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Group 7












for ions like ClO4- the charge on the ion is equal to the sum of the oxidation numbers

so Cl is +7, O is -2, so +7 + (4 x -2) = -1 = - for overall charge on ion

Note the convention:

for oxidation state, the sign comes before the number

for charge on an ion, the sign comes after the number

Extraction of Aluminium (continued) - Electrolysis Cell.

The steel container is coated with carbon (graphite) and this is used as the negative
electrode (cathode).
Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) is an ionic compound.
When it is melted the Al3+ and O2- ions are free to move and conduct electricity.
Electrolysis of the alumina/cryolite solution gives aluminium at
the cathode and oxygen at the anode.
4Al3+ + 12e6O2- - 12e-

4Al (aluminium metal at the (-)cathode) reduction.

3O2 (oxygen gas at the (+)anode) oxidation.

Aluminium is more dense than the alumina/cryolite solution and so it falls to

the bottom of the cell
where it can be tapped of as pure liquid metal.
The overall reaction is
aluminium oxide

aluminium + oxygen.
4Al(l) +

Oxygen is given of at the positive carbon anode.

Carbon dioxide is also given of at the carbon anode because hot oxygen reacts with
he carbon anode to form carbon dioxide gas.
carbon + oxygen
carbon dioxide.
C(s) + O2(g)
The carbon anodes slowly disappear because each molecule of carbon
dioxide which is given of
takes a little piece of carbon away with it.
The carbon anodes need to be replaced when they become too small.

A. -Aluminium ions are reduced in this process

B. -Aluminium is liberated at the cathode by the reaction Al3+ + 3e Al.
C. Cryolite is not a purified aluminium oxide instead a white or colourless mineral
consisting of a fluoride of sodium and aluminium. Cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium
hexafluoroaluminate) .

-What is cryolite's purpose in the extraction of aluminum?

The alluminium oxide has to be molten for its electrolytic extraction. To melt the
electrolyte, heat has to be provided upto temperatures of 2200 decree celsius. The
provision of this energy can be very expensive and cost-inefective.
Cryolite is added as an impurity to the electrolyte. The cryolite, lowers the melting
point of alluminium oxide to 980. The rule is as it is for all impurities they lower the
melting point and raise the boiling point, so the reduction of the melting point
allows the alluminium to melt at lower temperatures, making electrolysis work at
lower temperatures, hence requires lesser energy, making the process cheaper, and
more cost efective.

there are more protons in each nucleus so the nuclear charge in each element

increases ...
therefore the force of attraction between the nucleus and outer electron is
increased, and ...

there is a negligible increase in shielding because each successive electron enters the

same energy level ...

so more energy is needed to remove the outer electron.

the first ionization of an atom is always an

endothermic process
The law of conservation of energy dictates that the difference

between the energy of the ionizing radiation and the energy of the
ejected electron equals the energy required for ionization. Ionization
energies are typically reported either in kJ/mol or in eV (1 eV = 96.485

ionization energy generally increases to the

right across a period and decreases down a
given group.

6. hydrolysis reactions of an organic compound like eter require a
catalyst - an acid (H+ ions) or alkali (OH- ions) as reaction with
water is very slow. The dilute acid provides both the acid catalyst
and the water.
7. If the pressure is higher, the chances of collision are greater.

9.As molecules get larger, then dispersion forces will increase,
and you may get other intermolecular forces such as dipole-dipole
attractions as well. Gases made of molecules such as these will be
much less ideal.
Like helium, a hydrogen molecule also has two
electrons, and so the intermolecular forces are going to
be small - but not as small as helium. In the hydrogen
molecule, you have two atoms that you can distribute
the charges over.
A helium molecule consists of a single small atom, and
the van der Waals dispersion forces are as low as it is
possible for them to be.
The ideal gas equation is:
pV = nRT
Pressure, p: Pressure is measured in pascals, Pa - sometimes
expressed as newtons per square metre, N m-2. These mean
exactly the same thing.

Be careful if you are given pressures in kPa (kilopascals). For

example, 150 kPa is 150,000 Pa. You must make that conversion
before you use the ideal gas equation.
Should you want to convert from other pressure measurements:
1 atmosphere = 101,325 Pa
1 bar = 100 kPa = 100,000 Pa
Volume, V
This is the most likely place for you to go wrong when you use this
equation. That's because the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre,
m3 - not cm3 or dm3.
1 m3 = 1000 dm3 = 1,000,000 cm3
Number of moles, n
This is easy, of course - it is just a number. You already know that
you work it out by dividing the mass in grams by the mass of one
mole in grams.
You will most often use the ideal gas equation by first making the
substitution to give:

Therefore Mr =



these quations are given in data booklet so no need to memorize

Sn2+ Sn4++ 2e- equation 1
(MnO4)+ (8H+)+ 5e (Mn2+)+ 4H2O) equation 2
balance the number of electrons so that each equation have same
number of electrons multiply equation 1 by 5 and equation 2 by 5
and then add these equations we get
(16H+)+(5Sn2+)+2MnO4- yields (5sn4+)+2Mn2+
ignore the liquid we are concerned with ions and ions only
2moles of mno4- reacts with 5moles of sn2+
2/5moles of mn 1 moles sn
(9.5/190)*2/5 9.5/190

The amount of SnCl2 in the question is 0.05 moles. Because of

stoichiometry of the reaction (worked out using oxidation states)
this will produce 0.02 moles of Mn2+.

The hydroxides become more soluble as you go down the

The sulphates become less soluble as you go down the
The carbonates tend to become less soluble as you go down
the Group.

because iodine is less reactive than bromine so it's 1- ions do not
displace the bromine ions in sodium bromide. (It is lower down in
the group).
Astatide ion, At-, is a reducing agent. So when it's oxidised, the
product is astatine:
2At- ------> At2+ 2eHAt is not a redox product, and the others are reduction or
neutralisation products of the H2SO4.
17.It can be either Nacl or NaBr uptill the colorless solution but
what is happeneing on the addition of excess HNO3.??
HNO3 simply removes the NH3 ligands by protonating them,
regenerating the silver halide ppt.
The key is the "excess NH3(aq)" used, instead of "excess
concentrated NH3(aq)" that is required to dissolve AgBr(s). Hence
it can be deduced that the ppt is AgCl(s), rather than AgBr(s).
18.Equilibrium constants aren't changed if you change the
concentrations of things present in the equilibrium. The only
thing that changes an equilibrium constant is a change of
19.Ammonium compunds ALWAYS react with alkalis to form
salt,water and AMMONIA gas.So the answer would be C since

limewater i.e. calcium hydroxide would react with ammonium

sulphate to liberate ammonia.
21.B is correct because the secondary alcohol group in lactic acid
will form an
ester with methanoic acid. C is incorrect because the secondary
alcohol group in lactic acid is not acidic enough to liberate CO2
from NaHCO3. It is possible that some candidates did not select B
because the given formula of the organic product,
CH3CH(O2CH)CO2H, proved difficult to comprehend. In this
candidates may make the question easier for themselves by
drawing out fully displayed formulae on their question paper.


23. trace back the reaction

sodium propionate is the sodium salt of propionic acid which has the chemical formula

It is produced by the reaction of propionic acid and sodium

carbonate or sodium hydroxide
halogenoalkane reaction with cyanide ions is a useful way of
lengthening carbon chains.
C2H5Cl +KCN--- C2H5CN +KCl
For example, in the equations above, you start with a 3-carbon
chain and end up with a 4-carbon chain. There aren't very many
simple ways of making new carbon-carbon bonds.



a curly arrow from a lone pair on the OH ion to the C+ atom of

So consider only

1,3-dichloro-3- 2,3methylbutane dichloropent

no chiral carbon

No Chiral Carbons



2 chiral
A. 1,3

2 chiral carbons
1 chiral


o chiral carbon
============================ 26.CH 3CH 2 OH
+2[ O ]----------- CH 3 COOH +H 2O ) The molar mass of ethanol
is trivial to compute:
(M( CH3 CH2OH )=6M( H )+2M( C )+M( O )=46.08 g/mol )
hence we have (2.30

g /46.08

g/mol approx0.05

mol ) of

This yields an equal number of moles of acetate under 100%

yield. The molar mass of acetate is just

(M(CH3COOH )=4M( H )+2M( C )+2M( O ) =60.06 g/mol ) hence

we end up with (0.05 mol times60.06 g/mol =3.00 g ) of
acetate with ideal yield. To factor in the fact yield is only 70%,
compute (60 % times3.00 g =1.80 g ) i.e C is the answer
27 A
methylglyoxal has two carbonyl groups, an aldehyde and
a ketone

The presence of that hydrogen atom makes aldehydes very easy

to oxidise. Or, put another way, they are strong reducing agents.
Because ketones don't have that particular hydrogen atom, they
are resistant to oxidation. Only very strong oxidising agents like
potassium manganate(VII) solution (potassium permanganate
solution) oxidise ketones - and they do it in a destructive way,
breaking carbon-carbon bonds.
Provided you avoid using these powerful oxidising agents, you can
easily tell the diference between an aldehyde and a ketone.
Aldehydes are easily oxidised by all sorts of diferent oxidising
agents: ketones aren't.
What is formed when aldehydes are oxidised?
It depends on whether the reaction is done under acidic or
alkaline conditions. Under acidic conditions, the aldehyde is
oxidised to a carboxylic acid. Under alkaline conditions, this
couldn't form because it would react with the alkali. A salt is
formed instead.

In the case of methanal, HCHO, the oxidation goes further. The methanoic acid or methanoate
ions formed are easily oxidised to carbon dioxide and water.

Under acidic conditions it is:

. . . and under alkaline conditions:
Using acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution
The orange dichromate(VI) ions have been reduced to green chromium(III) ions by the aldehyde.

No change in the orange solution.


Orange solution turns green.

Using Tollens' reagent (the silver mirror test)


No change in the colourless solution.


The colourless solution produces a grey precipitate of silver, or a silver

mirror on the test tube.

Using Fehling's solution or Benedict's solution


No change in the blue solution.


The blue solution produces a dark red precipitate of copper(I) oxide.

Add either a few drops of the aldehyde or ketone, or possibly a
solution of the aldehyde or ketone in methanol, to the Brady's
reagent. A bright orange or yellow precipitate shows the presence
of the carbon-oxygen double bond in an aldehyde or ketone.
Alcohols tend to have higher boiling points than the hydrocarbons because of the strong hydrogen bond between hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

propyl methanoate is an ester there are no hydrogen bonds

among the ester molecules while there is hydrogen bonding
involved in the acid therefore ester has lower while acid has
higher boiling point.


optically active= Chiral compounds
If the hydrogen atoms are on the opposite side of the double bonds of the carbon
chain, then it is said to be in "trans" configuration.
THEREFORE B is the answer.

for section B [Q: 31 -40]

there are 3 statements 1, 2 and 3. right


If you are 100% sure that it is

wrong =>

If you are 100% sure that it is

wrong =>

answer is C


answer is D
Now if Statement:1 is correct, instead of checking for
statement:2 , check for statement 3 first.
If youre sure its that Statement:3

correct, then your

answer will be A.
And if youre sure Statement:3 its wrong, then check statement

Statement:2 is correct
your answer is B
and if Statement:2 is wrong
your answer is D.

Note: If you arent sure whether a statement is wrong or correct

or not, better go through all of them.
Youll understand this, if you practice a few papers Thats how I
got all this. Otherwise, I couldnt manage to complete the paper
on time
And this isnt some special technique. Its just based on how you
use your logic
Look how A, B, C and D are classified.
A : 1, 2, 3 correct

B : 1 and 2 correct
C : 2 and 3 correct
D : 1 correct

Diradical : an atom or molecule having two unpaired electrons
Molecular oxygen (O2) is a rare example of a stable biradical (two unpaired electrons having the
same spin), with an even number of electrons.

Oxygen has two unpaired electrons in separate orbitals in its

outer shell. This electronic structure makes oxygen especially
susceptible to radical formation.
So only oxygen has diradical therefore statement D.
Ans is b
The melting point of the metals depends upon
1. the number of delocalised electrons(greater for group2)
2. the size of the atoms or cations
3. whether the packing structure is close packed (Mg and Al) or
not (Na).
The boiling point of the metals depends upon
1. the number of delocalised electrons
2. the size of the atoms or cations

Having a higher first ionisation energy would make an atom less

able to contribute to the sea of delocalized electrons causing a
decrease in melting point.
Ans is b
1. BH3 is a trigonal planar
2. CH3+A trigonal planar
3.PH3 is a trigonal pyramidal
Ans is A

1 Elements B, J and R are in Group 0 of the Periodic Table.(highest ionization energy)


Z is therefore Ca(OH)2. When Ca(OH)2 is added to soil it

neutralises acid, so the pH of the soil is increased, not decreased,
so statement 3 is incorrect
Statement 1 correct but statement 3 incorrect therefore ans =D
Qno 36: b
2. the size of the halogen atom: As the halogen atom gets bigger,
the bonding pair gets more and more distant from the nucleus.
The attraction is less, and the bond gets weaker (statement 1 the
strength of the hydrogen-halogen bond)- exactly what is shown by
the data. There is nothing complicated happening in this case.
This is important in the thermal stability of the hydrogen halides how easily they are broken up into hydrogen and the halogen on

Hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride are very stable to heat.

They don't split up into hydrogen and fluorine or chlorine again if
heated to any normal lab temperature.
Hydrogen bromide splits slightly into hydrogen and bromine on
heating, and hydrogen iodide splits to an even greater extent.
As the bonds get weaker, they are more easily broken.
The results show that the thermal stability of hydrogen halides
decreases with increasingrelative molecular mass.
The relative stability of hydrogen halides can be explained in
terms of bond length and strength. On decesendin gGroup 17, the
atomic size of halogens increases, and hence the H-X bond
The decomposition of hydrogen halides involves breaking the H-X
The longer the bondlength, the weaker the bond and the more
easily the bond can be broken.
HF > HCl> HBr> HIH-F < H-Cl<H-Br < H-I
bond length increases

Statement 1 is wrong as no hydrogen in mixture therefore answer

is C
Catchword oxidized type of reaction
CH3CH2CHO is an aldehyde its reaction with Fehlings reagent therefore
statement 1 is correct check
statement 3:- CH3CHO + 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent (condensation
CH3CHO is an Aldehyde does not get oxidized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent so srarement 3
is incorrect check
Statement 2: CH3CH2CH2CHO (structure R-CHO, an aldehyde) + Tollens reagent (oxidation reduction
reaction )
So ans is B

Hydrolysis using dilute alkali
This is the usual way of hydrolysing esters. The ester is heated
under reflux with a dilute alkali like sodium hydroxide solution.
There are two big advantages of doing this rather than using a
dilute acid. The reactions are one-way rather than reversible, and
the products are easier to separate.
Taking the same esters as above, but using sodium hydroxide
solution rather than a dilute acid:
First, hydrolysing ethyl ethanoate using sodium hydroxide
i.e salt and alcohol
Ester has general structure

EG.When sodium hydroxide is added to an ester, say for example
to ethyl ethanoate, a salt sodium ethanoate is formed along with
ethyl alcohol. The reaction is shown below.

The enclosed part will be replaced with Na + i.e

Also the enclosed part will act with OH- forming alcohol

1.CH3CH2CH2CH2CH(CH2CH3)CH2OH is the alcohol

But statement 3 is incorrect.
Therefore ans=B


Sodium Lactate is a sodium salt of lactic acid

So basically reaction is to make salt from acid
Carboxylic acids are readily deprotonated by sodium
hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate to form carboxylate
salts .
Carboxylic acids react with bases to form carboxylate salts, in
which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl (-OH) group is replaced with a
metal cation. Thus, acetic acid found in vinegar reacts
with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to form sodium acetate,
carbon dioxide, and water:
sodium reacts violently with acids to produce a salt and hydrogen
also there is no question about using in xcess bcoz a very small
pc can even be xplosive .
If statement 1 is wrong ans= C