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Courses

B.S Applied Geology 1st Professional Year


1st Semester
NO.
COURSE TITLE
GEO.111
GEO.112
GEO.113
GEO.114
GEO.115
GEO.116

English
Pakistan Studies
Islamic Studies
Applied Physics-1
Applied Chemistry-1
Geomorphology

2nd Semester
NO.
COURSE TITLE
GEO.121
GEO.122
GEO.123
GEO.124
GEO.125
GEO.126

Arabic
Applied Mathematics-1
Mineralogy
Paleontology
General Geology
Field Work Report

LEC.
HRS
03
02
02
03
03
03

LAB.
HRS
..
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01
01
..

CREDIT
HRS
03
02
02
04
04
03

LEC.
HRS
03
03
03
03
03
..

LAB.
HRS
..
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01
01
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CREDIT
HRS
03
03
04
04
03
04

LEC.
HRS
03
03
03
03
03

LAB.
HRS
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01
01
01
01

CREDIT
HRS
03
04
04
04
04

LEC.
HRS
03
03
03
03
..

LAB.
HRS
01
01
01
01
..

CREDIT
HRS
04
04
04
04
04

B.S Applied Geology 2nd Professional Year


3rd Semester
NO.
COURSE TITLE
GEO.231
GEO.232
GEO.233
GEO.234
GEO.235

Applied Mathematics-2
Applied Physics-2
Stratigraphy
Petrology
Advance Minerology

4th Semester
NO.
COURSE TITLE
GEO.241
GEO.242
GEO.243
GEO.244
GEO.245

Applied Chemistry-2
Geomathematics
Field Geology
Surveying
Field Work Report

B.S Applied Geology 3rd Professional Year


5th Semester
NO.
COURSE TITLE
GEO.351
GEO.352
GEO.353
GEO.354
GEO.355

LEC.
HRS
03
03
03
03
03

LAB.
HRS
01
01
01
01
01

CREDIT
HRS
04
04
04
04
04

LEC.
HRS
Sedimentation and Sedimentary Basins of 03
Pakistan
03
Foundation Engineering
03
Micropaleontology
03
Geowriting
..
Field Work Report

LAB.
HRS
01
01
01
01
..

CREDIT
HRS
04
04
04
04
04

LEC.
HRS
03
03
03
03
03

LAB.
HRS
01
01
01
01
01

CREDIT
HRS
04
04
04
04
04

LEC.
HRS
03
03
03
03
03
..
..
..

LAB.
HRS
01
01
01
01
01
..
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CREDIT
HRS
04
04
04
04
04
04
S/U
S/U

Structural Geology
Statistical Geology
Petroleum Geology
Geophysics
Engineering Geology

6th Semester
NO.
COURSE TITLE
GEO.361
GEO.362
GEO.363
GEO.364
GEO.365

B.S Applied Geology 4th Professional Year


7th Semester
NO.
COURSE TITLE
GEO.471
GEO.472
GEO.473
GEO.474
GEO.475

Geohydrology
Geotectonics
Seismology
Geotechnical Engineering
Gemology

8th Semester
NO.
COURSE TITLE
GEO.481
GEO.482
GEO.483
GEO.484
GEO.485
GEO.486
GEO.490
GEO.491

Applied Computer (Geoinformatics & GIS)


Economic Geology
Photogeology and Remote Sensing
Geochemistry
Well logging
Field Work Report
Comprehensive Oral Examination
Internship Practical Training

Geo-111

English Comprehensive

Credit hours: 3(3+0)

1. Translation from Urdu into English, Applied Grammar, Correction of sentences


(this includes right use of tenses, syntax formation etc).
a. Use of preposition, articles. (Student should be expected to fill in the
blanks in sentences with appropriate prepositions etc.)
b. Distinction between pair of words.
c. Idiomatic expressions:
2. Precise-writing, Comprehension and Essay-Writing
3. Technical Report Writing
4. Correspondence (Commercial and Industrial).

TEXT BOOKS:
1. A Practical English Grammar for Foreign Students (With Exercise) by Thomson
& Martinet (Oxford University Press. Lahore Branch).
2. Polymer English Grammar and Composition of B.A Classes.
3. Principles of Technical writing by Robert Hays (Addison-Wesley, Reading,
Massachusets).

Geo-114
Applied Physics-1
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
Vector:
1.
Vector notation, vector addition, vectors in the Cartesian coordinate
system, scalar product (of two vectors) vector product (of two vectors). Scalar of
triple product, vector triple product, gradiset of a scalar, divergence of a vector,
divergence theorem, Stocks theorem.
2.
Conservation of Energy: Concept of conservation laws, conservation of
energy, worked and kinetic energy, power, conservation forces, rotational energy,
potential energy in an electric & Gravitational field.
3.
Dynamics of Rigid Bodies, Center of mass, conservation of angular
momentum, equation of motion of rotating body, moment of inertia,
perpendicular axes & parallel axis theorems. Calculation of moment of inertia for
a disc & solid sphere. Eulers theorem, Gyroscope cortolis forces.
4.
Inverse Square Law of forces: Newton laws, ficlitioris forces, Newton law
of Universal Gravitation b/w point mass & solid spheres, Keplers laws, satellite
in circular orbit escape velocity.
5.
Electrostatics: Electro charges as source of electric flux, Gausss theorem,
Electrostatic potential, Poissons equation, Laplace Equation Potential due to:
(a) Point Charge
(b) dipole capacity of spherical condenser, dielectrics.
LABS:
1. Surface tension by capillary rise.
2. Value of g by compound pendulum.
3. Modulus of rigidity by Maxwells Needle method.
4. Use of sextant and measurement of longitude.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Mechanics by A.B.Pal.
Geo-115

Applied Chemistry-1

Credit hours; 4(3+1)

1. Phase rule for one and two component system and Distribution laws.
2. First & Second Laws of thermodynamics with applications.
(Cp-Cv=R)
3.
Brief introduction to nuclear chemistry: Nuclear fission and fusion,
Nuclear reactors, uses of isotopes and radioisotopes.
4. Metallurgy:
Major steps involved in metallurgy of Iron and Copper.
5. Solutions:
Types, Eubulioscopic constant, distribution law and various properties of
solutions.
6. Complexometric Methods:
(Titration and its various types, concept of Mono, di and plydentate ligoinds.

LABS:
1. Qualitative analysis of a mixture containing four radicals.
2. Refractive Index of Various liquids.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Physical Chemistry for B.Sc students by Ghulam Nabi and P.A Khokar.
2. Chromatography by Dr. Nasar-ud-din.
Geo-116

GEOMORPHOLOGY

Credit hours; 3(3+0)

1. Weathering: Processes of Weathering, Physical and chemical weathering, effects


and products, soil formation.
2. The peneplain concepts, flood plains and associated features.
3. Valley formation, Base level, Drinage pattern, stream meandering, river terraces,
rejuvenation and its evidences, Geomorphic cyles.
4. Wind erosion, arid zone landforms, arid dunes and loess deposits.
5. Glaciation, glacial erosion, glacial deposition, glacial landforms, glaciers of
Pakistan.
6. Concept of hydrosphere.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Principles of physical geology by Arthur Holmes.
2. Physical Geology by Foster.
3. Earth Sea and air by J.Spar.
4. Principles of Geomorphology by Thombury.
5. Planetary Geology by Schort.
6. Physical Geology by Hudson.
7. Physical Geology by Flint.
Geo-121
1.
2.
3.
4.

ARABIC

Credit hours; 3(3+0)

Translation from Arabic to Urdu.


Translation from Urdu to Arabic.
Comprehension.
Grammar.

TEXT BOOKS:

Geo-122

APPLIED MATHEMATICS-1

Credit hours; 3(3+0)

1. Quadratic equations and systems of equations: Standard form of quadratic


equations. Methods of factorization, quadratic formula, cube root of unity, equations
reducible to quadratic form, discriminet of quadratic equation, writing equation from

roots, system of equations when one equation is linear and other quadratic, and both
are quadratic.
2. Trigonometry: Distance formula, units of angle relation between radian and
degree, central angle and are length, rotation of angles, sine and cosine functions,
other trigonometric functions, fundamental identities, fundamental of trigonometry,
deduction from fundamental laws, general identities, conservation of sums and
products.
3. Differentiation: The concept of limit continuity, increments, rate of change,
derivative rules, differentiation and derivatives of some elementary functions.
4. Integration: Standard formula for integration of basic functions, finding indefinite
integrals by substitution, trigonometric substitutions, completing square, integration
by parts, integration of irrational functions.
SECTION-II
1. Plane analytic geometry straight line circle: Locus of an equation intercept and
symmetry, directed distance of a straight line, division of a line segment into given
ratio, angle from one line to another, inclination of the line passing through P(x1, y1),
Q(x2,y2), parallel and perpendicular lines, equation of line passing through the
intersection of two lines, angle from one line to another in terms of three slopes,
inequities of first degree equation, distance of a point from line, area of triangle, the
equation x2+y2+2gx+2fy+c=0, circle determined by given conditions.
2. Matrices: Definition, algebra of matrices, transpose, conjugate, special type of
matrices, identity matrix, diagonal matrix, triangular, idempotent, nilpotent singular,
symmetric, skew symmetric, Hermition, skew hermition matrix, rank of a matrix,
elementary row and column operation, equivalent matrices, computation of the rank
of matrix.
3. System of linear equation: Homogeneous and nonhomogeneous system of linear
equation, Gaussian elimination method (introduction and examples), Gauss-Jorden
method, solution by use of matrix.
4. Determinents: Definition
and properties of determinents, evaluation of
determinents, products of determinents, adjoint and inverse of a matrix.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Algebra and trigonometry for Intermediate Students by S.M Yousaf.
2. Calculus with Analytic Geometry for Intermediate Students by S.M Yousaf.
3. Mathematics Methods by S.M Yousaf.
Geo-123

MINERALOGY

Credit hours; 4(3+1)

A. CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
Crystallography: Minerals, crystalline and non-crystalline states. Crystal
morphology, Law of constancy of interfacial angles, Crystal symmetry and elements
of symmetry-plans. Centre and axis symmetry, Axes of Rotation and Rotary
inversion, Space Groups, Harmann-Hauguin Notation, Crystallographic Axes, Crystal
Systems, Axial Ratio, parameters Miller System of indices, Crystal Forms, Zones and
Habits, Measurements of Crystal Angles, gonimetry and crystal projections. The six

crystal systems. Twinning and twinned crystals, Causes and effects of twinning,
Introduction to x-ray Crystallography, Powder method.
Physical Mineralogy: Cleavage, Parting and tracture, hardness and Mohs scale of
hardness, Tenacity, specify gravity, Properties depending upon light, color, luster,
streak, luminescene.
Chemical Mineralogy: Crystal Chemistry, Polymorphism and Isomorphism,
compositional variation in Minerals, Chemical Formulas, Blow pipe and Chemical
Tests and Etch Tests.
LABS:
Study of Crystal Models and natural crystals, crystal goniometry and
projection, megascopic examination of minerals.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Rock forming minerals by Der Howie and Zussmen.
2. Rutleys Elements of Mineralogy by H.H Reed.
3. Mannuals of Mineralogy by E.S Danas New Edition.
4. Mineralogy by Betty and Mason.
Geo-124
4(3+1)

PALAEONTOLOGY

Credit

hours;

1. Defination of Palaeontology and its relation with closely allied subjects. Organic
world, Animal Kingdom, Classification of animals, Habitats and habits of animals
with respect to environments.
2. Fossils: Fossilization, Modes of Fossil Preservation, Geological signification of
Fossils, Geological time scale.
3. Introduction to Vertebrate Palaeontology, Outline of historical geology of
Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras.
4. Invertebrate Palaeontology: Study of hard parts of important phyla of invertebrate
Fossils, Protozoa (Foraminifera), Coelenterata, Mollusca: Echinodermata,
Brachiopoda, Greptozoa, Bryozoa and Arthropoda, Geological distribution of various
Phyla of fossils, Evolutionary Trends and importance; Examples from Pakistan.
LABS:
Drawing of typical representative fossils showing morphological features, Study
in hand specimen and/or microscope of important genera, Distribution of important index
fossils.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Palaeontology Invertebrate by Henry Wood.
2. Invertebrate fossils by Raymond C. Moore.
3. Principles of Palaeontology by Raup and Stanley.
4. Principles of Invertebrate Palaeontology by Shrock and Twenhofel.

5. Organic evolution by Lull.


6. Introduction to Palaeontology by Arnold.
7. Vertebrate Paleontology by Romer.

Geo-125

GENERAL GEOLOGY

Credit hours; 3(3+0)

1. Earth as a planet, its place in the Universe and its origin, Continents, Earthquakes,
Sesmic Waves and Internal Structure of the Earth, Geomagnetism and Earths gravity
field, Geochronology and age of the Earth, Isostasy,
Introduction to volcanism, generation of magma and igneous activity,
Crystallization of magma, plutonic and volcanic environments and products,
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks.
2. Earth and the space sciences, Moon as Earths neighbor, Meteorites.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Principles of physical geology by Arthur Holmes.
2. Physical Geology by Foster.
3. Earth Sea and air by J.Spar.
4. Principles of Geomorphology by Thombury.
5. Planetary Geology by Schort.
6. Physical Geology by Hudson.
7. Physical Geology by Flint.
Geo-126

FIELD WORK REPORT

Credit hours; 4

Guided Mineralogical, Geological and Geomorphological study of fifteen days


preferably of Azad Kashmir, Collection of field data, geological specimens, minerals,
rocks and fossils, Preparation of field sketches, taking photographs, toposheet reading,
location, surveying and field note book; final submission of Field Work Report.
Note: The grading in the field by field supervisors will be 10% and 90% by the Field
Work Report Committee.
Geo-231
3(3+0)

APPLIED MATHEMATICS-II

Credit

hours;

Complex numbers: Introduction to complex numbers, polar from of complex numbers,


De Meivers Theorem and its simple application.
Analytic geometry of three dimensions: Introduction, straight line in R3 or three
dimension or space, direction cosines, angle between two straight lines, distance of a
point from a straight line, planes in R3 or three dimensions or space, angle between two
planes, shortest distance between two straight lines, surface in R3 or three dimension or
space, the sphere.
Differential equation: Formation of differential equation, simple initial value and
boundary value problems, linear and nonlinear differential equation, homogeneous and
non homogeneous differential equation, exact equations, integrating factors,

complementary solutions, homogeneous linear equations, differential operators,


particulars integrals solutions of differential equations, Higher order differential
equations and their solutions.
Introduction to Fourier series: Introduction to Fourier series, Fourier series of period
2, Fourier series of any period, Fourier of even and odd functions, Fourier sine and
cosine series.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Mathematical Methods by S.M Yousaf,2003 edition.
2. Calculus and Analytical geometry by S.M Yousaf,2003 edition.
3. Advanced Engineering Mathematics by Erwin Kreyszig, 8th edition.
4. Calculus by Thomas/ Finney edition.
Geo-232

APPLIED PHYSICS

Credit hours; 3(3+0)

1. Magnetism:Explanation of dia, pura and ferromagnetism on atomic structure of an


atom, Magnetic circuit, Relation b/w susceptibility & permeability, Hysteresis
determination of B-H curve using a Ballistic galvanometer, Magnetic Shell &
Amperes law, Method of measuring magnetic field.
2. Current Electricity:Magnetic flux density B. Amphers law & calculation of B due to current
in (a) Long Straight, (b) Solenoid, (c) Toriod, Biot and Sarvats law & calculation of
B, unit of current carrying conductor in a magnetic field, theory and construction of
moving coil and magnetic galvanometer.
3. Definition of different system of units C.G.S Electrostatic & C.G.S Electromagnetic system of units, practical units, Gavssion System of units.
4. Optics:Reflection and refraction, Sertent wave theory, Interference, Biprism &
Michelin interferometer determination of wave length and thickness by using
Michelins interfero-meter, Diffraction, diffraction by single & double & N slits.
5. Radio activity:Natural radio activity, Nature & Charge of alpha, Beta & Gama rays, radio
active series, laws of radioactive decay, Half life & artificial radio activity &
transuranic elements.
LABS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Conservation of pointer galvanometer into a voltmeter & in ammeter.


Frequency of A.C supply.
Low resistance by carry foster bridge.
B-H curve by magnetometer.
Measurement of H by A.B Pal.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Electricity & Magnatism by A.B.Pal.

Geo-233

STRATIGRAPHY

Credit hours; 4(3+1)

A. STRATIGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES:
1. Definition of stratigraphy; its development and relation with allied subjects.
2. Principles of stratigraphy.
3. Time scale and its origin.
4. Brief classification and composition of stratified rocks.
5. Stratigraphic classification (lithospheric, biostratigraphic, geochronologic,
chronostratigraphic, ecostratigraphic etc.)
6. Stratigraphic nomenclature.
7. Various types of contacts i.e
Unconformable, conformable, unconsolidated, inferred, conceales, tectonic, intrusive
and extrusive.
8. Unconformities; their stratigraphic, sedimentation and tectonic significance.
9. Lateral variation and facies changes.
10. Correlation and its principles, isopachites.
11. Graphic and symbol representation in stratigraphy.
12. Introduction to principles of magneto-stratigraphy, seismo-stratigraphy and
tectono-stratigraphy.
B. STRATIGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN:
1. Stratigraphy of Pakistan in general.
2. Stratigraphy of Foreland of Indian Plate such as Azad Kashmir Basin. Hazara,
Peshwar Basin, Salt Range, Kohat Potwar Basin, Balouchistan in particular.
LABS:
1. Study of Stratigraphic rock specimens and fpssils of Pakistan.
2. Preparation of stratigraphic columns and correlation charts by studying rock
specimens using international rock symbols.
3. Isopach maps and their interpretation.
4. Study of geological maps, preparation of geological cross section and
interpretation of geological history.
5. Section measurement around Muzaffarabad and preparation of lithologs.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Principles of Stratigraphy by C.O Dunbar and J. Rogers, John Wiley & Sons New
York, 1957.
2. Principles of stratigraphy by Whyller.
3. Memoir No. 12 & 13 of Geological survey of Pakistan.
4. Principals of Stratigraphic analysis by Blatt H. Berry, W.B.N, Blande S., 1991,
Publisher Blackwell.
5. Geodynamics of Pakistan by A. Farah & K.A Dejong, G.S.P Quetta, 1979.
6. Basin Analysis: Principles and Application by Allen P.A, and Allen J.r, 1992.
Publisher Blackwell.
7. Sedimentary Structure by Collision J.D and Thoorpson D.B, 1989, Publisher
Unwin Hayman, London.

8. Principals of Stratigraphy by Leoson, 1990, distributors Book Ocean, Pakistan.


9. Geology of India by Wadia (Indian Edition) 1994, Publisher Tata MGraw-Hill,
book Ocean Pakistan.
10. Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan by Kazmi, A.H Jan, M.Q, 1997, publisher
Graphic Karachi Pakistan.
11. Proceedings of the International Committee on Geodynamics special issue of the
Geological Bulletins, University of Peshawar.
12. Geological Bulletins of the Punjab and Peshawar Universities.
13. Kashmir Journals of Geology, AJK University Muzaffarabad.
Geo-234

PETROLOGY

Credit hours; 4(3+1)

A. IGNEOUS PETROLOGY:
1. Concept of magma, magmatic crystallization and differentiation and its formation
at rift and continental margins.
2. Phase relation: One-component system. P-T diagram of water. Two component
system-congruent melting. Two component system-solid solution series.
3. Classification of Igneous rocks: Chemical classification, Modal classification.
4. Ultramafic rocks: Classification, Occurrence, Composition, and textures.
5. Mafic Rocks: Plutonic and volcanic divisions, composition, form of
occurrennces.
6. Intermediate & Acidic rocks: Syenites and Trachytes, Andesites and Diorites,
Granites and Granodiorites, Rhyolites and Dacites.
7. Silica undersaturated rocks: Lamprophyres, Nepheline bearing rocks,
kimberlites, Carbonatiles.
B. SEDIMENTARY PETROLOGY:
1. Introduction: Types of sedimentary rocks and depositional basins, chemical and
mechanical weathering.
2. Argillaceous/arenaceous rocks: Classification of argillaccous and arenaceous
rocks.
The mioneral composition of argillaceous rocks. The mineral composition of
arenaceous rocks. Diagenesis: composition & cementation in arenaceous and
argillaceous rocks.
3. Limestones and Dolomite: Field observations and classification of limestones
and dolomites, Dolomitization.
C. METAMORPHIC PETROLOGY:
1. Introduction, metamorphism and agents of metamorphism, types of metamorphic
rock; thermal, dynamic and regional metamorphic rocks.
2. Concept of facies: graphical representation, mineral changes during
metamorphism, Metamorphism of argillaceous rocks.
LABS:
1. Megascopic identification of common igneous, sedimentary and metamorphoic
rocks.

2. Mineral description in following rocks (thin sections): dunnite, wherlite, gabbro,


norite, diorite, granite, nephelene, synite, sandstone, limestone, dolomite, slate,
garnet, micaschist, gneiss.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Petrology by Ehler, E.G. and Blatt, H. Freeman and Company San Francisco,
1982.
2. Petrology of the sedimentary rocks by Greensmith, J.T Thomas Murley & Co.
London, 1971.
3. Petrology of the sedimentary rock by Mason, R.George Allen & Unwin London.
4. Petrography, An Introduction to the study of rocks in thin sections by William
H.Turner, F.J and Gilbert C.M., 1982.
5. Sedimentary Petrology by Blatt 2nd Edition, By Freeman 1992.
6. Carbonate Sediments Under the microscope by A.E Adams W.S. Mackenzie
Manson Published 2001.
7. Sedimentary Petrology an Introduction by M.E Tucker 2000, Blackwell Scientific
Publication London.
8. The Study of Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks by Loren A.
Raymond by Wm. C. Brown Publisher 1995.
9. Igneous Petrology by Alexanderr, McBimey Jones & Bartlett Publisher 1993.
10. Igneous Petrogenesis by M. Willson Unwin Haynman London.
11. Igneous Petrology by M. G Best & E.H. Christiamasen Blackwell Sceince 2001.
12. Introduction to Metamorphic Petrology By Bruce. W.O Yardley, Longman Earth
Science Series, 1989.
13. Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology by Anthony R. Philpot, Printice
Hall, 1990, New Jersy.
14. Petrology: Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic by H. Blatt and R.J. Tracy,
Second Edition, W. H. Freeman and company, New York, 1996.
Geo-235

ADVANCE MINERALOGY

Credit hours; 4(3+1)

A. ADVANCE MINERALOGY:
1. Description of physical and optical properties, chemistry, structure and
paragenesis of following mineral groups.
a. Ortho and Ring Silicate:
Olivine group, Garnet group, aluminosilicate group.
b. chain Silicate:
Pyroxene group, amphibole group.
c. Sheet Silicate:
Mica group, Clay minerals.
d. Framework Silicate:
Feldspar group, Silica group, Nephelene group.
e. Oxides.
B. OPTICAL MINERALOGY:
1. Nature of light, refraction and reflection, index of refraction.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Polarized light production methods.


Isotropic and anisotropic crystals.
Uniaxial and biaxial crystals.
Extinction and extinction angle.
Determination of optic sign.
Dispersion.

LABS:
1. Introduction to use polarizing microscope.
2. To determine refraction index and relief of a mineral.
3. To determine extinction angle of Plagioclase and estimation of its composition.
4. To determine slow and fast vibration direction of mineral
5. To determine optic axis figure and its sign.
6. To determine 2V of a mineral.
7. To determine the rock type by visual estimation
TEXT BOOKS:
1. An introduction to the Rock forming minerals by W.A Deer, R.A Howie and J.
Zussman.
2. Rock forming minerals Vol.5 Non-silicates by W.A Deer, R.A Howie and J
Zussman.
3. Optical Mineralogy by Paul F. Kerr.
4. Optical Crystallography by Ernest E. Wahlastrom updated edition.
5. Practical manual of crystallography by S.K Babu and D.K Sniha. Updated edition.
6. The methods of optical mineralogy by F. Donald Bloss Updated Edition.
7. A practical introduction to optical mineralogy by C.D Gribble and A. J Hall 1985.
Geo-241

APPLIED CHEMISTRY-II

Credit hours; 4(3+1)

1.Gravimatric and volumetric method of analysis.


2.chromatography ,TLC,PC,CC ion exchange procedure .Application of all these
techniques.
Solven extraction ,Classification ,important terms involed,tyeps of extraction and factor
influencing the extraction system.
4.Electro analytical method.
5.Basic principles and elementary technique.
Conductometer
Potentiometery
PH Measurement
6.Atomic absorption techniques.
7.Mass spectrometry.
LABS:
1.Volumatric analysis
2. Calorimetric analysis of Ni.Fe,Mn

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Physical chemistry for B.sc student by Gulam Nabi and P.A khokar
2. Chromatography by Dr Nasar-ud-din.
Geo-242
GEOMATHEMATICS
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
Vactor and Tensor analysis.curviliner coordinates and multiple integrals.Fourer
and laplace trancforms. Matrices and Eigen value problem.complex variable and their
application. Legendre polynomials and Bessel functions.solution of laplace eqvation in
various coordinates boundary values.
LABS:
Labs assigments and computer assigmnments related with geo mathematical.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Principle of Mathematical Geology by Ander Boroisovich vistelius.
2. Geo-methematics Mathematical background and geo-science application by F.P.
Geo-243

FIELD GEOLOGY

Credit hours; 4(3+1)

1. Philosophy and organization of a field study.


2. Primary features of marine sedimentary rocks.
3. Surficial sediments: Continental Environments
4. Features of deformed rocks
5. Volcanic structures and field relation
6. Field study of plutons:
7. Field study of metamorphic rocks:
8. Preparing illustrations and writing reports:
From field study to report writing, major illustrate, photographs, drawing diagrams,
designing the report, the writing itself, specific part of the reports, format and
references.
BMAPPING TECHNIQUES:
1. Application of basic equipment for the identifying rocks in the field
2.
Mapping rock unit and structure, Geological mapping on the topographic
base, use of aerial photographs and other remote sensing imagery.
3.
Geological mapping with alidade and plane table, theodolite & distomate
making geological maps from aerial photograph.
4. Stratigraphy Section;
5. Subsurface structural Maps:
Datum horizon, source of data, construction, interpretation uses.
6. Subsurface geologic surveying:
Methods of drilling,
Purpose of drilling,
Oriented cores,
Correlation of sample from bore holes,
Uses of logs.

LABS:
1. Study of topography and geologic maps.
2. Geologic mapping by compass traversing.
3. Geologic mapping with Alidade and Plane table.
4. Preparation of geologic maps maps and cross-sections and their geological and
structural interpretation.
5. Preparation of geological sketches according to scale.
6. Section measurement and preparation of lithologs.
7. Preparation of field note book.
8. Contouring of sub-surface structural maps.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Geology in the field by Robert R. Compaton, 1985
2. Manual of field geology by Robert R. Comptan 1965
3. Field geology by Lahee.
4. A hand book of sub-surface mapping techniques by Carl A. Moore.
5. Geological field methods b Jullian W. Law
6. Interpretation of geologic maps by B.C.M Butler and J. D. Bell 1988.
Geo-244
SURVEYING & DRAWING
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
A. SURVEYING:
1. Use of surveys, the Earth as a spheroid, Geodatic and Plane surveys units of
measurement, maps and map projection, scales, planning and design of survey,
specification and control points.
2. How
to
use
survey
equipment
,such
as
chain,plan,table,theodolites,destomat,level,telescopic,alidade,altimeter,abney level,
brunton compass,ranger prismatic compass ,taught clinometer,plainimeter,sextant
box and opticl squres.selection of eqvipments ,procedures and method of data
presentation.
3. Bench mark,control points and their establishment,contour points with hand level
relation between angle and distance ,basic survey measurement and survey
separation.
4. Triangulation and trilateration and their computations. Field problems, traversing
with thedolited and prismatic compass.
5. Geological mapping by (i) Brunton and pace methods, (ii) Plane table method.
BDRAWING MAPS AND PROJECTION;
1-Sketches in the field, diagrammatic representation in different geological features,
block diagram, lettering, cross-section and longitudinal section.
2-Maps,General,datam and topographic profile relief and relief model ,shading
contours and their characteristics ,scale contour interval, methods of plotting,
Symbols map projection office and field problems.
LABS:
1. Topography chain and plane table survey.
2. Geological mapping by:
(i)
Brunton and pace method (ii) Plane table survey

3. Drawing maps and maps projection


TEXT BOOKS:
1. Surveying theory and practice by Rymond E. Davis. National Book Foundation.
2. Elementary surveying 6th .ed. by Brinker ,( wolf. Harper and Row).
3. Surveying for field scientist , By J.C. Pugh , Methan and co .ltd.
4. Surveying by Davis, Foots, Kally.
5. Principles of cartography by Raisz.
6. Practical geography by professor Mian Muhammad Anwar.
Geo-245
FIELD WORK REPORT
Credit hours; 4
Guide study tour of sedimentary sequences and their metamorphic equivalent in
Hazara, the Salt Range and Peshwar basin. The collection of rock, mineral and fossils
sample: preparation of field sketches and lithologs; instructions for taking photographs
and measurement of a types section. Mapping of khewra or Nummal George. Preparation
of field note book. Field work of 15 days. Note : The grading in the field by field
supervisors will be 10% and 90% by the field work report committee.
Geo-351
STRUCTURE GEOLOGY
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
1. Stress and strain ; Types of strain, factors controlling deformation, Mohr diagram,
deformation mechanisms and strain measurement.
2. Contact; Normal depositional contacts, unconformable contact ( types of
unconformities) and their tectonics significance, intrusive contact, fault contact and
shear zones.
3. Primary Structures: sedimentary structured and their use in structural geology,
sedimentary structures of deformational origin , primary volcanic structures, primary
plutonic structures.
4. Folds: Geometry, various type of classification, mechanisms and field study of
fold.
5. Fault: criteria for recognition of faulting, geometry, types of fault; normal, reverse
and strike slip fault.
6. Joints: Geometry, classification, joints in relation to the other structures and origin
of joints.
7. Cleavage, foliation and lineation.
8. Shear zone and sense of shear zone indicators.
9. Tectonics.
10. Balanced cross-section technique.
LABS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Topographic map study.


Prepration of topographic maps.
Three point problem.
Geological maps and profiles.
Preparation of structural map and structural cross section.
Stereographic projection of lines ,plan,falts,folds,lineation,foliation.
Balanced cross-section.

8. Field study of structures


TEXT BOOKS:
1. Structural geology of rocks and regions by George H,Davis.1984.
2. Principle of structural Geology by john Suppe.1985.
3. The techniques of modern structure Geology vol.1.strain analysis by John
ramsay.martin Huber,Acadmic press London 1983/1989.
4. The techniques of modern structural Geology vol,2.fold and fracture by John G
Ramsay,martin Huber1989.
5. Structural geology an introduction by John Dennis.1987.
6. Structural geology by Maraland and Mitra, 1988.
7. Structural geology by Maraland P.Billings, 3rd ed.1972/1990.
8. Folding and Fracturing of rocks by John, G.Ramsay, McGraw Hill New York,
1967.
9. Laboratory exercise book in structural geology part 1 & 11 by Arif A.K Ghauri,
1989.
10. An outline of balance cross-section by Nicholas B. Woodward, Stever, E. Boyer
and John Suppe.
11. Interpretation of geologic maps by B.C.N. Buller and J.D. Bell, 1988.
12. Geological maps, their solution an interpretation, by J.Bolton, 1988.
13. Selected exercises upon Geological maps by John A.Plott.
14. An outline of structural geology by Bruce E. Hobbs Winthrop d.Means, Paul
F.Williams.
15. Introduction to the structure of the earth by Edger. Spencer.
16. Metamorphic Tectonics by Turner and Wiess.
17. Structural and Tectonic Principles by P.C. Badgly.
18. The use of Stereographic Projections in structural geology 3rd Ed. By F.C.
Phillips. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd, London, 1971, 1979.
19. Principles of Structural Geology by Navin.
20. Structural Geology by L.de.desitter, McGraw Hill inc, 1964.
21. Elements of Structural Geology by E.s herbon Hills.
22. Structural Methods for Exploration Geologist by P.C.Badgley.
23. Geological Structures and Maps by A. Robert.
24. Geometrical Techniques by Donald Ragon.
25. Structural Geology by Robert J.Twiss and Eldridge M. Moores, W.H. freeman
and Company New York 1992.
26. Basic Methods of Structural Geology, Part 1 and Part 11, by Stephen Marshak
and Gautem Mitra, Prentice Hall, Englewood cliffs, New Jersey, 1988.
Geo-352

GEOSTATISTICS

Credit hours; 4(3+1)

Introduction to statistics and its applications in geological sciences. Study of basic


principles of Statistics. Measurement in earth sciences, Aucurnay seales of
measurements. Presentation of numerical data. Measurement of central tendencies.
Measure of dispersion. Concept of elementary, probability and its applications. Method
of least square and curve fittings methods. Regression and correlation and their

application in geology, statistical modeling techniques. Sampling and sampling plans in


geosciences system. Concept of time series. Test of significance such as t-distribution and
chi square distribution etc. geological mapping. Map analysis. Application of statistical
softwares in geological sciences.
LABS:
Exercises on regression and correlation and testing hypothesis etc. Exercises of
statistical software. Projects/assignments.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Statistical theory and methods by Dr. M.Afzal BEG.
2. Statistical theory by Sher Mohammad.
3. Statistics for Geoscientists. Techniques and application by Saroj K. Pal.
4. Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology by Davis, J.C., least Ed., John Wiley,
New York.
5. Statistical methods of the earth scientists: an introduction by Roger Till.
Geo-353
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
1. Introduction: Introduction and occurrence of petroleum. Physical and chemical
properties of oil and gas.
2. Generation, migration and accumulation of problem.
3. The Reservoir: Types of reservoir rocks, porosity and permeability, reservoir traps
(structural, stratigraphic and combination trap0s. reservoir rocks of Pakistan.
4. The source rocks. Source rocks of Pakistan.
5. The seal. Seal rocks of Pakistan.
6. The description, identification and analysis of reservoir rocks from cores and
cuttings.
7. Sedimentary Environments: Sedimentary process and their resultant products.
Ancient and modern examples.
8. Distribution of oil and gas fields of Pakistan.
9. The role of a geologist in petroleum industry.
LABS:
1. The subsurface analysis of rocks from cores, cuttings and wireline logs.
2. The technique of subsurface representation with maps and sections.
3. The study and interpretation of seismic sections.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Petroleum Geology by F.K North 1985. Multiline Books, Pakistan.
2. The Elements of Petroleum Geology by Richard C.Selly, 1998 Pak Book
Corporation.
3. Well-logging interpretation by Wyllie.
4. Ancient Sedimentary Environment by R.C.Selly.
5. Principles of Petroleum Development Geology by Laundon, R.C, 1996. Pak Book
Corporation.

6. Petroleum Geology of Pakistan by [B. Kadr. 1995, Orient Petroleum Inc.


Pakistan.
7. Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology by Hunt 1996. Hi-Tech. books Pakistan
A.A.P.G. Bulletins.
8. Petroleum Geology by Leverson. W.H. Freeman and Sons. New York.
9. Sandstone Petroleum Reservoir by Barwis, J.H., 1990, distributors Pak Book
Corporation.
10. Sedimentary and petroleum geology by Byorlykke 1989, distrbutors Book Ocean,
Islamabad Pakistan.
11. Petroleum development Geology 3rd edition by Dickey. P.A., 1986, Publicher
Pennwell, Tulsa Oklahama, U.S.A, A.A.P.G Bulletins.
Geo-354
GEOPHYSICS
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
Introduction to geophysics; general geophysics principles, interior structure of the
earth, seismicity and seismic waves, tectonics, earthquakes. The introductory study of
following geophysical methods:
1. Magnetic.
2. Gravity.
3. Seismic.
4. Electrical Resistivity.
5. Logging.
6. Application of geophysical methods for mineral deposits and groundwater.
7. Application of geophysics for oil and gas exploration.
8. Application of geophysics to engineering geology.
LABS:
Acquisition, processing and interpretation of resistivity, seismic, gravity and
magnetic data.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Alsadi, ,H.N1980.seismic Exploration Techniques and processing.
2. Robison,E.S 1988.Basic Exploration geophysics.John willey and sons.
3. Teleford ,1976.Applied geophysics Cambridge Press.
4. Karrey and books 1981. Introduction to Geophysical procpecting,Blackwell
scientific publication.
5. Sazhina, N, Grushinsky, N., 1971. Gravity Prospecting. Mir Publishers.
6. Dobrin, M.S., 1976. Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting. McGraw Hill.
7. Vast 1965. Introduction Theory in Applied Geophysics. McGraw Hill.
8. Kaarey and Brooks 1984. Introduction to Geophysical. Prospecting. Blackwell
Scientific Publications.
9. Romberg 1981. Gravity deformation and the Earths crust. II ed.
Academic prss. London.
10. Alane E. mnssetty, M. Aftah Khan. 2000 . Look into Eath, Cambridge university
11. A. Kennett & C.A. Rass (1984) Aspect of Gelogy, Logman

Geo-355
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
Introduction to enginnering geology, investigation, role of an engineering
geologist, elements and types of investigations data collectin, chemical and physical
weathiering pf rpcls.
Deformation, instraument type and application, landslide. Terminology, types,
causes, rsmedial measures , creep slope stability analysis, major, Iandslides is Azad
Kashir. Tunnels and dams; terminology, classification, criteria and strucvtural features.
Excavation and construction. Dam sites of Pakistan. Introduction to soil mechanics,
characteristic of siol and soil classification. Rock Mechanics, index properties and
classification.
LABS:
1. Lab Assignments/visit to dams, tunnels, bridge, soil density test, consistency
limits, specific gravity. Compressive strength of rock. Soundness test absorption test.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. A Geology to Engineering By .R.G.H Blyth and M.H de fretas.1974 .published by
English Language Book society and Edward Arnold.
2. Fundamentals of Engineering Geology by F.G Bell1983.published by Aditya
Book New Dehli.
3. Experiment in Engineering Geology by Kvga Gokhale DM-RAO1981.published
by Tata Graw-Hill New Dehli.
4. Engineering Geological Mapping by Butter Worth 1991.
5. Principle of Engineering Geology by Robret. B. Johnson , Teromed, VDE Groff.
Published by John-Willy and sons New York.
6. Engineering Geology Rock in Engineering Construction by Goodman
1993.published by John-Willy and sons New York.
7. Engineering Geology and Rock Mechanics vol.2. 1969.by Duncan published by
International Text Book Co Limited London.
8. Physical and geotechnical properties of soils by Bowles 1984 second Edition
publisher Mc Grawlhill Book Company New York.
9. Soil Mechanics by A.R Jumikis 1969, publisher D. Van Nostrand Company, New
Jersey.
10. Introduction to the rock Mechanics by Richard E. Goodman, 1980, publisher
Johm Wiley and sons, New York.
11. Fundamentals of Rock Mechnacis by Jaeger and Cock 1979 Chapman and Hall
London.

Geo-361 SEDIMENTATION & SEDIMENTARY BASINS OF PAKISTAN Credit hours; 4(3+1)

SEDIMENTATION:
1.
sedimentary rocesses. Classification of sedimentary rocks. Texture rocks.
Texture of clastic and non clastic rocks, transportation and deposition of clastic
and non clastic rocks, sedimentary environments and their classification.
2.
Sandstone, their nomenclature. Classification and diagenesis. Example
from Pakistan and Azad Kashmir.
3.
Carbonates, their nomenclature, texture and structures of limestone and
dolomties, classificitaion , petrography and diagenesis, limestone facies, examples
from Pakistan and Azad Kashmir.
4.
Salient features of clay , shale and mudstone. Example from Pakistan and
Azad Kashmir. Primary Sedimentary structure.
5.
Economic aspect of sedimentary Geology with reference to mineral
deposit and hydrocarbons.
SEDIMENTARY BASIN OF PAKISTAN
LABS:
Identification of rock specimens and thin section studies for enviormental
interpretation.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Sedimentary Environments and Facies by H.G, Readings1980.
2. Depositional sedimentary Environmental by Reineck Singh1976.
3. Sedimentary Processes and Product by M,R,Leader 1980.
4. Diagenesis in sediments and sedimentary Rocks By Gunner Larson and George
Chillingar 1972.
5. Sedimentary structure by John R.N. Allen.
6. Ancient sedimentary Environments by R.G.Seley.
7. Physical Processes of Sedimentation by J.R.D.Allen 1981.
Geo-362
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING Credit hours; 4(3+1)
Site investigation; General requirement: information required from site
investigation. Borehole layout site investigation of foundation failure. Trial pits soil
sampling. Test pit rotary core drilling. Ground water level observations. Cohesive and
Non-cohesive soils. General principles of foundation design. Foundation types: spread
foundation. Box foundation. Pier and caisson foundations. Skin friction. Pier foundation
and caisson on rocks. Pile foundation anchoring piles in soil and rock. Allowable bearing
capacity. Ultimate bearing capacity. Safety factor. Settlement of foundation. Total and
differential settlement. Foundation design in relation to ground movements. Foundation
construction. Coffer Dam.
LABS:
Lab assignments/general survey of drilling site.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Foundation design and construction by M.J Tomlinson. 4th edition 1980
2. Sower. S., 1990. Foundation engineering 2nd ed., New York.
Geo-363
MICROPALEONTOLOGY
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
Definition, historical review and commercial micropaleontology. Collecting rock
samples, disintegrations, washing, separation, mounting, preparation, identification and
recording of microfossils.
Subdivision with elementary introduction of microfossils with shells.
a) Calcareous foraminifera, Nonoplanktons, Ostracodes.
b) Phosphate conodonts and other Phosphatic microfossils.
c) Organic dinflagellates, Spore & Pollen and Chitinoz
Detailed introduction of foraminifera, life history and structure, living organisms,
morphology, classification, paleontology and stratigraphic micropaleontology of
foraminifera, stratigraphic micropaleontology of Pakistan.
LABS:
Sample preparation, washing, separation, thin section making, identification of
various representation microfossils, microphotographs, statistical representation of
assemblage and evolutionary charts.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Introduction to marine micropaleontology by Bilal and A, Boersma.
2. Principles of micropaleontology by Glaessener.
3. Forminifera by Cushman foundation USA.
4. Micropaleontology of Galies-Hothla groups of Hazara and Rakhi Nala in Pakistan
by M.A. Latif.
5. Micropaleontology of Nammal Garguge by Hnal.
6. Microfossils by M.D. Braser Pub. George Allen & Unwin London.
7. Palaeontology, An Introduction By E.W. Nield & V.C.T tucker Pub. Pergamon
Press.
8. Stratigraphical Paleontology by E.Neaverson. Pub. Oxford. Clarendon Press.
9. Fossil Invertebrate by U. Lehmann & Hillmer Pub. Cambridge University Press.
10. Fossils of the world by V. Turek, J. Mark & J. Benes. Pub. Arch Cape Press (New
York).
11. Memories Suisses de Paleontologic by Hans Schaub Vol. 105 atlas 1 pub.
Girkhauser Verlag (Switzer land).
12. Memories Suisses de Paleontologic by Hans Schaub Vol. 105 atlas 11 pub.
Girkhauser Verlag (Switzer land).
13. Studies in Foraminifera by Alfred R. Loeblich United States National Museum
Bulletin 215.
Geo-364
GEOWRITING
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
General information about report writing, professional writing practices, content
of the report, technical nomenclature, suggestion as to expression, proof reading, project
propaosal, abstract, conclusion, illustration and tables, oral and poster presentation,

references, appendix, index, punctuations, confused words, redundancies and uses of


technical words and grammer.
LABS:
1. Exercises about grammar, uses of technical words, writing, abstract writing, proof
reading, poster presentation, references, writing of papers and reports etc.
2. Business Correspondence (letters).
3. Preparation of technical proposal.
4. Writing of term papers/papers/reports.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Suggestion to Author published by United States Geological Survey, 7th ed. 1991.
2. Geowriting published by American Geological Institute Falls Church, VA, 1979.
Geo-365
FIELD WORK REPORT
Credit hours; 4
Guided study tour of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous areas of Hazara,
Azad Kashmir, Kaghan, Chitral, Swat, Dir, Peshwar basin and northern areas. Section
mapping, section measurement, burton chain survey, collection of geological and
structural data, preparation of field notebook and report. Field work of 15 days. Note:
The grading in the field by field supervisors will be 10% and 90% by the Field Work
Report Committee.
Geo-471
GEOHYDROLOGY
Credit
hours;
4(3+1)
Introduction to geohydrology: The hydrologic cycle. Precipitation, infiltration,
runoff, hydrographs, Darcys Law, aquifer systems and types. Occurrence and movement
of groundwater. Hydrologic properties of rocks and their measurement. Fluctuation of
groundwater levels and causes. Recharge and discharge of ground water. Groundwater
exploration by geologic, hydrogeologic and geophysical methods related to
geohydrology, Well hydraulics, tube well drilling techniques, designing, development
and pumping tests. Groundwater resources of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir, Salinity,
waterlogging and causes of water table declination and deterioration of water quality.
Some case studies.
LABS:
Inventory and monitoring of groundwater, preparation of water table and
piezometric surface maps. Study and preparation of hydrogeologic maps.
Interpretation of geophysical data for Ground water investigation.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Field hydrology by Brassingto, R., 1988 John Wiley & Sons Chichester.
2. Groundwater Hydrology by D.K Todd., 1995 john Wiley & Sons London.
3. Groundwater resource Evaluation by Walton, W.C., Latest Ed., McGraw Hill.
4. Introduction to groundwater by Micheal, P., 1985, George Allen & Unmin
London.
5. Applied Hydrogeology by fetter, C. W., 1994 MacMillan Pub. Comp. New York.

6. Groundwater by Ragunath, H. M., 1992, Wiley Eastern Ltd. New Delhi., 25.
7. Manual of Applied Field Hydrogeology by Willis D. Weight & John L.
Sonderegger.
8. Groundwater resources of Pakistan by M. Nazir.
Geo-472
GEOTECTONICS
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
1. Outline of various tectonics, continental drift.
2. Modern theory of plate tectonics, plate geography lithosphere, asthenosphere,
different types of plate boundaries and the associated features.
3. The life cycle of the oceanic crust, spreading ridges system, birth of the ocean
crust, ophiolites, sedimentation on the ocean floor, volcanism on the ocean floor, sea
mounts and atolls, depth of the oceanic crust; trenches, earthquakes and subduction.
4. The geology of island arcs; the geography and physical feature of island arcs
including shape, spatial relationship, seismicity and volcanism Magmatism in island
arc system: Composition generation and fractionation sedimentation in continental
interior, hot spot and rifting, transform faults.
5. The continental margins: Active margins, active magmatism, sedimentation and
inactice margins.
6. Orogenic belts and evolation of fold mountains; nature of orogenic belts
geosynclines concept and classification of major orogens; the Appalachian orogeny.
Alpine Himalayan orogen, cordillerian orogens: Tectonics elements of Pakistan in
detail.
LABS:
1. Plotting of earthquake data and volcanic activity on the world map.
2. Delineation of various plate boundaries on the world map
3. Vector determination of plate motion.
4. Seafloor spreading rate and magnetic anomaly determination.
5. Regional cross-section and interpretation of tectonic history of Indo-Pakistan.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. The evolving Earth by Sawkin.
2. Introduction to the structure of the Earth by E. W. Spencer.
3. Principles of Physical Geology by Arthur Holmes.
4. A Revolution in the Earth sciences from continental Drift to Plate Tectonics by A.
Hallam.
5. Physically Geology, Exploring the earth 4th ed. By James S. Monroe, 2001.
6. Earth History and Plate tectonics by .K. Seyfert.
7. Economic Geology and Geotectonic by Tarling.
8. Geotectonics by V.V. Oclounow, Mir Publishers Moscow.
9. The Expanding Earth by Curay, Publishers Elsevior.
10. The dynamic earth by P. Wyllie, Publisher John Willie Sons.
11. Plate Tectonics how it works? By A. Cox 1980.
12. Evolving Continents by Windley, B. B 1987, John Willie & Sons New York.

Geo-473
SEISMOLOGY
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
Introduction Seismology: Basic Seismology theory of elastic waves and their
propagation seismic network and arrays, data processing, procedures, fault plane solution
intensity, different earthquakes intensity, earthquake magnitude, earthquake prediction
strategies, earthquakes and plate tectonics overview, scope and applications, buildings
codes, study of seismicity of Indo Pakistan plate, Himalaya collision, Hindu Kush, Pamir
and Eurasian Plates.
LABS:
Lab exercises related to earthquake seismology.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Earthquake Mechanics by Kasahare, K.K., 1981, Earth science series, Publisher
Cambridge University Press, New York.
2. Earthquake prediction by Rikilake, J. 1976, Publisher Elsevier London.
3. An introduction to seismological Research. History and Development by Benjanin
F. and Howell, J.R., 1980. Publisher Cambrage University Press New York.
4. Geophysics in Geology by Sherana P.V. 1986. Publisher. Elsevier, New York.
5. An Introduction to the theory of Seismology 3rd Edition By Bulle. K.E. 1976.
Publisher: Cambridge University Press London.
6. Earthquake and Geological Discovery. A.B., 1993.
Distribution: Royal Book Company Karachi, Pakistan.
7. Earthquake 4th edition by Bruce. A.B., Distribution Royal Book Company
Karachi, Pakistan.
8. Bulletin of Seismology Series of America.
9. Tectonophysics.
10. Journal of Geophysics Research.
Geo-474
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
Geotechnical investigation at selected sites. Material for construction. Seismicity,
Underground Cavities, Foundations and geological problems and Treatment in dam
construction. Mechanism of creating the loosening of moved rock mass. Weak Seams in
foundation. Engineering significance of geotechnical investigation. Unsuitable
topography, Freezing and Thawing. Chemical reactivity Problems and remedial
measures.
LABS:
Identification of problem. Freeze-Thaw Test. Alkali-aggregate reactivity problem.
Microscopy. Visity to sites Assignments.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. A Textbook of Geotechnical Engineering by Tabal H. Khan 1998.
Publisher: Hall of India (Pvt).
2. Geotechnical Engineering by Purushothama Raj 1995. Publisher: McGraw-Hill
New Dehli.
3. Fundamentals of Geotechnical Analysis by I.S. Dum L.R.

Andersons F.W. Kifer 1980.


4. Geology of Construstion materials by John e. Prentics 1990. P.B. Chapmen &
Hall London.
5. Geotechnical Application in Civil Engineering 1991. By Oxford & IBH
Publishing Co New Dehli.
6. Principles of Engineering Geology and Geotechnics. By Dimitn: P. Krynine.
Willwan R.Judd. P.B.CB.S Publisher (New Dehli).
Geo-475
GEMOLOGY
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
1. Introduction to gemology, physical properties of gemstones, crystallography,
crystal systems, coloring metals in gemstones and optical properties.
2. Study of the following gemstones.
Ruby and sapphire, emerald, aquamarine, topaz, tourmaline, quartz, sodalite,
peridote, turquoise and zircon etc.
3. Geological setting, geological characteristics, origin, mineral chemistry and their
classification of above mentioned gemstones.
4. Determination and distinguishing methods of precious stones.
5. Introduction to synthetic gemstones.
6. Gemstones occurences in Pakistan.
LABS:
Identification, grading and marketing of gemstones. Assessments of gemstones,
grading and quality.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Emerald of Pakistan by Kazmi and Snee. (1989).
2. Identification of Gemstones by Donoghue and Joner (2003).
3. Precious Stones by Max Bauer (1968).
4. Gems by Webster, R. Butter Worth and Co. London. 1970.
5. Gems mad by man by Nassan. K. Chitton Book Company. U.S.A. 1980.
6. Gems. Their sources, deposition and identification by Webster. K. and Amderson.
B.W fourth Edition. Butter Worth Co. London, 1983.
7. Metallogeny and Mineral Deposits of Pakistan by Kazmi, A.H. and Abass. S.G.
Graphic Publisher 2001.
8. Practical Gemology by Webster. R., NAC Press Ltd. London, 1978.
9. Manual of Gemstone in Pakistan by Qasim John and Tahseen-Ullah Peshwar
University.
Geo-481

APPLIED COMPUTERS

Credit hours; 4(3+1)

Geoinfirmatics:
Computer Orientation: Introduction to Hardware and software.
Introduction of operating systems like Dos, Windows, etc. Introduction and
concepts of Geoinformatics and its applications, contouring, zonation, autocross-section,
geological correlation, cross correlation, geologic map analyses etc, using specialized
software such as SURFER, Rockworks and others. Application of modeling software in

geological sciences. Introduction to computer programming. Some basic programming


techniques. Basic concepts in MS Office, Thesis composing, talks and presentations
through multimedia, Introduction to GIS, some basic concepts. Application of GIS in
geology, Techniques of scanning digitizing and editing of maps and figures.
LABS:
Application of geological and GIS softwares and assigned project. Hand on exercise.
Use of GPS, computer programming.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Surfer, Golden Software lnc. Manual, 1994, Colorado. USA.
2. Computer Science by
Geo-482
ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
Theories of formation of mineral deposits.
1. Magmatic deposits
2. Hydrothermal deposits
3. Residual deposits
4. Pegmatite
5. Evaporate
Ore formation in relation to plate tectonics examples form Pakistan
Metallic Minerals:
Baunile and laterite, chromite, copper, gold, silver and platinum iron ores, lead and zinc.
Non Metallic Minerals:
Rock salt, graphite, rick phosphate, silica sand, china clay, marble and fluorite.
Energy Resources:
Geology of nuclear minerals, the types formation and occurrence of coal deposits.
Geothermal energy resource.
LABS:
1. Megascopic study of metallic and non metallic minerals.
2. Ore microscopic study of ore minerals.
3. Problems related to economic mineral deposits.
4. Calculation of reserves.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Metallogeny and mineral deposits of Pakistan by Kazmin(2001)
2. Economic mineral deposits by Bateman (1981).
3. Ore deposits by Park (1986).
4. Ore deposits Geology by Edwasds and Atkinsm (1986).
Geo-483 PHOTOGEOLOGY & REMOTE SENSING
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
1. Types of Aerial photographs, terminology and geometry of aerial photographs.
Project planning, types of films and filters. Aerial mosaics, scale, relied displacement.
Principles of stereoscopic vision. Types of stereoscopes and plotting instruments.
Parallax and vertical exaggeration.

2. Photo interpretation: general, lithologic, structure and drainage analysis.


3. Remote sensing: introduction to remote sensing electromagnetic energy
electromagnetic spectrum, energy sources and electromagnetic radiation, physical
basis of remote sensing; electromagnetic energy radiation at sources, radiation in
propagation radiation at its target. Sensors for remote sensing energy interaction with
earth surface, data acquisition and interpretation. Reference data, remote sensing from
space. Image and its characteristics remote sensing application types of satellite
imageries and their uses.
LABS:
1. Construction of principle point and flight line, determination of photo scale,
height measurement with parallel bar.
2. Simple litho structure and geomorphological analysis.
3. Delineation of major litho structure feature on satellite imageries.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Elements of photogrammetry by Paul R. Wolf 2nd Ed. 1988, McGraw Hill
International.
2. Photogeology by Bruno Marcolango, Franco Mantorani 1997. Oxford & IBH
Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. Nem Dehli.
3. Remote sensing Principles and Interpretation by Floyd F. Sabins 1978, W.H
Freeman & company San Francisco.
4. Principles of Remote sensing by Paul J. Curran 1988. English Language Book
Society Longman.
5. Aerial Photography and Image Interpretation for Recourse Management by David
P.Paine, 1981. John Wiley & Sons New York.
6. Principles and Applications of Photogeology by Shiv N.Pandey 1987. Willey
Eastern Ltd, New Dehli, India.
7. Remote sensing of the Himalaya by M.A Kawsoa 1988. Natraj Publisher Dherar
Dun India.
8. Photogrammetry by Francis H. Moffitt and Edward M. Mikhail, 1980. Harper &
Row Publishers. New York.
9. Remote sensing and Image Interpretation by Thomas M. lilies & W.Kiefer, 1979.
John Wiley & Sons.
10. Remote sensing in Geology by Barry S. Siegal & Gellespie, 1980. John Wiley &
Sons.
Geo-484
GEOCHEMISTRY
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
The periodic classification, Goldschmidts geochemical classification,
composition of meteorite, geochemical st5ructure of the earth, geochemical
differentiation of elements, geochemical cycle, mobility and dispersion of elements under
different environments, geochemical anomalies and their application in mineral
exploratioin.
Introduction to geochemistry of atmosphere, introduction to geochemistry of
hydrosphere, introduction to geochemistry of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary
rocks. Introduction to isotope geochemistry.

LABS:
Calculation of CIPW norm using published data of various igneous rocks.
Use of various discriminations diagrams for different igneous rocks.
Use of chondrit normalized diagram for different igneous rocks.
Use of Mid ocean ridge normalized diagram for different igneous rocks.
Use of crustal normalized diagram for igneous rocks.
Determination of crustal contamination by using major and trace elements in
igneous
rocks.
Use of major and trace elements for provenance of sedimentary rocks.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Geochemistry Brownlow A.H. 3rd Ed. Published by Printice Hall, New York.
2. Priciples and application of inorganic Geochemistry by Gunter Faure 1992.
Published by Maxwell, Macmillan International Edition.
3. Introduction to Geochemistry by K-B. Krauskoof & D.K. Bird (Ed, 1995)
Published by McGraw & Co.
Geo-485
WELL LOGGING
Credit hours; 4(3+1)
Uses of logs and types, Basic petroleum geology, log interpretation concepts, bulk
resistivity properties of rocks, resistivity logging, Mud logging, SP properties of rocks
and SP logging, Basic nuclear physics and gamma logging, acoustic waves in rocks and
acoustic logging, porosity logs and lithology identification temperature and conductivity
logging. Caliper logging and interpretation of logs for hydrocarbon and aquifers.
LABS:
Log interpretations, litholog preparations, porosity interpretation, identification of
lithology etc.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Fundamentals of well log interpretation, 3rd edition by Wyllie, M.R.J., 1963.
Academic Press, New York.
2. Fundamentals of well-log interpretation, the acquisition of loggigng data by Oserra 1984.
3. Log Review I Dresser Atlals division by Dresser industries 1974 USA.
4. Introduction to Geophysical Pwspeelin Fourth Edition By Dobrin M,b., and Savil.
C.H. 1988, Mac Graw-Hill. Geology series, New York.
5. Principles of applied Geophysics, 4th edition by Parasnis. D-S., 1986.
Published Chapman and Hall, New York.
6. Applied geophysics for Geologists and Engineers Second Edition by Griffiths,
D.H., and King R.F., 1983, Pergamn prers, New York.
7. Geologic well log analysis 3rd Edition by Pirsoz S.J., 1983, Gulf Publishing,
Company, Houstan, Texas USA.

Geo-486
FIELD WORK REPORT
Credit hours; 4
Geological and structural mapping of assigned areas. Tranning in field mapping
and data collection techniques. Preparation of Field Note Book and Field Work Report of
assigned area. Field work for 15 days. Field grading will be 20% by field supervisors for
the field assignments and 80% will be graded by field work report committee.
Geo-490
COMPREHENSIVE ORAL EXAMINATION
Comprehensive Oral Examination from faculty courses.

(S/U Basis)

Geo-491
INTERNSHIP/PRACTICAL TRAINING
Internship/Practical training compulsory (6-8 weeks)

(S/U Basis)