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• A living person cannot have his or her picture on
a United States bill.
• Some words that people sometimes use for
money are bread, bucks, greenbacks, jack, and dough.
• The United States Mint makes about 20 million
pennies each day.
Cause and Effect
• Chart • Sidebars • Captions
Scott Foresman Social Studies
AND HOW IT WORKS
In this book you will learn how the United States economy works, along with the different goods and services that can be bought and sold. You will explore your role in the economies of our nation and of the world.
Write to It!
Write two paragraphs describing at least two goods and two services that students might provideAND community. WORKS in your HOW IT Write your paragraphs on a separate sheet of paper.
economy goods services consumer producer supply demand tax globalization
Photographs Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions. Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman, a division of Pearson Education. Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd) ISBN: 0-328-14847-4 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Permissions Department, Scott Foresman, 1900 East Lake Avenue, Glenview, Illinois 60025. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V0G1 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 Opener: ©Getty Images 2 ©Getty Images, ©Stephen Oliver/DK Images, (Bkgd) ©Getty Images 3 ©David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit 4 ©Getty Images 6 ©James Leynse/CorbisEditorial Offices: Glenview, Illinois • Parsippany, New Jersey • New York, New York 7 ©AFP/Getty Images 9 ©Owen Franken/CorbisSales Offices: Needham, Massachusetts • Duluth, Georgia • Glenview, Illinois 10 ©Ted Wood/Getty Images Coppell, Texas • Sacramento, California • Mesa, Arizona 13 ©Brand X Pictures 14 ©Greg Pease/Getty Images
These are all examples of goods that are bought and sold.
Consumers and Producers
Consumers buy goods and services that they need or want. We are all consumers. Some people are also producers. They make or provide goods and services and sell them to consumers. Producers such as bakers, farmers, and CD makers provide goods. Producers such as barbers, pilots, and dentists provide services. Consumers and producers depend on one another. Without producers, there would be no goods and services to buy. Without consumers, there would be no one to buy goods and services. A strong economy has a balance between production and consumption. There must be enough goods for most consumers who want them but not so many that a large number of goods remain unsold.
Goods and Services
When you buy something, you are taking part in the economy, which is a system of buying and selling goods and services. Goods include sporting equipment, books, CDs, and clothing—almost anything that you can hold or touch. Services include things such as piano lessons, haircuts, and airplane trips—things that you cannot touch or hold.
In different parts of the world, many different items have been used as money. The first coins were used some 2,600 years ago along the border where Europe meets Asia. About 1,400 years ago, the Chinese began using paper money.
The dog groomer is a producer with a service to sell. The dog owner is a consumer buying that service.
Needs and Wants
The goods and services that people must have to live are called needs. Needs include food, shelter, and clothing. Wants are goods and services that we would like to have but that are not necessary to living. Foods such as bread and fruit are needs. Things such as ice cream and CDs are wants. You probably have your own list of wants. We usually must wait to fulfill our wants until we have what we need.
In the past, people produced almost all the goods they needed by themselves. We now depend on one another to produce most goods and provide services.
Consumers have to make many choices because no one can buy everything he or she wants. If you have money to spend, you might want to buy a book and a CD. You may not have enough money for both, though, so you will have to choose one. How do people decide what to buy? In the United States, there are many choices. For example, a grocery store may sell nearly twenty-five kinds of cereal. Cereal makers want people to know about their products, so they hire advertisers. The advertisers create advertisements for magazines, radio, and television. The advertisements tell consumers what to buy. It is important to know that advertisements can sometimes mislead you.
Shoppers today are faced with many choices. Wise consumers read and watch advertisements carefully.
Supply and Demand
The amount of goods and services produced is called the supply. The want or need that makes consumers buy these goods and services is the demand. In a strong economy, supply and demand should be balanced. There should be a large supply of an item if there is a large demand for it. Items in less demand should be made in smaller amounts. Producers must plan carefully to provide the right amount of goods and services. Sometimes the supply of an item is larger than the demand for it and there are items left over. A small supply of an item that is in great demand means that some people will not be able to buy that item.
Cost and Price
A producer of tested. Soccer balls like this one can be soccer balls has made quickly and cheaply. Each one is exactly the same. to buy materials and hire workers to make the balls. He or she also must have a place for those people to do their work. The money spent on these things adds up to the producer’s costs. The cost for making one soccer ball may be seven dollars. The producer may decide to sell each ball for ten dollars. The difference between the cost and the price, called a profit, is three dollars. Producers can then spend this money on goods and services for themselves. Money travels in a circle. It goes from consumer to producer, and then to other producers and consumers.
In this photograph, a soccer ball is being
When the demand for a product is less than the supply, the seller may lower the price.
Employment and Wages
The owner of a factory or store is an employer. The people who have jobs at the factory or store are the employees. The employer pays the employees for the work they do. When the workers receive their pay, they can then buy goods and services that they want and need. The workers may also save the money they earn. Employers and employees act as a team. When employers pay their employees fairly, the employees will do good work and make a profit for their employer.
Where do producers get the materials to make into goods and services to sell? Many materials are natural resources such as trees, oil, and water. Human resources are the workers who produce the goods and services. Miners, doctors, and teachers are examples of human resources. Capital resources include the machinery used to make the goods and services. One example of a capital resource is the machine that sews together a soccer ball.
This worker is a human resource. He, in turn, is using many other resources to do his job. His tools, for example, are capital resources.
Our Nation’s Economy
Not all countries have the same kind of economy. In some countries, the government decides what goods and services will be made. The government may even decide who will make these goods and services. In the United States, people and businesses can choose to make any kind of good or service. This kind of economy is called free enterprise. Our state and national governments help give citizens some of the goods and services they need. The government does this by collecting many kinds of taxes.
Tax money helps pay for our national parks, such as Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming.
One kind of tax is sales tax, an extra charge on some goods you buy. For example, if a CD costs ten dollars, the seller may charge you ten dollars and fifty cents. The extra fifty cents sales tax is money that is sent to your state government. Other taxes go to the federal government. This tax money pays for services such as national parks. It also pays for playgrounds, schools, police, and firefighters. Everyone in the country needs these services. Some government money also goes to people who cannot work, such as elderly or disabled people.
Goods from Around the World
Your home may contain some goods from faraway places as well as some goods from places close to home. You can often learn where an item was made by looking at its label or at its bottom. This is a list of items that may be found in a family’s kitchen. It shows where each item was made.
KIND OF GOOD
Clock Toaster Oven Mug Blender Dish Fork Teapot Place Mat
Hong Kong Japan England Mexico China Germany France India
Some goods can be made more cheaply in other countries than they can be in the United States. Because of this, United States factories sometimes close and factory workers may lose their jobs. The loss of jobs is a problem for workers and for the United States economy. Sometimes a company in the United States moves its factories to another country. When this happens, our nation’s workers may lose their jobs to workers in the other country. Even some of our nation’s service jobs sometimes move out of the country. For example, a company may have its customer service calls answered in places as far away as India.
Imports and Exports
The goods that a country buys from other countries are called imports. The goods that a country sells to other countries are called exports. One of the most important imports bought by the United States is oil from countries in the Middle East. Without oil our nation’s economy would not be as productive. Goods could not be delivered, and many machines could not be run. Years ago the United States exported more goods than it imported. Today our nation imports more goods than it exports. Experts who study the economy are worried about this lack of balance in trade.
World trade has increased because of better communication and transportation. This trade has led to a world economy in which goods and services move easily among many countries—called globalization. Globalization makes the economies of countries more dependent on each other. Around the world people watch American movies, listen to American music, and wear American fashions. Citizens of the United States can enjoy such things as fruit from Mexico, cars from Japan, and shoes from Italy. As a result, people feel that they are citizens of the world and not only citizens of their home country.
Many imports and exports are sent by sea.
In this book Glossaryyou will learn how the United States
economy works, along with the different goods consumer a person who buys goods and services and services that can be bought and sold. You demand theyour role of an item that consumers will explore amount in the economies of our are willing to buy at different prices nation and of the world. economy the way in which the resources of a country, state, region, or community are Vocabulary managed economy globalization the process by which a business goods makes something or provides a service in different places around the world services goods items that can be bought and sold consumer producer a person who makes goods or producer products to sell supply services jobs that someone does for others demand supply the amount of an item someone has tax to sell globalization tax money the government collects to pay for its services
Write to It!
Write two paragraphs describing at least two goods and two services that students might provide in your community. Write your paragraphs on a separate sheet of paper.
Photographs Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions. Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman, a division of Pearson Education. Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd) ISBN: 0-328-14847-4 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Permissions Department, Scott Foresman, 1900 East Lake Avenue, Glenview, Illinois 60025. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V0G1 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 Opener: ©Getty Images 2 ©Getty Images, ©Stephen Oliver/DK Images, (Bkgd) ©Getty Images 3 ©David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit 4 ©Getty Images 6 ©James Leynse/Corbis 7 ©AFP/Getty Images 9 ©Owen Franken/Corbis 10 ©Ted Wood/Getty Images 13 ©Brand X Pictures 14 ©Greg Pease/Getty Images
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