986. B. gaon. Nagari–Sihawa region in Raipur District and Sabha have become binding on the Gram Panchayat. back the Fifth Schedule. Dr Sharma has been with the tribal people and the people to want ownership of the resources and not is actively participating in tribal movements.D. Sharma. Sharma.S. In line with this thought. In addition to this. officer from Madhya Pradesh cadre. the movement does not accept any organizational Sub–plan strategy. Forest and Land). the ideas. has been raising issues concerning to tribals and is closely associated with the plight of tribals in India. Later due to the pressure built by the of the organization as a peoples’ movement. but most are in dhan and District Magistrate to Bastar district. Training to Chancellor of North Eastern Hill University covering some of the selected youth is given personally by Sharma. Sharma therefore Sharma play a vital role. The Andolan of issues. All the gave up government position. 8 livelihoods February 2009 . George Palli. Bureaucracy they seek legitimacy from the state then their endeavor and often functions antagonistic to people rights and mass movement to delegitimize the state will weaken. merged in the tribal and rural workers volunteer their services and their daily needs are cause fully and joined hands with them to fight for their rights and entitlements.B. Panchayats became the institutions of decentralization through the 73rd Amendment of the Constitution. concerning tribal people. Very often the villagers read the continued to work in the same area and became the Vice books and then invite the Andolan to their areas. The movement coined the slogan ‘jal. While serving in the central government pension to the movement and mobilizes some financial and also state government. He was also instrumental in bringing grants or aid. a ‘shila lekh’ (rock inscription) is made representatives of various peoples’ movements held a at the entrance of the village. to the masses and captures their imagination.Vinayan. hamara raaj’ (Our Village. He is leading the merely a share.A. His writing is simple and focuses on the real is not a registered society because Sharma believes that if issues of the tribals and rural communities. as the vital instrument of policy for Most of the social movements believe in first creating an the very survival of tribal people. Gian Singh 1972. Our rule) is very appealing Thereafter the National Commission was constituted.D. He occupied the highest constitutional position then work as full-time volunteers in assigned villages. the Dr. He is instrumental in the formulation of many tribal policies and also the revolutionary Panchayats Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act. meeting to improve coordination and building alliances on hamara raaj’. which gives legitimacy to the was not clear about its focus. Dr.D.D. as the last commissioner for The idea of ‘gaon ganaraaj’ (village Republic) and ‘hamara Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes during 1986-91.D. doctorate in the same subject. In October 1992. The Act provides space to the community in the legal framework and the most In 1992 Bharat Jan Andolan released its first manifesto but significant clause is 4(d). not the organization. but this was initiative of Bharat Jan Andolan and represents the beginning not accepted. on the national agenda. Sharma is a rare bureaucrat who financial needs of the Andolan are extremely limited. According Dr Sharma resigned from government service in 1981 when to Sharma. Supporters of the year 1956. should reach the differences arose on vital issues of policy. Sharma joined the Indian Administrative Services in taken care of by the village in which they live. However his people first. Sharma contributes his tract of the country. revolutionary act in his opinion. activists and accepts the Andolan. He is basically a student of Mathematics with the Andolan also contribute voluntarily to the movement. After the amendment the decisions of the Gram of Bihar. which proclaims ‘hamara gaon. Pradip Prabhu. the largest tribal (paddy). Out of formulation of tribal policies particularly what is known as principle. However in 1993 when the culture and tradition of local communities. Legend Merged in Tribal Cause . which is the most comes primarily from tribal regions. Sharma writes extensively and on a wide spectrum Andolan focused its energies on tribal self-rule. among others. The movement has a very loose organizational structure and is sporadic in movement the Madhya Pradesh Panchayat Act was nature.

The staff from Adhikar the country as a cheap labour. A very small along with three passport size photos. Majority of these migrants leave their families behind at their villages. In case the bank on which the draft is made does not members is sent twice a week through bank transfers from have a branch in the village.000 transmitted (plus alternatives in few cities were found deficient in several Rs 10 per transmittal for door delivery) is collected from respects particularly safety. Post offices charge a fee of Rs Sahajoga-Gandhidham sends to Shramika Sahajoga-Orissa 50 for every Rs 1. Corporation Bank agreed to provide. The most difficult part of the pockets of Mumbai. in remitting money through the post office too. exclusively to look after remittance services for migrant are likely to have a need for remittance services . This workers. which has very limited scope. are collected orders of the Indian postal department. A receipt signed by the recipient and than a decade in parts of Orissa. Their anxieties therefore. Even if a migrant worker has a bank account and This acts as record as well as receipt for the member. a A number of private money remitters. Lack of employment Gandhidham about the credibility of opportunities forced millions of Oriya Shramika Sahajoga. Although rural–rural migration still dominates there has been a sharp increase in rural-urban migration. At both ends. it field coordinator enters the same details in the Shramika has to be en-cashed at a branch of the same bank in their Sahajoga ledger. with a signature against each entry. Realizing the requirements members. quick. the money gets wing of its organizational frame for the purpose. the draft is useless. bank accounts have been created in the name of Shramika February 2009 livelihoods 9 . who usually work as transmittal fee of Rs 20 for every Rs 1. ‘Adhikar’ is helping the poor migrants of Orissa in ‘Shramika Sahajoga’ way. with banks. Oriya migrant workers get their names registered as The majority of migrant workers who send a part of their members with Shramika Sahajoga. post offices and banks were workers. workers in Gandhidham are from places where the for maintenance purpose. are to organisation has had microfinance operations in place for ensure. In most conducted door-to-door meetings at cases the small savings from earnings Gandhidham. Shramika families back home is typical. In Orissa. details of family members. free of charge. Thus. is sent back from Gandhidham of Gujarat and subsequently created a to the member at Gandhidham. reaches the member within 10 to 15 days. transmitted from Gandhidham to including the economically important Orissa. The advantage Adhikar had was that Oriya money is remitted to the native place on an on going basis. that are interested to provide this service for migrants. Orissa has a long history of supplying Sahajoga in Corporation Bank. started the remittance work sometimes accompanied with a small message. to each member. At Gandhidham.000 sent. At the time of registration incomes to their families back home do it through money their address. its objectives and source of the livelihood for the how it will help workers. found inadequate to facilitate this. Along with these transfers. the money is delivered by Shramika Adhikar. The families of migrant workers face a number of problems Later. country. Money meant for transmittal from the village. to build awareness of the migrant worker is the major about the initiative. named as transmitted in between three to seven days and the receipt Shramika Sahajoga. Calcutta and initiative is convincing workers at Gujarat. . resulted in delays as the draft was sent by ordinary post. the Shramika Sahajoga-Gandhidham bank account to unless banks expand their operations to every corner of the Shramika Sahajoga-Tangi bank account. a non-government organisation working for more Sahajoga’s field staff. a bank draft as an option for remittance to families Initially the money was sent through bank draft. Shramika Sahajoga has its head office in Tangi in innovative venture is finding favour with many organizations Orissa and a project office at Gandhidham. cost effective and safe remittance and timely quite some time. etc.Thus. especially in the people to work in the industrial hubs of initial stages. The major problem they face is the remittance of money to their families. the list of families in Orissa and the corresponding amount of money that they must receive. Shramika Sahajoga was incorporated in August 2002 Most migrantsm except short distance or seasonal migrants. substantial numbers of migrant Through these accounts the money is workers to various parts of India. A passbook is issued proportion of workers send money through bank drafts. A time lag of instant credit in Orissa against a cheque deposited in 20 days between sending money and its receipt by their Gandhidham. By cashing in on the goodwill of their Ma delivery of cash to their dependants in villages. The purchases a bank draft. by email. The available Bank (women’s bank). Adhikar won the confidence of Oriya institutional infrastructure like. once the draft reaches his family. The field coordinator enters savings and because people in villages normally do not have accounts remittance details in it. Intervention Remitting Money-The Shramika Sahajoga Way Migration has become an integral part of the livelihood strategies pursued by a large number of poor people in India. The dependants in the native place.

and I cannot help. deeply explosive within and increasingly participatory activity. anvil – Government of India on 16 February. President of India Perspectives spiritual systems are functioning far better. a poor and the disadvantaged people need to be drawn talent management institute. It should be our endeavor to When the development projects of the government employ 10 livelihoods February 2009 .. … who will invest in this? This situation gets further compounded when this not-so-competent professional wants ∗ A woman has a right to live with dignity and a right to be to have 100 times or 1000 times the average income of the an equal citizen of the country…. What should be this can be created through skill development and vocational induction? How this can be imparted to so many? And our recent efforts to find conditions for the poorest of the poor and the weakest of professionals for development and/or livelihoods for the the weak. Most of the 20% lack in problem the human development parameters is important to solving and/or technical skills. women and social justice. how many opt to work in It is Gross Domestic Product along with welfare of the the development or livelihoods domain is any body’s guess! people that are the twin pillars of a progressive nation. as bring every eligible woman under the cover of a Self there is no other way to be.. in my quiet ‘progression’ in flow. The quality is ∗ Economic opportunities should …be accessible … The mediocre and not appropriate. and it also provides estimates for the period till youth. emotional and On the Republic Day. around. only a fraction – less create a productive work force and an enriched society. in joy forever. confirms this. Next Generation Leaders? We are incorrigible and live on hope and optimism. to avoid their alienation from the finds more than 50% of them in the category of ‘hard-to-train’ mainstream. All parties want to invest in for the year. interested to an extent but they need extremely rigorous ∗ Youth … Productive employment generation prospects induction over long periods. I am sure. sector are repeatedly revealing that we do not have enough numbers available to be recruited/inducted. says. light and power of the universe and to ‘lose’ my limits others …. Then. you etc. problem implemented in earnest can bring about tangible solving and technical skills.. Sun turned Help Group for her economic empowerment. Muralidhar will get addicted to it. the new government takes over and gets the full budget The month that went by saw our continued engagement with approved in the next year. Welfare and development schemes in three employability skills – communication. apart from terrorism and security. than 10% are employable! Of these. during the fasting in particular. Thus.. I am getting cleansed and tested for the immortal The richness of a few cannot be at the cost of depriving touch. my physiological... you women empowerment. ∗ Economic development serves a social purpose when it is for the welfare of the people. How can we attract them? Not-so-employable may be …. …. It is our effort to work We get repeated endorsements that many of our educated towards providing education. Election account does two things – it revises expenditure estimates Manifestos are on the anvil. Prime Minister In stead of annual budget. We are into 2009.. Government has people whose lives they are affecting. The development process itself is becoming an intensified churning processes. Given that elections are around. the government will tell its achievements and announce development and livelihoods management effort. With the grade of 60% or so itself. going through the “…. If touched upon poverty reduction. Obama took charge of USA. young professionals in appreciating poverty reduction. Vote-on- Elections are going to be in April/May. 80% do not meet the qualifying difference to the lives of the people. obviously on behalf of the government: As I continue. Interestingly it into circles of growth. livelihoods and poverty reduction to fine-tune elements in People’ s manifesto(s) for the next five years and ushering I am inching towards full 36 hour fasting per week slowly but them towards inclusion in the common minimum program of surely.. only the vote-on-accounts (interim went through a successful by-pass surgery. Our higher expenditures in the social sectors and some direct/ ‘dialogues’ on eldercare and poverty reduction occupied indirect sops. We have budgets till the new government(s) take over) are on the taken the progression of recession in our stride. … Improvement in criteria in communications. health and better living youth lack employable skills . equitable growth may like to try. Balance of the time went into reflecting RBI is also likely to announce some more changes in the further the voices of the marginalized through the lens of rates like repo etc. most of the time. Now a study by PurpleLeap. youth and you are not already practicing fasting. I am excited and enjoying every bit of it. Consuming more water and fibre helps in general and the next government(s). if you taste it. …” northward. She G. what is the introduced gender budgeting… Self Help Groups have way forward? proved to be effective vehicles for the economic transformation of women.

Naturally.. construction . Then the moot question is – do we know the domains. can we areas . they would like to be role models to the community by Then. their abilities and their performance? This is a task before us. When a Chief Minister recommends stoppage of live transmission of the proceedings of the legislative assembly. Even at one per is a lot of hard work. the on this wisdom of our elders which Warren Buffet has largest and model development project in the country. who are interested in decent livelihoods for all. etc. nurture and design now and in future? This would also mean the need for increased number of people working in the development and livelihoods domain. have to look at development/livelihoods work as something beyond a career. do not put all eggs in one basket. electrical work. the communities fail to we can be sure that the political establishments do not put have these staff accountable to them. like a vocation. Can we help increasing their numbers. It is difficult to imagine any body really responding to keeping this reality in perspective! ‘People’s manifesto’ evolved through this lens. electrical motor repair and take them to appropriate and multiple fora so that the parties. skills etc. quintessential value of any development worker. let us fine-tune the not be neglected. walk the talk and bring the be out of place here – do not bank on financial experts. lose hope. We continue to ensure that these ideas float service providers etc. have multiple sources of income. Therefore. We continue to appeal to the ‘vested’ interests why may not be commensurate. community rather than making them accountable to the monitor expenses rather than just counting. it is Bihar. Orissa etc.staff with an intention to make them accountable to the hard. equitable privatization and globalization (LPG) processes progressing. Tamil Nadu. the can be a casualty! These large projects in AP. at least. buy things community and fail to truly make them accountable to the only you need. bureaucracy and opinion makers agree to cell phone repair. nursing. If they managed to put together for us to all who take decisions in have nurtured the communities to get organised and demand general and financial decisions in particular? things. hospitality. fora and influence them in favour of the just.. justice potential? An assessment in a district indicated some 8 skill and right to life and livelihoods perspectives. this would mean a crore of them. The situation is slightly better at the community level. a work for life with passion. to their demands. Then. we see strikes and agitations for making them never test the depth of the water with two feet. Can we pass government staff a la staff of Indira Kranthi Patham. February 2009 livelihoods 11 . and sustainable world in general and the poor and we may have more and more jibs. Will they some of this at least? Can we pressurize them to allocate suffice to meet the numbers in the reckoning? budgets? Can we see that they spend the allocated budgets? Can we keep a watch and lend a hand in 80-90% This gets compounded with economic recession and the of the spending actually reaches the targeted activity/ frauds around. what are the ways forward for us to influence. with But. and masters. some of these have to be the best brains immersed in cracking these issues. skills and occupations marginalized in particular. have to remember this. But they lack adequate skills and pay around. For now. aware . the new activities. in addition to the equity. A minimum of 10% have to be professionals. In the process.masonry. governments. we can be sure that transparency in public governance is a casualty! After five years of non-effort. All of us are getting out of the reckoning as we are not competitive. their livelihoods and reduction mission in the pipeline has to begin its course poverty. The new difficult to visualize our governments seeing the people’s organization at the national level or the nation poverty issues from the lenses of the people. who reach out to these appropriate accommodate so many people? With liberalization. can we lose hope? As incorrigible optimists. look at and officers in the project or government or their political correct small leaks. trade. Thus. IT enabled services. More than a crore of individuals without jobs institution/individual? get added to the natural supply of unemployed annually. work legacy of change we are yearning for. skills for jobs inside can addressing these helps them. and succeeding in government acceding about a joint committee to look into statehood for a region. people’s manifestos further with more nuances from the Skills for Jobs for outside employment – what is the specifics of a marginalized. be alert.automobile mechanic. a government talks getting organised. But Warren Buffet’s suggestions to cope with recession may not we know these leaders can talk. Then. we do not the community leaders. One out of 10 of them. now and in future. into which they can be taken to generation leaders. over long periods of time. can we concentrate on people. activists and paraprofessionals. spend what is left after saving not otherwise. support. Sensitivity of the staff the faith in the wisdom and capacity of the people.

Regional imbalances in development contribute to the push and pull factors of migration. trends and issues around migration. Migration Migration is emerging as a significant part of the livelihood portfolio for the poor. About 30 million + are engaged in temporary/seasonal migration. 12 livelihoods February 2009 . Recognizing that migration is every individual’s choice. Migrant labour constitute important building blocks of urban growth centers but their contribution largely goes unrecognized. short-term measures are being taken up to slow down and stop migration. Instead of emphasizing and making efforts to bridge intra-state and inter-state development gaps. ‘livelihoods’ team attempts to understand the patterns. Income from migration has become more significant for the poorest areas of the country and sometimes exceeds income generated locally.

the fallout in agriculture has also negatively impacted the entire farming system and other livelihood sectors within in the villages including the artisans and service providers. accentuated the situation. The rural poor are concentrated in depending on the distance from the economic centers and eastern India and in the rainfall-dependent parts of central also the demand for particular type of skills/works in those and western India which continue to have low agricultural centers. Temporary migration ranges from trips Regional imbalance in development acts as both a push and that last for several months to daily commute to work pull factor for migration. Apart from small and marginal farmers and agriculture labour. One type of seasonal migration works around poorer states of the east including Orissa. This also includes workers migrating to Middle. Nearly two-thirds of the arable land in India is semiarid and People across have been migrating for centuries from rural drought prone.Migration of people is considered integral to development. Developed western and which case trips last for few years at a stretch. volatile become more a norm than an exception. The portfolio and for some households the income remitted from changes in cropping pattern. while the bulk of jobs are being created in Eastern countries. On the contrary some poor from Bihar migrate to agriculturally rich states like Migration destinations are towns and cities. pattern among the poor in India. from urban to urban and from one country to seasonal migration. These areas have shown high rates of to urban. Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Why do poor migrate? What are the pull and push factors involved? What are the emerging trends in these factors that are propelling migration? February 2009 livelihoods 13 . Sri Lanka. Permanent migration rates Migration is also increasingly being viewed by the migrants are higher among the more educated but people with lower not just as survival mechanism but as an accumulating literacy and lower marketable skills constitute majority in mechanism and a way to break caste constraints. temporary migration. festivals and ceremonies. job creation. The reluctance of the youth with some schooling to continue in agriculture and other traditional occupations and absence of remunerative opportunities in the vicinity for them is causing further stress. Bihar. However the migration we are seeing in 21st century village economy in India has slowed down in terms of particularly in developing countries is quite unprecedented. water scarcity and persistent drought. Punjab during agriculture season and engage in agriculture operations like weeding. covering deficits created by losses in agriculture or meeting expenditures of large magnitude on account of marriages. Agriculture which is the mainstay of the another. season and engage in pulling rickshaws. Jharkhand. Areas dominated by these push factors are significantly contributing to numbers of migrant labour. The land-people Migration within these countries or internal migration from ratio is worsening. rural to urban and urban to urban areas has inputs. Maharashtra and Gujarat of temporary migration commonly seen is seasonal are major destinations for inter-state migrants from the migration. real wages etc. productivity. Urban labour markets offer While some households migrate on a permanent basis. commodity markets have placed enormous financial burden migration is emerging as a significant part of their livelihood on small and marginal farmers leading to debt traps. This kind of seasonal migration is not Uttar Pradesh. new economic opportunities arising from urbanization and changing market context are determining mobility. In states mostly out of choice but also out of necessity. in other areas especially those close to urban centers are moving under the force of pull factors. Among the poor. One pattern northern states such as Punjab. The estimates of the number of temporary migrants in India vary between 30 – 100 million and this number is increasing. Seasonal migration is often linked to debt cycles and the need for money for repaying debts. This migration is not forced but inherent in the livelihood itself and outside the scope of our current discussion. The increase in the prices of agriculture rural to rural. harvesting etc. There is another kind of seasonal migration we see among cattle herders especially mobility between plains and hills. diversify incomes and temporary or circular migration is emerging as a dominant become upwardly mobile with very low asset-base and skills. For instance like Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan there is lot agriculture labour and small and marginal farmers from West of rural-urban migration within the states due to sharp Bengal migrate to Delhi and Haryana during non-agriculture regional inequalities. Improved communication and roads. agriculture season. productivity. unused and/or barren lands have locally in the village. Maldives etc for livelihood in western and southern India. particularly towards horticulture places of migration is more than the income generated requiring less person-days. industrial zones. On the contrary. opportunities to switch jobs rapidly.

In such cases the old parents are left behind in the and economic links alive and cuts down the considerable villages to fend for themselves. A hand and some others migrate into the same area X. It is a semi-formalized system in which the labour contractor (locally called ‘mistry’. which will be paid back from migration earnings. Employers prefer to hire migrant labour. The live and work in appalling conditions with diamond polishing businesses in Gujarat attract migrants from Orissa. petty traders and construction workers. for instance . Migrants from backward regions are willing to accept any distress wages that are offered as long as they have access to employment. as they are considered to be cheaper and more docile than local labour. Their excess supply also contributes to reducing the wage rate. labourers need to migrate in search of jobs. he herds the labourers in the villages and organizes them into groups and sends them to different employment destinations. education the children might be getting in the villages is now Agricultural laboring and marginal farming are important disrupted with migration. rickshaw pullers. agro-processing plants or a vicious cycle of migration. Consequently. healthcare and education. the contractor also establishes other relationships with the labourers like giving them high interest loans in times of need etc. Temporary/circular migration is high among the poor either by necessity or by choice. Apart from this. costs of food and housing in urban locations. Power looms and of employers. longer timings and harsher terms compared to local labour. Slums where most migrants dwell safety nets when urban employment is mainly in the informal hardly provide any decent atmosphere for the children. This perpetuates Jobs tend to be in factories. In cases where the men have migrated leaving the women and children behind the burden of women has become manifold. A switch is happening from rural-rural to urban- rural temporary migration in areas where agricultural employment is declining and industrial jobs are being created either at the same destinations or elsewhere. Commuting is the most preferred Young adult populations have a greater propensity to mobility option because it allows people to keep rural social migrate. Whatever little livelihoods provides a dual advantage to the poor. Is grass always greener for migrants? The answer is NO. Combining rural and urban uncertain jobs and underpaid works. and the implementation of the Interstate Migrant Workman (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act of 1979 is largely on paper. One of the key players in the migrant labour value chain is the labour contractor. Because of the high dependence of the labourers on the contractor. Migrant labour is paid lower wages. A study of migration from Bihar indicates that migrants who used to go to Punjab for agricultural works are now travelling to urban centers and industry in other destinations. stone quarries and coastal areas for fishing and salt panning. We also notice an interesting working as porters. which they are denied in their native region. A study in Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh found that many rural migrant households cultivated one rain-fed subsistence crop recognizing that keeping in touch with both rural and urban economies provides them greater security. This is because of the relatively higher wages and diversified opportunities in industrial/urban areas compared to agricultural areas..tribal girls on a large scale from Migrants particularly women face mistreatment in the hands Jharkhand and West Bengal to Delhi. sector which is high risk. In the bargain they undercut the employment prospects of local labour. For instance labourers from Orissa are 14 livelihoods February 2009 . phenomenon – the people migrate out from area X on one street hawkers. It also allows households to retain access to government services that are based on resident criteria such as subsidized food. recent and growing trend is the migration as domestic workers. this system paves way to a lot of exploitation. ‘mukadam’ or ‘sardar’ etc) establishes links with potential employers. domestic servants.

brought to work in the brick kilns of Andhra Pradesh.70 per day. On an average they get work for 3 days in a week. funerals etc. Therefore it is impera- tive to set up growth centers. shift the entire population to urban growth centers. for the migrant labour from the poorest areas in particular. In this process the migrants can establish their Many governments see migration as a socially and own contacts and get better understanding of the urban economically destabilizing process. This is particularly ecological resources. In India on the contrary The watershed programs and rural employment guarantee some of the poorest areas are most densely populated. Unfortunately this wage is more than what they get locally in Orissa which is about Rs. health. In India some of the poorest areas are most densely populated. Some migrant workers work as freelancers. reduced unemployment between China and India. However what is not admitted is the failure are too low to make a living. It increased their disposable health services are a welcome measure they need to be income which is invested in a variety of production and taken up quickly by the entire country. migration to Gulf a distant dream for much of India. Further under the contractor system hardly any labour graduate to the formal sector apart from remaining underpaid and ill informed. these programs could not make a serious in India. infrastructure and services in those poor areas rather than shift the entire population to urban growth centers. They work for 12 to 15 hours for a wage of Rs. Therefore most rural labour market. For instance in Kerala. market and indirectly gives exposure to the workers to urban opportunities. development and natural resource management programs have an implicit aim of controlling people mobility. employment to a large number of families providing infrastructure and services into those poor areas rather than additional incomes to a good number of families that migrate. weddings. But today However. of urban poverty. These include labour from Bihar. of spread of HIV/ true among those coming from marginal areas where wages AIDS and crime. A recent DFID study shows that for each expenses including food. horticulture schemes Remittances form a significant percentage of rural household and the like and on the other hand are not actively income in poor areas compared to prosperous areas. These kind of exploitative systems exist in the migrant labour markets. the governments are on one hand trying to control difference in changing the trends of migration yet. Migration In spite of the difficulties associated with migration. food costs and money spent for other expenses from the labour wages. Evidences from micro-studies of government to take up regional planning. to migrate to urban growth centers. measures for indicate that migration can reduce poverty. When time for final settlement the contractor deducts transportation costs. Orissa. On the it is not viable to set up growth centers and infrastructure in other hand impact of labour migration in tribal western India poorer areas because these areas are sparsely populated. inequality and regional development and growth and provide for basic contribute to growth. the WDR 2009 states that in China and improved economic situation of those left behind. there are arguments supporting way remittances are invested back at home show the contractor system. Agriculture needs consumption uses. But for the most part one can see only services and infrastructure in rural areas. programs have provided additional days of casual Therefore it is imperative to set up growth centers. the mobility of people through NREGA. These arguments state that the tremendous variation by context. distributing the growth centers or at least providing for basic Remittances coming from migrants have streamlined income services in the rural areas. Remittances are used to finance fresh energies. poor are is stated as the cause of degradation of rural and urban willing to migrate at the given opportunity. The percentage point increase in agricultural productivity there February 2009 livelihoods 15 . The contractor based system on the other hand assures more days of work and payment of some advances but there is a cut (15-50%) from the labour wages as commission. PURA still remains mixed trends.50. While efforts like 108 and 104 flows of some households. Andhra Pradesh (Srikakulam and Palamur). Drawing comparison countries has caused wages to rise. In such cases they receive better wages but work will not come by every day. The poor need contractor provides information on work availability creates opportunities/ideas to invest the remittances gainfully. On the contrary. has not led to any significant increase in assets or reduction Therefore the government should motivate such population in poverty.

if not for the toil of migrant should be ameliorated for the benefit of the poor. Let people have choices including the exchanges can also link up employers and migrant workers choice of migration! thus diminishing the role of labour contractors. This is not to say that people’s mobility need to be Schools for migrant children are critical and so is access to controlled. The contribution of migrant workers to urban growth is Environment at both the origin and destination of migrants largely undervalued. For poor. the cities cannot have infrastructure like roads. raised at all? opportunities for training and skill building should be created. domestic help and many more risky for the migrants. Theft. Instead of decrying migration it helps to distribute the destinations to streamline the process of sending money employment opportunities across all sectors and multiple and also to provide other services to the migrants. These geographical areas. family or other services at the scale we are seeing and availing today. living and working conditions should be improved. framework that protects the migrants and their families. health care. security guards. However.6-1. They rely on friends. informal channels. was a 0. cheating and delays are common. instance sending money back home is expensive and/or flyovers. It is important to create a national database on The government(s) and civil society have to reckon with the migration. In fact migration is the choice of every individual. The moot question is – can this be wage rates need to be revised and implemented strictly. Migrants 16 livelihoods February 2009 .2% decrease in the number of people earning need protective legislation and social security. Mindful and well-planned regional growth is more a political Migration exchanges can be set up facilitated by banks at will. Multi-purpose identity cards should be issued to reality of migration and see how to better the infrastructure all and migrants should be able to access PDS and other and systems required for migrant families and policy programs using these cards even in the destination places. Minimum less than a dollar a day.

Though ankle belts to the legs and go to every house and stand in we have cows. Q: Is your profession satisfactory to you? Q: How much you earn on this profession? A: No. That’s why I am educating all my children. There are around 10 people in our Q: Is the Government providing any help or facilities to bull village who are in the same profession.. If Government or any other organization can instrument) our bullocks will dance to that rhythm. People believe that these donations will bring prosperity to Q: Can you tell use about your children? their family. We don’t let our festival time? children face these problems by taking up this profession. Interview These Problems Should End With Us. sell the babies whom they give birth and make cash. But I don’t go for other works. I go by bus. Finding free Approximately we earn one to two hundred per day. water. the surrounding residents are objecting to tie the bulls there. works other than doing my located in Keesara mandal. A: I have two girl children and two boys. profession. in fact I would like to stop this profession. There is no patronage to our profession. working days for the labour under National Rural Q: Can you explain us your profession? Employment Guarantee Scheme. They have to face problems of food. this is our profession and we are persons may give donation and some may not. Apart from A: The persons along with me take care of my bulls and I go this accommodation problem we also face the problem of to the village once in a week to meet my family and give high expenditure. wish them to lead their lives happily with out facing any Q: How do you come to the city from the village with bulls? difficulties which I am facing now. Bhikshapathi. A: Wherever we find some open land we tie the bulls there and we sleep on the roads. Though we find a place.5 but in city it is more expensive. We rear them and get good jobs and settle well. One child is going to Anganwadi School. But I A: If we go to the houses for performing bull dance some cannot. are a lot and we get very little remuneration. During festival last person in my family seasons I go to Hyderabad continuing in this with my bulls to perform the profession. one bundle of grass is money . people of that house will give us some money or grains. All the three are Q: Where do you stay with your bulls in the city? going to government school. I may be the livestock. available only at Rs. A: I don’t come alone. We don’t have any union for bullock dance A: We decorate the bullocks with colourful clothes and tie performers. For many people who migrate from rural areas to urban areas life is nothing but a struggle. In our village. But Government is providing 100 the city. We land in the city is a very tough task. The people in the surrounding Q: How do you send money to your family when you are in houses give some food for us to eat. I hope they will A: We have cows and goats in our village. The difficulties we faced in this profession donations also may be in the form of cash or kind.for transportation. We February 2009 livelihoods 17 . The establish such centre in our village it will be a great help.. Because. there is no milk collection centre in our front of the house. Question: What is your have 10 cows. shelter which are the basic necessities of any human being. to know the problems that migrants face in urban areas. We come together dance performers like you? by walking from our village. While we play the shehnai (a musical village. With that food we just the city? pass our time. It takes Rs 20/. perform bull dance only in festival seasons. “livelihoods” interviewed one such migrant. I bull dance (’gangiredlu’). It takes 3 Days for us to reach A: Not specifically for us. But we can’t name? sell the milk because each and every house of our Answer: Bhikshapathi village has their own cows. The accustomed to it. Q: What is your livelihood in the remaining days other than These problems should end with us. We are the victims of mosquitoes. My children will not come to this profession. Q: Which village you belong Q: Do you go for any other to? work apart from these two? A: I come from the village A: I don’t go for any other called Ankireddipalli. We are in this Q: What is your profession? profession of bull dance performing since our A: I do business in forefathers.

cleaning of tables and utensils etc. These hotels generally have provide employment to lakhs of people. Also in many street side hotels customers as they offer delicious local food at comparatively Inputs Pre-Preparation Preparation Types of Items Post-Preparation ♦ Maida ♦ Cleaning of utensils ♦ Preparing the food ♦ Mysore Bajji ♦ Supplying the items ♦ Bombay Rawa and tables etc items as per the ♦ Poori as per the customer ♦ Purchasing the customer order order ♦ Gram flour ♦ Samosa required inputs ♦ Preparing some items ♦ Parcel the items on ♦ Oil in advance like Idly ♦ Chilli Bajji customer demand ♦ Keeping things ♦ Salt ready for cooking estimating the ♦ Chutney ♦ Serving the items demand always hot ♦ Chilli ♦ Potato Curry ♦ Fresh coconut ♦ Cleaning the tables and utensils from ♦ Dry coconut time to time ♦ Potato ♦ Other spices ♦ Cooking gas ♦ Labour 18 livelihoods February 2009 . cleaning of vessels dinner to the customers. Many market demand they expand the range of food items. They are engaged in preparation of food items. These hotels draw food lovers and newly arrived migrants from rural areas in huge numbers. have been the saviours of Indian urban masses. Migrants are not only consumers but also producers in the hotel industry. both men and a temporary structure on a footpath or at any corner of a women. In the initial stages they make only two or three items but depending on the diversity of the much cheaper prices than any well established hotels. Cooking food with little space prepare breakfast. and tables. heart broken or simply lonely there is one sure remedy guaranteed to work: order a plate of piping hot tiffin (snack) and a cup of steaming chai (tea) at a small street side hotel and see your troubles evaporate. However there are some migrants who have invested all their savings in setting up a small street side hotel using very limited or no outside labour. While large number of them have occupied jobs as construction workers. These people are very low paid and there exists limited scope to enhance their skills and capabilities. There are some hotels which only supplies tea. both in urban and rural areas. Some hotels which have a permanent structure but some are skilled and some are unskilled. Helping in cooking. Among the jobs that are available in these hotels street . supplying the items to customers. Some hotels prepare These road side hotels. deliciously definitely requires lot of skill on which the success There are certain road side hotels which also supplies lunch/ of any hotel depends. categories depending on the items they supply. some have taken up works like waiters and cooks in street side hotels. Many unskilled migrants are engaged in These road side hotels are very much active in attracting the second kind of activities. goods-carriers and assistants to skilled workers. These street side stalls often grandly billed as ‘hotels’ by proprietors. Value Chain Analysis Street Side Hotel (Tiffin Centre) If you are sad. supplying food items may not require much skill but are laborious. of these hotel owners offer a informal atmosphere thus giving a personal touch to the business and this aspect We can categorize the road side hotels into different draws repeat customers. tea and also some snack items. tea and snack items.

Also bachelors have moved in good numbers to the cities for jobs. February 2009 livelihoods 19 . 1.000. Thus street side hotels are servicing a variety of population ranging from poor migrants to the blue and white collar workers in a significant way by providing them low-cost.00 PROBLEMS 8 Chairs ♦ Increase in the market rates of inputs can hurt the profit 10.00 ♦ Maintaining cleanliness. Utilizing this opportunity some hotel owners are preparing curries in the evenings and making them available by the time people return to their homes.000. quality and good customer the entire family of the hotel owner also work that reduces their expenditure to a substantial amount.00 ♦ Maintaining clean surrounding and cleanliness in cooking 3 Water bill is critical. It is a challenge to maintain the balance between 4 Miscellaneous the costs associated with cleanliness and the need for 2.00 ♦ The skill of understanding convincing customer to try Profit different foods is important.00 6 Spoons 200. This gives them additional income in some seasons particularly during marriages.00 2 Cooking vessels 1.00 margins of the business.111. 4.000. take up catering orders for small functions and parties. This kind of maintenance also involves some 200. Expenditure towards inputs 989.500.00 ♦ Collective buying from wholesalers can help deal with price fluctuations in a better fashion. Also longer commutes to and from work and long working hours leave little time for cooking.00 7 Tables 5. Value chain analysis is an examination of different stages in a good or service till it reaches the customer. good tasting and timely food and above all right around the corner.00 5 Jugs 100. In this analysis.200.00 4 Glasses 250.00 cleanliness.00 3 Plates 250. Customer service is the key.00 ♦ At times with poor customer turnout the food items 2 Current bill especially those pre-prepared can get wasted. from daily activity. Income and Expenditure of a Street Side Hotel Initial Investment 1 Gas stove 2.500. Some hotels apart service can increase both the regular customer base and also new customer base. backward and forward linkages are studied to identify gaps and possible interventions. 600. In such cases there is a threat Monthly Maintenance Expenditure of the Hotel of losing regular customer-base that consume items 1 Room rent made out of using the affected ingredient.00 supplies and high prices.000. Hence they are depending mostly on curry points particularly for their dinner. Some hotels rent out a small portion of their place to paan wallahs and earn some additional income in the form of rent. These people find no In recent days both husband and wife are working in many time or do not have adequate skill to cook food. Total ♦ At times some ingredients can get affected with low 19. Daily Income and Expenditure SOLUTIONS Income from the sales of food 1400.00 price. families especially in cities.

As part of its counselling. The field contributions of rural migration to the national economy. The against them relating to incidents at destinations. regular opportunities for skill training and up-gradation to help them improve their prospects in the labour markets. Presently it is fully bona-fide introduction and leads to a sense of association functional in 5 blocks of Udaipur and Rajsamand districts of with a broader umbrella of migrant workers. Workshops that labour markets and acts as an agent of policy change and focus on rights of labour are a regular feature of Bureau’s advocacy in favour of migrant workers. In more survival of their home communities. A simple Aajeevika Bureau provides a number of services to migrants take away attendance diary that the Bureau has developed aimed at establishing their identity. and emergencies associated with record of work done and payments reduces police harassment. and cautions to those who are on the threshold of leaving seasonal and vulnerable migrant men and women. The photo ID card is a powerful means to security to seasonal migrants who leave their villages to find establish identity . as well as directly at the special programmes and modules aimed to include those Bureau’s centres. often at its very bottom end. skill and organizational organization set up to provide solutions. It provides a range of difficult cases where arbitration is not possible. The node their homes for work. Another their movement away from their villages. In order to help rural migrants. who do not have enough time to invest in long term trainings and who cannot afford disruptions in their earnings. assistance is services to help migrants improve their outcomes from the sought from experienced legal practitioners. legal information is regularly provided. semi-skilled. public and government alike. location and spread of seasonal migrants. some of Bureau addresses issues that collectively influence the which result in the termination of their employment. Aajeevika Bureau is a specialized non-profit. more skilled niches of the market. Registration is an entry point to the migrant workers into the enhance their incomes. The purpose of the photo ID card is to through its partner agencies are provided with hands-on create a legitimate public identity of the rural migrant and to 20 livelihoods February 2009 . especially younger workers. Rajasthan. Despite the major contributions migrant workers make to India’s prosperity. the centres register and respond to cases requiring intervention livelihoods of the migrants and their families. Aajeevika Bureau was established as a charitable trust in 2005 in Udaipur in Rajasthan. Registration also forms the basis of Bureau’s services such break into the new. helps in a work in cities. Registration of migrant workers is lucratively in an environment that is offering better returns. placement. increasing incomes and continues to be very popular and useful as it helps keep a reducing expenditures. factories and farms. as counselling. Rural Registration is accompanied by the issuing of a photo youth identified through Bureau’s own centres as well as identification card. There is a steady inflow of workers coming to the Bureau Aajeevika Bureau works both in the ’source’ as well as the centres with complaints of fraudulence and malpractice ’destinations’ of rural migrants within western India. To help these poor rural migrants. Migrants are carried out through a locally identified gradation in a variety of skills. services and association. remaining largely outside the reach of state services and devoid of opportunities offered by the growing markets. communication with migrant workers. aiming to fill a huge gap in data and information on the numbers. for the Bureau’s work and services to migrants is a network of centres known as the Shramik Sahayta Evam Sandarbh As a core service for migrants Aajeevika Bureau creates Kendra. public service serve as a proof of residence. and establish themselves more Bureau’s support services. legal aid and financial Aajeevika Bureau facilitates vocational training and up- services. The Bureau has devised network of volunteers in the villages. they suffer neglect from employers. and the very between workers and their employers/contractors. The main target of publication (“Pardes Jaane Se Pehle") provides practical tips Bureau’s livelihood services are unskilled. seasonal migrant workers are a massive workforce with numbers that touch nearly a 100 million across India. Organization Aajeevika Bureau Rural. They drift through the economy. training.

cart pullers. migration is an inevitable reality – driven by several collectives. A group also makes it possible for individual members to engage in more forceful bargaining and to provide new work Aajeevika Bureau continues to build this understanding opportunities to each other. expand and modify its operations. The relationship. In The inception of Aajeevika Bureau was a direct outcome of case of their drop out or retrenchment. Office assistance and Secretarial practice. the Bureau disseminates this large scale opening of bank accounts among migrant information through its field teams across their areas of workers by helping them access the no-frill account provision operation. undertaken have helped determine. migrant workers have poor social security. Retail. Yet for Aajeevika Bureau have provided the context for promotion of most migrants. openings and Aajeevika Bureau has been pushing commercial banks to vacancies amongst its clients. Through these studies. These events are also used by the teams The Aajeevika Bureau is a Service Delivery Partner in an to build a data base of interested youth to who information innovative Contributory Pension Scheme launched by the can be given at a time when there is a more appropriate Government of Rajasthan. The Bureau has known as the learnt that the ability to negotiate markets and new Rajasthan opportunities require skills that go beyond technical Shram Sarathi proficiency in a particular trade or occupation. given the high concentration of migrants lack of opportunities in rural areas and motivated by an urge in these urban centres. A few banks have started to accept the Photo ID Rozgar Melas (Employment Fairs) are regularly organized by card as a valid introduction document. collectives of construction workers. disseminating regular information on jobs. Migrants are not able Cell of the Bureau continuously scans markets and is also to produce adequate identity documents to meet the Know approached by a wide number of employers looking for Your Customer (KYC) norms of banks hence remain workers in various positions. savings and remittances. The major finding of the study that they remain in the job markets. Salesmanship and Customer workers registered by the Bureau’s field centres. The practical technical training with a series of life skills. the Bureau provides the results of a study aimed at understanding rural them with additional connections and networks for ensuring livelihoods across Rajasthan. The results of the research enter joint contracts with employers or service users. The Bureau teams also counsel youth in pension coverage to the large number of unorganized sector making appropriate career or training choices. predominately tribal areas. The Training and Placement open their doors to migrant workers. (RSSA) and it House wiring. company is personality and confidence building inputs. workers of the state and the Bureau is using its networks to All Trainees of Aajeevika Bureau are provided a one-time include migrant workers in its fold. these poor rural migrants and India needs more of this kind Aajeevika Bureau has promoted a new entity (a Section 25 of organizations. Organizations like Aajeevika Bureaus Keeping in mind the unique difficulties faced by migrant can provide better prospects for growth and advancement to workers in accessing credit. potential workers. These include migration and reach out to a broader audience. particularly collectivize migrant workers on occupational lines. Aajeevika Bureau has At this time there are nearly 20 active collectives with a also tried to inform and influence mainstream views on membership of nearly 2000 workers. comprehensive financial The trainings offered by the Bureau combine rigorous and opportunities. A new collective is As a large and vulnerable section of India’s unorganized coming up for workers in the catering business and rickshaw labour force. Masonry. February 2009 livelihoods 21 . The Ahmedabad. A those in poor. and pullers. programme is presently in an action-research phase in which Apparel production and Industrial tailoring and Driving etc. The scheme is aimed to provide opening for them. Udaipur and Jaipur centres of meagre protection from malpractices and hazards. At a later point a collective can through a dedicated and ongoing research and knowledge evolve into a body that might negotiate contracts and even generation programme. The study collective provides the benefit of association and mutual help confirmed that migration is no longer primarily a response in among its members. to engage in the more rewarding options in more prosperous parts of the country. was that short-term migration is rapidly replacing agriculture As a core strategy of mobilization. The Bureau is assisting of offer and work conditions. Trainings are conducted in all the field Company) with centres of the Bureau and often in collaboration with other the mandate of training institutions that have the infrastructure and expertise providing for this unique group of young learners. but a regular strategy for the rural poor. plumbers. a set of loan products are being tested before being Aajeevika Bureau serves as the nodal agency of finding and launched on more commercial lines. times of drought and distress. factory workers and head-loaders. If considered suitable in terms excluded from banking services. Association The Bureau has facilitated training in the areas of Plumbing. placement opportunity at the conclusion of their training. the Bureau has started to as the major source of income for many families. Hospitality and has launched a micro-lending programme for migrant Hotel services. hence easing the the Bureau in order to bring employers together with process of account opening. in banks. Carpentry. Welding.

safety. Work of artisans is skilled opportunities. and feel that their children would be better off included in the manifestos of the political parties. Government has given less importance towards development of artisans and service providers (like barbers. failing to identify uniqueness’ of weaver’s problem and to provide adequate solutions. The rapid capitalist development and ensuring technological innovation has 6. in India. child labour right. Construction workers and Artisans and other informal workers comprise major portion of labour force 7. Ensuring sustainable income and livelihood security by continues. This part below is voicing the agenda of the farmers. As a result it has common development plan to both of them. Under employment is the main To make farming viable for small. There are also problems in its implementation. the government should articulate a clear vision for indebtedness. Though government has initiated few relief programs the dire situation of crisis has not improved as the fundamental underlying problems have not been addressed. Decreasing incomes to farmers. weavers. life and health insurance traditional craftsmanship and also to the relevant industries has not been recognized. Even State is not youths from the family should be provided with enthusiastic enough to ensure effective implementation of development programs to improve their livelihood programs it has planned for them. MMR/IMR etc… sustaining agriculture and agriculture-based livelihoods. malnutrition. this manifesto is proposed as a 1. Separate body should be establish to identify problems. farmers. Should be provided free housing and space to work (for an opportunity and awareness to participate in planning and artisans. to provide help during crisis. Farmers’ suicides have continued at an alarming rate and the deep distress 1. Government has come up with many plans to improve conditions of weavers. which is increasingly being challenged by the dynamics 5. Lack of opportunity to upgrade their skills. Their significant contributions in keeping alive security measures like pension. weavers etc) development of programs meant for them has kept them far 4. high external extending NREGS to all and ensure effective input based agriculture and skewed support systems are implementation. education for their children. and job security are major problems that Farmers: affect lives of these people. The agricultural crisis Common manifesto persists and has worsened in some ways. Weaving is the second largest employment giver. 2. Their children should be provided free education and away from developmental processes. Lack of political consciousness and 3. We suggest the following points to be remunerative. The focus here has been more on improving weaving industry rather than focusing on the issues of the weavers. We need to use the upcoming elections to introduce fundamental policy changes. dhobi. major problems that farmers are facing today. but not achieved much in 60 years. artisans and labour through the lens of livelihoods and poverty. marginal and medium cause of many problems related to poverty like. in any profession other than agriculture. work. Ensuring sustainable income and livelihood security all 22 livelihoods February 2009 . prepare development program plans and ensure implementation. People’s Sector-specific Manifestos 2009-14 This is a part of the manifesto/Common Minimum Program for the coming 5 years for any party/coalition government that will come into power at the Union/State level. Increase budget allocation for research of modern market conditions. problems Specific demands: associated with migration like housing. Improve social security measures: Provide social sweepers etc). almost made these Artisanal skills irrelevant. Farmers are in despair that agriculture is no longer step in this direction. Agricultural labourers. Importantly Government has failed to recognize the difference between textile industry and weavers. A What should the government do? three-pronged approach should be taken to realize such a vision. Training centers should be started for skill up gradation. however it has many loopholes.

All programs given to weavers in the cooperatives should ♦ 50% of the research investments in agriculture be made available to other weavers too. Weavers: 1. Ensure implementation of Minimum wages act and govt. Separate weavers from workers in the textile industry. 5.Promotion of sustainable agriculture/ecological farming. Interaction centers should be stated to provide space for agriculture should be on organic farming interaction between customers and weavers ♦ public institutions like APSSDC should be revived 12. institutions should be earmarked to organic 10. and make it easily ♦ Direct income support: that farmers get above available. ♦ Government should promote sustainable along with what is in the general plan for development of agriculture to maximize use of local the weavers resource. (put up a spinning mill for every 5000 looms poverty line wages and farmer families are assured a minimum income of 25000 per family per annum and revised every year. Increase central budget for weavers to 5 thousand corers Commission for Farmers as a statutory body to ensure 4. ♦ Fair price for agricultural produce: The prices for agricultural commodities should be based on the real cost of production and linked positively with inflation. Raw materials like thread and colours should be given at banned 40% discount to the weavers ♦ Ban GM crops till their bio safety is proven 8. announce special national weavers procedure 2. Their should be continuous research on improving farming production and develop products required by market ♦ 50% of the demonstrations by department of 11. Weavers should be given free electricity and decentralized with transparent functioning and accountable to farming community 13. ♦ Farmers training centers should be equipped to run courses on organic farming and experienced farmers should be used as the resource persons ♦ Organizing and empowering farmers’ collectives: Appropriate institutional systems need to be established to support farmers to plan and manage their resources and livelihoods. ♦ Extend NREGS to all agricultural operations: The employment guarantee scheme should include all agricultural operations from sowing to harvesting. ♦ Increase rural employment opportunities: Post- harvest operations and value addition enterprises and agriculture-centered small scale rural industry should be promoted at the village level. and put up a centre to provide raw materials) 2. Women in weaving industry should have special plan. Separate committees should be established to make changes to the existing development plan in tune with the February 2009 livelihoods 23 . and come out with development plan for master weavers who not part of cooperatives farmers: The government should appoint an Income 3. The determination of support price should be done transparently at the state level and recommended to the CACP. Farmers adopting organic/ecological farming should receive financial support from the 6. Control cost of raw materials. 9. Re-vitalize cooperatives. provide all basic necessities to the weavers ♦ Restrictions on the agrochemicals should be 7. lobbying for a policy change and securing their entitlements. Give loans to weavers (who are not part of cooperatives) beyond doubt.

5. Equal wage for equal work should be adequately 7. and make a list of handicrafts and place where they are produced. Tax should be exempted on marketing finished products neighborhoods and work places are a must. Skill up-gradation (Re-skilling): Skill up-gradation entails staying away from work and loss of wage. Day care centers with trained child care professionals and nutritional supplements for the children as well as lactating mothers at work places. review their manifestos and come banned. not basing on caste. political will with integrity can help translate 10. 4. 7. It Duplicate and imitation of artisan products should be is the time to introspect. storage space and electricity to continue their work 4. Their should be a research wing at the state level for developing new products 5. 120 in difference b/w power looms and handlooms rural areas.specific problems unique to the cluster and also a new plan Labour: should be made to address these specific problems. Form village level collectives of all artisans. With elections around producer company the corner time is ripe for all political parties to listen to the small and marginal farmers. Therefore government should create a budgetary fund to take care of their wage loss. Large scale programs should be organized to bring be provided to all kind of workers. Artisans should be given loan at rate of 25 paisa. constitute the backbone of Indian economy in many ways. Government should give publicity to the products its time to respond to the disease itself with the intentions to developed by artisans deliver and not just promises to deliver. 180-Rs. Artisans : 1. Special bus passes.. A social and preventive health program specifically designed for urban poor need to be designed and implemented with active community participation. Employment: At least 270 days of work annually should 14. Minimum wages should be fixed at. 15. and raw materials 9. Product designed by artisans should be patented. 11. Law should be changed to help artisans make use of protected by relevant laws and enforced rigorously. 6. wood. they should Perpetrators of discrimination should be stringently not be criminalized for using these natural resources. A report should be made to define what is handicraft. up with long term sustainable solutions to the problems plaguing the poor. Special schools with public-private partnership can be 9. based on quality and skills In a democracy. punished. 200 in urban areas. for investments to develop and increase their production 3. water and mud (natural resources). Guidelines should be evolved for costing of products thought of children of migrant workers. 8. at least Rs. weavers. awareness among customers to identify and appreciate 2. agricultural labourers. 2. Government should develop plan to reduce production costs as well as provide food supplies at subsidies rates. Their should be centers to provide raw materials 6. Instead of responding only to symptoms 13. Arrangements for safe drinking water both in the 8. 1. Government and public sector should give reservation artisans and service providers and all labourers that 12. They should be provided shed. They should be trained o market their products 3. and Rs. District level artisan societies should be registered under the demands of the people into reality. and train passes should be issued to daily wage labourers. 24 livelihoods February 2009 .

000 crore to increase agriculture and allied sectors growth. 13. Planning and Architecture are proposed / have started ⇒ Gross capital formation in agriculture as a proportion of functioning. ⇒ Priyadarsini Project. 200 that farmers get short term crop loans up to Rs.705 crore proposed for Integrated Education Child Development Scheme for the year 2009-10.000 crore allocated for (JNNURM) for the year 2009-2010.100 crore for 2009-10. ⇒ Allocation of Rs. Regional ITIs for women. ⇒ Rashtriya Mahila Kosh ⇒ Agriculture debt waiver and relief scheme waived authorized capital enhanced. 8 new IITs. ⇒ Educational Loan Scheme has been expanded to 14.14. 5.a. 842 crore proposed under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ⇒ Rs. ⇒ Annual growth rate of ⇒ Centrally Sponsored Scheme launched to universalize agriculture rose to 3. New WHO child growth standards adopted for monitoring ⇒ Allocation for Sarva Shiksha growth of children under ICDS.6 crore farmers. ⇒ The corpus of Rural Infrastructure Development ⇒ Two new schemes – ‘Indira Gandhi National Widow Fund increased from Rs.1000 crore. Year Plan.2% in 2007-08.25. a rural ⇒ MSP for paddy increased to Rs. Rai Bareli and Sultanpur in Uttar Pradesh. ⇒ Food grain production ⇒ 15 new Central Universities.8. Mid-day Meals Scheme for the year February 2009 livelihoods 25 . Women ITIs and National/ year 2009-10. 65. Interim Budget Highlights 2009-10 Agriculture.6. ⇒ National Skill Development Corporation created with a corpus of Rs. ⇒ Agriculture credit disbursement increased three times to Rs.4% education.000 crore in 2007-08 compared to 2003-04.09 ⇒ Plan allocation for agriculture increased by 300 per cent lakh students. 5 touched 230 million Indian Institute of Science Education.500 Pension Scheme’ to provide pension of Rs.2. implemented as pilot in the district of Madhubani and Rural Development Sitamarhi in Bihar and Shravasti. National Safai Karamchari Finance and Development ⇒ Interest subvention will continued this year to ensure Corporation raised from Rs. Social Sector Agriculture 2009-10. while promoting financial inclusion. 300 crore. Bahraich.1080 per quintal. Government to bear cost of their training and provide stipend of Rs.50. during 2003-04 to 2007- ⇒ Higher education outlay increased 9 fold in the 11th Five 08.000 crore + rupees and covers 3. 11. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna ⇒ 500 ITIs are upgraded into centers of excellence launched with an outlay of Rs. agriculture GDP increased to 14. ⇒ 22 States and Union Territories initiated process to implement Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana for BPL ⇒ ‘Project Arrow’ to provide new technology enabled families in the unorganized sector and 60 lakh thirty two services through post offices to common man and thousand persons covered for death and disability under support effective implementation of social sector ‘Aam Admni’ Bima Yojana (AABY).500 per month. 6 new IIMS. 7% p. Social Sector ⇒ Revival packages in 25 states taken up to strengthen ⇒ Authorized capital of short-term cooperative credit structure.200 to crore in 2003-04 to Rs. Education.990 per quintal and for women’s employment and livelihood program will be wheat to Rs. schemes like NREGS. ⇒ Rs.3 lakh at crore to Rs. ⇒ Allocation of Rs.100 crore allocated for National Rural Employment ⇒ Widows in the age group of 18-40 years to be given Guarantee Scheme for the priority in admission to ITIs. Abhiyan is proposed to be Rs.000 widows between age groups of 40-64 years and ‘Indira crore for the year 2008-09. 2 new schools of tonnes in 2007-08.30. ⇒ Panchayat Empowerment and Accountability Scheme will be expanded. Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme’ to provide pension for severely disabled persons. Rural Development. from 2003-04 to 2007-08.

under the scheme only upon payment of such contribution. viz. reviewing the record keeping functions performed benefit. 2007 benefits become due to them. survivors’ benefit. namely. can perform similar functions at state level. invalidity benefit.: (i) Home-based workers [Clause 2(b)]. and (iii) Wage workers Government has formulated the Unorganized Sector [Clause 2(m)]. 26 livelihoods February 2009 . If the governments can formulate recommending the central government suitable schemes for policies in line with the spirit of the bill and implement them unorganized sector workers. handloom weavers. unorganized sector workers. such as The bill defines unorganized sector workers as of three agricultural workers. reviewing the progress of registration 1952. the central government may formulate suitable welfare schemes to the Even though this Bill represents the first step in the direction unorganized sector workers on matters relating to life and of comprehensive definition and identification of the disability coverage. and where the efforts. leather workers etc. In the light of this employed workers [Clause 2(j)]. employment injury at state level and reviewing the expenditure from the funds benefit. advising the central government with integrity.(ii) Self- handloom workers. cine workers. construction workers. For instance. At the same time. the number of such workers is unorganized sector workers in the matter of labour protection less than ten. It has also been said injury benefit. fishermen etc. If a scheme Central Government for specific groups of unorganized requires a registered unorganized sector worker to make a sector workers such as beedi workers. these workers do not get adequate social security. Equality of Treatment (Accident eligible for registration. beedi workers. administration which shall be a smart card carrying a unique Some welfare schemes are being implemented by the identification number and shall be portable. he or shall be eligible for social security benefits workers. The scope of the bill needs to aims to provide for social security and welfare of the be comprehensively and exclusively defined. who continue to receive Workers Social Security Bill 2007. This bill also mentioned about unemployment benefit and family benefit. The notion of social security as enunciated by the monitoring such social welfare schemes for workers in the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention 102 of unorganized sector. salaries/wages but are not on the regular pay roll and unless the nature of the work is deemed as regular. Despite all these providing service of any kind whatsoever. Policy The Unorganized Sector Worker’s Social Security Bill It is estimated that the workers in the unorganized sector constitute more than ninety-four percent of the total employment in the country. It suggested constituting a has not been ratified by India. old age benefit. Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector have been ignored. employment possess no such substantive powers. no pension The Unorganized Sector Workers Social Security Bill. old age unorganized workers. This Convention the constitution of the board. “the unorganized sector certain categories of unorganized sector workers and some means an enterprise owned by individuals or self-employed Non – Government Organizations also provide social workers and engaged in the production or sale of goods or security to certain categories of workers. that several valuable recommendations of the National skill upgradation of workers. The bill mentioned that the central government shall Recognizing the need for social security for the unorganized constitute a National Board to be known as National Social sector workers and bringing out a bill to provide social Security Advisory Board to perform the functions such as security is a positive sign. Recognizing the plight of these poor unorganized workers the Government of India has formulated the unorganized sector worker’s social security bill in the year 2007. On account of their unorganized nature. State Governments are implementing welfare programs for According to Clause 2(k) of the Bill. Similarly the state governments may the Central and state governments under the Bill are already formulate and notify different welfare schemes suitable to with these governments under previous different sections of the unorganized sector workers programmes. types. there is a huge deficit in the coverage of the enterprise employs workers. health and maternity benefits. Every eligible unorganized worker Compensation) (Convention 19 of 1925). the advisory boards including schemes related to provident fund. under various schemes etc. maternity benefit. every unorganized sector worker shall be Convention 42 of 1934). Occupational Diseases (Convention 18 and Revised As per the bill. educational schemes for children. the powers contemplated for the central government. India has ratified State Social Security Advisory Board in similar lines which other conventions of the ILO: Workmen’s Compensation. sickness workers. medical benefit. housing. There are workers. country in a big way. However.” and social security measures ensuring the welfare and well- being of workers in the unorganized sector. caters to a broad spectrum of nine social security and issue of identity cards to the unorganized sector contingencies compensated by benefits. it has been criticized for being vague protection and any other benefit as may be determined by about much else. As per the bill. and Equality of shall be registered and issued an identity card by the district Treatment (Social Security) (Conventions 1 and 8 of 1962). non-coal mine contribution. funeral assistance and old age Advisory Council and the National Commission for homes. it can help majority of the work force in the on such matters arising out of the administration of this Act.

basing on the spirit of volunteerism. they forego The second issue relates to the organisational environment. resolving this conflict becomes important. February 2009 livelihoods 27 . Based on this notion. ⇒ The volunteers need to be compensated for their out of pocket expenses. As the non-profits cannot train several The issue of paying the volunteers at grassroots gets times more number of volunteers than required. the compensation – both for regular staff and volunteers – In one way. several opportunities to earn their income. they collect some facilitation charges from especially when it relates to the work of non-profits. the public and use their network to get things done. The approach of fixing compensation case by case should be avoided as These learnings have important implications for the equity within the organisation could then be diluted. These volunteers come organisations have to operate without the luxury of a posse from the poorer communities. cost of compensation to the organisation. Some times. The volunteers in both these cases come from various sections first issue relates to the differences of opinion about the of the community as in the case of non-profits. Thus. while the volunteer becoming corrupt gets reduced. If they advance. However. should be structured to attract good people. they lose on the meagre earnings where the volunteer is asked to work full time income that they earn. The volunteers would come which the volunteers have come forward are fulfilled. the first group ⇒ The trade-off between an opportunity to earn and holds the opinion that the volunteers need not be paid. the volunteer would organisations that are largely successful in drawing be compensated enough while being involved in the work of volunteers are studied to derive some general principles of the non-profit. the chances of the type of organisations are religious orders or cults. But forward more readily if they perceive the officers of the non- ensuring this requires some costs and the non-profit profit as influential and that such officers would use the organisation should calculate these costs also as being the influence to support the volunteer in the case of need. The very with some of the volunteers belonging to poorer communities notion of volunteering means that the persons involved in brought out the following insights relating to their behaviours: volunteering is not paid. the need to feel important among the community has to be ensured. two types of community-based employment. the volunteers. the motives with which the volunteers have come forward to offer their services as volunteers. (If paying the service. they are full time volunteers and are not engaged in any other activity through which they earn their sustenance. to be able to plan events in volunteering clashes with the time of their work. The first the community and the non-profit. Many persons would respond in the event of emergency ⇒ The organisation should make every effort to satisfy and maximum help becomes assured. though these persons volunteer during busy labour seasons. ⇒ These relationships also contribute to the person becoming important too. To cover It is difficult to attract and retain good and competent people. but could mean ensuring the service is volunteer pinches. grassroots with an alternative skill-set. this is and leads to corruption. holds the more than the required number of volunteers turn- opinion that the monetary compensation should be paid to out at any event. as in most cases second group. these complicated by another dimension. The an opportunity to volunteer is rare. volunteering increases their financial not lure the person away from the present occupation and hardship. Hence. Interaction issue of paying volunteers for their time and effort. Hence. ⇒ The network built around volunteering opportunities is also helpful in getting services from the ⇒ Whatever payment is made to the volunteers. However. The in mind two issues while deciding to pay the volunteers. Being under the overall supervision of both designing compensation policies for the volunteers. this payment should only on a part time. By this. Paying Volunteers at Grassroots The management of a non-profit organisation needs to keep second type of organisations are the political parties. ⇒ Where persons volunteer for longer times. this loss. particularly for the political parties.) delivered (as in the case of renewal of taxi license) There is also a general agreement among both the camps or ensuring the quality of service (as in the case of that the volunteers need to be paid a sustenance amount if a surgery at public hospital). the time for of volunteers. Further. the non-profit has to compensate the loss of volunteer in such circumstances. but cannot be as good as the market alternative for the work done by the volunteers. It would not be equitable for a non-profit to make the person dependent on the non-profit for increase the hardship of a person for the benefit of several sustenance. One strategy is to provide the volunteers at others. it is usury. Therefore. and show them In light of the considerations above. Every management of non-profits in designing compensation effort needs to be made to ensure that the motives with systems for their volunteers. ⇒ The main attraction for volunteering appears to be both the camps are in agreement with respect to the the social security involved in the relationships that following principles: are built around volunteering opportunities. it can establishments involved in the delivery of social not be beyond the capability of the organisation/ services. This may not always mean out of turn community served by the volunteers.

The Contrasts Retaining Ground! Shining Livelihoods Losing Relevance! Declining Livelihoods 28 livelihoods February 2009 .

designed and established SRISTI (Society for Research and Initiatives for Sustainable His unique work analysing indigenous Technologies and Institutions) with an aim to strengthen the knowledge of farmers and pastoralists and building bridges capacity of grassroots level innovators and inventors those to science based knowledge has led to the honour of being who engaged in conserving bio diversity . UK. dealing with nature and modern science. to network local from Haryana Agricultural University. He worked as adviser to helped to establish National Innovation Foundation (NIF) Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institution from October India in March 2000 with an initial corpus of Rs 20 Crores 1985 to 1986 and Worked as chair person to Indian Institute with a view to help India become an inventive and creative of Management from 1993 to 1994. Development Worker Friend of Grassroots Innovators. roots innovators and link formal and informal Professor Anil K Gupta completed his master knowledge systems.He national and local space for grass roots inventors and has also been requested to review the performance of innovators to ensure recognition. with a corpus He worked as National Project Director for Global Rs 50 Lacs with Gujarat Government collaboration . 2.Experiment to add value to their Conservation Scholar Award of USD 150. He (India) in 1986. Indian building upon a resource in which poor people are rich in. Ahmedabad. SRISTI. establishing similar NIFs in all commonwealth countries . He has helped in them. The name Honey Bee was chosen to reflect Inventors award in 2001. developing grassroots level innovations to To help provide support structures for grass India and rest of the world. respect and reward local for world technology award for environment on saving. that is their knowledge. a global degree in Bio Chemical Genetics in 1974 initiative and an NGO.He innovators was the stimulus behind the creation of the Honey Received Asian Innovation award in 2000 and Asian Young Bee network. 1993-96 from knowledge. It Haryana. Recognizing the necessity of NIFs. innovative and generate a new model of poverty alleviation He designed and implemented methods for farm and non relying on innovation based enterprises. how innovations are collected without making the innovators poorer and how connections are created between Professor Anil K Gupta presently has been working as innovators. with appropriate benefit sharing arrangements.Anil K Gupta’s help in He developed his interest in the areas of Expanding global. society and be a global leader in sustainable technologies by scouting and sustaining grassroots innovations. herbal aid to inspirer and a ray of hope to many young budding innovators humans and special focus on women innovators. commonwealth secretariat requested to Pro.000. Anil Gupta Strengthening the capacities of grassroots Rs US $ 150. He Nation development .He was Nominated develop a platform to recognise. February 2009 livelihoods 29 . He has been an farm sustainable technologies . creating knowledge net work at different levels for organizing Common wealth gathering and arranged to augmenting grass roots green innovations and build a global showcase outstanding grass roots innovations at the value chain to get creativity.He set up National Micro (GIAN) Society and Trust in 1997 to scale up grassroots Innovation Fund on 1st October 2003 with collaboration innovations and convert this into viable products or services between SIDBI and NIF.In this field Professor brought news letter on indigenous innovations Anil K Gupta created a replicable model in on the name of Honey Bee Network. He has been He setup Grassroots Innovation Augmentation Network working as President to SRISTI .The key objectives elected at a young age to India’s National Academy of of SRISTI are 1. exhibition in South Africa during 9th June to 15th June 2002. Protect grassroots innovators and inventors Agricultural Sciences and recognition through Pew intellectual property rights. Later he earned his Ph. a new paradigm of development can The only one purpose in Gupta’s life is to make India be unleashed. innovators was established in 1993. has been their development is the crucial thing in the used for strengthen Honey Bee Network. Prof Gupta has designed and supporting Honey Bee Net He was honored many times for his services. Institute of Management.Enrich their cultural and institutional basis of University Of Michigan. His desire to eve of Republic Day 26th January 2004 . Padma Shri work including 23000 innovations and examples of traditional award was given by the honorable President of India on the knowledge from various parts of the country. 3.He Environment Facility (GEF).000 for Bio diversity level innovators and inventors and facilitate conservation and Environment. Honey Bee network has demonstrated that by Professor in Centre for Management in Agriculture. His award across India.D in provides organisational support to the Honey Management from Kurukshetra University Bee network in over 70 countries. respect and reward for Common Wealth Council (CWC).

Books Book Summary When we have gone through pages New Books and read about certain situations like Name: Voices Of The Poor . This poverty at household level. weak capabilities because of Management for Public and Non - the opinion of one poor person from the lack of information. Hungry. It brings its residents. A Bulgarian. of poor” . The poor book is based on the realities of poor opined that the mental stress caused people. To make this happen. skills Profit Organizations: A Strategic Ghana. Shah. Yet the participated in this study expressed development discourse about poverty their opinions regarding what can be has been dominated by the done to alleviate poverty. lives of the poor. This question doesn’t allow us to move further.8 billion poverty experts. you can only feel it. Robert gone to ask for bread several times Responsibility and Urban Chambers. Patti before and hesitated to again. Approach of such opinions. un serviced and stigmatized dwellings “Poverty is like heat. This development workers who don’t value book seeks to reverse this imbalance poor people. If we do who are not poor-professionals. 20. since they had already Name:Corporate Social Authors:Deepa Narayan.000 poor women and men from 23 countries. You can not see of poor. the Development Petesch death of relative in the hospital Author: Edmundo Werna.Crying “the necessity to send the children to Out for Change the neighbor. its causes and how it can be reduced. their children forgetting the taste of sugar and meat. It draws upon research by poverty also showing its impact on conducted in 1999 involving over their relations. “voices of poor” discloses various dimensions of poverty such as precarious. exhausted. we out poor people’s perspectives and should definitely listen to these “voices experiences of poverty. risky. Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan their children could not go to school due to the absence of clothes and shoes” we also feel terribly upset along with the participants of the study. These perspectives and expertise of those opinions are really valuable. “Voice of poor” is a collection and confidence etc. education. Meera K. We all are trying to make by focusing directly on the perspectives this world a better place for living to all and expertise of poor people. we become bad politicians and agency officials. touches our heart by asking ´Do you think that I would risk my life for nothing if I had a job? Do you know what it’s like to have your children crying because they are hungry? ”. So to know bodies. Ramin Keivani required medicine in time. The poor people who the poor themselves. David because they could not buy the Publisher: The World Bank Murphy. 30 livelihoods February 2009 . Isolated. not read them. seasonal and inadequate livelihoods and assets. Pynes expressions of thousands of poor men and women relationship due to Publisher: Jossey –Bass people from all over the world. This book also gave a call for action to bring about a positive change in the There are 2. views and The study also revealed the changing Author: Joan E. sick it. troubled and unequal gender Name: Human Resource poverty you have to go through it” is relations. who lost his leg when he was stealing manganese from the railway station.

displaying some photos of different forms of volunteerism in your community). school. ⇒ Join a Council or Parliament: Seek out various local groups in your community or country that are active in the political circle and advocate for volunteerism in city council and national parliament.e. and form a school February 2009 livelihoods 31 . ⇒ Nominate someone you know for a Volunteer Award: Or apply for a grant if you have a community service idea. Below are just few examples of practical ways you can support the cause of volunteerism. ⇒ Publish Articles: Research and reflect about volunteerism and share your opinion in the local media or on the local community websites. by participating in local events or showing your support for such activities). there are several ways in which you can support the cause of volunteerism in your local communities or outside. Visit the Take Action Website or the US President’s Volunteer Service Award Website ⇒ Create an Artistic Exhibition: Share it in the local media or online (i. Besides participating in the act of volunteering. or businesses to issue a statement of declaration showing their support for volunteerism in achieving the MDGs. ⇒ Participate in Discussion Forums: Engage with other people in your community to share ideas and experiences from volunteering. organization. ⇒ Write to Local Lawmakers: For legislation that supports volunteers and volunteering programmes. ⇒ Help raise Awareness: Talk about volunteerism and distribute information to your friends. knowledge. ⇒ Use the World Volunteer Web: Take advantage of the resources available on the website to educate and inform your peers. Resources Ways to Support Volunteerism Supporting volunteers is an essential part of enhancing volunteering efficacy. (Source: www. Email articles to your friends and colleagues.e. ⇒ Create a Volunteer centre: Match people in your area to community organizations that need volunteers. ⇒ Train Other Volunteers: By equipping them with skills. promoting and enabling volunteering and community involvement is a powerful force for change. family members and other interested people in your community. ⇒ Organize an Open Volunteer Forum: Invite young people and youth organizations in your community to an event and discuss the benefits of volunteering and how to encourage volunteerism. find a staff sponsor. both for those that volunteer and those who want to volunteer. ⇒ Contribute Financially to Volunteer Organizations: Or help out with fund-raising activities with a volunteer organization. ⇒ Get involved in Millennium Development Goals and International Volunteer Day activities (i. worldvolunteerweb . ⇒ Create a School Group to promote volunteerism: Start by recruiting friends with a common interest. Finding creative ways to promote volunteerism is easy. and raise awareness about volunteerism. and resources. ⇒ Network with Other Volunteer Organizations: Join such organizations in your community and work on a volunteer project/event together for International Volunteer Day. ⇒ Create a Statement Supporting Volunteerism in achieving the MDGs: Encourage your local community. Working to secure and support volunteers. This can be done online by visiting websites where you can check out thousands of volunteer opportunities.

boy. did not care. the boys playing hide and seek amidst the bushes learning that he was an inmate of the nearby Ashram. To the sage’s question why he did cool. had happened to Laloo Brahma! physically except that he had been bruised at several This was a knowledge quite exciting to him. walking right along the middle of the road.” pedestrians do not have the knowledge which he had. Story Brahma Face To Face With Brahma There is always a gulf of difference between mentally knowing a truth and realizing the truth. So did three or four pedestrians. Many people are content with their superficial knowledge of a theory. “My boy. All was him high and threw him on the roadside bush and Brahma-said the sage-all the human beings. tall trees on both its The surprised sage heard all that led him to his sides providing it with ample shade and keeping it present condition. the him mentally. but showed no sign of being effected by indicating how much he appreciated or rather the warning. He hill. needless to say. Just as he was himself the Brahma. Do not over-do things. all the birds. He was in a state of daze. a simple answer. Laloo. not move away from the elephant’s path. give way to the elephant!” shouted the This time Laloo was prepared to tell them something mahout again. When the guru explained a text. it pays to scared of the elephant-Brahma? The carter and the be prudent. don’t you see what you are understand anything at all of the guru’s teachings-from going to face?” one of the passers-by shouted at Vedanta to Samkhya. appeared quite interesting to him because put him in the bullock-cart and the carter was kind they were all essentially one-the Brahma. What time he went home. “Be careful boy. the hills-all. all was Nothing much. The road before him was long. over and above the fact that they do not understand the complete implication of the theory even at a mental plane. “Why should Laloo-Brahma be its mahout seated on it and humming a tune. Laloo looked at him displaying a smile of he was the first man in the audience to repeatedly not superiority. None of his childhood himself shouted. the river. move to a side. But Laloo. A wise man’s conduct It is difficult to say how seriously Laloo took his need not be similar to that of the ordinary ones! mentor’s advice . animals. Why should Laloo-Brahma be the sage in whose Ashram he lived. He saw places all over his body. lifted Supreme Reality that pervaded the universe. enough to carry him to the Ashram. Laloo was a good-natured boy but was often told by was the elephant. to his right. approved of the explanation! The elephant had come quite close to him. A scared of the elephant-Brahma?” bullock-cart passing by Laloo moved to a side at the “But why did Laloo-Brahma refuse to listen to the sight of the elephant. That explains their conduct. Lately the sage explained to his students the mystery of Brahma . 32 livelihoods February 2009 . Laloo’s was An elephant was coming from the opposite direction. the trees. all the marched on as if nothing had happened.rather how much he understood it. quite desperately. trees. luckily. that was sure to startle them. though he never confessed to having failed to “You boy. so Laloo. Every Laloo only threw a look of contempt at the rider. But much had happened to everything around him in a new light. mahout Brahma?” asked the sage. the grazing cattle in the fields to his The passers-by helped him to stand up and upon left. get off its way!” the mahout his home after almost a year.the And the elephant took hold of Laloo by its trunk. friends had the privilege to live in an Ashram. had no answer to the sage’s last question. they gathered around him in order does the fellow know of the mystery of the Brahma? to benefit by his wisdom. This little story of Laloo explains us this truth in a simple way. It was a bright morning and Laloo was on his way to “Get off its way.

Sugarcane World 20399 1392365 68257 Egypt 135 16317 120887 Guatemala 190 18721 98534 Colombia 426 39489 93601 Australia 415 38169 91973 India 4200 281170 66945 (Source: Ministry of Agriculture. Groundnut (in shell) World 22232 47768 2149 Indonesia 707 14700 20804 China 4722 14722 3118 Argentina 164 496 3031 U. 499 1479 2964 India 5800 4980 859 5. Trends and Statistics Productivity Deficit in India Area. February 2009 livelihoods 33 . Government of India) A Comparison with the world productivity and that of the four top countries in each crop indicates the productivity deficit that we need to bridge. Production and Yield of Principle Crops in Various Countries in 2006 Country Area (‘000 Hectares) Production(‘000 Tonnes) Yield (Kg/hectare) 1. 1833 14735 8039 France 5247 35367 6740 Egypt 1287 8308 6455 China 23450 104470 4455 India 26480 69350 2619 3. Wheat World 216100 605946 2804 U.S. Maize World 144376 695228 4815 Turkey 28590 267598 9360 Italy 1108 9671 8729 France 1503 12902 8586 Canada 1093 9268 8480 India 7590 14710 1938 4.K.A. Paddy World 154324 634606 4112 Egypt 613 6500 10598 USA 1142 8787 7694 Japan 1688 10695 6336 China 29380 184070 6265 India 43700 136510 3124 2. Probably just lab to land is not the only issue.

Recently one person business. studies his elder son also opened a shoe repairing shop at He used go for labour work and earned money to feed his Baghlingamplly. they bought the house for Rs. With in few years with debts. the people as an expert trader in arecanut. Few years back he members. Gudibanda mandal. daughters married and he also spent some money on his Then he thought that it will be good if he can earn sufficient son’s education. Walking long distances daughters. They repairing which is his family occupation. During that available at lower cost. Baghlingampally area of Hyderabad for rent. He started to go for labour work in which they were earlier staying for rent. after huge expenditure on health he recovered and in the neighbouring village. Soon he was recognized by 34 livelihoods February 2009 . His business involved procuring the areca nut from in the village who knew Krishtappa well gave him a loan to the farmers and selling it to the wholesale traders in a distant restart his areca nut business. income and was left only neighbouring village to earn more money. Now Jarnappa person came to Jarnappa to get his shoe repaired. Let us wish him good luck. Moreover he had taken loans to meet his expenditure. also started repairing shoes near their hut. started cultivating groundnut crop in his 4 acres of dry land. His income wasn’t After 3 years. and a mother. Then Gangamma. Now Jarnappa’s family is leading a happy life. but the income was not sufficient. the state government sanctioned houses sufficient to feed the family. At that time it has extent. All his savings melted within short period of money for the family when his children are young. With the savings he had.only.000 to the city from the village. Then he talked in the state of Karnataka to work as a daily agricultural with the farmers of the neighbouring village and an labour. His elder son got married. She started started working. Krishtappa soon Some years ago a NGO called MYRADA had worked in this got knee pains and his health became worse. They consumed low quality food items that are became a problem for him to lead the family. That made his village for the upliftment of poor and needy people.Planned Out Of Poverty! A few years ago. Then he made his wife also to earn. At that time the family had three earning family. At around the same time Krishtappa got his two programme. Because of But he was not engaged all the year in that farming activity.20. he started areca nut village he returned to his native village. So he could not educate Broken Lives Ill Health Brings Down Krishtappa! Boya Krishtappa was a resident of N. He thought that it will be difficult to live with one children also stopped their education with 10th class and income. the household expenditure also increased proper planning and timely decisions. But as the overcame all their difficulties and moved out of poverty with children grew up. invest again in his business. They He wanted to give education to all his sons. in the city. With Hyderabad. It was very tough to live in the city along with the his wife. But he hardly had any money to were cultivating areca nut crop in 10 acres of land. So he time. Ananthapur district. Case Studies Out of Poverty Jarnappa . Being unable to get work and earn money in that Krishtappa. Krishtappa is now busy in market. Roppam village. a son. Once. As he became unable to walk he stopped built houses for poor people under the house building his business. But the work availability in this village is not agreement was made between them to sell the total crop to continuous. He lost all his savings. The remaining three Hyderabad. lack of rains for continuous years he hardly got any yields on So he also started working as an agriculture labour in a his land. Along with them Jarnappa’s family also migrated that savings of 8 years. He has a wife. family because of the high cost of living. He has a wife and four sons. Gradually he is set on increasing his income. During his work Later. The family was able to save fair period many labour families in the village started migrating to amount of money by spending their earnings carefully. Krishtappa also got a house through this health. He gave has 3 shoe repairing shops. a earning money. So he shifted to that house which is at coin boxes. Along with the shoe repairing the information about a hut which will be available only at Rs shops. Nature also was not favorable to him at this time. to many villages for his business purposes. and he earned lots of money. he was able to save good amount of money. Hence he migrated to a village Krishtappa thought of trading in areca nut.R. He incurred huge expenditure to revive his programme. In the initial years his business gave fruitful results restarting his business. he observed the farmers who became capable to work. He did not get any assets from his father. Because of that he started shoe under housing scheme to the dwellers of that locality. Now all the members of the family are doing work as a domestic servant to earn money. constructed a pucca house with their savings and also with First he started his shoe repairing on a busy street at the support from the government. They also reduced their expenditure to a large was unable to get any work in his village. Having discontinued Medak district. he is also running a petty shop and maintaining two 15/. They life upside down. He has 4 acres of dry land. two But life took a u-turn for Krishtappa. Jarnappa lived at Nizampet village of his elder by beyond intermediate.

Meanwhile I have learnt versa. A woman has a right to live with dignity …. The richness of a Can we do this? Yes. reconciled that there is enough for everybody’s need. and intelligence of the universe. relationships and resources we have need to be used for this. promises to build Ram When we have reconciled that what matters the most in life – Mandir. now. say and purushottama. knowing the have proved to be effective vehicles for the economic tools and the agility to use them. every 3 hours. recognize that great opportunities often disguise themselves Rahman in the West! Sunderlal Bahuguna. talents. as much as 30-40 grams/day.. this. Campaigns asking way forward is loving life. The best time to love is go wrong. Eat a union of purpose and practice. to place an insider as its CEO. when you feel lazy. they will be met.” Obviously. you become they should be ever ready to take over the responsibility spontaneous. Satyam is still in news. mental. Advertisers do not miss the development and spiritual spheres. But know the soul level beyond body.SHGs emotional and spiritual. President points out about increasing G Muralidhar the souls ‘lost’! Into the ‘whole’ and sum total of all souls! emphasis on people’s participation in development processes. emotional cola can and 50 mg in tea cup. Scandalam"! Rajus are safe in Chanchalguda Jail. Then the peace. This ‘atma’ The month. society. Eat more and varied fruits and vegetables. Boost Endurance and alertness. some processes that better the health Join us in the world of yoga . people for work. when others do not respond to you. …. endorse the processes underway and get ready to handover IBN! the leadership to our young men and women in every sphere of life including political sphere apart from economic. Barack Obama took over as the 44th President of situations – when others drive you down. eldercare. life is love. mind and heart. They others. Vijay Mahajan Elections are round the corner. and Sister in small. growth …. When Krishna advises the atma yoga practitioners/partners – you are in tune with the flow and go with it. Then. as you get drenched in We celebrated Republic Day with our the nectar. You will not regret it. We need to teach them to love life. and spiritual dimensions simultaneously is pursued.” and souls.. when you nurture we face are real. They: Enhance Mood. this requires practice and patience. Many of its states are also getting ready for the state Choose local foods. All the gifts. use stairs. when doubt creeps USA. when things are not going right. It is said – Even if 10% more votes – many equations and calculations the best way to spell love is “TIME”. and when someone’s trust is at will not be met easily or in a short span of time. if we pursue few cannot be at the cost of … others …The poor and the Atma Yoga and pursue the discipline of developing all disadvantaged people need to be drawn into circles of four intelligences and bonds – physical.Today I say to you that the challenges down. We This is also season of awards. Apart from fasting. and We need to practice atma yoga with our co-practitioners/ Improves Brain health. eyes soak and Prime Minister in the hospital. Third Front is materializing slowly. shelter etc. it is the only party which is unequivocal about air. joy and the bliss will be ours. Boosts metabolic activity. food. Anything beyond 575 mg caffeine/day mentors in all dimensions of our being where the is not beneficial. the fasting works Manmohan Singh undergoes by-pass and Vajpayee is on miracles for us! ventilator. Slum Dog Millionaire. As you mentor and nurture. people’s feelings and spirit. livelihoods on a scale and beyond micro-finance. ‘Yoga’kshemam India is getting ready for general elections for Lok Sabha. It is time we as a country considered for Indian of the Year – Public Service by CNN. as much as 5-7 litres/day. living a life of values are part of the discipline. manifestos. Yet. Maturity in practicing this discipline is tested in a variety of Of course. As atma yoga practitioners. thoughts and words. opportunities. water. Sharam. Consume less sugars. In fact. and when we have creating small states. routine and seemingly insignificant tasks. For this we need to be doing the same. Nirmala are one of the few who represented development work in Padma Awards of the year. I am still inching towards the 36-hour fasting a week. Being all dimensions of our being – include: Drink more water. resource centres and learning programs. more about tea and coffee. he has delivered a speech that when giving space for others. Be moderate on any foods/drinks. Practice loving life. They are serious and they are many. when your progress slows moved the world – “…. except actively guided and led by the co-practitioners and vice- some water and low calorie liquids. Old guard is giving way!?! Bharatiya Janata Party goes back – brings Rama upfront. She tells us . tears swell. connecting with other life transformation….“…. being fit. they should appreciate and practice the concept of contentment. when drawn into quarrel. time! On this occasion. 46 mg in a discipline of seeking yoga in physical.a tagline from Amul "Satyam. energy. spent on five items broadly – yoga calls for seeking yoga in actions. The best expression of love is time. mental. expand to love and merge in eternal and associated with the spread of knowledge throughout the universal ‘whole’. warmth. the Congress wants to go alone nationally. He has to take oath twice as he was not smooth first in. opportunity . say every half-hour.. Walk. Beware! 100 mg in coffee cup. life is love. The best use of people to vote and honest to contest are gaining momentum. that was. assembly elections. and practitioners – purusha more fibre. February 2009 livelihoods 35 . the investigations are going slow and Satyam Board goes ahead whole and universe. Eat often. Stretch and move around even at work.

February 2 .World Wetlands Day .