You are on page 1of 193

Royal Government of Cambodia

National Committee for Sub-National Democratic Development

Commune/Sangkat Fund
Technical Manual

Volume I
Study and Design Guidelines

2009

VOLUME I:
STUDY AND DESIGN GUIDELINES

CONTENTS
PREFACE ...................................................................................................................... iv
List of Abbreviations ..................................................................................................... v
PART 1: INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 1
1

Introduction ......................................................................................................... 2

1.1

Preamble .......................................................................................................................... 2

1.2

Commune/Sangkat Fund Technical Manual ................................................................. 2

1.3

Scope of Technical Manual ............................................................................................ 4

1.4

Contents of Technical Manual ....................................................................................... 4

PART 2: TECHNICAL FORMS ....................................................................................... 6


2

Technical Forms ................................................................................................. 7

2.1

Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 7

2.2

Technical Forms are Mandatory .................................................................................... 8

2.3

Differences between Technical Forms ......................................................................... 8

2.4

Getting Design Guidance ............................................................................................... 8

2.5

Example Technical Forms.............................................................................................. 8

2.6
Transportation Infrastructure, Group Output Code 1010000 ...................................... 8
2.6.1 Form T11 Transport: Roads ........................................................................................... 9
2.6.2 Form T12 Transport: Structures .................................................................................. 17
2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3

Irrigation System, Group Output Code 1020000 ........................................................ 23


Form T21 Irrigation: Project ......................................................................................... 23
Form T22 Irrigation: Earthwork ................................................................................... 33
Form T23 Irrigation: Structure ..................................................................................... 43

2.8
Water Supply, Group Output Code 1030000 .............................................................. 51
2.8.1 Form T31 Water Supply ................................................................................................ 51
2.9
Education Facility, Group Output Code 1040000 ....................................................... 62
2.9.1 Form T41 Education Facility ........................................................................................ 62
2.10 Health, Group Output Code 1050000 .......................................................................... 70
2.10.1 Form T51 Health ........................................................................................................ 70
2.11 Sanitation, Group Output Code 1100000 .................................................................... 77
2.11.1 Form T101 Sanitation ............................................................................................... 77

PART 3: TEMPLATE DESIGNS FOR LOCAL INFRASTRUCTURE ........................... 86


3

Template Designs for Local Infrastructure ..................................................... 87

3.1

Background ................................................................................................................... 87

3.2

NCDD Templates ........................................................................................................... 87

3.3

Available Templates ..................................................................................................... 87

3.4

How to Read and Use the Drawings ............................................................................ 87


I-i

3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.4.6

Size ................................................................................................................................. 87


Drawing scales .............................................................................................................. 88
Dimensions ................................................................................................................... 88
Revisions ....................................................................................................................... 88
Variable dimensions ..................................................................................................... 88
How to read the steel details and the steel schedule ................................................ 88

3.5
AutoCAD Standards ..................................................................................................... 89
3.5.1 AutoCAD Version .......................................................................................................... 90
3.5.2 General settings ............................................................................................................ 90
3.5.3 AutoCAD file name ....................................................................................................... 90
3.5.4 Drawing number ........................................................................................................... 90
3.5.5 Paper size ...................................................................................................................... 91
3.5.6 Pen assignment for plotting ........................................................................................ 91
3.5.7 Layer definition ............................................................................................................. 91
3.5.8 Text style and fonts ...................................................................................................... 92
3.5.9 Line types / widths ........................................................................................................ 93
3.5.10 Hatch .......................................................................................................................... 93
3.5.11 Dimensions................................................................................................................ 93
3.5.12 Blocks ........................................................................................................................ 94
3.5.13 External references (x-ref) ....................................................................................... 94
3.5.14 Viewports ................................................................................................................... 94
3.5.15 Plotting....................................................................................................................... 94

PART 4: MATERIALS, QUANTITIES AND COSTS .................................................... 95


4

Materials, Quantities & Costs .......................................................................... 96

4.1

Project Cost Estimation ............................................................................................... 96

4.2

Tables of Quantities and Labor Costs ........................................................................ 96

4.3

Net Quantities ............................................................................................................... 96

4.4

Cost Estimation Using the Project Generator ............................................................ 97

PART 5: STUDY AND DESIGN GUIDELINES ........................................................... 109


5

Study and Design Guidelines ........................................................................ 110

5.1
Introduction ................................................................................................................. 110
5.1.1 Limitations ................................................................................................................... 110
5.1.2 Using the design guidance ........................................................................................ 110
5.2
Transport Infrastructure: Group 101 ......................................................................... 111
5.2.1 Sub-Group 10101 and 10102: Roads: Form T11 ...................................................... 111
5.2.2 Sub-Group 10103 to 10108: Road Structures: Form T12 ........................................ 117
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3

Irrigation System: Group 102 .................................................................................... 131


Irrigation Project: Form T21 ....................................................................................... 131
Irrigation Earthwork: Form T22 ................................................................................. 134
Irrigation structure: Form T23 ................................................................................... 139

5.4

Water Supply: Group 103 ........................................................................................... 140

5.5

Education Facilities: Group 104 ................................................................................ 148

5.6

Health Facilities: Group 105 ...................................................................................... 149

5.7

Market Construction: Group 106 ............................................................................... 150

5.8

Crop Storage and Processing: Group 107 ............................................................... 150

5.9

Social Infrastructure: Group 108 ............................................................................... 150


I-ii

5.10

Energy: Group 109 ...................................................................................................... 150

5.11 Sanitation: Group 110................................................................................................. 150


5.11.1 Latrines .................................................................................................................... 151
5.11.2 Waste water and solid waste ................................................................................. 151
5.11.3 Drainage ................................................................................................................... 151
5.12

Flood Protection Structures: Group 111 .................................................................. 153

ANNEX 1: TECHNICAL FORMS ................................................................................ 154


Technical Form T11 Transport: Roads .............................................................................. 155
Technical Form T12 Transport: Structures ....................................................................... 159
Technical Form T21 Irrigation: Project .............................................................................. 163
Technical Form T22 Irrigation: Earthwork......................................................................... 167
Technical Form T23 Irrigation: Structure .......................................................................... 172
Technical Form T31 Water Supply ..................................................................................... 175
Technical Form T41 Education Facility ............................................................................. 179
Technical Form T51 Health ................................................................................................. 181
Technical Form T101 Sanitation......................................................................................... 183

I-iii

PREFACE
This book is the first volume of Commune Sangkat Fund Technical Manual produced by the
National Committee for Sub-National Democratic Development (NCDD) with the help of the
Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), the Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology
(MoWRAM), and others. Commune Sangkat Fund Technical Manual consists of 7 parts which
are divided into 3 volumes as the followings:
x

Volume I : Study and Design Guidelines

Volume II : Specifications for Construction Materials and Works

Volume III : Contract Supervision

This first volume states mainly the study and design guidelines for the implementation of smallscale infrastructure projects financed by Commune Sangkat Fund. It comprises 5 parts among 7
parts of Commune Sangkat technical manual as the followings:
x

Part 1 : Introduction

Part 2 : Technical Forms

Part 3 : Template Designs for Local Infrastructure

Part 4 : Materials, Quantities and Costs

Part 5 : Study and Design Guidelines

For part 6 which instructs on specifications for construction materials and works is in Volume II;
while the final part- part 7 is in volume III which explains about contract supervion by the use of
Construction Check Lists.

I-iv

List of Abbreviations
ADT
Applet
AASHTO
BOQ
CBR
CSO
C/S
CIP
DFT
DCP
DoLA
DBST
EA
EIA
EMP
ExCom
FWUC
GPS
GTFM
HFWL
IO
LAU
NGO
MEF
M&E
MoI
MRD
NCDD
O&M
PBC
PCU
PFT
PIM
PMC
PRDC
PSDD
PDoWRAM
SBST
ST 1
ST 2
ST 3
T
TSO
TSU
TRRL

Average Daily Traffic


A spreadsheet to calculate Design flow and structure size

American Association for State Highway and Transportation Official


Bill of FQuantity

California Bearing Ratio


Civil Society Organization
Commune/Sangkat
Community Investment Program
District Facilitation Team
Dynamic Cone Penetration Test
Department of Local Administration

Double Bituminous Surface Treatment


Environmental Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Management Plan
Executive Committee

Farmer Water User Committee


Global Positioning System

Generalised Tropical Flood Model


High Flood Water Level
International Organization
Local Administration Unit
Non-Governmental Organization
Ministry of Economy and Finance
Monitoring and Evaluation
Ministry of Interior
Ministry of Rural Development
National Committee for Sub-National Democratic Development

Operation & Maintenance


Planning and Budgeting Committee
Passenger Car Unit
Provincial Facilitation Team
Project Implementation Manual
Project Management Committee
Provincial Rural Development Committee
Project Support for Decentralization and Deconcentration
Provincial Department of Water Resource and Meteorology

Single Bituminous Surface Treatment


Sub-Tertiary 1
Sub-Tertiary 2
Sub-Tertiary 3
Tertiary

Technical Support Officer


Technical Support Unit
Transport Road Research Laboratory (DCP Model)

I-v

PART 1: INTRODUCTION

I-1

Part 1: Introduction

1 Introduction
1.1 Preamble
The principal and first order document for implementation of projects under the
Commune/Sangkat Fund (C/S Fund) is the C/S Fund Project Implementation Manual (PIM).
The C/S Fund Technical Manual (this document) is a second order document dealing only with
technical aspects of C/S Fund infrastructure projects and particularly the interface with the C/S
Fund Project Generator software developed for infrastructure projects. C/S Fund service
projects are not dealt with by the Technical Manual.
If there is a conflict between the C/S Technical Manual/Project Generator and the PIM then the
PIM takes precedence.

1.2 Commune/Sangkat Fund Technical Manual


The C/S Fund Technical Manual is for the design and construction of small-scale infrastructure
projects financed by the Fund. The Technical Manual is used with an interactive software
package called the C/S Fund Project Generator.
It has been produced by the National Committee for Sub-National Democratic Development
(NCDD) with the help of the Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), the Ministry of Water
Resources and Meteorology (MoWRAM), and others.
It originated as the Seila Technical Manual and the accompanying interactive software package
called the Seila Template Program developed between 2001 2006. The Seila material and
procedures were used and evolved over several years with some success and were taken over
by NCDD. The many strong features of the approach were recognized but there were some
problems also. In particular the Template designs and program were somewhat inflexible and it
was difficult to update or add new designs. Also the many forms and procedures required by
the Project Implementation Manual (PIM) although they provided a strong system in themselves
were demanding on time and resources in the provinces; and had to be completed within a very
short time window in the annual project cycle. Consequently many of the forms were often
incomplete and seldom properly checked prior to approval. In addition the construction
supervision was inadequate with the result that it was common for infrastructure works to be of
poor quality and not completed to the full dimensions.
The new manual differs in several ways:
x

The core template program function has been retained but rewritten on a flexible
software platform; it incorporates standard design drawings (prepared in AutoCAD but
saved and accessed in PDF format) linked to spreadsheets which calculate quantities
and costs according to variable dimensions.

The concept of checklist-type feasibility study PIM forms from the Seila Template
process have been upgrade to interactive Technical Forms built into the Project
Generator software in combination with the Template program component. Hence the
forms call in the outputs of the template program automatically by use of links and
dropdown menus allowing rapid and quality assured assembly of a project portfolio.

The new technical forms in project generator provide design guidance where
technical design is required. The user must answer simple questions by either filling
data or choosing answer from multiple choice answers.In some technical forms, advice
on type and dimensions of infrastructure will be provided in order to choose project
output. To obtain the advice, you need to do some calculation by using several small
Excel programs called Applet. The programs are interactive, the user can change
some design requirements, or in some cases vary the design criteria used, until an
acceptable design is produced. The user can choose the final design choice which can
be less than recommended if there is good reason.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-2

Part 1: Introduction

For construction supervision the Technical Guidelines incorporate an updated and


expanded version of construction checklist forms developed by MRD.

The Project Generator can be expanded to cover other requirements of the PIM.

This Technical Manual is distributed to all Provincial Departments of Rural Development


(PDRD), and to contractors working on C/S Fund infrastructure projects. It is also available to
other organisations working in rural infrastructure.
The C/S Fund Technical Manual is primarily intended as a resource to be used in design of
infrastructure projects of the Commune and Sangkat Councils. Most of the projects are small
and simple. There are many different projects with similar outputs. For example, in 2002 the
Commune Councils constructed about 1200 road culverts and about 1100 wells.
The drawings in the C/S Fund Technical Manual can be used for about 90% of all the
infrastructure project outputs implemented by the Commune Councils.
Most of the drawings are not new, they are generally based on designs in current use by line
ministries, in some cases simplified or condensed so that they can be used by small works
contractors. Other designs have been taken from development sector literature and adapted
always with the emphasis on suitability for use in contemporary rural communities in Cambodia.
Almost all the drawings in the original Seila Manual have been used on many successful
projects already.
Most Commune and Sangkat projects will be constructed by small contractors who do not have
high level technical skills, or a lot of equipment. The drawings in the C/S Fund Technical
Manual can help the Communes and the contractors to achieve good results in the following
ways:
x

The drawings are available in Khmer and English languages;

The drawings are easy to read, by people who do not have high technical education (If
you think that the drawings are not easy to read, please complain and we will try to
improve them!);

The project outputs shown in the drawings are easy to construct, without a lot of special
equipment;

The designs do not need a very high quality of construction technique, to achieve a
successful project. For example, concrete structures built using the designs will be
strong enough, even if the quality of the concrete is not very good.

When the Commune Council implements a project, they must follow technical guidelines from
the Ministry that is responsible for the sector. For example, road projects should follow
guidelines from the Ministry of Rural Development, and irrigation projects should follow
guidelines of the Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology.
Because the Ministries have helped to produce the Technical Manual (and the earlier Seila
Technical Manual), the drawings in the Manual follow Ministry guidelines. If the Commune
chooses a drawing from the Manual for their project, they know that the drawing follows the
guidelines. However, the Commune can choose to use a different drawing (one that is not in
the Manual) if they prefer.
The drawings show technical designs for project outputs. Before choosing a drawing for the
project outputs, the project designer must decide what types of outputs are needed, how big the
outputs must be and where the outputs must be. However, provided that the basic field data is
collected the interactive Technical Forms in the Project Generator will provide most of the
information required to assemble the design file.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-3

Part 1: Introduction

1.3 Scope of Technical Manual

It is essential for TSOs to also make field visits to:

Assess initial purpose of the project

Re-check overall objective and revise if project differs from its initial purpose

Facilitate in procuring external engineering services if needed

1.4 Contents of Technical Manual


The C/S Fund Technical Manual has the following parts.
Part 1: Introduction

x This section which includes general


instructions on the use of the Technical
Manual

Part 2: Technical Forms

x This describes the filling of Technical Forms


for infrastructure projects. (all other aspects
of project preparation and clearance are
described by the PIM). Filled examples are
included for the Technical Forms currently
loaded to the Project Generator. A full set of
unfilled forms is at Annex 1.

Part 3: Template Designs for Local


Infrastructure

x This describes how to understand and use


the template designs already loaded into the
Project Generator, and how to prepare new
template designs.

Part 4: Materials, Quantities & Costs

x This presents the tables of materials and


quantities that the PIM requires to be used
for estimation of project costs. It also
includes explanation and an example of the
quantity tables associated with each
template design loaded to the generator.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-4

Part 1: Introduction

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

x This section provides basic guidance on the


technical aspects of study and design such
as slope stability, hydrological and hydraulic
considerations, choice of materials, etc.
Filling the Technical Forms guides most of
the design decisions and small applet
programs are called for simple design
calculations. The design guidance is for
about 90% of projects, the remaining 10%,
because they are unique or have special
circumstance will require specialist design
input.

Part 6: Specifications for Construction


Materials and Works

x This provides explanations and instruction


on use of the specifications use a tabular
format. This is followed by revised and
expanded tabulated specifications.

Part 7: Contract Supervision

x This section explains the use of Construction


Check Lists. Examples of filled check lists
for two types of project are included. The full
set of 32 check lists is at Annex 3.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-5

Part 2: Technical Forms

PART 2: TECHNICAL FORMS

Study and Design Guidelines

I-6

Part 2: Technical Forms

2 Technical Forms
2.1 Introduction
This section describes how to comply with the requirements of the Project Implementation
Manual (PIM) that for an infrastructure project the Technical Assistant prepares Technical
Information Forms. These forms are part of the core process of Project Preparation and
Technical Clearance.
It is required that the Technical Assistant will assist the Project Management Committee to
study the technical aspects of the project at the project site in close cooperation with the User
Groups and local community organizations to collect important and necessary information for
filling in the Project Information Form and Technical Information forms.
The general information and technical information will be used to prepare the project design.
The technical information is different according to the type of project. The different technical
forms are listed below:
Infrastructure type
Code
1010000

1020000

Description
Transportation
Infrastructure

Irrigation System

Technical forms
Form No.

Project type

Status of form

Form T11

Transport: Roads

Active in project
generator

Form T12

Transport: Structures

Active in project
generator

Form T21

Irrigation: Project

Active in project
generator

Form T22

Irrigation: Earthworks

Active in project
generator

Form T23

Irrigation: Structures

Active in project
generator

1030000

Water Supply

Form T31

Water supply

Active in project
generator

1040000

Education
Facilities

Form T41

Education

Active in project
generator

1050000

Health

Form T51

Health

Active in project
generator

1060000

Market
Infrastructure

Form T61

Markets

Form to be prepared

1070000

Agriculture
Infrastructure

Form T71

Crop storage and


processing

Form to be prepared

1080000

Social
Infrastructure

Form T81

Social infrastructure

Form to be prepared

1090000

Energy

Form T91

Energy

Form to be prepared

1100000

Sanitation

Form T101

Sanitation and
drainage

Active in project
generator

1110000

Flood Protection
Infrastructure

Form T111

Flood protection
structures

Form to be prepared

Study and Design Guidelines

I-7

Part 2: Technical Forms

It will be noted in the status of form column that that there are Forms to be prepared for five
of the infrastructure group. This is because at the time of writing this manual there are no
templates loaded into the Project Generator for these groups and very few such projects have
ever been executed. This is anticipated to change in the future and it is intended to develop
additional Technical Forms at that time when the precise requirements for the forms will be
known.

2.2 Technical Forms are Mandatory


It is mandatory to complete in full the appropriate Technical Forms active in the Project
Generator. If the forms are not completed the Project Generator will not allow the project
preparation and technical clearance process to proceed.

2.3 Differences between Technical Forms


Each Technical Form is structured differently depending on the types and numbers of
infrastructure outputs for which it can be used and also the design processes necessary and
described in the design guidance.

2.4 Getting Design Guidance


Design guidance is provided at Part 6 of this manual.
As far as is possible the Technical Forms incorporate the design guidance to advise the on the
recommended output(s) and sizes where relevant. In some places there are MS Excel applets
linked to the forms that will do the calculations required. The limitations of the applets are
explained at Part 6 of this Manual.
Care has been taken to take a realistic approach so that the advice will be correct most of the
time; and certainly a big improvement on past practice for some classes of infrastructure which
are often built without any consideration of the design needs.
Design advice can still be overridden by the choosing a different output or size, which may be
for a justified reason.

2.5 Example Technical Forms


The remainder of this section describes the Technical Forms prepared to date and active in the
Project Generator. There is a flow chart for each form illustrating the process of filling the form
and where design calculations are made in the background.
Each flow chart is followed by an example of that form output by the generator. The
appearance and content of the output depends on how the form was filled in the Project
Generator, the recommendations of the design guidance, and the final choices made for the
infrastructure output. Blank unfilled examples of the Technical Forms are at Annex 1.

2.6 Transportation Infrastructure, Group Output Code 1010000


There are two types of Technical Form for Transport Infrastructure:
x

Form T11 for roads

Form T12 for road structures.

Generally only one Form T11 will be required provided the road width and surface type is the
same for the full length of the road. If it changes, e.g. because of increased traffic after a road
junction, then more than one T11 might be filled.
There must be one Form T12 for each road structure, e.g. if there is one 5 m concrete bridge
and three 1.0 m diameter pipe culverts then four T12 must be filled.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-8

Part 2: Technical Forms

2.6.1 Form T11 Transport: Roads


Forms
Firstly, use Applet T11 to get advices on suitable road surface options based by:
x

Entering into Applet T11 Average Daily Traffic for existing road to determine MRD
Class A or B and a total of 24 hour from classified traffic count at busiest part of road.

Entering DCP test results with GPS coordinates (Enter each DCP test result to Applet
T11 and get the 20 percentile DCP strength).

You will then get the advices on road type, surface and pavement thickness in the next
worksheet of Applet T11.
After that you must create output according to the advises from the Applet, but you can choose
another type of road surface and pavement thickness with appropriate reasons.
Then go to technical form T11 to answer the questions on:
x

General project information this fills automatically from information previously filled
immediately when creating project.

Project location enter the GPS coordinates of the start and finish of the road.

Type of roadworks required option for five descriptions covering new, rehabilitated,
and improvement by widening and/or upgraded surface.

Length of road is entered manually

Road Classification option for roads connecting district centre/communes/villages


determines the MRD road classification and hence the minimum recommended road
width.

Existing structures and new structures required manual entry describing existing
structures and anticipated number(s) and type(s) of new structure (the actual number,
type and size of structure is decided using Form and Applet T12).

Type of existing road construction, its condition, and main cause of damage a variety
of questions and options describing the existing road, what wheeled traffic can pass in
the wet and dry season, and the main cause of damage.

Materials available for road construction a variety of questions about locally available
road construction material, its quality, and haul distance to the site.

Foundation soils description options for type of soil.

Proposed fill and cut slopes Choose cut and fill slopes according to type of cut and fill
material (this is used for quantity calculations).

The form is completed by identifying responsibility for road maintenance.

Example
The example shown is for 4.25 km improvement of a sub-tertiary road Type ST3.
For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be:
1. Template 1010102 drawings together with a profile pro-forma drawing in AutoCAD file
used with Excel spreadsheet.
2. Spreadsheet for calculation of quantities to allow calculation of cost estimate (see Part 4
of this Technical Manual).
Study and Design Guidelines

I-9

Part 2: Technical Forms

3. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual)


4. One Form T12 for each structure identified as needed.
5. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).
The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-10

Part 2: Technical Forms

Flowchart for Technical Form T11Transport: Roads

Traffic count

DCP
measurements

ADT

Soils and
20 percentile DCP

Surfacing
option(s) applet
(advice)

Create Output

General
information?

Location?

Road
classification?

List new
structures?

One Form T12


generated for each,
culvert, bridge and
low-level crossing
Form T12
each structure

Existing road
construction?
Condition
of road?
Main cause
of damage?

Materials
available?

Slopes?

Pavement type
and thickness?

Study and Design Guidelines

x Drawings
x Interactive
quantities SS

I-11

Part 2: Technical Forms

Example Project Generator print Form T11 Transport: Roads


Form T11 Transport: Road
(Earth Road)

Province : Kampong cham

District : Sreisanthor

S/C:Roseisrok

Name of project : Repair of laterite road


Name of TSO : Seila

Code of S/C : 31411

Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009

1. Location: where is the earth road located within the Sangkat/Commune?


* Describe this location
It goes from Commune office to Som Roang Pagoda
2. Give the coordinates of GPS
If there are many road segments which have the same condition width and pavement,
give the coordinates of start points and end points of each segment. One row is for one
segment.
Start point

Ending point

X of GPS

Y of GPS

X of GPS

Y of GPS

304010

1528230

308350

1528250

3. Type of road project: What kind of road work is required?

New road construction

Rehabilitate existing road, the same width and surface

Improve and widen existing road, same surface

Improve existing road, the same width upgraded surface

Improve and widen existing road, upgrade surface.

4. Length of road: what is the length of the road (in kilometer)?


4250
5. Road classification:

District to district road, Tertiary Road, (T Road), 6.0 m

District to Sangkat/Commune, Sub-tertiary Road Type 1, ( ST1 road) 6.0 m

Commune to commune road, Sub-tertiary Road Type 2, (ST2 road), 5.0m

Commune to village road, Sub-tertiary Road Type 3, (ST3 road), 4.0m

Village to village road, Sub-tertiary Road Type 3, (ST3 road), 4.0m

6. Structures: are there existing structures?


* If yes answer the following questions; if no skip to the next question.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-12

Part 2: Technical Forms

Yes

No

7. List number, description and dimensions of existing structures.


1. 1 small wooden bridge 2m span, 2. Three single pipe culverts 0.6m,
3. Carriageway above structure is 3m.
8. What new structures are required (number of each)?
* fill a form T12 for each structure, number the structure in the table.
Bridge

culvert

drift

vented causeway

6
9. Type of existing road: is there existing path, car-track or road ?

Yes

No

10. Is the road on an embankment?

Yes

No

11. What is the width of the road?


3
12. Condition of road: what is the condition of the road?
* first row for rainy season, the second row for dry season. Write Can or Cannot. Can:
Can go, Cannot: Cannot go.
Bicycle

Motorcycle

Motorremorque

Koyun or
small truck
for carrying
goods

Car or truck
for carrying
people

heavy truck
for carrying
goods

Can

Can

Can

Can

Cannot

Cannot

Can

Can

Can

Can

Can

Cannot

13. Main cause of road damage: What causes the main damage?
If Something else, answer the below question

Flooding

Ponding on the road surface

Gully erosion from runoff from the surface

Carts pulled by animals

Small cars or pickup trucks

Study and Design Guidelines

I-13

Part 2: Technical Forms

Heavy trucks for carrying goods

Something else (fill in the below question)

14. Others main causes:


15. Material availability for road construction.
Remark: For the material which are required for road construction for the road type you
have chosen skip to others questions!
16. Fill material from roadside borrow as dug:

Meets specification requirements for Type 3 Fill

Meets specification requirements for Type 1

Can meet specification for Type 3 material by mixing with imported material

Can meet specification for Type 1 material by mixing with imported material

Is unsuitable material (mud, organic soils or Peat).

17. Fill material from remote borrow pit:




Meets specification requirements for Type 3 Fill


Meets specification requirements for Type 1

18. Distance of borrow pit(s) from road (Km):


0.6
19. Source of sand:

Borrow pit

Stream bed

20. Distance from road (Km):


2
21. Source of gravel:

Borrow pit

Stream bed

22. Distance from road (Km):


2
23. Laterite
Put good, medium or poor in the box of quality.
Source

distance of transportation (Km)

quality

Punley mountain

15

Poor

24. Type of stone from quarry


* It the source is not borrow pit, please choose the answer below

Hard metamorphic rock (granite, basalt, etc)

Study and Design Guidelines

I-14

Part 2: Technical Forms

Limestone

Sandstone

25. Type of stone for stream bed:


* If the source is not stream bed, please choose the answer below

Hard metamorphic rock (granite, basalt, etc)

Limestone

Sandstone

26. Water supply for earth work


Source

distance from road (Km)

Domestic well

27. Road traffic: what are the proportion of the cars and trucks using the road?
*Write in percentage.
One place to another in
commune

Go from the commune to a


place outside the
commune or vice versa

Go from one place outside


the commune to another
outside the commune

10%

90%

10%

28. the proportion of the cars and trucks using the road is:
* Put it into percentage.
Belong to people who live in the
commune

Belong to people who live outside the


commune

48%

52%

29. Foundation soils: what kind of soil the structure stand on?
* if other, mention in the following question:

Soil that is very easily eroded

Normal clay

Sandy soils

Gravels

Earth with big stones in it

Other.

30. For others soil kinds.


31. Side slope: Fill slope
Vertical

Horizontal

Study and Design Guidelines

I-15

Part 2: Technical Forms

32. Cut slope


Vertical

Horizontal

33. Choice of road: what is thickness of the pavement proposed?

Surface (if applicable)

Wearing course (if applicable)

Base course (if applicable)

Road base (if applicable)

Sub base (if applicable)

34. Fill with the thickness of the road pavement choosing above:
Road pavement

thickness

Laterite

300mm

35. Road maintenance: Does the commune have a Commune Road Sub-Committee?

Yes

No

36. Who is responsible for road maintenance?


* if Other mention your answer in the question below.

Ministry of Rural Development

Sangkat/Commune

Others

37. Write the person who is responsible for road maintenance if you choose other
38. Remark:
You must upload Applet in which you entered your data to get the answers and the
advices about road pavement. If you chose the road pavement that is not suitable less
or more than recommendation from Applet T11, give your reason on Advice Tab.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-16

Part 2: Technical Forms

2.6.2 Form T12 Transport: Structures


Forms
Firstly, use Applet T12 to get advice on suitable type and size of drainage structure by:
x

Choosing the structure type envisaged, and changing it if it will be different from the
recommended structure after filling hydrology and hydraulic data.

Filling hydrology and hydraulic data details of the catchment draining to the structure if
this can be determined (area, elevation of stream bed for slope, catchment soils,
vegetation, land use and whether in a normal or high rainfall area).

After that you must create output according to the advice from the Applet, but you can choose
another type and size of drainage structure with appropriate reasons. (NOTE: It is strongly
recommended not to select a smaller type and size of structure than advised).
Then go to technical form T12 to answer the questions on:
x

General project information this fills automatically from information previously filled
immediately when creating project.

Project location by entering the GPS coordinates of the structure the Project Generator
creates a location plan.

Road classification and standard the road classification, standard and width is entered
manually, but if Form T12 has been generated by a Form T11 then the information is
entered the same as the road form.

Scope of Works requires information on the type, size and condition of the existing
structure if there is one.

Materials available for structure construction a variety of questions about available


structure construction material, its quality, and haul distance to the site.

Foundation soils including results for DCP tests description options for type of soil and
DCP test results with GPS coordinates (Possibly enter each DCP test result to Applet
T11 and get the 20 percentile DCP strength).

Required hydraulic capacity of structure the design flow and velocity from Applet T12
or engineer.

Example
The example shown is for one of the replacement pipe culverts on the previous example Form
T11 for a road.
For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be:
1. Template drawing for output code 1010303 (see Part 3 of this Technical Manual)
2. Quantities table to allow calculation of cost estimate (see Part 4 of this Technical
Manual).
3. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual).
4. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).
The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-17

Part 2: Technical Forms

Flowchart for Technical Form T12Transport: Structure

Hydrological
measurements?

Applet T12 calculates


flow and selects
structure
Recommended
structure (advice)

Create output
of structure?

General
information?

Location?

Form T11 (if


road project)

Road
classification?

Existing
structure
information?

No Form T11 when project


is single structure

Materials
available?

DCP
measurements

Soils and
20 percentile DCP

Hydraulic capacity
of structure

Study and Design Guidelines

x Drawings
x Quantities

I-18

Part 2: Technical Forms

Example Project Generator print Form T12 Transport: Structure

Form T12 Transport : Road structure


(Single pipe culvert 0.8m)
Province : Kampong cham

District : Sreisanthor

Name of project : Repair of pipe culvert


Name of TSO : Seila

S/C:Roseisrok
Code of S/C : 31411

Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009

1. Location: where is the structure located within the Sangkat/Commune?


*Describe the location
On Chhuk Stream 3km before Som Roang
2. Give the coordinates of the GPS.
X of GPS

Y of GPS

304010

1528230

3. Road Classification :
* Road classification: T, ST1, ST2, or ST3. *Road standard: A or B
Classification

Road standard

Width of pavement (m)

ST3

4. Scope of work: is the structure part of a road project to be carried out at the same
time or is the work for the structure only?

A part of road project

Structure only.

5. Is there an existing structure and if so what is its condition and description?


If Yes, answer only the questions about the existing structure, then go to
question 13. If No go directly to question 13.

Yes

No

6. Describe of existing pipe culvert:


* Material can be: Concrete, Clay, Plastic or steel. Headwalls can be: wood,
masonry, mass concrete, Reinforced concrete, or none.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-19

Part 2: Technical Forms

Number of
pipe

diameter (m)

Pipe material

Headwalls

0.6

Concrete

Masonry

Carriageway
width over
culvert
3

7. Describe the existing box culvert.


* Headwall can be: Wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete or none.
Road slab can be: on wall or integrated with wall.
Number of
box

Width (m)

Height

Walls

Road slab

Carriage
width over
culvert

8. Describe the existing concrete bridge.


* Abutment material can be: wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete,
none. The piers can be: concrete on footing, concrete on piles. Deck material can
be: wood or reinforced concrete.
Number of
spans

Width of
each
span

Height of
each span

Abutment
material

Piers

Deck
material

Deck
carriageway
width(m)

9. Describe the existing steel bridge.


* Steel bridge can be: Bailey, Vietnamese or others. Abutment material can be:
wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete or none. The piers can be:
wood on footing, wood on piles, steel on footing, steel on piles, concrete on footing
or concrete on piles. The deck can be: wood or steel plates.
Type

Number
of spans

Width
of each
span

Height
of each
span

Abutment
material

Piers

Deck
material

Deck
carriageway
width(m)

10. Describe the existing wooden bridge.


* Abutment material can be: wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete,
none. The piers can be: wood on footing, wood on piles. Deck material can be:
wood or steel plate.
Number of
spans

Width of
each
span

Height of
each span

Abutment
material

Piers

Deck
material

Deck
carriageway
width(m)

11. Describe the existing drift.


*Road material can be: earth or laterite, stone, concrete or others.
Width of
crossing (m)

ramp slope

Difference in level
between road on
embankment and
crossing (m)

road material

carriageway
width (m)

12. Describe the existing vented causeway.


Road material can be: earth or laterite, stone, concrete or others.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-20

Part 2: Technical Forms

Width of
crossing
(m)

ramp
slope

Difference in
level between
road on
embankment
and crossing
(m)

road
material

carriageway
width (m)

Size of
opening
Width/Dia

Size of
opening
Height

13. What is the condition and cause damage of the structure?




Good, no restriction on traffic (age of structure)


Poor, most 4 wheel traffic can cross with care (bad design, material or
construction)

Bad, impassable to 4 wheel traffic (not suitable for current traffic)

Collapsed and useless (damage by water or flood)

14. Available construction material: Part 1


* For construction material, fill with Need below type of material, then fill the
source and distance. If No need, fill nothing. Source of fill type 3: borrow pit.
Source of sands: borrow pit or stream bed. Source of gravel: borrow pit or stream
bed.
Type
3 fill

source

distance
(km)

sand

0.1

Need

borrow
pit

Need

source
of
sands
borrow
pit

distance
(km)

gravel

Need

source
of
gravel
borrow
pit

distance
(km)
2

15. Part 2
* Source of stone: quarry or stream bed. Type of stone: hard metamorphic rocks
(granite, basalt, etc).
Stone

Source of
stone

type of
stone

distance
(km)

Need

quarry

Limestone

water
supply for
concrete
Need

source

distance
(km)

pump
from
village

0.5

16. Foundation soils: What kind of soil is the structure founded on ?


* if others, answers the following questions.

Soil that is very easily eroded

Normal clay

Sandy soil

Study and Design Guidelines

I-21

Part 2: Technical Forms

Gravel

Earth with big stone in it

Others

17. Others, mention them.


18. Foundation strength of DCP (mm/blow) and location of each test.
* Location: stream bed road centre line, stream bed upstream, stream bed
downstream, left bank abutment, right bank abutment or others.
DCP (mm/blow)
23
15
35

location
Stream bed road centre line
Right bank abutment
Stream bed downstream

19. what is the 20 percentile DCP?


30.2
20. Hydrology and required hydraulic capacity of structure: did you use Applet to
calculate the design flow, velocity, type and size of structure?
* You can use Applet T12 to determine the simple flow system, but for the
complicated one, you have to find help from an engineer.

Yes

No

21. Maximum design flow (m3/s) from Applet or engineer is:


* If you use Applet, write down the answer from form T12, worksheet GTFM:C32.
1.91
22. Velocity (m/s) which downstream structure can withstand is
* if you use Applet, write down the answer from form T12, worksheet GTFM:C34
2.83
23. Remark:
Upload Applet in which you fill the data to get the design flow, suitable structures
and the velocity above. If you dont use Applet to get the recommended structure,
give your suitable reasons and upload the related documents that you use to
determine design flow and velocity. 

Study and Design Guidelines

I-22

Part 2: Technical Forms

2.7 Irrigation System, Group Output Code 1020000


There are three types of Technical Form for Irrigation Systems:
x

Form T21 for Irrigation: Project

Form T22 for Irrigation: Earthwork

Form T23 for Irrigation: Structure.

Irrigation is generally the most complex and also usually the least successful infrastructure
output supported by the C/S Fund.
Form T21 is used to establish the requirements and constraints for irrigation. Even if the
proposed output(s) are only an element of a larger irrigation system, it is strongly advised to
complete a Form T21 to define the requirements for the C/S Fund investment. This form is
required only one time for one irrigation system.
Form T22 is used for irrigation earthworks; these can be dams or dykes, canals or drains.
There must be a separate T22 for each earthwork, e.g. if a project comprises a dam and two
canals there must be three T22.
Form T23 is for irrigation structures, e.g. spillway, head regulator, cross regulator, culvert, etc.
There must be a separate T23 for each structure, e.g for the dam and canals above there may
be one spillway, one head regulator, two cross regulators and two culverts requiring six T23.

2.7.1 Form T21 Irrigation: Project


Form
Form T21 requires answers for questions on:
x

General project information this fills automatically from information previously filled
immediately when creating project.

Project location by entering the GPS coordinates of the structure (for irrigation projects
choose an identifiable location, e.g. the dam across a stream).

Description of the project manual entry summarising details of the project, if the output
is part of a larger project, describe the larger project and the purpose the output will
serve in relation to that project.

Farmer Water User Community (FWUC) questions establishing whether there is an


existing FWUC or whether farmers are prepare to form one.

Operation and maintenance responsibilities manual entry for proposed operation and
maintenance of the project (Note: failure to implement operation and maintenance
procedures is a primary cause of failure of C/S Fund irrigation investments).

Irrigation system requirement these questions establish what the community expects
from the project, in both the dry and wet season.

Flooding questions about flooding establish if, when and for how long the irrigated
fields flood each year because this determines the periods and quantities of irrigation
water required (remember that paddy rice is traditional grown on land that floods part of
each year).

Existing irrigation systems these questions establish the existing irrigation systems,
their condition, whether they work and the perceived cause of problems.

Water resources these questions establish where the irrigation water will come from,
what periods of the year it is available, and how it will be delivered to the fields.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-23

Part 2: Technical Forms

Rainfall records the nearest available rainfall record should be entered, each province
should keep on file and update annually the rainfall records so that they are available for
such purpose.

At this stage use applet T21 to calculate the irrigation water requirement on a monthly basis; it
is only necessary to enter the catchment area and chose the month of planting, and then copy
the answer from Appet to the generator.
If it is a reservoir project the applet determines:
x

reservoir volume required;

whether the reservoir is large enough;

water surplus/deficit downstream before project;

water surplus/ deficit downstream after project;

whether the reservoir has a negative impact on irrigation downstream;

the percentage reduction in water passed downstream; and

whether the impact downstream is acceptable.

If it is a river intake project the applet determines:


x

whether there is enough water at the river intake;

water surplus/deficit downstream before project;

water surplus/deficit downstream after project;

whether the river intake has a negative impact on irrigation downstream;

the percentage reduction in water passed downstream; and

whether the impact downstream acceptable.

It is probable that at the first attempt there will be too little water for the reservoir or river intake
proposal to work. The planting date, irrigated area and other design inputs can be adjusted to
find the best solution.
Do not be surprised if a solution is not possible, especially in locations outside the
Mekong floodplain. In many such places the landscape and rainfall patterns are
such that reliable supplementary irrigation by traditional methods is impossible to
achieve.
A final choice is made confirming the work proposed for the irrigation project.
Example
The example shown is for repair a Khmer Rouge earth dam, and canals for supplementary
irrigation of wet season rice. The work includes a new reservoir spillway and new head
regulator using medium size water gate.
For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be:
1. 4No Form T22 (for one dam and three canals)
2. 7No Form T23 (for seven structures)
The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-24

Part 2: Technical Forms

Flowchart for
Technical Form T21
Irrigation: Project

General
information?

Location?

FWUC?

O&M?

Irrigation
requirement?

Flooding

Existing
irrigation?

Rainfall
records

Planting
date?

Applet calculates irrigation


water requirement,
reservoir volume, whether
reservoir or river intake
will work, and whether
impact downstream is
acceptable

Irrigation water
requirement

Confirms whether
reservoir or is viable
One Form T22 or T23
generated for each,
earthwork and structure

Confirm
outputs

Forms T22
each
earthwork

Forms T23
each structure

Study and Design Guidelines

I-25

Part 2: Technical Forms

Example Project Generator print Form T21 Irrigation: Project

Form T21 : Irrigation projet


Province : Kampong cham
District : Sreisanthor
Name of project : Irrigation project at Bei village
Name of TSO : Seila

S/C:Roseisrok
Code of S/C : 31411

Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009

1. Location: where is the project located within the Sangkat/Commune?


Chongkoh village
2. Give the coordinate of GPS.
X of GPS
Y of GPS
304010
1528230
3. Project description: provide the description about the project including the proposed
components and size of command area.
Repair a Khmer Rouge earth dam, and canals for supplementary irrigation of wet
season rice, include reservoir spillway and new head regulator using medium size
water gate.
4. Farmer water user community: is there a farmer user community to support the project?
* if you chose No, skip to question 7.

Yes

No

5. How many farmers (families) are members of the Community?


0
6. Have the farmers discussed together and agreed how they will pay the operation and
maintenance costs of the project?

Yes

No

7. Operation and maintenance responsibilities:


Who will be responsible to do the operation and maintenance?
* if the scheme dont need a pump, fill with No need.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-26

Part 2: Technical Forms

Operate the
pump (if the
scheme needs
a pump)?
No needed

Open and close


water gates?

Collect water
user fees?

Organize
maintenance
work?

Solve disputes
between
farmers about
the water?
commune
council

Gate keeper
commune
commune
paid by
council
council
commune
8. Irrigation system requirement: what is the irrigated area in hectares?

* Remark: if the project will be a part of a big irrigation project, only describe the part that
will be affected by the project.
Wet season
100

dry season
0

9. What is the main type of crop that will be grown on the land?
wet season
Rice

dry season
Nothing

10. How much of the land that has enough water every year already?
Wet season
0

number of families
0

dry season
0

number of families
0

11. How much of the land that has enough water some years?
Wet season
50

number of families
40

dry season
0

number of families
0

12. How much of the land never has enough water at present?
Wet season
50

number of families
40

dry season
0

number of families
0

13. Total size of land and total number of families.


* Totalize the size of wet season irrigated area, the number of families, the size of dry
season irrigated area, the number of families.
Wet season
100

number of families
80

dry season
0

number of families
0

14. Flooding: Do the fields flood for some days each year?
If Yes, answer the following questions, if No, skip to question 18.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-27

Part 2: Technical Forms

Yes

No

15. How long are the fields flooded (days)?


30
16. What is the flood depth during these days (m)?
0.15
17. What is the flood path, does the water flow concentrate is some places, describe and flow
path(s) on map?
The flood water comes over the fields from the north-west and stays a long time if
the flood in the big to the south-east is big.
18. Existing irrigation system: is there and existing irrigation system?
If Yes, answer the following question. If No skip to question 28.

Yes

No

19. When was the irrigation system built?


If 1980 to 2000 or After 2000, answer the following questions. If not, skip one question
below.

French era

Sihanouk era

Khmer Rouge era

1980 to 2000

After 2000.

20. Under what program or which donor paid for the project?
21. Does the system work?

Working

Working 50%

Study and Design Guidelines

I-28

Part 2: Technical Forms

Works a little

Not working

22. What are the main components of the system and what is their condition?

River intake

Reservoir

Dam

Spillways

Large water gates

Canals

Small water gates and culverts

23. What is the condition of the irrigation project?


Answer: Working, works a little, Not working or collapse for the main components of the
system choosing above.
Main components of the system
Dam
Spillway
Big water gate
Canal
Small water gate and culverts
24. How many months is water available?

< 1 month

1 to 2 months

3 to 4 months

5 months

6 months

> 6 months

Study and Design Guidelines

condition
Not working
Collapsed
Not working
A lot of damage
A lot of damage

I-29

Part 2: Technical Forms

25. What do you judge as the main problem with the existing irrigation system?
There is no way of controlling the water, the water does not flow long enough to
guarantee irrigation for rice, but for one month or longer the fields flood and there is
too much water.
26. How can a new irrigation project overcome these problems?
It will make the reservoir work, it will store water for later in the season and help
control flooding. The canal will deliver water to the fields.
27. Do you have any other comments relevant to the proposed irrigation project?
The community does not want to pay to form a FWUC, they say they can manage
amongst themselves as they always have. This may be true but they will have
problems later paying for large maintenance. They need some support on
organisation, O&M and agricultural extension
28. Water resource: where will the water come from?

River

Reservoir

Flood lake

Canal

29. What is the water depth existing river, reservoir, lake or canal each month of the year and
is the water stationary or flowing (include largest river flowing into or out of an existing
reservoir)?
Month
depth (m)
flowing, not flowing
Jan
0
not flowing
Feb
0
not flowing
Mar
0
not flowing
Apr
0
not flowing
May
0
not flowing
Jun
0.1
not flowing
Jul
0.2
not flowing
Aug
0.5
flowing
Sept
0.1
flowing
Oct
1.2
flowing
Nov
0.9
flowing
Dec
0.3
flowing
30. How will the water be delivered from the source to the distribution canals and fields?

By pumping

Study and Design Guidelines

I-30

Part 2: Technical Forms

By gravity

31. What is the difference in between the lowest water level at the source and the level of the
fields (m)?
* It is recommended to measure the difference in level with a survey instrument.
1.2
32. Irrigation water requirement: remark
Use Applet T21 to get monthly water requirement for irrigation and gravity flow
capacity per second.
33. Works proposed for irrigation project: What are the main works items include size that will
be repaired or newly constructed for the Irrigation Project?
* For these following questions, answer only about situation and size of the structures
chosen in this question.

Reservoir

Dam

Spillways

River weir or gate

Head regulator

Secondary canal

Tertiary canal

Canal, water gate or regulator

Off-take

Culverts

34. Reservoir works


Repair or New
Repair

Area (ha)
61

Volume (m3)
2200000

35. Dam works

Study and Design Guidelines

I-31

Part 2: Technical Forms

* Fill the questionnaire form T22


Repair or New
Repair
36. Spillways works

length (m)
800

maximum height (m)


3.5

* Fill the questionnaire form T23


Repair or New
New
37. River weir or gates

length (m)
........

Repair or New

length (m)

drop (m)
4

height water raised


(m)

38. Head regulator works


* Fill the questionnaire form T23
Repair or New
New
39. Secondary canal works

Number
1

gate size (m)


0.6

Number
1

Length (m)
1500

Number
1

Total Length (m)


1000

* Fill the questionnaire form T22


Repair or New
Repair
40. Tertiary canal works
* Fill the questionnaire form T22
Repair or New
Repair
41. Canal water gates or regulators work
* Fill the questionnaire form T23
Repair or new
New

number
1

42. Off-take works


* Fill the questionnaire form T23
Repair or new
New

number
2

43. Culvert works


* Fill the questionnaire form T23
Repair or new
number
size (m)
with gate or not
New
2
pipe culvert 0.8
With gate
44. Remark:Upload Applet T21 that youve used into the Project Generator.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-32

Part 2: Technical Forms

2.7.2 Form T22 Irrigation: Earthwork


Forms
Firstly, create output of dam, dyke, canal or drain then open Technical Form T22 which requires
answers for questions on:
x

General project information this fills automatically from information previously filled
immediately when creating project.

Project location enter the GPS coordinates of the start and finish of the earthwork.

Description of earthwork select from choice of: dam, dyke, canal or drain, also select
whether it is: new, improve, repair or maintenance.

Traffic use of earthwork these questions determine whether the earthwork will be used
as a track or road and therefore the required crest width and surfacing (note: it is
common for embankments to serve a dual purpose as a public road and irrigation
earthwork, this complicates maintenance because traffic damage can compromise
irrigation operations.

Condition of existing dams and dykes if the earthwork is a dam or dyke the condition
must be entered manual and then a choice made from a list of common causes of
damage.

Condition of existing canal and drain - if the earthwork is a canal and drain the condition
must be entered manual and then a choice made from a list of common causes of
damage.

Soils select either the soils that will be use as (a) fill or (b) excavated for canals or
drains. The advises whether the material is suitable as fill, safe fill or cut slopes, and
whether canals or drains should be lined are provided next to the choices.

Availability of fill material if the earthwork is a dam or dyke answers on the type,
questions must be answered concerning the quality, location and distance from site of fill
materials.

Design of dam or dyke if the earthwork is a dam or dyke questions the design water
level must be entered, the freeboard to calculate earthwork crest level, whether the
earthwork is a road, the crest width and road surfacing, the upstream and downstream
slopes, the method of slope protection for each slope, the class, thickness and filter
requirements if rock riprap is used on the upstream slope.

Capacity of canal Manually multiply the flow rate of canal to the irrigated areas. A
default flow of 2 l/s/ha to the area of fields supplied is used but can be overridden. If the
canal is supplied by pumps the hours pumped each day must be entered to calculate the
pumping rate.

Capacity of drain Manually multiply the flow rate of canal to the irrigated areas. A
default flow of 3.5 l/s/ha to the area of fields drained is used but can be overridden.
There are some questions to establish the concept for drainage (this is often overlooked
and becomes another cause for failure). If the drain receives flow from a larger
catchment area, details of this catchment must be entered in the same way as Form T12
Road: Structure in Applet T22 External catchment flow. The required flow capacity of
the drain is the sum of the flow from the fields and that from a larger catchment area.

Hydraulic design of canal or drain Having established the required capacity of the
canal or drain the hydraulic calculations are the same and the same applet is used for
both types of channel. It is necessary to enter the upstream and downstream bed levels,
the side slopes and bed width, the freeboard. The calculation is iterative. A water depth
is entered: if it is too small Applet T22 instructs to Increase depth; if it is too large the

Study and Design Guidelines

I-33

Part 2: Technical Forms

Applet instructs to Decrease depth; if the depth is correct (within a band of tolerance)
the Applet prints Depth OK. The Applet then outputs the: minimum height of banks
above bed level; width between tops of bank; and velocity of design flow.
x

Responsibility for operation and maintenance these questions check whether there is
a FWUC to take responsibility for design and maintenance and if not who will carry out
design and maintenance.

Example
The example shown is for rehabilitation of a Khmer Rouge canal downstream from a reservoir.
But in this example the canal must also operate as a drain. Therefore it is necessary to
calculate the required capacities as both a canal and a drain; then use the larger of the two
flows for the hydraulic design of the channel.
For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be:
1. Template drawing(s) when available for chosen output code(s) (See Part 3 of this
Technical Manual).
2. Spreadsheet for calculation of earthwork quantities (See Part 4 of this Technical
Manual).
3. Quantities table to allow calculation of cost estimate (See Part 4 of this Technical
Manual).
4. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual).
5. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).
The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-34

Part 2: Technical Forms

Flowchart for
Technical Form T22
Irrigation: Earthwork

Create
Output?

General
information?

Location?

Description of
earthwork

Traffic use

Condition of dams,
dykes
canals or drains?

Soils?

Design dam or
dyke

Calculation
manually in
Generator

Capacity of
canal?

Capacity of
drain?
T22 External
catchment flow.xls

Hydraulic design
canal or drain

Calculation
manually in
Generator

Applet calculates
size of channel
T22-Design canal
or drain.xls

Applet calculates flow


from external catchment
Responsibility for
maintenance?
x Drawings
x Earthwork SS
x Quantities

Study and Design Guidelines

I-35

Part 2: Technical Forms

Example Project Generator print Form T22 Irrigation: Earthwork

Form T22 Irrigation earthworks


(Earth canal)
Province : Kampong cham

District : Sreisanthor

Name of project : Repair earth canal


Name of TSO : Seila

S/C:Roseisrok
Code of S/C : 31411

Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009

1. Location: where is the project located within the Sangkat/Commune?


Location description:
From the reservoir in Chongkoh village to rice field.
2. Provide the coordinate of GPS.
* First is the starting point, the flow row is the ending point
X of GPS
304010
304090

Y of GPS
1528030
1528230

3. What type of earthwork is required?

Build a new earthwork

Improve the existing earthwork

earthwork (e.g. raise or deepen, widen, add road surfacing)

Repair a badly damage earthwork

Periodic maintenance

4. Traffic use of earthwork: Is the earthwork used as a public road or for farm access?
If Not used skip to question 11.

Public road

Farm access

Not used

5. Has the earthwork ever had Laterite or any other kind of improved surface in the past?

Yes

No

6. Is there any Laterite or any other kind of surface on the earthwork now?

Study and Design Guidelines

I-36

Part 2: Technical Forms

Yes

No

7. What is the largest vehicle that uses the earthwork?

Passenger car

People walking

Motorcycle

Motor-remorque

Bicycle

Animal cart

Light vehicle/van

Koyun

Medium truck (6 tyres)

Heavy truck (6 tyres)

Bus (>4 tyres)

Mini-bus (4 tyres).

8. Approximately how many of these vehicles use the earthwork per day?
* In PCU units, you can use Applet T11 to help your calculation of the number of vehicle.
0
9. According the traffic of vehicle above, what type of pavement is suitable for this
earthwork?
* if the number of vehicle is < 21 Earth surface is satisfactory.
* if the number of vehicle is < 25 Light Laterite surface is satisfactory
* If number of vehicles is <100 Medium Laterite surface is satisfactory
* If number of vehicles is >100 Too much traffic for Laterite surface consider other
option.
10. Condition of the existing dams or dykes and Canals or drains: describe the condition of
the existing earthwork.
The banks are eroded, breach and broken down so that water from the reservoir
goes everywhere and often floods the fields.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-37

Part 2: Technical Forms

11. What causes most damage to the earthwork?


* if Other, answer the question 12

Dam: traffic, people or animal

Erosion from rain

Wave damage from reservoir of flooding

Flooding overtopping and breaching

Flooding overtopping and breaching

Water flow along channels at toe or structures

Others

Canal: too small for flow

Blocked by weed

Silted-up

Bank erosion

12. If Others mention them.


13. Soils: What kind of soil is at the project site, (a) for use as fill, (b) for excavating canals
and drains?







Clay group, stable slope: upstream 1:2.00, downstream 1:1.75, Canal and drain
1:1.25
Sandy group, stable slope: upstream 1:2.50, downstream 1:2.00, Canal and
drain 1:1.50
Silty soil, stable slope: upstream not suitable, downstream not suitable, Canal
and drain 1:1.50
Dispersive clay, upstream not suitable, downstream not suitable, canal and
drain : Line canal
Organic soils, upstream not suitable, downstream not suitable, canal and drain
: Line canal.

14. Material for road construction: remark


Skip the materias which are not chosen for road construction.
15. Fill material from borrow beside earth works.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-38

Part 2: Technical Forms

Meets the specification requirement for type 3 fill

Exceeds specification for Type 3 Fill with high clay content

16. Fill material from remote borrow pit


* fill material can be 1. Meets the specification for type 3 fill, 2. Exceeds specification for
type 3 fill with high clay content.
Suitability, source (km).
Suitability
Exceeds specification for type 3

source (km)
3

17. Sands
* Source: borrow pit, stream bed.
Source

distance (km)

18. Gravel
* Source: borrow pit, stream bed
.Source

distance (km)

19. Laterite
* Source: borrow pit, stream bed. Quality: Good, medium or poor.
Source

Quality

distance (km)

20. Stone
* Source: quarry, stream bed. Type: granite, basalt, limestone
Source

type

distance (km)

21. Water supply for earthwork


Source
Bottom of reservoir

distance (km)
1

22. Design of dam and dyke: What is reservoir full supply level at dam or flood levels at dyke
(m)?
23. What freeboard will be allowed (m)?
* You can get the values of freeboard from PIM.
24. Dam or dyke crests level (before any road surface is added), (m).
25. Will the dam or dyke be used as a road?
26. What is the crest width?
27. Will the crest be surfaced?
If Others, answer the following question.

Not surfaced

Study and Design Guidelines

I-39

Part 2: Technical Forms

Laterite

Others

28. Others, mention them.


29. If laterite, what is the thickness of laterite (mm) ?
30. What will be the upstream slope (see advice in question 13)?
31. What will be the downstream slope (see advice in question 13)?
32. What slope protect will be provided to the upstream slope?
* If not Rock riprap, skip the question 34 to 36.

None

Grass

Rock riprap

Others

33. If Others, mention them.


34. If Rock riprap, What class of riprap (Class A suitable for small reservoirs)?

Class A

Class B

Class C

Class D

35. What thickness of riprap in millimeters (300 mm minimum for Class A)?
36. What filter will be placed below riprap?

150mm gravel

50mm sands over geotextile

37. What slope protect will be provided to the downstream slope?

None

Grass

38. Capacity of canal: Will the canal be irrigated continuously (24 hours) by gravity or by
pumping?
If Gravity, answer the question 40, then skip the question 41. If Pumping, skip the
question 41, then answer the question 41.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-40

Part 2: Technical Forms

Gravity

Pumping

39. Required flow capacity (gravity).


* the design peak flow rate : 2l/s/h or another higher flow rate.
* flow capacity (l/s) = irrigation area (ha) x flow rate (l/s/ha)
Flow rate (l/s/ha)
2

irrigation area (ha)


50

flow capacity (l/s)


100

40. Required flow capacity (pumping)


* Recommended flow rate is 2l/s/ha, or another higher flow rate.
* Pumping rate = flow rate / number of pumping hours x24hours
* flow capacity = irrigation area (ha) x flow rate (l/s.ha)
Flow rate (l/s/ha)

number of pumping hours (hour)

pumping rate (l.s.ha)

41. Capacity of drain: How will the fields be drained?


If Irrigation canals provide drainage the canals must be sized (larger) top work as
drains. So you have to carry on the question about the drain. If No drain, explain the
following question, and then skip to question 48.

Separate drain

Canal as a drain

No drain

42. Explain how excess rainfall and flood water will be drained from the fields?
43. Drain capacity
* Recommended flow rate 3.5l/s/ha, or another higher flow rate.
* Flow capacity (m3/s) = area (ha) x flow rate (m3/s/ha)
Drainage area (ha)
100

flow rate (l/s/ha)


3.5

flow capacity (m3/s)


0.35

44. Will the drain collect water from catchments beyond the fields?
* E.g. a stream flows into the head of the drain from a small catchment or another
irrigation system? If Yes, answer the following questions, if No skip to question 48.

Yes

No

45. What is the catchment area in km2?


If the catchment < 1.00km2 , Add this area to the area of fields above and recalculate
new field drainage flow rate. If the catchment > 1.00km2, use Applet form T22, flow

Study and Design Guidelines

I-41

Part 2: Technical Forms

external catchment or get help from engineer to calculate the total flow (with the flow in
the catchment above).
1.5
46. The flow rate of external catchment (m3/s) is:
Use Applet T22 external catchment then copy form column C32.
If the flow system of the external catchment is too complicate, you have to discuss with
the engineer to get the flow capacity of this catchment.
2.61
47. Total drain design flow (m3/s) is the flow from irrigated area + flow from external
catchment.
* Value of question 43 + value of question 46.
2.96
48. Hydraulic design of canal and drain: remark
Use Applet T22 Hydraulic design of canal and drain to calculate the minimum water
height, bottom width and design velocity.
49. Responsibility for operation and maintenance: is there a Farmer Water Use Comity
(FWUC) or similar group of people who are responsible for operation and maintenance
of the earthwork.

Yes

No

50. Who will take to operate and maintain the earthwork ?


51. Remark
Upload all of Applet T22 that you used into Project generator for engineer to examine.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-42

Part 2: Technical Forms

2.7.3 Form T23 Irrigation: Structure


Form
Firstly,determine the design flow across irrigation structure by:
x

For Small Irrigation Flow Control Structures calculating irrigated and/or drainage flow
(If your irrigation project consists of both earthwork and structure, use the earthwork
flow).

For Miscellaneous Irrigation Structures using Applet T23. In this applet you need to
answer some questions about the hydrology of the catchment similar to Form T12 Road:
Structure. Also the weir crest level and the maximum safe and acceptable upstream
water level must be entered. The applet then outputs the length of the weir. These
answers will need to be entered in the part of Spillways and diversion weirs belw.

After that create output of Irrigation Structure then answer T23 questions on:
x

General project information this fills automatically from information previously filled
immediately when creating project.

Project location enter GPS coordinates of the structure.

Proposed structure select the structure type from the list, the remaining sections of the
form appear as required by this choice.

Materials available for structure construction a variety of questions about available


structure construction material, its quality, and haul distance to the site.

Foundation soils including results for DCP tests description options for type of soil and
DCP test results with GPS coordinates (Enter each DCP test result to Applet T11 and
get the 20 percentile DCP strength).

Road crossing questions on whether a road crosses the structure, the type of road and
the numbers and types of vehicle using the road.

Hydraulic capacity questions require entry of the hydraulic capacity of the structure
depending on whether it is a canal or drain (these answers come from the flow
calculated above). There is also an important question whether the capacity can be
exceeded (e.g. if a drain receives flow from an external catchment, or if a spillway
passes a larger than design flood). The circumstance and consequences of an
overdesign flood must be stated (this may require specialist advice).

Spillways and diversion weirs questions will need to be answered if this type of output
is proposed by copying from the applet T23 used above.

Pumping capacity if the output is a pump then the pumping capacity must be
confirmed, this may come from Form T22.

Responsibility for operation and maintenance these question check whether there is a
FWUC to take responsibility for design and maintenance and if not who will carry out
design and maintenance.

Example
The example shown is for a concrete spillway as part of the works to rehabilitate a Khmer
Rouge reservoir and irrigation system.
For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be:
1. No template drawing(s) are available for chosen output code(s), for the example shown
a template is not suitable and a custom drawing will be needed on all occasions (See
Part 3 of this Technical Manual).

Study and Design Guidelines

I-43

Part 2: Technical Forms

2. No quantities table to allow calculation of cost estimate (See Part 4 of this Technical
Manual).
3. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual).
4. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).
The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-44

Part 2: Technical Forms

Flowchart for
Technical Form T23
Irrigation: Structure
Applet T23 calculates
design flow and
length of weir
(Miscellaneous

Irrigation Structures)
Spillway weir.xls

Design flow

Create
Output

Possibly from form T22


(Small Irrigation Flow

Control Structures)
and use Study and
Design Guideline to
determine the output
Spillway weir.xls

General
information?

Location?

Materials
available?

DCP
measurements

Soils and
20 percentile DCP

Road
crossing?

Hydraulic
capacity?

Spillway/weir
size?

From Form(s)
T22

Pumping
capacity?

x Drawings
x Quantities

Study and Design Guidelines

I-45

Part 2: Technical Forms

Example Project Generator print Form T23 Irrigation: Structure

Form T23 Irrigation structure


(Concrete spillway)
Province : Kampong cham

District : Sreisanthor

Name of project : New concret spillway construction


Name of TSO : Seila

S/C:Roseisrok
Code of S/C : 31411

Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009

1. Location: where is the structure located within the Sangkat/Commune ?


In Chongkoh village
2. Provide the coordinates of GPS.
X of GPS
304010

Y of GPS
1528230

3. Fill type 3
Source: borrow pit
Source
Borrow pit

distance from structure (km)


0.3

4. Sands
Source: borrow pit or stream bed.
Source
Borrow pit

distance from structure (km)


0.1

5. Gravel
Source: borrow pit or stream bed. Remark: for concrete work, the gravel from stream
bed is not permitted.
Source
Borrow pit

distance from structure (km)


1.5

6. Stone
Source: quarry or stream bed. Type of stone: Hard metamorphic rock (granite, basalt,
etc), limestone and sandstone.
Source

type of stone

distance from structure


(km)

7. Water supply for earthwork

Study and Design Guidelines

I-46

Part 2: Technical Forms

Source
Bottom of reservoir

distance from structure (km)


0.1

8. Foundation soils: what kind of soils is the structure founded on?


If Others, fill the questions following.

Very easily eroded soil

Normal clay

Sandy soil

Gravel

Earth with big stone in it

Others

9. Other types of soils: mention them.


10. Foundation strength of DCP (mm/blow) and location of each test.
* Location: stream bed road centre line, stream bed up stream, stream bed downstream,
left bank abutment, right bank abutment or others.
DCP (mm/blow)
23
15
35

location
stream bed road centre line
left bank abutment
stream bed downstream

11. what is the 20 percentile DCP


* You can calculate this value with Applet T11
30.2
12. Crossing structure: is there an existing crossing structure ?
* if Yes, answer the following questions, if Not, go to Flow capacity

Yes

No

13. Road classification:

District to district

Study and Design Guidelines

I-47

Part 2: Technical Forms

District to commune

Commune to commune

Commune to village

Village to village

Farm acces

14. What is the largest vehicle that uses the earthwork?

Passenger car

People walking

Motorcycle

Motor-remorque

Bicycle

Animal cart

Light vehicle/van

Koyun

Medium truck (6 tyres)

Heavy truck (6 tyres)

Bus (>4 tyres)

Mini-bus (4 tyres).

15. Flow capacity: what is the design flow capacity (can be from T22), (m3/s)?
* Calculated from canal capacity. You can skip this question for spillways or river intake.
Generally, if the design structure is passed by the irrigation flow and drainage flow, you
must design the structure the drainage flow, because its value is always higher.
16. What is the flow capacity at the structure (m3/s)?

Study and Design Guidelines

I-48

Part 2: Technical Forms

* Calculated from canal capacity. You can copy skip question for spillways or river
intake. Generally, if the design structure is passed by the irrigation flow and drainage
flow, you must design the structure the drainage flow, because its value is always
higher.
17. Can this flow capacity be higher than design one?
If Can, answer the following questions, if Can not skip them.

Can

Can not

18. Describe the circumstance and consequence for the structure also what provision will
be provided to survive an extreme flow?
Using the design guidance spillways is sized for 1 in 50 year flow into the reservoir; the
reservoir freeboard allows some of the flood to stay temporarily in the reservoir until it
call all pass over the spillways. A concrete stilling basin and erosion protection will be
provided downstream.
19. Did you use Applet to determine the design flow and length of structure? (Spillway and
diversion weirs)
* if you dont design the spillway or river intake, skip them.

Yes

No

20. Spillway and diversion weirs: is the structure for reservoir or river intake?

Reservoir

River intake

21. What is the design flow for spillway or river intake (m3/s) ?
* Copy from Applet T23, worksheet GTFM: C32.
15.35
22. What is the maximum safe water level at the upstream of structure? ( higher than this
level, it can be flooded, overtopped).
* Copy from Applet T23, worksheet GTFP: C33.
23

Study and Design Guidelines

I-49

Part 2: Technical Forms

23. What is the proposed weirs crest level? ( it is a full water level of a reservoir or river
level intaking to the system).
* Copy from Applet T23, worksheet GTFM:C34.
22.5
24. Required weirs length (m):
* Copy from Applet T23, worksheet GTFM:C35.
26
25. Pumping capacity: provide the pumping capacity (m3/s).
* Answer if there is a pumping, see the irrigation project form T22.
26. Responsibility for operation and maintenance: is there a Farmer Water User Comity
(FWUC) or similar group of people who are willing to take responsibility to operate and
maintain the structure?

Yes

No

27. Who will operate and maintain the irrigation structure?


Commune council
28. Remark:
Dont forget to upload Applet that you used in your calculation.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-50

Part 2: Technical Forms

2.8 Water Supply, Group Output Code 1030000


2.8.1 Form T31 Water Supply
Technical Form T31 is used for all Water Supply Infrastructure projects including Wells, Ponds,
Rainwater storage, and Piped water systems.
Not different from the Transport and Irrigation Technical Forms one Form T31 can only be used
for one output, e.g. if a project comprises a ring well, a mixed well, a water storage tank and a
piped deliver system, there must be four forms T31.
Because one Form T31 includes all of the questionnaires of Wells, Ponds, Rainwater storage,
and Piped water systems, it is only necessary to answer to the questions related to the chosen
outputs, e.g. if a project contains only a ring well, answer only questions related to well, and skip
questions of ponds. Advice on questions needed to be answered and skipped are given in the
Project Generator.
Another feature of Form T31 is that the Project Generator will require it to be completed if there
is a water supply associated with another infrastructure output, e.g. a well for a school or health
post.
Form
Firstly, create proposed output and then answer the below questions on:
x General project information this fills automatically from information previously filled
immediately when creating project.
x

Project location enter the GPS coordinates of the structure.

Number of proposed outputs enter the number or sizes of the proposed output
selected above.

Purpose of water supply Select from four options: domestic, school, health facility or
other.

Information about number of users the questions identify the number and type of
users; these are for statistical purposes not for calculation although the information can
be used for a hand calculation if needed (see Part 5 of this Technical Manual).

Maintenance manual entry of who will maintain the water supply facility.

Existing water supply the questions are focused on where the people who will use the
new water supply are getting water at present, this provides an indication of the benefit
of the new water supply.

Information about site of proposed facility the questions focus on ownership of the land
used for the water supply and whether there is a flood risk which could interrupt or
permanently contaminate the water supply.

Existing wells for any water supply project that includes a new well or pond information
from existing wells is the best indicator of water depth and variation over the year, water
quantity and quality, the type of ground or rock where the well is sunk. Take time to
collect and consider the information from as many wells as is practical. The questions
are answered for each existing well.

Proposed well(s) if new wells are required the questions concern the location, well
depth, water depth and ground conditions at the well site, and potential causes of
contamination. Some of the questions may be difficult to answer but make best use of
information from existing wells or other local knowledge. The questions are answered
for each well proposed.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-51

Part 2: Technical Forms

Suitable pump for well the dynamic water level for the proposed well determines the
type of pump which can be selected.

Proposed pond the main issues for a pond are where the water will come from to fill it
and whether it will have any water during the dry season. Ponds in sandy soil will may
fill by groundwater flow but if groundwater level drops below the bottom of the pond
during the dry season any water in the pond will soak away. Ponds in clay soils will not
leak but rely on rainfall, water from a stream or deeper well during the dry season.

Each form is completed by confirming the required outputs which will generate the
drawings and quantities for template designs which have been loaded into the Project
Generator. Where no template exist, the description and quantities will have to be
prepared separately.

Example
The example is for a school water supply and comprises two outputs:
x

Drilled well with VN No6 pump.

Plastic rainwater tank filled by roof runoff.

For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be:
1. Template drawings for the drilled well with VN No6 pump. At the time of preparation of
this manual there was no template for a plastic rainwater tank and roof collection
system, the particular requirements will have to be prepared for the project e.g. by
reference to MoEYS standards (See Part 3 of this Technical Manual).
2. Quantities table to allow calculation of cost estimate will be produced by the project
generator. The water tank can be measured as 1 item (See Part 4 of this Technical
Manual).
3. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual).
4. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).
The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-52

Part 2: Technical Forms

Flowchart for
Technical Form T31
Water Supply

Create
output?

General
information?

Location?

List
proposed
outputs?

What will be
supplied?

Number of
users?

Responsibility for
maintenance?

Existing water
supply?

Site
information?

Existing well
information?

Water Supply
Continued
below

Study and Design Guidelines

I-53

Part 2: Technical Forms

Water Supply
Continued
from above

or

or
Proposed
well(s)?

or

or

Proposed
Pond(s)?

Proposed
Tank(s)?

Proposed pipe
system?

Confirm well
outputs?

Confirm pond
outputs?

Confirm tank
outputs?

Confirm pipe
outputs?

Well output
codes

Pond output
codes

Tank output
codes

Pipe output
codes

Recommended
Pump (advice)

x Drawings
x Quantities

x Drawings
x Quantities

Study and Design Guidelines

x Drawings
x Quantities

x Drawings
x Quantities

I-54

Part 2: Technical Forms

Example Project Generator print Form T31 Water Supply

Form T31 Water supply


(VN6 pump)
Province : Kampong cham

District : Sreisanthor

Name of project : Well for primary school


Name of TSO : Seila

S/C:Roseisrok
Code of S/C : 31411

Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009

Location: where is the water supply located within the Sangkat/Commune?


Phsar Leu primary school

Provide the coordinates of GPS.


X of GPS
304010

Y of GPS
1528230

 Number of proposed output: provide the number of proposed output?


* Remark: Form T31 is only for one water supply output, it mean that, if you have many
exactly the same output and same output data, you just make one output, answer just
one technical form and provide the number of those output.
1

 Purpose of water supply: for what purpose is the water supply used?
If the Village, answer the question 5, if School or Health center, answer question 6.

 Village
 School
 Health centre
 Information about number of users: how many people use the water supply? In which
village do they live?
* Totalize the numbers above and write it down in the last row.
Name of village

people in village

number of family using the


water supply

Number of supplier in school and health post

Study and Design Guidelines

I-55

Part 2: Technical Forms

* If you chose School in the answer above, write down only the number of rooms and
number of students. If you choose Health post write down only the number of users in
the health center.
Number of school rooms
8

number of students or health post


364

Maintenance: Who will maintain the water supply?


Provincial department of education

Existing water supply: how many families use the existing water supply?
* if the existing water supply is for school, write down only use for school.
Use for school

Have the families who will use the supply agreed to form a Water Supply Committee?

 Yes
 No


Where does the domestic water used by these people come from now?
* Source: watercourse, natural pond, dug pond, rain water harvesting, spring, village
well, household will, water-point piped. Totalize the number of users, and then write it
down in the last row.
Source
Village well
Family well

number of users
250
200

distance to the centre of village (km)


0.3
0

Information about proposed facility: Who owns the land where the new facility will be
constructed?
* if the land is in private ownership, answer the question 12.

 Community
 Private


Does the landowner agree to construction and unrestricted use of the facility?

 Yes
Study and Design Guidelines

I-56

Part 2: Technical Forms

 No


Does the location of the facility ever flood?


* if Yes, answer the questions 14 and 15.

 Yes
 No


What is the depth of flooding in meters ?


0.15

What type of flooding?

 Seasonal and prolonged flooding from high river levels


 Short periods of flooding following heavy rain


Existing well: what type of well are in the village or near vicinity?
* You should choose the existing well which is closest to the new well

 Dug well
 Drilled well
 Mixed well
17. Provide the coordinates of GPS
Type of well
Dug well

X of GPS
304090

Y of GPS
1528230

18. What is the distance (closest) from the existing well to the proposed well (km)?
0.30
19. Who owns this existing well?
villagers
20. Is the existing well used for domestic water or farming?

Study and Design Guidelines

I-57

Part 2: Technical Forms

 Domestic water
 Framing
21. How old is the existing well?
4 years
22. How deep is the existing well?
20
23. What is the static water level in the dry seasons?
4
24. What is the static water level in the wet seasons?
2
25. How many families use the sell?
40
26. Does the existing well have enough water all year?

 Enough
 Not enough
27. What does water from the well taste like?

 Note taste
 Salty
 Bitter
28. What is the color of the water in the existing well?

 Clear
 Gray
 Yellow

Study and Design Guidelines

I-58

Part 2: Technical Forms

 Brown
29. Does it smell?

 Yes
 No
30. Has the water from the existing well ever been tested for arsenic?

 Yes, ever
 No, never
31. What kind of soil or rock is the well sunk in?
From depth (m)
0
6

to depth (m)
6
20

kind of soil or rock


silty sand
sandstone

32. How do you know about the information on the soil or rock?
Commune chief told me.
33. How are the other well ?

 No information on other wells


 To many well to list
 Other wells similar
34. Proposed well: name of proposed well
Phsar Leu primary school well
35. What kinds of soil or rock will the well sunk in?
From depth (m) to depth (m), kind of soil or rock.
From depth (m)
0
6

to depth (m)
6
20

kind of soil or rock


silty sand
sandstone

36. How deep is the water bearing soil or rock (the aquifer)?

Study and Design Guidelines

I-59

Part 2: Technical Forms

6
37. What is the depth of proposed well?
20
38. What is the static water level in the dry season (depth below ground in metres)?
4
39. What is the estimated dynamic water level in the dry season (drawn down by pumping)
(depth below ground in metres)?
6
40. How do you know the information on the proposed well?
Village well
41. Where will wastewater from the new well drain to?
If Other, answer the question 43.

 Soak away
 Watercourse
 Pond
 Other
42. If Other, list your answers.
43. Is there anything close to the well that could cause contamination of the well?
* If Other, answer the question 45.

 None
 Latrine
 Animal pens
 Cmetery
 Chemical store
 Fuel store
 Other
44. If other, list your answers.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-60

Part 2: Technical Forms

45. if a potential cause of contamination is identified, write it down.


Consider another well location a safe distance from contamination source or explain in
the box below what measures will be taken to prevent contamination.
46. Suitable pump for well

 VN N6 pump, dynamic water level d 6m (suction pump)


 Afridev Tara, dynamic water level 0 to 25m (force mode)
 Seek specialist advice, dynamic water level > 50m
 None
47. Proposed pond: what kind of soil or rock will the pond be dug in?
From depth (m)

to depth (m)

kind of soil or rock

48. Are there any wells, natural or dug ponds nearby?


If Yes, answer the question 49.
49. If Yes, what is the standing water level in metres below ground level?
Depth in dry season (m)

depth in wet season (m)

50. Where will the water to fill the pond come from?
If the answer is rainwater harvesting, answer question 52, if Other, answer question 53.

 Rainfall directly into pond


 Rainwater harvesting
 High groundwater levels
 Other
51. If rainwater harvesting, over what area will the water be harvested?
52. If Other, list your answer.
Proposed
output
1030511

Description
Plastic water
tank filled by
roof runoff

Study and Design Guidelines

Quantity

Advice

Fill form T31 Water supply again and only


answer some relevant questions to your
chosen output and those questions are
recommended directly in the Project Generator.

I-61

Part 2: Technical Forms

2.9 Education Facility, Group Output Code 1040000


2.9.1 Form T41 Education Facility
Technical Form T41 is used for all Education Facility Infrastructure projects including buildings,
furniture, boundary walls and gates.
Not different from the Transport and Irrigation Technical Forms one Form T31 can only be used
for one output, e.g. if a project comprises a school building, furniture, and boundary walls, there
must be three forms T41.
Because one Form T41 includes all of the questionnaires of school building, furniture, boundary
walls, and gates, it is only necessary to answer to the questions related to the chosen outputs
and skip unrelated questions. Advice on questions needed to be answered and skipped are
given in the Project Generator.
However when a project such as a new school building includes a water supply facility such as
a well, a Water Supply Form T31 is generated and must be filled. Similarly if a latrine building is
needed then a form Sanitation Form T101 is generated and must be filled.
Form
Firstly, create proposed output and then answer the below questions on:
x General project information form this fills automatically from information previously
filled immediately when creating project.
x

Project location enter the GPS coordinates of the education facility.

Quantity of proposed outputs enter the number or length of the proposed outputs
chosen above.

Information about education requirement the question concern the numbers of children
from different villages who use the school, travel distance, number of existing and
proposed classrooms, availability of teachers and the school management committee.

Physical characteristics of the site questions relate to flooding, UXO, land title, whether
the site is large enough, whether there is a water supply and whether sanitation facilities
exist.

Foundation soils the form provides for filling trial pit logs and recording DCP results, as
many as necessary.

Example
The example is for:
x

a new five room school,

primary school furniture (25 four student desks, 50 two student desk, five teacher tables
and chairs)

80 m of boundary wall,

four latrines, and

one well

For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be:
1. Template drawing(s) when available for chosen output code (See Part 3 of this
Technical Manual).
2. Forms T31 and T101 generated for outputs in Water Supply and Sanitation respectively

Study and Design Guidelines

I-62

Part 2: Technical Forms

3. Quantities table to allow calculation of cost estimate will be produced by the project
generator (See Part 4 of this Technical Manual).
4. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual).
5. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).
The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-63

Part 2: Technical Forms

Flowchart for
Technical Form T41
Education Facility

Create
output?

General
information?

Location?

Quantity of
proposed
outputs?

Educational
requirement?

Sanitation: Latrine
codes

DCP
measurements

Information
about site?

Water supply: water


supply codes

Soils and
20 percentile DCP

x Drawings
x Quantities

Study and Design Guidelines

I-64

Part 2: Technical Forms

Example Project Generator print Form T41 Education Facility

Form T41 Education


Brick School of 5 room
Province : Kampong cham

District : Sreisanthor

Name of project : Roseisrok Primary School


Name of TSO : Seila

S/C:Roseisrok
Code of S/C : 31411

Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009

1. Location: where is the education facility located within the Sangkat/Commune?


Describe the location of education facility.
1Km from Sreisanthor commune centre
2. Provide the coordinates of GPS
* Coordinate of school location
X of GPS

Y of GPS

304010

1528230

3. List the number and length of the proposed facility.


* Rooms of the new school, list the number of room. Furniture: list the number of set of
chairs and tables.
Primary school, training room, library, school dormitory, school yard, list the number of
place. List the length of school wall and school fence in meters.
Bricks school 5 rooms with roof tile, concrete floor.
4. Information about education requirement: (about students)
How many students will use the school and which village will they come from?
Name of village
Phsar Leu
Phsar Chhnang
Chongkoh
Som Roang

Number of children go to
the school
52
108
84
120

distance from village to


school in kilometers
4
3
1
0

5. Total number of children goes to the school.


364
6. About the number of classroom.
How many classrooms on the site now?

Study and Design Guidelines

I-65

Part 2: Technical Forms

3
7. About the number of teachers
teachers provided by the
education department
2

teachers will be hired for


the school
3

Total number of teachers


available
8

8. About the school management: is there a school parent committee?

 Yes
 No
9. Physical characteristics of the site: does the site ever flood in the wet season?
* if Ever, answer the two following questions.

 Ever
 Never
10. What is the maximum depth of flooding in meters?
0.15
11. What type of flooding?

 Seasonal flooding and prolonged by the high river level


 Short periods of flooding following heavy rain
12. Is the site free of mines and UXO?
* if Yes, answer the following question.

 Yes
 No
13. Does land title exist for the site?
* If Yes, answer the following questions.

 Yes

Study and Design Guidelines

I-66

Part 2: Technical Forms

 No
14. What stage is the documentation (district, province)?
Province
15. Is the site presently occupied?
* If Yes, answer the following questions

 Yes
 No
16. Whom or what? (E.g. building, rice field and will compensation be expected/demanded?)
Old school
17. Is the site presently walled or fenced?

 Yes
 No
18. Will land fill or embankments be needed to protect against flooding?
* If Yes, answer the question 19

 Yes
 No
19. If Yes, describe it.
20. Is there enough space for students to play sports?

 Yes
 No
21. Is there enough space to build more classrooms in the future?

 Yes
 No
Study and Design Guidelines

I-67

Part 2: Technical Forms

22. What is the water supply at the site?


* If Pond or Pumping well, answer the following question

 None
 Pond
 Pumping well
 Piped supply from off site
23. Write down the dry season water level below ground (m)
2.6
24. How many existing latrines at the sites?
0
25. Foundation soils: (for school building construction, school fence and walls)
What kind of soil will the school be constructed on?
* Type of soil: gravel, silty sand, micaceous sand, lateritic sand, clayey sand, loams,
organic clays, lateritic clays, dandy, silty or clayey peats.
Number
of trial pit
1

X of
GPS
304015

Y of
GPS
1528220

Depth (m)

Type of soil

group of soil

0.15
1.5

organic
silt
silty sands

2.0

gravel

Fine grained,
cohesive
course grained, noncohesive
course grained, noncohesive

26. DCP test (mm/blow)


DCP (mm/blow)
23
15
23

X of GPS
304015
304000
304030

Y of GPS
1528220
1528222
1528218

27. 20 percentile of DCP (mm/blow)


30.2

Study and Design Guidelines

I-68

Part 2: Technical Forms

Proposed
output

Description

Quantity

1040501

primary
school
furniture

four student desks=25


two student desk= 50
teacher tables and
chairs =5

1040405

boundary wall

80m

1100102

four latrines

1030201

well

Study and Design Guidelines

Advice
Fill form T41 Education Facility
again and only answer some
relevant questions to your chosen
output and those questions are
recommended directly in the
Project Generator.
Fill form T41 Education Facility
again and only answer some
relevant questions to your chosen
output and those questions are
recommended directly in the
Project Generator.
Fill form T101 Sanitaiono and only
answer some relevant questions to
your chosen output and those
questions are recommended
directly in the Project Generator.
Fill form T31 Water supply and only
answer some relevant questions to
your chosen output and those
questions are recommended
directly in the Project Generator.

I-69

Part 2: Technical Forms

2.10 Health, Group Output Code 1050000


2.10.1

Form T51 Health

Technical Form T51 provides for all Health infrastructure projects.


Not different from the Transport and Irrigation Technical Forms one Form T51 can only be used
for one outputs, e.g. if a project comprises buildings, incinerator, and boundary fence, there
must be three form T51.
Because one Form T51 includes all of the questionnaires of health building, Incinerator walls,
fence and gates, it is only necessary to answer to the questions related to the chosen outputs.
Advice on questions needed to be answered and skipped are given in the Project Generator.
However when a project such as a new health post includes a water supply facility such as a
well, a Water Supply Form T31 is generated and must be filled. Similarly if a latrine building is
needed then a form Sanitation Form T101 is generated and must be filled.
Form
Firstly, create proposed output and then answer the below questions on:
x General project information this fills automatically from information previously filled
immediately when creating project.
x

Project location by entering the GPS coordinates of the education facility.

Quantity of proposed outputs enter the number or length of the proposed outputs
chosen above.

Information about health facility the village, populations and distances travelled tpo
reach the health facility as well as the availability of trained staff.

Physical characteristics of the site questions relate to flooding, UXO, land title, whether
the site is large enough, whether there is a water supply and whether sanitation facilities
exist.

Foundation soils the form provides for filling trial pit logs and recording DCP results, as
many as necessary.

Example
The example is for:
x

a concrete health post,

120 m of boundary fence,

one wooden gate,

one latrines building

one rainwater collection and storage tank, and

one well:

For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be:
1. Template drawing(s) when available for chosen output code(s) (See Part 3 of this
Technical Manual).
2. Forms T31 and T101 generated for outputs in Water Supply and Sanitation respectively
3. Quantities table to allow calculation of cost estimate will be produced by the project
generator (See Part 4 of this Technical Manual).
4. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual).

Study and Design Guidelines

I-70

Part 2: Technical Forms

5. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).


The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-71

Part 2: Technical Forms

Flowchart for
Technical Form T51
Health

Create
output?

General
information?

Location?

Quantity of
proposed
outputs?

Health service
requirement?

Sanitation: Latrine
codes

DCP
measurements

Information
about site?

Water supply: water


supply codes

Soils and
20 percentile DCP

x Drawings
x Quantities

Study and Design Guidelines

I-72

Part 2: Technical Forms

Example Project Generator print Form T51 Health

Form T51 Health


Concrete health centre
Province : Kampong cham

District : Sreisanthor

Name of project : Roseisrok Health Post


Name of TSO : Seila

S/C:Roseisrok
Code of S/C : 31411

Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009

1. Location: where is the health facility located within the Sangkat/Commune?


Next to the commune centre, in Phsar Leu market
2. Provide the coordinates of GPS
* First line is the starting point; last line is the ending point
X of GPS

Y of GPS

304010

1528230

3. List the number and length of output chosen.


* Fence in meter, and other output in number.
1
4. Information about health facility: how many people will use the health facility and which
villages will they come from?
* Copy the total number of people from the Project Information Form.
388
5. How many trained staff will be provided by the health department?
5
6. How many staff will be hired for the health facility?
4
7. What is the total number of staff available?
* totalize both numbers above.
9
8. Physical characteristics of the site: does the site ever flood in the wet season?
* if Ever, answer the following questions.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-73

Part 2: Technical Forms

 Ever
 Never
9. If Ever, what is the maximum depth of flooding in meters?
10. If Ever, what type of flooding?

 Seasonal and prolonged flooding from high river levels.


 Short periods of flooding following heavy rain.
11. Is the site free of mines and UXO?

 Yes
 No
12. Does land title exist for the site? If yes, at what stage is the documentation (district,
province)
Province
13. Is the site presently occupied? If yes, list them.
* e.g. building, rice field will compensation be expected/demanded?
Old health post
14. Is the site presently walled or fenced?

 Yes
 No
15. Will land fill or embankments be needed to protect against flooding?

 Yes
 No
16. What is the water supply at the site?

 None

Study and Design Guidelines

I-74

Part 2: Technical Forms

 Pond
 Pumping well
 Piped supply from off site
17. How many existing latrines at the site?
0
18. Foundation soils: what kind of soil will the health facility be constructed on?
* Kind of soil: gravel, silty sand, micaceous sand, lateritic sand, clayey sand, loams,
clayey silts, organic silts, micaceous silts, sandy clays, silty clays, organic clays, sandy;
silty or clayey peats.
Number
of trial pit
1

X of
GPS
304015

Y of
GPS
1528220

Depth (m)

Type of soil

group of soil

0.15
1.5

organic
silt
silty sands

2.0

gravel

Fine grained,
cohesive
course grained, noncohesive
course grained, noncohesive

19. Foundation strength DCP Test (mm/blow).


DCP (mm/blow)
23
15
23

X of GPS
304015
304000
304030

Y of GPS
1528220
1528222
1528218

20. 20 percentile of DCP (mm/blow) ?


30.2
Proposed
output

1050112

1050114

Description

boundary
fence

wooden gate

Study and Design Guidelines

Quantity

Advice

120m

Fill form T51 Health again and only


answer some relevant questions to
your chosen output and those
questions are recommended
directly in the Project Generator.

Fill form T51 Health again and only


answer some relevant questions to
your chosen output and those
questions are recommended
directly in the Project Generator.

I-75

Part 2: Technical Forms

1100102

four latrines

1030511

rainwater
collection and
storage tank

1030201

well

Study and Design Guidelines

Fill form T101 Sanitation and only


answer some relevant questions to
your chosen output and those
questions are recommended
directly in the Project Generator.
Fill form T31 Water supply and only
answer some relevant questions to
your chosen output and those
questions are recommended
directly in the Project Generator.
Fill form T31 Water supply again
and only answer some relevant
questions to your chosen output
and those questions are
recommended directly in the
Project Generator.

I-76

Part 2: Technical Forms

2.11 Sanitation, Group Output Code 1100000


2.11.1

Form T101 Sanitation

Technical Form T101 provides for all Sanitation infrastructure projects.


Not different from the Transport and Irrigation Technical Forms one Form T101 can only be
used for one output, e.g. if a project comprises several sections of covered drain and pipe cross
connections, there must be two form T101.
Because one Form T101 includes all of the questionnaires of laterine, waste water, Solid waste
management, and drainage, it is only necessary to answer to the questions related to the
chosen. Advice on questions needed to be answered and skipped are given in the Project
Generator.
Form
x General project information this fills automatically from information previously filled
immediately when creating project.
x

Project location enter the GPS coordinates of the proposed output, if it is a linear
project such as a covered drain enter the start and finish coordinates, if it is a point
project such as school laterine, enter a coordinate of the laterine.

Quantity of proposed outputs enter the number or length of the proposed outputs
chosen above.

Capacity of drain questions need to be answered if one of the project outputs is a


drain. Questions include the plan area of the ground drained, guidance is given on
estimating this. The default runoff rate is 3.5 l/s/ha but this can be overwritten (but do
not enter a lower rate). The form asks if water from upstream can flow into the drain and
the catchment area; if the area is  1 km2 (100 ha) then the form includes discharge for
the area, if the area is larger then it cannot pass down the drain because the flow would
be too large and another outfall must be found.

hydraulic design of channel drain if the output is a channel drain Applet T101
calculates the size of the drain. There is an option to accept or override the preceding
capacity calculation (but do not enter a lower capacity). Enter the bed levels and length
of the drain, bed width, side slope and Mannings n using the guidance on the form.
The calculation is iterative. A water depth is entered: if it is too small the Applet instructs
to Increase depth; if it is too large the form instructs to Decrease depth; if the depth is
correct (within a band of tolerance) the form prints Depth OK. The Applet then outputs
the: minimum height of banks above bed level; width between tops of bank; and velocity
of design flow. After that you need to copy all of these results to the generator.

Hydraulic design of pipe drain (once for each drain) enter the depth of the bottom of
the pipe below ground and the length of drain. You then calculate the maximum
hydraulic gradient. Use the tables on the form to select the minimum pipe diameter, it is
permitted to go a size or more up to a larger diameter. There are different tables for
plastics and concrete pipes.

Example
The example is for covered channel drains both sides of road through a village center, each
about 100 m in length, including a connecting pipe beneath the road to outfall.
For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be:
1. Template drawing(s) when available for chosen output code(s) (See Part 3 of this
Technical Manual).

Study and Design Guidelines

I-77

Part 2: Technical Forms

2. Quantities table to allow calculation of cost estimate will be produced by the project
generator (See Part 4 of this Technical Manual).
3. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual).
4. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).
The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-78

Part 2: Technical Forms

Flowchart for
Technical Form T101
Sanitation

Create
output?

General
information?

Location?

Quantity of
proposed
outputs?

Calculation in the
form
Applet calculates advise
size of pipe
Pipe chart.xls

Capacity of
drain(s)?
Applet calculates
size of channel
Size of
drain(s)?

T101 Channel
design.xls

x Drawings
x Quantities

Study and Design Guidelines

I-79

Part 2: Technical Forms

Example Project Generator print Form T101 Sanitation

Form T101 Sanitation and drainage


(Box drain)
Province : Kampong cham

District : Sreisanthor

Name of project : Phsar Leu Drainage System


Name of TSO : Seila

S/C:Roseisrok
Code of S/C : 31411

Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009

1. Location: where is the sanitation and drainage located within the Sangkat/commune?
Describe the location
The box drain locates in the centre of Phsar Leu village.
2. Provide de coordinate of GPS.
* if it is a point, fill only the first row. First row is the starting point and the second row is
the ending point.
X of GPS
Y of GPS
304010
1528230
305100
1528250
3. Description of requirements: give a brief description about the project.
Build covered channel drains both sides of road through Phsar Leu, each about
100 m in length, include pipe from north to south side of road to outfall.
4. List the number or length of the proposed outputs.
* provide the number for the latrines and length for the drain.
Output
Box drain

Number or length
200

5. Drainage capacity: give drain a name; area of land drained, flow rate (m3/s/ha), flow
capacity and external catchment.
* in peri-urban or village can allow for 50m wide strip from road centerline for drains each
side of road. Recommended flow rate is 3.5l/s/ha, but you choose another value. The
required flow capacity of drain = flow rate x drained area. Will the drain collect water from
catchments beyond the drain, e.g. a stream flow into the head of the drain from a small
catchment or drain system? Write down Collect or Does not collect.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-80

Part 2: Technical Forms

Name of drain
Box drain,
north of
Phsar Leu
Box drain,
south of
Phsar Leu
6. Remark

Drained area
(ha)
0.5

Flow rate
(l/s.ha)
0.5

Flow capacity
(l/s)
2.5

External
catchment
Collect

0.5

0.5

2.5

Does not
collect

* if you chose Collect, answer the two following questions.


7. Describe briefly how the extra catchment affects the requirements, e.g. it may only affect
a drain one side of the road.
Name of drain
Box drain north of Phsar Leu

Description
There is irrigation area of 30ha flows in
the north Phsar Leu box drain
8. Give a name of drain collecting water from external catchment, area of external
catchment, flow rate (l/s/ha) and extra flow capacity.
* if catchment area > 1.0Km2, flow from this catchment will be too big for a culvert or a
drain, so let think about the flow conveyance or a special advice.
* Recommended drain flow capacity is 3.5l/s.ha, but you can choose another one.
* flow capacity extra = catchment area (ha) x flow rate (l/s.ha).
Name of drain

External catchment
area (ha)
30

Flow rate (l/s.ha)

Box drain north of


3.5
Phsar Leu
9. Calculate the total design flow capacity for box culvert (l/s).

Extra flow capacity


(l/s)
105

* Total design flow capacity = drain flow capacity (l/s) + extra flow capacity of external
catchment (l/s)
Name of drain
Box drain north of Phsar Leu
Box drain south of Phsar Leu

Design flow capacity (l/s)


107.5
2.5

10. Design of box drain: remark


You must use Applet Form T101 Drain to determine the design flow, channel bed level,
bottom width and channel velocity.
11. Result of the design of box drain and drain from Applet T101.
* Skip it if you dont design the box drain. Copy the answer from Applet T101 that you
used to calculate.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-81

Part 2: Technical Forms

Name of drain

Required flow
capacity (l/s)
107.5

Bed depth (m)

Box drain
north of
Phsar Leu
Box drain
2.5
south of
Phsar Leu
12. Design of pipe drain: remark

0.49

Width of box
drain (m)
0.6

Design velocity
(m/s)
0.46

0.19

0.15

0.18

Use Applet Pipe Chart to determine the diameter of pipe drain.


13. Result of the design of pipe drain from Applet Pipe Chart
* Skip it if you dont design the pipe drain.
* calculate the flow capacity, see the suitable pipe and copy the answer from Applet Pipe
Chart that you used.
Name
of drain

Required
flow
capacity
(l/s)

Pipe
drain
depth
(m)

Pipe
length
(m)

Efficient
hydraulic
gradient

Type of
pipe

Minimum
diameter
(m)

Chosen
diameter
(m)

14. Remark
Upload the Applets youve used to get the result as above.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-82

Part 2: Technical Forms

Form T101 Sanitation and drainage


(Pipe drain)
Province : Kampong cham

District : Sreisanthor

Name of project : Phsar Leu Drainage System


Name of TSO : Seila

S/C:Roseisrok
Code of S/C : 31411

Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009

1. Location: where is the sanitation and drainage located within the Sangkat/commune?
Describe the location.
At the Phsar Leu village centre
2. Provide de coordinate of GPS.
* if it is a point, fill only the first row. First row is the starting point and the second row is
the ending point.
X of GPS
304500
304530

Y of GPS
1528240
1528260

3. Description of requirements: give a brief description about the project.


Pipe drain, connecting from the north box drain, north to south, to the south of drain
outlet.
4. List the number or length of the proposed outputs
* provide the number for the latrines and length for the drain.
Output
Pipe drain

Number or length
100

5. Drainage capacity: give drain a name; area of land drained, flow rate (m3/s/ha), flow
capacity and external catchment.
* in peri-urban or village can allow for 50m wide strip from road centerline for drains each
side of road. Recommended flow rate is 3.5l/s.ha, but you choose another value. The
required flow capacity of drain = flow rate x drained area. Will the drain collect water from
catchments beyond the drain, e.g. a stream flow into the head of the drain from a small
catchment or drain system? Write down Collect or Does not collect.
Name of drain
Pipe drain,
downstream of
Phsar Leu

Drained area
(ha)
0.5

Flow rate
(l/s.ha)
5

Flow capacity
(l/s)
2.5

External
catchment
Collect

6. Remark

Study and Design Guidelines

I-83

Part 2: Technical Forms

* if you chose Collect, answer the two following questions.


7. Describe briefly how the extra catchment affects the requirements, e.g. it may only affect
a drain one side of the road.
Name of drain
Pipe drain downstream of Phsar
Leu

Description
With 30ha of irrigation area, flow to
the north of road

8. Give a name of drain collecting water from external catchment, area of external
catchment, flow rate (l/s.ha) and extra flow capacity.
* if catchment area > 1.0Km2, flow from this catchment will be too big for a culvert or a
drain, so let think about the flow conveyance or a special advice.
* Recommended drain flow capacity is 3.5l/s.ha, but you can choose another one.
* flow capacity extra = catchment area (ha) x flow rate (l/s.ha).
Name of drain
Pipe drain
downstream of
Phsar Leu

External catchment
area (ha)
30

Flow rate (l/s.ha)


3.5

Extra flow capacity


(l/s)
105

9. Calculate the total design flow capacity for box culvert (l/s).
* Total design flow capacity = drain flow capacity (l/s) + extra flow capacity of external
catchment (l/s)
Name of drain
Pipe drain downstream of Phsar Leu

Design flow capacity (l/s)


107.5

10. Design of box drain: remark


You must use Applet Form T101 Drain to determine the design flow, channel bed level,
channel bottom width and channel design velocity.
11. Result of the design of box drain and drain from Applet T101.
* Skip it if you dont design the box drain. Copy the answer from Applet T101 that you
used to calculate.
Name of drain

Required flow
capacity (l/s)

Bed depth (m)

Width of box
drain (m)

Design velocity
(m/s)

12. Design of pipe drain: remark


Use Applet Pipe Chart to determine the diameter of pipe drain.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-84

Part 2: Technical Forms

13. Result of the design of pipe drain from Applet Pipe Chart
* Skip it if you dont design the pipe drain.
* calculate the flow capacity, see the suitable pipe and copy the answer from Applet Pipe
Chart that you used.
Name of
drain

Pipe drain
downstream
of Phsar
Leu

Required
flow
capacity
(l/s)
107.5

Pipe
drain
depth
(m)
1

Pipe
Efficient Type of
length hydraulic pipe
(m)
gradient
100

0.008

Minimum Chosen
diameter diameter
(m)
(m)

Concrete 0.8

0.8

14. Remark
Upload the Applet you used to get the result as above.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-85

PART 3:
TEMPLATE DESIGNS FOR
LOCAL INFRASTRUCTURE

I-86

Part 3: Template Designs for Local Infrastructure

3 Template Designs for Local Infrastructure


3.1 Background
The C/S Fund is able to support a wide range of small infrastructure projects. The PIM at
Annex 2 lists common and know types of infrastructure project allocating each a seven-digit
numerical output codes. This is a live list which might be amended and added too as special
and generic project requests evolve over time.
In order to speed the process a selection of standard Template designs was developed under
the Seila Program, these included types of infrastructure most commonly requested by the
communes or sangkats, and also a few simple but rarely built designs. This system proved
popular and successful with the communes and sangkats as evidenced by the large number of
Seila projects built around Cambodia, albeit that some types of infrastructure are prone to
technical deficiencies.
The Template designs comprised simple drawings. Parts and some of the drawings were
prepared using AutoCAD but the finished drawings were assembled as MS Excel spreadsheets.
This allowed selection of alternative dimensions and automatic calculation of quantities. This
was applied using the Seila Template Program; which is a customized software package.
Although it was very useful and worked well within its limits, the Seila Template Program was
found to be rather inflexible. In particular it was difficult to change or add new template designs.
It was therefore decided that for NCDD the C/S Fund process needed a new program which
allowed easy changes and additions of templates. The new program is called the Project
Generator. At the same time it was decided to review and update all the existing template
designs.

3.2 NCDD Templates


The new NCDD templates are AutoCAD drawings. However, they are saved for the project
generator as Adobe PDF files. The Project Generator outputs the chosen template drawings to
the project folder as PDF files. This means there is no need for Technical Assistant to have or
use AutoCAD.
The NCDD template drawings no longer incorporate quantity spreadsheets (Note January 2009
PIM needs correcting on this point). These are now been separate MS Excel files for each
template. They are called in and output separately by the Project Generator. This is discussed
at Section 5.

3.3 Available Templates


As previously, templates have been produced for common infrastructure outputs. There are not
templates for every output code. The intention is that whenever an output is required for which
there is no template, then this can be prepared as a new template and added to the Project
Generator at that time.
Available templates are not listed here because the list is expected to change and increase
regularly.

3.4 How to Read and Use the Drawings


3.4.1 Size
The Template drawings for infrastructure outputs are prepared at original paper size A3. They
should be printed at A3 size when they are used as drawings for the construction contract so
that they are easy to read. Either photocopy the drawings to A3 size, or print them at A3 size
from the computer.
The drawings can also be printed at A4 size, the letter sizes and other details have been
chosen to be readable at this size, although they are obviously smaller than at A3 size. It is
advised to use standard or high quality printer setting at A4 size, not low or economy
Study and Design Guidelines

I-87

Part 3: Template Designs for Local Infrastructure

settings. This will ensure the A4 prints can be read, particularly if copied successively on a
photocopier because each round of photocopying looses quality.

3.4.2 Drawing scales


The stated scales on the drawings are at A3 size. Scale bars are included for when drawings
are printed at A4 size.

3.4.3 Dimensions
All of the dimensions needed to construct the output are shown on the drawings. If a dimension
is missing, resolve the matter locally or by seeking advice from supervisors. In every case
advise the supervisor who should ensure that the drawing is amended to show the missing
dimension (see 3.4.4).
Most dimensions are in millimeters. Some dimensions are in meters, but this is always shown
on the drawing. So, 2000 means 2000 millimeters, or 2 meters; 2 m means 2 meters.

3.4.4 Revisions
Each drawing sheet includes a revision table above the title block. This is to be filled whenever
a template drawing is changed so that there is a history of the change. The amended design
must be reloaded to the Project Generator; amending also the quantity tables if necessary (see
Part 5).
The box should also be filled if a template is changed to fit the requirements of a particular
project. This can be done in hand on hard copy issued to the contractor. Senior advisors
should be consulted to confirm such change and can decide if this change should apply only for
the project or for wider use of the Template.

3.4.5 Variable dimensions


Some template drawings have dimensions that can be varied (e.g. high fill over a pipe culvert
requires a longer culvert and more culvert rings). It is not necessary to alter the template
drawing, the variation in dimension is taken into account in the quantity spreadsheet, see Part 5.

3.4.6 How to read the steel details and the steel schedule
For most outputs with reinforced concrete elements, separate reinforcement drawings are
included, with separate bar schedules. For some small outputs (e.g. width restriction posts) the
reinforcement requirement and schedule is included on the drawing.
On a design drawing, reinforcement is usually divided into position sets of bars. Each set is
labeled by a number (e.g. f), the number of bars used, the diameter of bar and the spacing.
Following construction industry convention and the software settings (see below) bars the
description of bars may be in several ways.
Bar call-up type and arrangement

Description

f1010@200

Position 4, 10 bars diameter 10 mm, spacing 200 mm

1010@200f

10 bars diameter 10 mm, spacing 200 mm, position 4

f10@200

Position 4, diameter 10 mm, spacing 200 mm

10f

Diameter 10 mm, position 4

When bar schedules have been produced these have been generated using SofiCAD, which is
a proprietary add-in software for AutoCAD (see section 3.5). It is not essential to use SofiCAD
for producing future template designs. However the use of software makes drawing production
easier and reduces mistakes so it is advisable to use software for more complicated drawings.
Using SofiCAD will ensure consistency with existing Templates.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-88

Part 3: Template Designs for Local Infrastructure

Whenever there is an output that has a bar schedule this is loaded and output by the Project
Generator together with the drawing.
An example of a bar schedule is shown below. The schedule shows the output number and
steel grade for the bars.

The columns are as follows:


x

Pos:

position, (e.g. same as f on the drawing example above).

No:

number of bars at that position.

d:

diameter in millimeters.

Length:

total length of each piece of bar before bending in meters.

Dbr ds:

Not used.

Type:

Bar type, A1 is deformed/high yield, D1 is round bar.

Shape code: A diagram showing the shape and dimensions of a bent bar, where
dimensions vary because of a tapering shape, a table is included to show
the dimensions of each bent bar. Dimension of figures are centimeters.

Total length:

Total length of steel used for all the bars at that position (e.g. for position
f total length 26 x 1.9 = 49.4 meters).

Weight:

Total weight of the total length of bar in kilograms.

3.5 AutoCAD Standards


The templates have as far as practical been produced to a standard AutoCAD format. This is
not 100% applicable, e.g. some templates have elements carried over from the Seila
Study and Design Guidelines

I-89

Part 3: Template Designs for Local Infrastructure

Templates. It is desirable that any additional templates also follow the same standard
AutoCAD format. The remainder of this sub-section specifies the AutoCAD format.
All drawing prepared using the AutoCAD software should comply with these instructions in order
to facilitate data exchange and uniformity of layout.

3.5.1 AutoCAD Version


AutoCAD versions released between year 2004 and 2008 have been used for all templates
produced up to first issue of this Technical Manual. Regardless of the version of AutoCAD with
which the drawings are produced, all drawings files are to be saved in AutoCAD 2004 format.

3.5.2 General settings


x

All design work should be done in MODEL space.

The drawing unit for the MODEL space shall be meters. Drawing dimensions are in
millimeters.

Setting drawing units


Menu > Format > Units > Length:
> Angle:
> insertion scale:

Type: Decimal
Precision: 0.0000
Type: Decimal degrees
Precision: 0.000
Unit to scale inserted content: meter

Setting line type


All linetypes should be loaded form acadiso.lin (metric system)

Setting line scale


The default setting for the Global Scale Factor is 1.0. It needs to be adjusted for different
drawing scales.
Always adjust the Global Scale Factor so that axes and hidden lines are readable.
Adjustments to the Linetype Scale of single lines are needed for the secondary scales such
as details. Adjustment is to be based on the leading scale: eg. If your drawing scales are:
1:50, 1:10, your global scale is to be 0.05 and the linetype scale of the single lines for the
scale 1:10 should be scale to: 0.2 = (10/50). (Means x = the smaller scale divided by the
bigger scale).
Menu > FORMAT > LINETYPE > adjust Global Scale Factor
> disable Use paper space units for scaling

The drawing frame, title block and scale bars and legends have to be in LAYOUT space. All
other objects shall be in MODEL space.

Regardless of the version of AutoCAD with which the drawings are produced, all drawings
files are to be saved in AutoCAD 2004 format. Set software as follows:
Menu > TOOLS > OPTIONS > tab Open and Save > Save as: AutoCAD 2004 (*.dwg)

3.5.3 AutoCAD file name


The drawing file name is the NCDD output and sheet number(s) of the drawing(s) it contains.

3.5.4 Drawing number


Drawings are identified by the NCDD output number and sheet number.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-90

Part 3: Template Designs for Local Infrastructure

3.5.5 Paper size


A3 ISO paper formats shall be used.
Name of
Format

Paper Size Drawing


[mm]
Area [mm]

Margins
Left

ISO A3

Right

Above

Below

420 x 297

3.5.6 Pen assignment for plotting


Plot style table file NCDD.ctb is to be used for all plots.
The files contain the following pen assignments.
Line Width

No. of Color

Color

Pen Color

Red (1)

Black (7)

0.18

Yellow (2)

Black (7)

0.25

Green (3)

Black (7)

0.35

Cyan (4)

Black (7)

0.5

Blue (5)

Black (7)

0.7

Magenta (6)

Black (7)

1.0

White/Black (7)

Black (7)

0.10

Dark Grey (8)

Black (7)

0.05

Bright Grey (9)

Dark grey (250)

0.05

NCDD.ctb

3.5.7 Layer definition


The layers and settings listed below should be used as much as possible.
General layer
Layer Name

Description

1-AXIS

Axes, Centre lines

1-DIM

Dimensions and Elevations

1-HATCH

General layer for hatches

1-HELP-OFF

Help lines

1-INV

Invisible edges in general

1-CUT-LINE

Section or cut lines

1-TEXT

General text, and Table

Z-FRAME

Frame

Z-VIEWPORT

View port visible

Z-VIEWPORT-OFF

View port invisible

TITLEBLOCK

The block of title

Study and Design Guidelines

Color

Line Type

White

Centre2

Red

Cont.

Cont.

Magenta

Cont.

Red /White

Hidden

Green

Centre

Red

Cont.

Yellow

Cont.

Cont.

Magenta

Cont.

Yellow

Cont.

Plot
Yes/No

no

no

I-91

Part 3: Template Designs for Local Infrastructure

Layers for architectural and civil drawings


Layer Name

Description

Color

CON-SEC

Concrete sections

CON-VIEW

Concrete view
Furniture and decoration
(cars, people, etc.)

FURNITURE
GEOTEX

Line Type

Green
/Red
Yellow

Cont.

White

Cont.

Cyan

ACAD_IS
O10W100

Red

Cont.

Yellow

Cont.
Cont.

variable

Geo-textile

Cont.

MASONRY-VIEW

Geo-technical information,
boreholes, DCP, etc.
Masonry, Brick wall

MASONRY-SEC

Masonry, Brick wall

OPENING

Doors and windows

OTHER

Miscellaneous Objects

Green
Red
/White
variable

REBARS

Rebar lines and sections

Yellow

Cont.

ROAD-VIEW

Road limit line

Yellow

Cont.

ROAD-SEC

Road section

Green

Cont.

STEEL-VIEW

Steel structure

Yellow

Cont.

STEEL-SEC

Steel structure

Green

Cont.

TIMBER-VIEW

Wood structure

Yellow

Cont.

TIMBER-SEC

Wood structure
Ground section line and
vegetation

Green

Cont.

Green

Cont.

GEOTECH

TREE

Plot
Yes/No

Cont.

NOTE: If additional layers are required, please inform the project manager.
If you come across layers with similar names but different spelling eliminate the
incorrect layer from the drawing.

3.5.8 Text style and fonts


Text should be created with the MULTILINE EDITOR which facilitates text wrapping.
Do not explode multi-line text. Set the text style to Arial Narrow.
Menu>Format>Units
> Style name: Arial Narrow
> Font name: Arial Narrow
Height In Model Space

Text Style

Color

Height
In Layout

1:1000

1:500

1:100

1:50

Headings

Arial Narrow

Green

4mm

0.4

0.2

Sub headings

Arial Narrow

Yellow

3mm

1.5

0.3

0.15

Common text/labels
Notes, dimensions,
elevations,
inscriptions, legend
Axis labels

Arial Narrow

Red

2mm

0.2

0.1

Arial Narrow

Red

2mm

0.2

0.1

Arial Narrow

Yellow

4mm

0.4

0.2

Description

Study and Design Guidelines

I-92

Part 3: Template Designs for Local Infrastructure

3.5.9 Line types / widths


Standard metric system AutoCAD line types are to be used only (acadiso.lin). (Exceptions to
the rule should be limited.)
To use the following line types are recommended.
1

CONTINUOUS

HIDDEN

CENTER

DOT

PHANTOM

Line types shall be used as follows.


Line Type
continuous
continuous

continuous
hidden
center
center

Recommended Use

Line Color

boundary of cut surface


visible edges and visible contours from
structural elements, boundary of cut
surface of small or little structural
elements
dimension line, dimension auxiliary line,
guide note line, walking line, boundary of
detail figure, simplifying figure
invisible edges and invisible contours
from structural elements
position of cutting plane

green

0.35

yellow

0.25

red

0.18

yellow

0.25

green

0.35

white

0.1

yellow

0.25

axes
structural elements in front or above of
cutting plane

dot

Line Width

General setting for line type scale refer to Section 3.5.2.

3.5.10

Hatch

Note:
x Do not explode hatch lines.
x

Do not delete hatch boundary line but put them on a help layer.
Description

Hatch Name

Angle

Line Type

Masonry

ANSI31

By layer

Concrete, reinforced

ANSI33

By layer

BETONUB

By layer

EARTH

45

By layer

AR-CONC

By layer

Concrete, not reinforced


Soil
Backfill
Wood / timber
Steel

3.5.11

Dimensions

Use the dimension style provided in the model drawing file (NCDD 50, NCDD 100, etc.). Do not
change the settings of these styles. If you need to create a dim style for another drawing scale
ask for permission.
Note that the drawing unit in MODEL space is metre. However, dimensions are in mm. (The
scale factor for measurement is set to 1000.)

Study and Design Guidelines

I-93

Part 3: Template Designs for Local Infrastructure

STYLE NAME

DIM 100

DIM 50

DIM 25

DIM 10

Original Drawing Scale

1:100

1:50

1:25

1:10

Overall scale

1000

500

250

100

The height of dimension text is 1.5 mm in Layout. Dimension lines should have equal spacing.
Do not overwrite dimension texts (No cheating).

3.5.12

Blocks

The use of blocks is recommended for objects that are repeatedly used in drawings or projects.
Block shall be created on Layer 0.
Purge unreferenced blocks before sending drawing files to design team members.

3.5.13

External references (x-ref)

The use of external references is useful especially for Mechanical and Electrical design.
When attaching (or overlaying) external references use the Relative Path not the Full Path.
Bind the x-reference; do not insert them.
When exchanging drawings that make use of drawings from other design team members via xref, the reference drawings do not have to be exchanged.

3.5.14

Viewports

Viewport frames can be visible or invisible. Visible viewport frames are created on layer Zviewport. Invisible are created on layer Z-viewport-off
Viewport zoom scales:
Drawing Unit m

3.5.15

Drawing Scale

Zoom Scale

1:1

1000xp

1:2

500xp

1:5

200xp

1:10

100xp

1:20

50xp

1:25

40xp

1:50

20xp

1:100

10xp

1:200

5xp

1:250

4xp

Plotting

Use color-depended plot style table files NCDD.ctb for all plots

Study and Design Guidelines

I-94

PART 4:
MATERIALS, QUANTITIES
AND COSTS

I-95

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

4 Materials, Quantities & Costs


4.1 Project Cost Estimation
After the project design preparation is completed, the Technical Assistant must estimate the
project cost by following the cost estimation guidelines in the PIM. To estimate the project cost,
first estimate each of the outputs of the project and then sum all the estimated costs of the
outputs into a total for the output project. The total estimated cost of all outputs gives the
estimated cost of the project.
After estimating each project output cost the Technical Assistant will help the C/S chief to fill out
the form for the project output and project estimated cost and the project will proceed to bidding,
all as described in the PIM.

4.2 Tables of Quantities and Labor Costs


For infrastructure projects the PIM requires that the Technical Assistant refers to the Table of
Material Quantities in this Technical Manual to find the quantities of materials that the
contractor will have to buy, and how much labor he will need. These tables appear at the end of
this section (Tables 1 to 7)
Note that the unit quantities in the tables are for the complete construction task (the Net1
quantity), not quantities of all the materials and labor used to complete the task (the Gross2
quantity). The gross quantity for the construction task includes labor and waste materials,
materials that will remain in the finished construction, and materials used temporally to complete
the construction.
The tables give the total including labor and material including waste
materials to produce the unit quantity.
For example, one cubic metre of concrete, shown on the drawing, means that all the things that
are needed to make one cubic metre of concrete and listed in the tables. These includes:
x

the materials in the concrete: cement, stone and sand;

materials that will be wasted in mixing the concrete;

wood and nails for the formwork;

labor to construct the formwork and to mix and place the concrete; and

equipment such as concrete mixer, vibrator and small tools.

For another example, in Table 5 the unit quantity for steel bars is:
x

(1.0) tonne, but the quantity of steel used is 1.1 tonne which allows 0.1 tonne or 10% for
waste;

in addition 10 kg of binding wire is allowed for fixing each 1.0 tonne unit quantity of steel;

the labor required per unit quantity is;


o

1 day skilled labor,

1 day semi-skilled labor, and

6 days unskilled labor.

4.3 Net Quantities


The gross quantities obtained from the tables of quantities and labor costs are obtained by
factoring the net quantity for wastage of the ingredients permanently incorporated into the works
1
2

Net: remaining after all deductions (for waste and not permanently used).
Gross: before any deductions (everything used).

Study and Design Guidelines

I-96

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

(e.g. cement, sand and stone for concrete) and adding the temporary costs (e.g. the labor and
the materials used in formwork for concrete). The cost estimate is then obtained by multiplying
the gross quantities by unit costs for the current cost database. The flow chart below illustrates
the process.
Hence it is clear that it is necessary to first determine the Net quantities.
Net
quantities

Tables of
quantities
and labor

Gross
quantities

Cost
estimate

Cost
database

The net quantities must be calculated from the output drawings. This is a standard construction
industry task for infrastructure engineering and building work. It is usually done by the designer
for the bidding documents so that the contractors have an accurate indication of quantities, and
so that the project owner can have an estimate of the cost before proceeding. It is done a
second time by the contractor (by the contractors staff with responsibility for quantity surveying
and purchasing) so that the purchase and delivery of materials to site can be organized. It will
commonly be done a third time as final measurement for payment3.
For C/S Fund projects two situations exist:
1. Where a template design has been prepared for an output and loaded into the Project
Generator, the quantity calculations have already been made and also loaded into the
Project Generator. The cost estimate is produced automatically by the software
accessing the current cost database and the Detailed Cost Estimation Form for
Construction Output is output for C/S Chief approval.
2. Where no template design has been prepared for an output, or where a one-off output
requires special or unique design drawings, then the Net quantities will have to be
calculated. The cost estimate can then be prepared following the steps in the flow chart
and procedures required by the PIM.
When new template designs are prepared quantities should also be calculated and loaded to
the Project Generator as for existing templates.
The following section gives further explanation and example of how the tables of quantities are
applied and how the cost estimate is prepared using the Project Generator.

4.4 Cost Estimation Using the Project Generator


The quantity and cost estimation calculations for outputs with existing template designs are
prepared as MS Excel Workbooks, each containing three linked spreadsheets. This is
illustrated for the 2 x 0.8 m diameter pipe culvert shown as a design example for Technical
Form T12 in Part 2 of this Technical Manual.

It is conventional for the designers and final quantities to be measured Net, but the contractor
obviously needs the Gross quantities otherwise there will be shortfalls of materials delivered to site.
NCDD (and Seila previously) is different in that the Designers quantities in the bidding documents are
Gross. The reasons for this are outlined in the PIM; the designers estimate is given to contractors as
an aid to inexperienced small contractors to correctly make due allowance for all costs and profit when
preparing a bid.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-97

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

Detailed Calculation Spreadsheet


A

Length (m)

width (m)

Dimension
Thickness (m)

Surface (m)

Volume (m)

5.50
-6.00

2.50
-0.40

0.05
0.05
0.40

1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

1010305 Double pipe culvert 0.8m diameter


Row
Diameter of culverts (m)
Number of culverts per row
Length of each pipe (m)
Cover C (m)
Distance from market to site (km)

2
0.8
6
1
0.5
30

Description

Number

Blinding Concrete (1:3:6)


slab under pipes
Wing walls and base slabs
Concrete haunch

1
2
1

11.00
Total

Concrete (1:2:4)
wing wall 1 (Rectangular)
wing wall 2 (Trapezoidal)
slab under pipes
slab at sides of pipes
cut off 1 (outside)
cut off 2 (inside)
head of wall

4
4
1
2
2
2
2

0.60
1.10
5.50
-7.50
2.50
2.50

0.50
2.90
2.50
-0.70
0.40
1.80

Formwork
slab under pipes
slab at sides of pipes
wing wall
wing wall
head wall
cut off
cut off

1
2
8
4
2
2
2

16.04
14.74
1.10
0.60
5.54
15.44
5.54

0.10
0.20
2.90
1.22
1.80
0.50
0.30

0.20
0.20
0.10
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.25

Total
4

Gabion mattress

2.00

1.00

7.78

-0.79
Total

Total
5

Geotextile filter

8.60

2.30
Total

Soil Excavation
From actual road EL to base slab
slab under pipes
Slab at sides of pipes
cut off 1 (outside)
cut off 2 (inside)
Gabion
Slopes at both end of pipes

1
1
2
2
2
8
2

6.00
6.00
-7.50
2.50
2.00
4.50

2.50
2.50
-0.70
0.30
1.00
--

1.80
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.25
0.30
--

Soil Backfill
Pipes

5.50

2.50

0.50

Item
Pipes

7
8

Item/Diameter
Smooth bar (235 MPa)
Deformed bar 400MPa

9
10

Number
12

Diameter
0.80

Length(m)
1.00

D6
43.64

D8
298.46

0.69
1.10
0.96
2.75

m
m
m
m

0.24
2.55
1.38
3.11
2.10
0.40
1.86
11.63

m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m

1.60
5.90
25.52
2.93
19.94
15.44
3.32
74.66

0.30

Units

m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
4.80
4.80

19.78
19.78

m
m
m

2.43
Total

27.00
3.00
3.11
2.10
0.38
4.80
21.87
62.26

m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m

Total

6.88
6.88

m
m

7.78

Total
12.00
D10

D12

Total
342.10
411.20

268.41

142.79

kg
kg

Wire

7.53

kg

Nail

8.96

kg

All the spreadsheets follow the same principles although their appearance is different. The
spreadsheets automatically make calculations using embedded formula and links between cells
and spreadsheets. Each spreadsheet is different and an understanding of embedded formula is
necessary to make changes or prepare new spreadsheets.
In many cases a single spreadsheet is used for similar outputs. This is the case for the pipe
culvert example which can be used for 0.6 m, 0.8 m, 1.0 m diameter and single, double or triple
pipe culverts4. The required output code is selected from a drop down selection Detailed
4

For pipe culverts the range of options has been limited to ensure a logical progressive increase in
hydraulic capacity; see Part 6 for further explanation. In terms of the quantity spreadsheet there is no

Study and Design Guidelines

I-98

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

Calculation Cell A2. This the fills Cell B2 with the description Double pipe culvert 0.8m
diameter; Cell C5 with the number of rows 2; Cell C6 with the diameter 0.8.
Drop down options are used for Cell C7, number of culvert rings per row 6, Cell C9 cover 0.5,
and Cell C10 distance from market to site 30 (used to calculate transport costs).
The remainder of the Detailed Calculation worksheet contains the dimensions taken from the
drawings and the calculations and summation of Net quantities for each work item, e.g. blinding
concrete, concrete (1:2:4), etc.
The Transport and Labor cost spreadsheet takes the Net quantities and factors these by the
appropriate values extracted from the quantity and labor tables. The Material Transport Cost
and its distance are read from the cost database and entered at Cell D2 on the Detailed
Calculation spreadsheet C10. These are used to calculate the transport related costs in the
spreadsheet.
The Output Data spreadsheet provides the Detailed Cost Estimate Form for Construction
Output. It provides a summary of quantities of material, labor and transport costs by item.
Transport and Labor cost Spreadsheet
A
1
2
3
4
5
6

Weight/Unit
(kg)

Total Weight
(kg)

Transport Cost
(Riels)

Unskilled Labor
(days/Unit)

Semi-skilled Labor
(days/Unit)

Skilled Labor
(days/Unit)

66

13

Material Transport Cost (Tonne per Km) 800 Riels


Transport Distance
30 km

No

Description

Unit

Quantity

Cement

bag

88.26

50

4413.07

106,000

Stone (10x20 mm)

10.01

1700

17009.35

408,300

Stone (20x40 mm)

2.47

1700

4203.68

100,900

10

Sand

6.24

1700

10606.51

254,600

11

Formwork

74.66

10

746.56

18,000

19

12

Gabion mattress

4.80

--

00

13

Geotextile Filter

19.78

--

00

14

Culvert pipe 0.6m diameter

Number

12.00

250

3000.00

72,000

24

15

10

Smooth bars (235 MPa)

kg

376.31

376.31

9,100

16

11

Deformed bars (400 MPa)

kg

452.32

452.32

10,900

17

12

Wire

kg

7.53

7.53

200

18

13

Nail

kg

8.96

8.96

300

19

14

Soil Excavation

62.26

--

00

20

15

Soil Backfill

6.88

--

00

40.82

980,300

100

34

10

21

Total

limit on additional pipe sizes or combination which may be added (e.g. if ISO standard 0.9 m or 1.2 m
diameter pipes are imported and used).
Study and Design Guidelines

I-99

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

Output Data spreadsheet


A

1
2 C/S Project
3 Detailed Cost Estimation Form for Construction Output
Province:
District:
4
Project Name:
5
Description of Output:
Village:

Commune:
C/S Code:

1010305

6
7 Cost Estimation for 1 Unit of Output
N

Unit

Quantity

Price/Unit(R)

Total (R)

Cement

bag

88.26

19,600

1,730,000

11 1.2

Stone (10x20 mm)

10.01

100,000

1,000,600

12 1.3

Stone (20x40 mm)

2.47

52,000

128,600

13 1.4

Sand

6.24

23,200

144,800

14 1.5

Formwork

74.66

16,650

1,243,100

15 1.6

Gabion mattress

4.80

200,000

960,000

16 1.7

Geotextile Filter

19.78

20,000

395,600

17 1.8

Culvert pipe 0.6m diameter

Number

12

95,000

1,140,000

Description

9 1

Construction Materials

10 1.1

18 1.9

Smooth bars (235 MPa)

kg

376.31

3,120

1,174,100

19 1.10

Deformed bars (400 MPa)

kg

452.32

2,930

1,325,300

20 1.11

Wire

kg

7.53

8,600

64,800

21 1.12

Nail

kg

8.96

5,300

47,500
572,800

22 1.13

Soil Excavation

62.26

9,200

23 1.14

Soil Backfill

8.94

10,000

24 Sub-Total of Construction Materials

89,400
10,016,600

25
26 2
27
28

2.1
2.2

Transport and Labor Cost


Transport cost of materials and
equipments to the site
Transport cost of equipments
from the site

Tonne

40.82

24,000

979,800

Tonne

3.27

24,000

78,400

29 2.3

Unskilled labor

day

100

15,000

1,500,000

30 2.4

Semi-skilled labor

day

34

20,000

680,000

31 2.5

Skilled labor

day

10

25,000

250,000

32 2.6

Small Tools (% of labor cost)

3%

33 Sub-Total of Tansport and Labor Cost

72,900
3,561,100

34
35 Sub-Total (Direct Cost) (1+2)

13,577,700

36 Indirect Costs and Profit

10%

37 Total Cost
38

1,357,800
14,935,500

39 Cost for Whole Output


40 Description
41 1010305 Double pipe culvert 0.8m diameter
42
Market name:

Unit

Quantity

Price/Unit

Total (R)

14,935,500

14,935,500

Haul distance: 30km

43
44
45

Date:..

Date:..

C/S Chief

Technical Assistant

46

Study and Design Guidelines

I-100

0.01

m2

Formwork for beams and columns

m3

Pipe bedding

Study and Design Guidelines

Sub-foundation gravel

Mortar

0.01

7.0

0.5

0.5

1.1

1.0

1.1

m2

0.55

0.5

Formwork

3.0

4.8

m3

Concrete (1:5:10)

m3

1.0

m3

40 x 60

Concrete(1:3:6)

0.9

1.0

1.0

10

m3

m3
1.0

20 x 40

10 x 20

Wood
Class 3

0.55

0.5

0.5

0.5

Sand

Stone

Concrete (1:2.5:4) floor

6.2

6.7

m3

Concrete (1:2:4) foundations


3

6.7

m3

Concrete (1:2:4) slab

6.7

Bags

Cement

Unit

Tables of Quantities, and Labor Costs

Concrete, mortars and plasters, sub-foundations

Concrete (1:2:4) beams and columns

Description

Construction Task

Table 1

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

0.12

0.12

kg

Nail

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

Skilled

1.0

0.3

0.25

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

Labor
Semiskilled

0.5

0.5

3.0

0.1

0.05

2.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

5.0

Unskilled

I-101

m2
m2

Square tile roofing

fibro roof

Study and Design Guidelines

m2

Dragon scale roof tile

Zinc roof

Tile piece

Unit

Description

Square tiles

Construction Task

16

Roof Materials

70

Tile piece

Fish scale
roof tile

2.5

Sheet

0.55 x 1.2 m

Fibro

0.9

Sheet

0.5 x 3 m

Zinc

Tables of Quantities, and Labor Costs

Table 2

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

0.05

0.1

0.1

Skilled

0.05

0.05

0.1

0.1

Semi-skilled

Labor

0.05

0.05

0.1

0.1

Unskilled

I-102

105

m2

Hollow brick wall 200 mm

m2

Paint walls

Study and Design Guidelines

floor tile

Masonry
1.05

0.05

m2

Plaster(1:6)
3

0.14

0.1

2.2

0.34

m2

210

Plaster(1:2)

0.17

0.0017

0.2

0.1

0.002

bag

Cement

m2

1.1

Stone

Solid brick wall 200 mm

105

1.05

Floor tile

Air
brick

Solid brick wall 100 mm

piece

52.5

m2

Hollow brick wall 100 mm

Solid brick

1.05

piece

Hollow brick

piece

piece

Construction task
Unit

Solid
brick

Hollow
brick

Description

Walls and floor tiles

Tables of Quantities, and Labor Costs

Table 3

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

0.015

0.33

0.011

0.011

0.053

0.026

0.0003

0.032

0.016

0.0003

m3

Sand

0.25

kg

Whitewash

0.05

1.5

0.07

0.07

0.6

0.3

0.003

0.3

0.15

0.003

Skilled

0.02

1.0

0.4

0.2

0.002

0.2

0.1

0.002

Semiskilled

Labor

0.01

0.15

3.2

0.15

0.15

1.0

0.5

0.006

0.64

0.32

0.006

Unskilled

I-103

piece

Unit
Ring
Ring
Ring
Ring
Ring
Ring
Ring
Ring

Description

Culvert ring 1000 mm diameter

Culvert ring 500 mm diameter

Culvert ring 600 mm diameter

Culvert ring 800 mm diameter

Well ring 0.5 m x 1 m

Well ring 0.8 m x 1 m

Well ring 1.2 m x 0.5 m

Well ring 1 m x 1 m

Study and Design Guidelines

Note:
Labor quantities include for excavation of earth and backfilling.
Cement and sand quantities are for mortar for sealing joins

Ring

0.2

0.084

0.14

0.17

0.14

0.1

0.09

0.17

bags

Cement

0.03

0.012

0.021

0.026

0.021

0.016

0.013

0.026

m3

Sand

Tables of Quantities, and Labor Costs

Culvert Rings and Well Rings

Construction Task

Table 4

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.25

Skilled

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.25

0.16

0.12

0.1

0.02

Semi-skilled

Labor

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.25

Unskilled

I-104

Study and Design Guidelines

Wood Class 3

Wood Class 2

1.1

m3

Wood Class 1

1.1

tonne

Structural steel

1.1

1.1

1.1

Unit

Unit
tonne

Steel bars

Quantity

kg

Wire

kg

Nail

Tables of Quantities, and Labor Costs

Structural Materials

Description

Construction Task

Table 5

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

1.8

1.8

14

Skilled

3.4

3.4

20

Semi-skilled

Labor

4.5

4.5

2.4

Unskilled

I-105

10

m3
m3

Filter sand

Grass

Study and Design Guidelines

Notes
For tasks carried out by machine, standard price = Cost/Unit x Compaction factor
For tasks carried out by labor, standard price is calculated:

m3

Filter gravel

Rock fill 200 mm

m x km

m3 x km

Transport Laterite 35-50 km

Transport Laterite >50 km

m3 x km

Transport Laterite 20-35 km

m x km

Transport Laterite < 20 km

m3

Place and shape Laterite


m

m3

Excavate Laterite

Compact Laterite

m3

Compact earth

m x km

Transport earth

Excavate, place and shape earth

Units/day

Description

Unit

Labor norm

0.15

0.09

0.10

0.11

0.12

0.60

0.60

0.36

0.30

0.12

0.50

Riel/unit

Cost before compaction

Standard Price for Earthwork Tasks

Tables of Quantities, and Labor Costs

Earthwork tasks

Table 6

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

1.3

1.3

1.1

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

Compaction Factor

0.15

0.12

0.13

0.14

0.16

0.60

0.60

0.47

0.30

0.16

0.65

Riel/unit

Standard price

I-106

Study and Design Guidelines

Labor Cost = (Cost per labor day)/(Labor norm)


Small tools cost = Labor Cost x 3%
Standard Price = Labor Cost + Small Tools Cost + Materials Cost

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

I-107

m2
m
m
m
m
m
m
m

Doors and windows

Drilled borehole for well

Piles 200 x 200

PVC pipe 30 mm diameter

PVC pipe 49 mm diameter

PVC pipe 60 mm diameter

PVC pipe 100 mm diameter

Steel pipe 60 mm diameter

Piece
Piece

Student desks

White board

Study and Design Guidelines

Piece

Number

Set

Teacher desk

Well head surround

VN No 6 pump

Quantity

m2

Steel plate 16 mm thick

Latrine

Steel plate 5 mm thick

Quantity

Concrete cover for well

Concrete pipe 100 mm diameter

Quantity
Quantity

Column base

Set

Unit

Bolt

Description
Afridev Pump

Construction task

Table 7

Part 5: Materials, Quantities and Costs

All labor and materials

All labor and materials

All labor and materials

Rising main (49 mm PVC 12 m long), spare parts, tools.

All parts needed for toilet

Fittings and glue

Fittings and glue

Fittings and glue

Fittings and glue

Labor and equipment for driving piles

All labor and equipment

All materials and labor to make door

Labor for excavation

Nuts and washers

Other things included


spare parts and tools

Other Tasks Shown on Drawings

Tables of Quantities, and Labor Costs

0.1

Skilled

0.1

0.4

Semiskilled
2

Labor
Unskilled

I-108

PART 5:
STUDY AND DESIGN GUIDELINES

I-109

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

5 Study and Design Guidelines


5.1 Introduction
This section presents a suite of basic guidelines and procedures to help a non-specialist or nontechnical person prepare a simple project design.
The scope of C/S Fund infrastructure projects is broad since it includes topics such as
foundations and earthworks, buildings and structures, road engineering, resource and flood
hydrology, groundwater wells, water supply, sanitation and drainage, irrigation and hydraulics.
Most of these are specialist topics in their own right and even the most experienced
international infrastructure expert or engineer is unlikely to be good at every topic. Therefore
everyone needs a little help sometimes and this section tries to provide it.

5.1.1 Limitations
Infrastructure design can be very complex. It is very difficult to reduce design to a few simple
rules and guidelines. There is always a risk that the conditions at the site are outside the
simplifying assumptions made for the guidelines. Yet it is equally difficult to instruct a nonspecialist to spot these situations.
The problem in the past under the Seila Program and similar work by The Social Fund, NGOs
and others is that the complexities of design have been too daunting for the people on the
ground. Consequently they often ignored even basic and essential design procedures, took a
chance and unquestioningly built whatever the community asked for. Not every time but more
often than not the infrastructure variously did not work as intended or broke very soon after it
was built, often because bad design choices meant it required maintenance and repair beyond
the means of the community.
In fact for all the caution expressed above about the limitations of simple guidelines, in the
majority of cases for simple infrastructure these guidelines, used correctly, will provide a safe
and sustainable design. Most importantly the guidelines should avoid most of the big mistakes
made by not carrying out design at all.
About 90% of the projects are for simple infrastructure. It is for this 90% that the guidelines
have been carefully chosen. The other 10% of projects are typically outside the guidelines
because they are unusual, have some complex issues, or are components of a larger project
that needs a full design process; in such cases specialist advice and/or assistance should be
obtained. Overall the objective of this approach is to improve the success rate of C/S Fund
infrastructure projects.

5.1.2 Using the design guidance


The design guidance is presented in the same order as the NCDD infrastructure group and subgroup codes. The codes are repeated in the titles.
Important note and design decisions are incorporated into the Technical Forms. Most of the
forms are linked to seperated sub-programs called Applets which are already uploaded into the
Project Generator, and need to be downloaded to carry out the design to fill into Technical
forms. The filled applets must be uploaded back into the Project Generator. The forms and/or
applets will automatically give guidance on the recommended design and dimensions or
materials as appropriate.
Guidance given in this way is highlighted in a box with a computer symbol
throughout this design guideline.
The form to which the advice applies is repeated in the titles.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-110

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

You will only get the design guidance if you answer the questions, and the
guidance will only be correct if the answers are honest do not invent the
answers.
The basis of the guidance is explained. When the guidance is based on recommendations in
an external reference this is listed as a footnote. Often these references are available from the
Internet. This allows the user to find out more about the guidance, they may do this to improve
their knowledge. There will also be occasions where it essential to use the references, e.g. if
the project requires something beyond the coverage of an original template design.

5.2 Transport Infrastructure: Group 101


The design guidance for transport infrastructure is focused on roads and road structures.
x

Form T11 incorporates the advice for road earthworks and surface options.

Form T12 incorporates the advice for structures, particularly the selection of the correct
structure type and size for drainage of rivers and streams across the road.

5.2.1 Sub-Group 10101 and 10102: Roads: Form T11


Form T11 is incorporated with Applet T11 to advise on road surface option
according to ADT and DCP values entered into the Applet. It is necessary that
you complete this applet to get the advice before creating an output.
Note: The definition of ADT and DCP and how to determine them are explained below.
Design standards
Road design is based on the MRD Interim Rural Roads Standards5. The guidance does not
include National and Provincial roads which are the responsibility of the Ministry of Public Works
and Transport. It may be applied for residential roads within urban areas but is not intended for
use in heavily trafficked urban streets.
Rural roads are categorised as follows:
Tertiary

District to District (T Roads)

Sub-Tertiary 1

District to Commune (ST1 Roads)

Sub-Tertiary 2

Commune to Commune (ST2 Roads)

Sub-Tertiary 3

Commune to Village and Village to Village (ST3 Roads)

MRD applies two design standards for tertiary/sub-tertiary roads based on traffic (traffic is
measured as ADT, see the explanation of ADT below).
Type A

ADT = 201 to 2,000+

Type B

ADT = 0 to 200

The MRD standards for Type A and Type B are given in Table 5.1.
Sub-tertiary roads in rural areas will mostly have ADT less than 200 for existing traffic so will
initially be Type B, but could become Type A if ADT increases above 200, as can happen after
a good road is built. If existing ADT is almost 200, if the road will join two busy centres or if it
provides access to growing businesses such as a plantation or factory this is a reason to design
to Type A standards.

Interim Rural Roads Standards for Tertiary and Sub-Tertiary Roads, Ministry of Rural Development
2006.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-111

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines


Table 5.1 - Interim Design Standards for Tertiary/Sub-Tertiary Rural Roads
Item
1

Designation
Composition of traffic (ADT)

Type A
201 ~ 2,000+

Type B
0 ~ 200

2
3
4

Design Period
Design speed (Km/hr)
Assumed ESA of commercial
vehicle (6 tyres or more)
Minimum radius of curvature
(metres) Unpaved surface
Minimum radius of curvature
(metres) Paved surface
Vertical alignment maximum (%)
Earth Road
Vertical alignment maximum (%)
Gravel Road

15 years
70 / 60 / 50
1.0

10 years
60 / 50 / 40
0.4

190 / 125 / 80

125 / 80 / 40

Flat / Rolling / Mountainous


If axle load surveys are not
possible
Flat / Rolling / Mountainous

130 / 85 / 60

85 / 60 / 30

Flat / Rolling / Mountainous

4%

6%

6%

6%

Vertical alignment maximum (%)


Paved Road
Horizontal sight distance
(metres) Flat / Rolling /
Mountainous
Maximum super elevation (%)

15%

20%

Steeper gradients should be


spot improved
4% if rainfall 1,000 to
2,000 mm/year. Gravel
unsuitable > 2,000 mm/year
Maximum 10% for thin
bitumen seals

85 / 65 / 50

65 / 50 / 35

7%

7%

Extra widening / Increased width


at curves (metres)
Constructed Carriageway
Camber / Cross fall (%):
Unpaved / Paved
Shoulder plus Verge Width each
side of carriageway (minimum)

0.5 metre

0.5 metre

Normally 3 4% is
appropriate
If radius of curvature <100 m

7% / 3%

7% / 3%

Concrete Slab may be 2%

1.0 metre

1.0 metre

Width of
earth/gravel/Laterite/paved
surface carriageway (minimum)
Initial constructed thickness of
Laterite / gravel surface
(millimetres)

5.0 metres

3.5 metres

200 mm
compacted

150 ~ 200 mm
compacted

17

Paved road pavement thickness

18
19

Elevation of road formation


(minimum)
Embankment construction
Maximum layer thickness
(compacted).

Depends on
requirements
500 mm above
the HFWL
150 mm (each)
horizontal layer

Depends on
requirements
500 mm above
the HFWL
150 mm (each)
horizontal layer

Can be reduced in
mountainous areas with
provision of passing bays on
single lane roads. Minimum
Type B roadway = 5.5 m
These are minima. If
resources allow, wider
carriageway may be justified
Use technical design
guidelines. The suitability of
gravel is adequately covered
in the Rationale.
Use technical design
guidelines
Sub-grade formation level

20

Embankment side slope

1:2 ~ 1:3

1:2 ~ 1:3

21

Side drainage ditches

See technical
guidelines

See technical
guidelines

22

Right of way (from Road Centre


line to each Side) (metres)
Unobstructed clearance
between backs of culvert
headwalls at road surface level
(Minimum)
Unobstructed carriageway width
at single lane drifts and
structures with width restriction
and warning signs (Minimum)
Berm width at embankment toe

15

15

7.0 metres

5.5 metres

Headwalls extending above


embankment finished level
should be clearly marked

3.5 metres

3.0 metres

Suitable barriers and warning


signing to be provided

2.0 metres

2.0 metres

Recommended minimum

5
6
7
8

9
10

11
12
13

14

15

16

23

24

25

Study and Design Guidelines

Notes
Design Period Max flow in
PCU

Depends on compaction
equipment used. All
earthworks must be
compacted.
(Vertical : Horizontal). Turfed
finishing
Trapezoidal shape, turfed.
Scour checks or lined if
gradient >4%
Recommended

I-112

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

The road widths recommended are:


Tertiary

District to District (T Roads)

6.0 m

Sub-Tertiary 1

District to Commune (ST1 Roads)

6.0 m

Sub-Tertiary 2

Commune to Commune (ST2 Roads)

5.0 m

Sub-Tertiary 3

Commune to Village (ST3 Roads)

4.0 m

Sub-Tertiary 3

Village to Village (ST3 Roads)

4.0 m

These widths are in some cases wider than the minimum in Table 5.1 but wider carriageways
are permitted by the MRD standards.
The design of the road depends on its location and alignment plus two key pieces of data.
x

Traffic (measured as ADT)

Strength of the ground (measured as DCP)

Average daily traffic (ADT)


For the purposes of rural road design, the prediction of future traffic flows will be based on
surveys of current traffic, and assessment of adjustments expected due to generated traffic,
diverted traffic and future growth.
The standard for Traffic Flow measurement is Average Daily Traffic (ADT), based on the
Passenger Car Unit (PCU). The following table provides conversion factors for the various
vehicle types.
Table 5.2 - Recommended PCU Conversion Factors for determination of road Type

Type of Vehicle

Equivalent Value in PCUs for Rural Traffic Flow


Calculations

Passenger Car

1.0

Motorcycle

0.4

Motorcycle-trailer

0.6

Bicycle

0.3

Animal Cart

0.4

Light Vehicle / Van

1.0

Koyun

1.5

Medium Truck (6 tyres)

2.0

Heavy Truck (> 6 tyres)

2.5

Bus (> 4 tyres)

2.25

Mini-bus (4 tyres)

1.1

By completing the Road Traffic (traffic count) boxes on Applet Form T11 the PCU
values are automatically calculated and totalled. The required road design
standard Type A or Type B is then shown, and need to be taken to filled into the
Form.
Remember, the ADT calculated from the traffic count is for existing traffic, you
must decide whether to allow for future increase in traffic.
There are some further questions on Form T11 to help make the decision about future traffic.
Study and Design Guidelines

I-113

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCP)


The dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and the test it performs have been introduced for
C/S Fund projects under NCDD; previously it was not required for projects under Seila Program
although there was no prohibition on its use.
The TRRL DCP (Dynamic Cone Penetrometer 40-T0012/A) has been in widespread use in
Cambodia for many years, particularly on MRD projects. The TRRL DCP is an instrument
designed for the rapid in-situ measurement of the structural properties of existing road
pavements constructed with unbound materials. Continuous measurements can be made down
to a depth of approximately 850 mm or when extension shafts are used to a recommended
maximum depth of 2 m. Where pavement layers have different strengths the boundaries can be
identified and the thickness of the layers determined.
A typical test takes only a few minutes and therefore the instrument provides a very efficient
method of obtaining information which would normally require the digging of test-pits. Normally,
for road one DCP test needs to be made for every 500m length or 2000 m area.
Road pavement design is often based upon the CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of the ground or
existing road. Many people have tried to correlate DCP measurements with CBR but there are
many difficulties involved and it takes a lot of experience to use the results correctly if big
foundations or major roads are involved. However for low-cost roads and structures the DCP
can be used as an indicator of CBR sufficient for most design decisions. Line 4 on Figure 5.1
has been used in this design guidance. The recommend CBR for different types of pavement
and pavement thickness have been back-converted to DCP so that the DCP measurements can
be used directly for design.
The GPS coordinates and results in mm/blow are entered on Applet T11 for tests
along the road alignment, as many tests as needed. The applet then calculates
the 20 percentile DCP for all the tests (20 percentile is the value for which 80% of
test sites are equal or stronger).
If all tests give similar results then the 20 percentile value can be used for design. But if the soil
strength indicated by the test in some locations is much lower than the 20 percentile value then
you should consider a stronger road design for these places.
The 20 percentile DCP or individual tests results for locations with weak soil are used together
with the ADT to select the type of road and pavement thickness. If the road is at grade (ground
level) then the DCP tests in the ground are used. If the road is on an existing embankment then
the embankment must be tested. If the road will be built on new embankment, then the
guidance assumes that this will be built with correctly compacted and suitable fill, and that it will
therefore be good for road pavement construction.
Surfacing options
Once the ADT and DCP data are entered on the first worksheet of Appet T11,
suitable surfacing options are listed automatically including the thickness of
pavement layers when these apply on the second worksheet of the form.
All options are listed, including the more expensive paved road options. However unacceptable
options are shown as unsuitable surfacing, e.g. earth roads are not suitable for ADT > 20 and
will be shown as unsuitable if ADT is 45.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-114

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines


Figure 5.1 Conversion of DCP to CBR

The basis of the design guidance incorporated into Form T11 for road types used by the C/S
Fund is as follows.
1010101 Earth road
Suitable for ADT  20 ADT of which no more than 2 heavy trucks, buses or
mini buses.
Pavement: No guidance for DCP test results but > 15 mm/blow indicates the ground is
too weak for at grade road construction, either the ground must be excavated
and compacted or the road must be on compacted fill embankment.
Type:
Traffic:

Study and Design Guidelines

I-115

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

1010102 Laterite road


1010103 Natural gravel road
1010104 Sand road
1010105 Crushed stone road
Note: Unbound natural sand is unsuitable for road pavements but
compacted stone dust used for roads in some parts of Cambodia is
commonly referred to as a sand road.
Suitable for ADT  25 ADT of which no more than
Traffic:
Light traffic:
2 heavy trucks, buses or mini buses.
Suitable for ADT  100 ADT of which no more than
Medium traffic:
21 heavy trucks, buses or mini buses.
ADT > 100 Unpaved roads are unsuitable
Heavy traffic
If DCP < 15 mm/blow pavement
Pavement6: Light traffic:
At grade or in cut:
thickness 150 mm.
If DCP = 15 to 32 mm/blow print
pavement thickness 200 mm.
If DCP > 32 mm/blow print
pavement thickness 250 mm but
also consider other surface.
Pavement thickness 200 mm
On embankment:
If DCP < 15 mm/blow pavement
Medium traffic:
At grade or in cut:
thickness 250 mm but also consider
other surface
If DCP = 15 to 32 mm/blow print
pavement thickness 300 mm but
also consider other surface
If DCP > 32 mm/blow prints
pavement thickness more than
300 mm but also consider other
surface.
Pavement thickness 300 mm but
On embankment:
also consider other surface.
Types:

1010201 Dressed stone road


Type:
Not a constraint for use for rural or residential road.
Traffic:
Stone thickness for all uses not less than 150 mm
Pavement7: Stone layer:
Sand sub-base layer: Stone shall be bedded on a sand layer not less than
50 mm
1010202 Mass concrete road
Type:
Not a constraint for use for rural or residential road.
Traffic:
Slab thickness 200 mm
Pavement8: Concrete slab:
Sand road-base thickness 50 mm
Sand road-base layer:
Sand sub-base thickness 300 mm
Sand sub-base layer:
1010203 Steel-reinforced concrete road
Type:
Not a constraint for use for rural or residential road.
Traffic:
Thickness 150 mm
Pavement: Concrete slab:
6

PIARC, TRL & Intech Associates. Rural Road Surfacing: Surface Options Gravel, Ref: RR Surface
3h, June 2003. (Note: Pavement thicknesses adopted are for high rainfall more than 1,500 mm/year
with long dry season).
Gourley Dr C et al. Low Cost Road Surfacing (LCS) Project, LCS Working Paper No12 Paving the
Way for Rural Development & Poverty, CSIR, TRL, Intech Associates, September 2002.
Azam A I et al. Low Cost Road Surfacing (LCS) Project, LCS Working Paper No7 Bamboo
Reinforced Concrete Pavement Road Construction in Cambodia, ILO, Intech Associates, June 2002.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-116

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Sand road-base layer:


Sand sub-base layer:

Thickness 50 mm
Thickness 300 mm

1010204 Mesh-reinforced concrete road


Type:
Not a constraint for use for rural or residential road.
Traffic:
Thickness 150 mm
Pavement: Concrete slab:
Thickness 50 mm
Sand road-base layer:
Thickness 300 mm
Sand sub-base layer:
1010205 Double Bituminous Surface Treatment (DBST) road
Type:
Not a constraint for use for rural or residential road.
Traffic:
Two layers of stone chippings.
Pavement: Surface:
Thickness 75 mm
Road-bas:
Thickness 225 mm
Sub-base:
1010206 Single Bituminous Surface Treatment (SBST) road
Type:
Not a constraint for use for rural or residential road.
Traffic:
Two layers of stone chippings.
Pavement: Surface:
Thickness 75 mm
Road-bas:
Thickness 225 mm
Sub-base:
1010207 Asphalt concrete (AC) road
Type:
Not a constraint for use for rural or residential road.
Traffic:
NOT YET DECIDED.
Pavement: Surface:
Thickness 75 mm
Road-bas:
Thickness 225 mm
Sub-base:
1010208 Brick paved road
Type:
Not a constraint for use for rural or residential road.
Traffic:
Brick thickness for all uses not less than 70 mm
Pavement9: Brick layer:
Sand sub-base layer: Bricks shall be bedded on a sand layer not less than
50 mm
Road Suface and Pavement Thickness
The road surface must be chosen and its thickness must be entered as
recommended by Applet T11.
Form T11 requires you to choose road surface and enter pavement thickness. This is deliberate
with the intention of permitting selection of a non-recommend thickness. For example a 200mm
Laterite road may be chosen even when Applet T11 suggests only 300mm laterite road types
are suitable. This allows the project to proceed even if there is insufficient money for the
recommended road type and pavement thickness. The form provides a record that design
advice was not followed and this may require you to later justify the decision.
The questions on Form T11 for Materials for Construction should be considered when selecting
the type of road, e.g. if Laterite has to be hauled 100 km it is probably not the best choice, either
in terms of initial construction, or in terms of maintainability.

5.2.2 Sub-Group 10103 to 10108: Road Structures: Form T12


This design guidance relates to road structures that provide drainage across the road and
includes all types of bridges, culverts and low-level crossings.
9

Gourley Dr C et al. Low Cost Road Surfacing (LCS) Project, LCS Working Paper No12 Paving the
Way for Rural Development & Poverty, CSIR, TRL, Intech Associates, September 2002.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-117

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

There must be one T12 form for each road structure. The form will attach with it an
Applet T12 used to obtain advice on structures to be chosen before creating a
project. If catchment area can be defined, it is a must to use the applet.
Note:Explanation on questions to be answered in the applet can be found from the Hydrology
and hydraulic capacity section below.
Design standards
Template designs for culverts provide a minimum unobstructed width of 5.5 m between the
backs of culvert headwalls at road surface level. This complies with the MRD Design Standards
for Type B roads (Table 5.1). For Type A roads the width should be 7.0 m. Pipe culverts can
be made wider by adding extra pipes. For box culverts width between headwalls of the box
section walls and slabs will have to be increased and will require more concrete and reinforcing
steel. Extra width will also be needed for a high embankment because the bottom of the slopes
is farther apart.
Template designs for concrete bridges provide an unobstructed width of 4.5 m which is
consistent with contemporary MRD road projects. A wider roadway will require a modified
design which will require the assistance of a qualified structural engineer. The particular
concern is the hanging beams which support the bridge; these also provide the bridge parapets.
The beam reinforcement would have to be increased for a wider roadway. Also the abutment
walls and deck slab will have to be increased in width and will require more concrete and
reinforcing steel, as well as extra piles for piled foundations.
Concrete bridges are designed for AASHTO HS 20-44 20 tonne loading.
The wooden bridge template design is unchanged from the Seila Template and has a notional
5 tonne loading.
Steel bridges including Bailey Bridges are not covered by this design guidance and specialist
advice should be sought on an as-needed basis.
Road classification
The road classification, standard and width are entered manually, but if Form T12
has been generated by a Form T11 then the information is entered the same as
the road form.
If the project is for an isolated road structure then the road classification, road standard and
road width questions will have to be answered. It is not necessary to conduct a traffic count to
determine the road standard; judgement can be used to answer this question.
Scope of works
The questions relating to the scope of works focus on the description, sizes, condition and
causes of damage to existing structures. It is important to complete this information in order to
understand the problems at the site, e.g. a culvert that collapsed due to scour is a very definite
indication that the structure was too small for the flow, and/or that the new structure requires
scour protection.
Pay attention to the questions asked and think about the causes of the problems.
Material available for construction
These questions indicate whether there will be problems complying with the Specification, e.g. if
gravel will come from a river then it will be rounded and unsuitable for concrete.
Soils and Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCP)
Information on soils and DCP tests is needed to consider whether the foundations will be strong
enough to support the structure, also whether they will be particularly vulnerable to erosion and
scour.
Study and Design Guidelines

I-118

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

The DCP results are used in the same way as described for road projects. One test may be
sufficient for a small culvert but for large culverts and bridges it is recommended to check each
bank and the water channel, as many times as necessary.
For concrete bridges it is recommended to have an investigation borehole at each abutment. It
is recognised that this adds to the cost but a bridge is a big investment. If the bridge is on piled
foundations the risk of not sinking an investigation borehole is reduced.
The template designs for concrete bridges are for single spans and do not require an
intermediate pier. However, if multiple spans are required then investigation boreholes should
also be sunk in the river bed as close as practical to each pier location.
Hydrology and hydraulic capacity
The size of a bridge, culvert or low level crossing and any protection works must be chosen for
the flow and flood conditions at the site. Deciding flow and flood conditions can be difficult
where the land is very flat and/or where the natural drainage has been altered by roads,
embankments and irrigation systems.
Two situations occur:
x

flow at the structure comes from a single catchment; or

the structure is in a flat and/or flood area where water can come from distant and large
catchments.

The design guidance is focused on being able to define the catchment and its characteristics.
This is described first below. The guidance that applies for large flat and flood areas follows.
By answering a few simple questions about the catchment on Applet Form T12
you will automatically be told the estimated peak flood flow, advised on the most
suitable size of structure, and told the exit velocity for flow from the structure.

What do we mean by a catchment?


The catchment area at a structure is the area of land from which water (runoff) flows to that
structure when there is rain. (If you collect rainwater from a roof, the catchment is the area of
land kept dry by the roof).
Figure 5.2 Example of a catchment

Water divide

Catchment area
A = 5.8 km2

Culvert

Study and Design Guidelines

It is easier to understand the concept of catchment


area where the land is hilly and there are streams in
every valley. When there is rainfall, the stream that
the water flows to is controlled by the slope of the
land, e.g. if 30% of the land where the rain falls
slopes towards stream A, then it will receive 30% of
the rainfall, the remaining 70% will flow to other
streams.
The line separating the catchment of stream A from
the other streams is the water divide where water
flows away in two directions into adjacent
catchments. This is a line drawn following the
highest ground between the catchments. Therefore,
catchment boundaries are usually defined on
contoured maps such as the example at Figure 5.2.
Sometimes however, particularly when the land is
very flat, it is not the contours that form a catchment
boundary but an artificial boundary such as a field
bund, track or road embankment that intercepts flow
and sends it in a different direction and into a
different catchment than would be the case for the
natural undeveloped landscape.

I-119

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Catchment boundaries cannot cross a stream. Every plot of land must be in the catchment of
one stream or another, if you draw the catchment divides between several streams and have
any area of land left over where you do not know where the water flows, it means you have
made a mistake and need to correct the boundaries.

Factors that control catchment runoff


The main factors which control the size and time of runoff are:
x Catchment area
x Rainfall
x Land slope
x Vegetation
x Soils
x Catchment shape
x Available (flood water) storage in lakes, swamps and rice paddies
x Settlements (villages, towns and infrastructure)
The above list is in declining order of importance, although the order may sometimes change,
for example a large lake would be near the top of the list.
The interrelationships between these factors that control the peak runoff are extremely complex,
and despite years of global research and observation, the estimation of runoff remains
approximate and uncertain. Fortunately, most catchment characteristics change only very
slowly with time. Their interaction is therefore reflected in the size, shape and type of river or
waterway. It is as important to visit the site and look at the channel and land upstream and
downstream of the structure; as it is to consider the other listed factors.
Where the river channel or waterway has already been spanned by a bridge or culvert, the
length of time that the structure has successfully resisted being washed away and its
performance during floods will provide useful information for design. It can be argued that if the
structure has survived without damage it is already the optimum size for the site, eliminating the
need for further hydrological studies. One flaw in this argument is that many unimproved roads
are at low-level on little or no embankment and flood flows can then easily bypass a structure
without causing major damage. An improved road on a raised embankment will completely
change this situation (Figure 5.3).
The key point is that field investigation must be thorough, and the conclusions
made must be well considered, in order to avoid mistakes.
Figure 5.3 - The difference between flow bypassing a culvert where the road is at low-level or
where it is on embankment.

Overland flow
Road
Culvert
Low-level road

Road on embankment

Flow

Flow

Overland flow too large for culvert


can bypass and flow over low-level
road with minimal damage.

Study and Design Guidelines

Overland flow too large for culvert floods


upstream of high embankment until it
flows across the road with risk of erosion,
scour and embankment breach.

I-120

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Methods of flow estimation


The recommended method of flow estimation is the Generalised Tropical Flood Model10
(GTFM). This method has been used quite often in Cambodia, usually by consultants, the first
use was probably for the emergency flood projects at MPWT in 2001 and subsequently projects
under MRD and MOWRAM. It gives good results for small to medium catchments up to and
larger than would require the culvert and small bridge template designs accompanying this
design guidance. The method takes into account all the factors that affect catchment runoff and
the information can usually be obtained from available maps. The method is also easy to use in
a spreadsheet or as an applet.
The alternatives to the GTFM include:
x

Rational method

US Soil Conservation Service (Curve Number) Method

SWAT Model.

The Rational Method is intended for urban catchments and because of the simplifying
assumptions that apply only for these conditions it should not be used for rural catchment
more than 0.8 km2 area otherwise it grossly overestimates flow11. Because the method is so
simple to use it is used mistakenly by many people. The GTFM can be used for small
catchments so there is no need to consider the Rational Method.
The US SCS Method is quite complicated to use correctly and requires catchment data not
generally available directly from maps. Since it is no more reliable than the GTFM it has not
been used.
The SWAT model is a river basin, or catchment, scale model developed for the United States
Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service and used by the Mekong River
Commission. It is intended for water resource planning rather than peak flow prediction,
requiring the software and knowledge how to use it. These factors make it unsuitable for
road structure design.

The next few sections give the basic theory for using the GTFM, it is good to
understand these but it is not essential provided the questions on Form T12 are
answered correctly.

Rainfall
All the methods of flow estimation discussed above including the GTFM are known as rainfallrunoff models, that means a design rainfall is assumed for the catchment and the models take
into account the factors that determine what percentage of the rain will appear as runoff at the
structure, what percentage stays in the catchment in the soils, or is used by vegetation, etc, and
also the timing and size of the peak flow at the structure.
For road structure design it is necessary to know the rainfall intensity in mm/hr over different
durations between 5 minutes and 24 hours, and for different return periods. This information
can be obtained by measuring rainfall with a continuously recording rain gauge over a period of
not less than 10 years. In Cambodia such a record only exists for Phnom Penh International
Airport (Pochentong) for a period of 16 years, although the national coverage of rain gauges
and records is fairly good these are all daily (24 hour) rain gauges. This is overcome by using
the method of Rainfall Ratios and converting the 24 hour rainfall to shorter duration by applying
indices derived by back analyses of the record at Pochentong. This technique is described in
10

Watkins L H and Fiddes D. Highway and Urban Hydrology in the Tropics, Pentech Press, London,
92-100 (1984).
11
Chow V T. Handbook of Applied Hydrology, McGraw-Hill Co, London (1964).
Study and Design Guidelines

I-121

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Watkins and Fiddes12. The indices vary from region to region according to rainfall
characteristics but the rainfall at Phnom Penh is representative of that for lowland Cambodia.
To avoid the need to obtain rainfall records and use different rainfall charts for each location the
design guidance is based on long term rainfall records at 21 locations covering the most
populace areas of the country. The 80 percentile values for these data are shown in Figure 5.4
and Figure 5.5 as rainfall rainfall-intensity-duration and total rainfall curves respectively for
return periods 1 in 2.3313, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years.
By default the design guidance applied by T12 uses these rainfall curves for design because
they are appropriate for most places in Cambodia. However, the form has the option to apply
33% greater rainfall in known high rainfall areas.

Return period
The larger and more expensive structures are designed for a longer return period rainfall/flow
than the smaller ones; the logic is that it is easier and cheaper to replace a small structure than
a large one. This approach is used in all countries and is applied by MRD for road structures.
This design guidance applies the following standards.
Table 5.3 Road structure design return period for peak flow

Structure type
Bridge 10m
Small bridge <10m
Large box
Small box
Low level crossing
Pipe

Design return period TR


1 in 50 year
1 in 25 year
1 in 25 year
1 in 10 year
1 in 10 year
1 in 10 year

GTFM
The advice on use of the GTFM that follows is applied automatically by answering
all the questions on T12. This is explained in Design procedures below.
The Generalised Tropical Flood Model is expressed by the formula:

QR
Where

QR :
R:
CA :
P:
A:
F:
ARF :
TB :

12

13

C A u P u A u F u ARF
360 u TB

peak flow of return period R years (m3/s).


return period (years).
is the percentage runoff coefficient.
is the design storm rainfall (i.e. total rainfall in mm not intensity in
mm/h) of hydrograph base time (TB hours).
is the catchment area in km2.
is the peak flow factor to convert the average flow generated by the
model to peak flow, F=2.5 is suitable for structures in Cambodia.
is the area reduction.
is the hydrograph base time (hours).

Watkins L H and Fiddes D. Highway and Urban Hydrology in the Tropics, Pentech Press, London,
92-100 (1984)
A return period of 1 in 2.33 years is the mean annual peak rainfall.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-122

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines


Figure 5.4 - Rainfall-intensity-duration curves used for design guidance

80 Percentile Rainfall-Duration-Intensity

Intensity (mm/hour)

1000

100

1 in 2.33 Year
1 in 5 Year
1 in 10 Year
1 in 25 Year
1 in 50 Year
1 in 100 Year

10

0.01

0.10

1
1.00

10.00

100.00

Duration (hours)

Figure 5.5 - Total rainfall curves used for design guidance

80 Pencentile Rainfall Totals


250

Total rainfall (mm)

200
1 in 2.33 Year
150

1 in 5 Year
1 in 10 Year
1 in 25 Year

100

1 in 50 Year
1 in 100 Year

50

0
0.00

3.00

6.00

9.00

12.00

15.00

18.00

21.00

24.00

Storm duration (hours)

Study and Design Guidelines

I-123

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

The peak flow QR is the flow used to select the structure type and size. The hydraulic capacity
is chosen to pass this flow.
The return period R is selected for the proposed structure (Table 5.3). If the structure required
is different to that originally proposed it may be necessary to restart the calculation (by changing
the proposed structure at the beginning of the form) until the return period is correct for the
structure type and size.
The percentage runoff coefficient CA is express by the formula:

CA
Where

CS :
CW :
CL :

C S u CW u C L

is the standard value of contributing runoff coefficient, from and is


dependant on Soil Class I , from Table 5.4 and Slope Class S , from
Figure 5.6.
is the catchment wetness factor which is dependent on soil moisture
recharge (SMR). Because Cambodia is within a wet zone (SMR >
75 mm) the value adopted should always be 1.00.
is the land use factor from Table 5.6.

Soil Class I is selected from Table 5.4.


Table 5.4 Soil Class I
Soil characteristic
Impermeable rural
Impermeable settlements

Very low permeability


Flooded paddy
Low to very low permeability
Low permeability
Low to fairly permeable
Fairly permeable
Very permeable

Description
Rock surface
Paved urban, village centre
Clay soils with high swelling potential; shallow soils
over largely impermeable layer, very high water
table.
Mostly flooded paddy in wet season
Impeded drainage and areas of flooded paddy in wet
season
Drainage slightly impeded when soil fully wetted.
Deep soils but areas of flooded paddy in wet season
Deep soils of relatively high infiltration rate when
wetted.
Soils with very high infiltration rates such as sands,
gravels and aggregated clays.

Soil class (I)

1
1
2
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
5

Slope is measured along the path taken by the water, therefore this must be along the length of
the stream or flow path, not the straight line distance but the distance allowing for twists and
turns of the stream, or the valley if there is no stream. Slope must also be representative for the
catchment. For this reason it is measured between two point 10% and 85% distance up the
catchment measured from the structure. This eliminates error due to a steep rise at the top of
the catchment, a situation which is common in many places in Cambodia where steep
mountains are beside flat plains. Hence slope is calculated from the formula.

Slope
Where

Elv85:
Elv10:
L:

100:

Elv85  Elv10
u 100
0.75 u L

is the elevation 85% of the distance up the catchment from the


structure (m)
is the elevation 10% of the distance up the catchment from the
structure (m)
The distance between the structure and the catchment boundary
measured along the stream and the flow line beyond the stream to
the boundary (m)
Conversion to percent.

Slope Class S is read off Figure 5.6.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-124

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines


Figure 5.6 Slope Class S

Catchment slope classification

Average catchment slope (%)

30

25
20

15
10
5
0
1

Slope Class (S)

Having determined the soil class S and slope class I the standard value of contributing runoff
coefficient CS is calculated from the following formula. Values for CS are also shown in Table
5.5.

CS
Where

CS:
I:
S:

53  12 I  8S

is the standard value of contributing runoff coefficient.


is the Soil Class.
is the Slope Class.

Table 5.5 Standard value contributing runoff coefficient CS


Soil Class I
Slope Class S
1
2
3
1
49
37
25
2
57
45
33
3
65
53
41
4
73
61
49
5
81
69
57
6
89
77
65

13
21
29
37
45
53

1
9
17
25
33
41

Land use class CL is looked-up from Table 5.6.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-125

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines


Table 5.6 Land Use Class CL
Land use characteristics
Settlements
Bare soils
Cultivated
Grassland
Dense vegetation
Forest thin soil
Forest steep slopes
Forest other

Catchment type
Urban or village centre
Largely bare soil
Intensive cultivation
Grass cover
Dense vegetation (particularly in valleys)
Forest: (a) shallow impermeable soils
Forest: (b) very steep (S5, S6) permeable
soils
Forest: (c) deep soils and gentle slopes

CL

1.00
1.50
1.50
1.00
0.50
1.00
0.67
0.33

The design rainfall P is obtained from Figure 5.5 for the calculated value of TB (see below) and
the selected return period.
If you have reason to think the structure is in a high rainfall area then it is recommended that P
be increased by 33%. This is done automatically by selecting the high rainfall option on Form
T12.
The catchment area A is measured from the map.
The peak flow factor F converts the average flow generated by the model to peak flow, F=2.5 is
a suitable peak flow factor for structures in Cambodia.
The area reduction factor ARF is introduced to take into account that rainfall at any given instant
varies over the catchment. In simple terms, the average rainfall intensity at any instant for a
catchment will be less than the rainfall measured at a single point in the catchment, and the
difference increases with increasing size of catchment. Therefore, this is not significant for
small catchments but becomes so as catchment size increases. The relationship adopted for
ARF is suitable for the convective rainfall14 that occurs in Cambodia:

ARF
Where

T:
A:

1  0.04T 0.33 A 0.50


is duration in hours
area in km2

This equation applies for storms of up to 8 hours duration. For longer durations on large
catchments the value calculated for T = 8 hours is used.
The hydrograph base time TB can be thought of as being made up of three components: the
storm duration, the time taken for the surface runoff to drain into the stream system; and the
flow time down to the structure.
Base time TB is expressed by the formula:

TB
Where

14

C:
A:
S:
TS :

C u A 0.5
 TS
S2

a constant, which is 30 for Cambodian catchments.


the catchment area (km2).
the Slope Class S.
the surface cover flow time from Table 5.7.

Convective rainfall occurs where there is low pressure and air movement is mostly vertical.
Evaporation is high early in the day and moisture is carried high by vertical currents. Rainfall occurs
usually in the afternoon or early evening.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-126

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines


Table 5.7 - Surface cover flow time TS

Catchment type
Arid zone
Poor pasture / scrub (large bare soil patches)
Good pasture
Cultivated land (down to river bank)
Forest (a) shallow impermeable soils
(b) very steep (S5, S6) permeable soils
(c) other
Swamp filled valleys

TS (h)
0.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
12.0
20.0

The GTFM equation assumes a catchment of average shape with length to width ratios (L/W) of
between 2 and 6. For fan-shaped catchments (L/W = 1) the design flood is increased by 50%.
For very long catchments (L/W = 20) it is halved.

Structures in flat flood areas


If a structure is in a flood plain or on flat land that floods every year it may be impossible to
decide the catchment. In fact, if the flood is deep then the catchment divides may be under
water and be merged with the catchments of adjacent structures along the road. The structures
will then work together.
In terms of the structure the worst condition that could cause it to collapse is that water levels
are high on one side of the road and low on the other. Under these conditions water will flow
very fast through the structure driven be a difference of water levels of maybe 1 or 2 m.
Eventually the water levels upstream and downstream will become about the same so that the
head difference is no longer significant; this may take a few hours or a few days, depending on
the situation, or until the flood goes away.
In these conditions, if the structure is too small to pass the flood quickly, water level upstream of
the structure may continue to rise until water overtops the adjacent road embankments. The
rate of increase in upstream water level after this will be small because most of the water will
flow over the road. Hence the worst case that may damage the structure is with water on one
side at road level, and the other side at ground level. The template designs for concrete
culverts and bridges have been designed for this condition. The scour protection, particularly
the gabion mattress has been chosen to withstand the flow velocity under this condition and to
prevent the collapse of the structure.
It is important to understand that even though the template designs can withstand
extreme flood conditions; this is no excuse for building a too small structure. Most
importantly if the road embankment is overtopped it will be damaged, particularly if
the road is unpaved. The flood water will probably break through the embankment
(breach the embankment) leaving gaps in the road.

As is shown by Figure 5.3 raising a road embankment can block flood flow;
whereas water can freely flow over a road at about ground level, a road embank
creates a dam which forces all the flow through the road structures. You must
think whether building the road and structures will make flooding worse or whether
it will cause damage to the new road and structures; if you think it will you must
change the design and may need specially advice and help.

Design procedure
You can complete all the above design simply by filling correct answers on the
Applet T12.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-127

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Form T12 incorporates applet T12 that completes the recommended hydrological and hydraulic
calculations. You need to answer a series of questions in the applet, then you need to copy the
necessary responses and recommendations directly to the form.
The questions are listed below together with explanation of the reason for the
questions and advice on how to answer.
What type of structure is envisaged?
Choose the type of structure you expect to
provide.
Can catchment be defined?
This question decides whether the flow to
the structure is from a large flat flood area
or a catchment that can be measured.

The applet needs this information to select


the correct return period, Table 5.3.
If the catchment cannot be defined then the
form prints Flow estimation not possible,
design for road overtopping and no further
questions appear.
If you get this response you should
seek specialist advice because the
project proposal may not be viable
and sustainable.

What is the catchment area in km2?


Used by the applet for calculations.
Measured from Topo Map
What is the length of catchment in metres?
Used by the applet for calculations.
Measured from Topo Map
What is the land elevation 10% up catchment?
What is the land elevation 85% up catchment?
The most reliable way to measure elevation
Used together with the length of the
is by topographical survey. Hand held GPS
catchment to calculate the catchment
cannot be used because the elevation
slope. The applet then selects the Slope
measurement shown is only approximate.
Class S.
Often it is possible to get acceptable slope
measurements from maps. For example if
the catchment is between 10 m interval
contours 4.0 km apart then the land slope is
(10 4000) x 100 = 2.5%. You adjust the
answers so that the program calculates this
slope. Be careful using spot heights on
maps, they often show roads level and are
not correct for general land level and slope.
What are the catchment soil characteristics?
Used by the applet to select Soil Class I.
You chose from the selection in Table 5.4,
the table provides more detailed description
for guidance. Be careful to choose soils
representative for the catchment because the
soils at the road may be different.
What are the catchment land use characteristics?
Used by the applet to select Land Use
You chose from the selection in Table 5.6,
Class CL.
the table provides more detailed description
for guidance. Be careful to choose for land
use in the catchment not that beside the
road.
What are the catchment surface cover flow time characteristics?
Used by the applet to select Surface
You chose from the selection in Table 5.7.
Cover Flow Time TS.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-128

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Is location a normal or very heavy rainfall location?


The applet will factor-up the rainfall by
You use this option if you believe there is
33% if you answer that it is a heavy
unusually high rainfall, maybe because the
rainfall location.
road is in a mountain location, because the
streams are big, or local people have told
you so. For all other areas chose normal.
Then you need to copy the following calculation results from Applet T12 to Form T12:
x Design(peak) flow in cubic metres per second
x A suitable structure
x Velocity at the structure outlet in metres per second.
Does this match the structure entered at method selection?
The program asks this question as a
If the structures are different you may need
cross-check that the recommended
to repeat the process by starting with the
structure is the same as you proposed.
recommended structure. This is particularly
necessary if the recommended structure
needs to be designed for a different return
period.

Structure flow capacity and velocity


The flow and therefore the exit velocity of a structure depends on the relative water levels
upstream and downstream of the structure. The flow condition that has the lowest design
discharge is different to that which has the highest exit velocity (because the latter is for the
highest design discharge). The design guidance generated by Form T12 for flow uses safe
assumptions for the condition giving the lowest flow, and the condition giving the highest
velocity, these being the worst cases for design.
There are six recognized flow types, strictly these apply for culverts but there is no difference
hydraulically between a box culvert and a small bridge. A primary reference is Bodhaine15.
The flows, velocities and associated flow types applied by the applet are listed in Table 5.8.
The flow types are defined as follows:
Type A: Part full, critical depth at inlet
Type E: Full, wall friction, backwater from downstream
Type F: Full, wall friction, critical depth at outlet
Note that there is a progressive increase in capacity for the structures listed in Table 5.8. These
are the preferred structures. For example you could use 4 x 0.6 m pipes for a flow of 1.7 m3/s
but it is better to use a single 1.0 m pipe which will provide 1.80 m3/s capacity.
In the interests of ease of maintenance and to reduce blockage it is good practice not to use
pipes smaller than 1.0 m diameter. Also note that it is acceptable (and in many countries also
required for environmental reasons) to set the bottom of the pipe 100 to 200 mm below the
stream bed, the reduction in capacity is negligible but it minimises the need to ramp a road over
a culvert.
Wooden and steel bridges
Form T12 does not specifically recommend wooden or steel bridges. This is because they will
usually be temporary structures which will in the future be replaced by a concrete bridge or
large box culvert. However Form T12 can still be used to estimate the peak flow at the bridge.
Table 5.8 can even be used as a rough guide to the required length of a wooden or steel bridge;
it can be seen that each metre of full height span provides about 8 m3/s of flow capacity.

15

Bodhaine GL. 1968, Measurement of Peak Discharge at Culverts by Indirect Methods: U.S. Geol.
Survey Techniques Water-Resources Inv., book 3, chap. A3, 60 p, 1968.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-129

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines


Table 5.8 Design flows and velocities at road structures

Structure type and size

Single 0.60 m pipe


Single 0.8 m pipe
Single 1.0 m pipe
Double 0.8 m pipe
Double 1.0 m pipe
Triple 1.0 m pipe
Single 2.0 mW x 1.5 mH Box
Single 3.0 mW x 1.7 mH Box
Single 3.0 mW x 2.0 mH Box
Double 3.0 mW x 2.0 mH Box
5.0 m span bridge
Triple 2.0 mW x 2.0 mH Box
7.5 m span bridge
10.0 m span bridge

Design flow
capacity
(m3/s)
0.50
1.03
1.80
2.07
3.61
5.41
8.23
14.00
16.47
32.95
41.20
49.42
61.80
82.40

Flow type

A
A
A
A
A
A
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

Design
velocity
(m/s)
2.42
2.80
3.13
2.80
3.13
3.13
3.93
4.06
4.25
4.25
4.84
4.25
4.84
4.84

Flow type

F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

Low-level crossings
Similarly Form T12 does not specifically recommend low-level crossings. This is because they
are only suitable in special circumstances. They have frequently been used in unsuitable
locations in Cambodia and without a rational consideration of design criteria or the benefits.
Some brief guidance on the correct use of low-level crossings is given below.
Template designs are provided for two types of low-level crossing:
x

A Drift crosses a watercourse at bed level; whenever there is flow or standing water in
the watercourse there will be water on the drift roadway.

A Vented Causeway has culverts beneath the low-level crossing roadway such that the
roadway is higher than the stream bed but usually lower than the approach roads. This
allows the roadway to remain dry when there is a normal flow or standing water in the
watercourse but also for the roadway to be submerged for short periods during a flood.

Drifts are suitable for hilly areas where there is no flow or a trickle of water for most of the time
but where the stream flows full for a short time following heavy rainfall. Drifts are not suitable
for crossing areas where flood water may stand several weeks or months a year, as occurs in
many locations in lowland Cambodia.
Vented causeways can be used in lowland areas provided the roadway is above standing flood
level. They can provide extra capacity to pass large flood flows. However providing sufficient
length of causeway and protection against damage can make a vented causeway more
expensive than box culverts or a small bridge. The criteria that should be used are as follows.
x

The vent culverts can be assumed to have the capacity listed in Table 5.8.

The safe depth of flowing water on the roadway is 150 mm. If the water is deeper than
this cars and light 4-wheel drive vehicles can float, this has been the cause of many
deaths by drowning worldwide.

At this flow depth the flow per metre length of causeway is 0.18 m3/s. Therefore a 91 m
long roadway and protected slopes is required to provide the same capacity as a single
3.0 mW x 2.0 mH box culvert. It is obvious that in most locations the box culvert is a
better solution.
Think very carefully about your reasons for choosing a drift or vented causeway, a
conventional culvert will often be a better technical and cheaper solution.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-130

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Drifts and vented causeways can be used as spillways for small irrigation
reservoirs, provided proper consideration is given to erosion protection
downstream, seek specialist advice.

5.3 Irrigation System: Group 102


The design guidance for an Irrigation system is presented in three parts.
x

Form T21 gathers general information about the irrigation system, estimates the
irrigation water requirements and lists the canals and structures that may be needed.

Form T22 is used for the design of earthworks which includes canals and drains, dams
and dykes.

Form T23 is used for all irrigation structures including headworks and distribution system
structures.

5.3.1 Irrigation Project: Form T21


It is unusual for a completely new irrigation system to be built under the C/S Fund; such projects
are usually built by MOWRAM/PDOWRAM under donor support. It is more usual for the
C/S Fund to repair or improve part of an existing irrigation system. Often these are systems
built by the Khmer Rouge Regime which have fallen into disrepair because they were badly
conceived, designed and constructed. Sometimes a system will have been rehabilitated by
donors who often only provide headworks but leave the community to complete the distribution
canals which is seldom done because communities lack the knowledge and resources to do
this on their own. Occasionally systems date from the Sihanouk or French eras.
Although a lot of money has been spent on irrigation infrastructure in recent times, including
support through the C/S Fund, the works have tended to be piecemeal because no
consideration has been given to the overall operation of the system or how it interacts with
adjoining land. The issues are very complex and beyond the scope of this design guidance.
However the completion of Form T21 is intended to draw attention to key issues to help
C/S Fund investment in irrigation to be more effective and also alert when more specialist
advice is needed.
Irrigation infrastructure in Cambodia is most often used for supplementary irrigation of wet
season rice. This is especially so for those systems which rely on rainfall upon a catchment. It
is unlikely that such systems can support irrigation of more than 10% of the area for part or all of
the dry season. A longer irrigation season is possible in areas benefiting from the annual
Mekong, Tonle Sap and Bassac flood. In these places it is common to find deep water and
recession cropping, the so called Preks or Colmatage systems, or land where water is
pumped from seasonal flood lakes.
Form T21 links with an applet that estimates the irrigation water requirement for
rice on a monthly basis. It assesses the water resource and whether it is sufficient
for a river fed system or if a reservoir is needed, the required volume of the
reservoir. The water resource assessment also gives consideration to competing
irrigation water demands upstream and downstream of the project.
The design guidance incorporated into Form T21 is loosely based on the ICID Checklist16 for
rapid feasibility study of irrigation systems.
Irrigation system requirement
There are a series of questions on Form T21 which establish the areas of land that require
water in the wet and dry season and the crops that will be grown. These questions must be
16

International Commission for Irrigation and Drainage. Checklist to Assist Preparation of SmallScale Irrigation Projects in Sub-Saharan Africa, via Department for International Development, London,
England, 1998.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-131

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

answered because the information is used to calculate irrigation water requirements later in the
form.
There are also questions about water shortage.
Flooding
The questions on floods have two purposes:
x

Find out if the fields are flooded for part of the year, if this is the case then the system
should manage the water levels for the maximum benefit to the cropping.

Find out if flooding is a significant constraint to cropping, either because it will damage a
standing crop or it will dictate the time a crop is planted.

Existing irrigation system


The questions about the existing irrigation system are to establish the age of the system, its
current condition and what are perceived as the main problems very importantly which months
of the year water is available.
Water resource
There is a simple series of questions that establish where the water comes from and when it is
available. The questions about water depth and flow should be answered with the help of the
community. The key issue is to find out which months there is flow in the system.
E.g. there is no point in building a dam to irrigate in June when the water in the
stream that will fill the reservoir never flows until August!
There is an important question to establish whether water can flow to the fields by gravity or
whether it must be pumped.
There are also questions to establish the competition for water, about the approximate area of
irrigable land upstream and downstream of the project. Promoters of irrigation systems in
Cambodia seldom consider this issue but it is very important. Even if there is little working
irrigation now, maybe in the future the villages upstream will also have a scheme. Unless the
water resource is large enough for both projects the water previously available for the C/S Fund
project will be reduced and it may no longer be viable.
Rainfall record
Rainfall records are available for Provincial Capitals, and since about 2001 most District Towns.
Sometimes the records are incomplete but will be good enough for this purpose.
Rainfall records only need to be collected once. The records for the whole province should be
obtained and updated annually. Work through the PDOWRAM to obtain the records.
Form T21 allows for a rainfall record at or near the project and a second record for the
catchment. In most cases only one record will be available, probably for neither of these
locations but for the nearest District or Provincial town. It is OK to use this record but if more
local records are available use these instead.
Fill both rainfall columns into Applet T21 because the numbers entered are used to calculate the
irrigation water requirement and assess the water resource.
Irrigation water requirement
The irrigation water requirement is needed to check the demand for water against available
water this is known as a water balance.
Form T21 uses applet T21 that calculates the irrigation water requirement for rice
on a monthly basis. After the calculation, upload the Applet to the geneator.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-132

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

It is necessary to enter the catchment area. The applet then uses the irrigated area and the
rainfall data previously entered. It is also necessary to enter the planting date for rice. The
applet then outputs the water requirement each month as the total quantity of water in m3, as
the flow rate in m3/s if water is pumped 8 hours each day, and as the flow rate in m3/s if water is
delivered over 24 hours by gravity. An approximate water balance is also made to estimate the
storage volume required of a reservoir.

Dependable rainfall
The rainfall records are converted to dependable rain. Dependable rain is the monthly rainfall
having an 80% probability of exceedance17 (i.e. that is likely to occur in the particular month
under consideration in four years out of five). The dependable rainfall is calculated with the
following formula:
Pdep = 0.6Ptot - 10 (for Ptot < 70 mm/month)
Pdep = 0.8Ptot - 24 (for Ptot > 70 mm/month)
where Pdep and Ptot are respectively monthly mean dependable rainfall and monthly mean
measured rainfall in millimetres.
Once you have entered the monthly rainfall record, the applet calculates
dependable rainfall on a monthly basis.

Crop water requirement


It is time consuming to estimate the variation in crop water requirements throughout the
cropping season (requiring estimates of evapotranspiration, use of crop factors, etc). For rice
monoculture the variation project to project is small and for small rice irrigation projects in
Cambodia it is accurate enough to assume approximate typical but safe estimates of monthly
crop water requirements. On this basis, it is sufficient to know only the total area under irrigated
crops each month. For paddy rice, all months from the start of nursery and land preparation to
harvest should be included. The following has been assumed for design guidance:
First month:
Nursery requirement
100 mm
Second month
Land preparation and planting
400 mm
Third month
Growing
300 mm
Fourth month
Growing
300 mm
Fifth month
Growing
200 mm
Sixth month
Harvest
50 mm
For recession rice the nursery, land preparation and planting requirements can be omitted on
the assumption that these activities are carried out on flooded land.

Planting month
The planting month can be varied. You should try different planting months to see how this
affects water requirements and reservoir volume. It is probable that farmers will have to change
their usual planting date to get the maximum benefit from irrigation. These issues should be
discussed with the Commune (or FWUC if one exists or will be established).

Irrigation water requirement


The net irrigation requirement is calculated by deducting the dependable rainfall from the crop
water requirement.
The overall efficiency of distribution, from water source to the soil in which the plant is growing,
is typically 40% for surface (channel) irrigated schemes. Therefore the actual irrigation
requirement is calculated as:
Net irrigation requirement 0.4
17

FAO Irrigation and Drainage Papers No 25 "Effective Rainfall" and No 46 "CROPWAT: A Computer
Program for Irrigation Planning and Management"

Study and Design Guidelines

I-133

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

The applet calculates the net irrigation water requirement for the chosen month of
planting taking into account the contribution from dependable rainfall.
Work proposed for irrigation project
Form T21 is finished by filling the requirement for earthworks and structures, stating whether
these are new or repairs, and the expected sizes. This generates Forms T22 and T23 for each
separate output required.

5.3.2 Irrigation Earthwork: Form T22


Irrigation earthworks Form T22 is used for design of canals and drains, dams and dykes. There
must be one form for each earthwork, e.g. there must be one form for one dam, and two
additional forms if there are two canals. This is because the design guidance can only be
specific to one earthwork at a time, and in the case of more than one canal or drain the flow in
each will be different each time.
Form T22 will design dam and dyke cross-sections including any road surface, it
also calculates flow in a canal or drain calling-up an applet T22 to calculate
drainage flow from an external catchment. A second applet T22 is called-up for
the hydraulic design of canal and drain cross-sections.
Traffic use of earthwork
These questions are included because irrigation earthworks are often used as roads, not just
farm roads but tertiary and sub tertiary roads. The questions focus on the condition of existing
earthworks used as road and the traffic that will use the earthwork when it is completed. The
guidance is similar to Form T11 except that a traffic count is not required and instead the traffic
is estimated. The heaviest vehicle using the road is also considered.
If the road on the earthwork already carries a lot of traffic it is worthwhile to make a
traffic count even though Form T22 does not specifically require it.
Condition of existing earthworks
These questions are asked to establish why the earthworks need repair. If there is a clear
cause of damage then the design must protect against the same damage in the future.
Dont repair damaged infrastructure until you establish why the damage occurred.
If you do so then the same damage may occur again. Ask local people how the
damage occurred but do not assume that their answers are correct, think whether
the cause is for more complex reasons than they say.
Soils
The soils at the site determine the safe slopes for canals and drains, dams and dykes. The
form provides advice on safe slopes according to the soil type identified; in the case of a canal
or drain if the soil is poor Form T22 can advise channel lining.
Fill material
These questions establish whether suitable fill material is available. If it is not then specialist
advice may be needed in order to proceed with the design.
Design of dam or dyke
It is necessary to answer a series of question on Form T22 to complete the design.
The questions are listed below together with explanation of the reason for the
questions and advice on how to answer.
What is reservoir full supply level at dam or flood levels at dyke (m)?
Give the level using the project datum.
This information is needed to work out the
Study and Design Guidelines

I-134

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

height of the dam or dyke.


What freeboard will be allowed (m)?
Freeboard is extra height above the water
level to provide a margin of safety, allow
for some settlement and erosion, and for
waves that may be caused by a wind.

Freeboard should not be less than 1.0 m,


add more if waves are expected to be a
problem (0.5 m can be assumed for small
reservoirs). Do not include the depth of road
surfacing when deciding freeboard; this must
be added in addition to freeboard.

Will the dam or dyke be used as a road?


This influences the crest width and the
surface protection.
What is the crest width?
Minimum for a farm road is 2.0 m but 4.0 m is
better. If it is a tertiary road use the guidance
for Transport Infrastructure.
Will the crest be surfaced?
What thickness of Laterite (mm)?
Follow the advice on surfacing depending on
the expected traffic use.
What will be the upstream slope (see advice for soils above)?
What will be the downstream slope (see advice for soils above)?
The advice provided in response to the soil
questions should be followed. Under no
circumstances should steeper slopes be
used.
What slope protect will be provided to the upstream slope?
Select from the options.
As a minimum it is advised to use grass
slope protection. For a reservoir or a flood
dyke where there is open water more than
1.0 m deep and extending more than 500 m
distance each year, it is best to use riprap.
If rock riprap is chosen the following questions appear.
What class of riprap?
Answer Class A, B, C or D

Class A rip rap is suitable for small


reservoirs.

What thickness of riprap in millimetres?


300 mm is the minimum thickness for
Class A riprap.
What filter will be placed below riprap?
There must always be a filter below riprap

Use either a 150 mm gravel layer or a 50 mm


sand layer over a geotextile filter fabric.

What slope protection will be provided to the downstream slope?


It is advisable to provide grass.
Capacity of canal
Canals should be designed to supply not less than 2 litres/second/hectare to the fields supplied.
This assumes water is supplied continuously over 24 hours; if the water is pumped then the
canal must be larger, e.g. if it is only pumped 6 hours each day the rate must be:
2 x 24 6 = 8 l/s/h
It does not matter whether the farmers take the water in turn or all at the same time, 2 l/s/h will
meet the peak requirements for paddy rice.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-135

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

The required capacity of the canal depending on the answers given to the
questions on Form T22. It is the factor between area supplied and supply rate.
You must enter the area supplied by the canal. The default supply rate advised by the form for
calculation is 2 l/s/h but you can enter another flow rate. You answer whether the supply is by
gravity or pumping. When it is by pumping you must decide how long the pumps will run each
day. Then you need to calculate the capacity of the canal for the selected method of delivery
and fill into the form as advised in the Project Generator itself.
Capacity of drain
Only rarely will purpose built irrigation drains be provided under the C/S fund. However, it is
common for rehabilitated canals to function as both a canal and drain, particularly Khmer Rouge
built systems. The capacity required for a drain is greater than that for a canal. Therefore,
wherever a canal may operate as a drain it is important to check the design as a drain.
When no drain is provided the form requires explanation of how the irrigation system is drained,
e.g. water may drain into a river.
Form T22 requires the calculation of required capacity including taking into
account an external catchment also served by the drain which needs to be
calculated by using Applet T22 Extenal Catchment Flow.
Drains should be designed to convey not less than 3.5 l/s/h from the fields drained. The default
drainage rate used by the form for calculation is 3.5 l/s/h but the form allows you to choose
another flow rate.
Often a drain will also collect runoff from other fields or have a catchment upstream. When this
is the case you must answer so on the form and enter the catchment area. If this area is
1.0 km2 then it assumes these are fields and you need to calculate the extra flow based on
3.5 l/s/h (or whatever other value you have entered on the form). If it is larger than 1.0 km2 the
form needs the additional flow result form applet T22 External Catchment Flow. The Applet T22
applies the GTFM as described for Applet T12, except that it designs for the mean annual flood
(about 5 year return period) and only outputs the flow.
Hydraulic design of canal or drain
Once you know the flow in the canal or drain you must calculate the channel size. This is the
hydraulic design.
Form T22 uses applet T22-Design of canal or drain to calculate the channel size
for the flow calculated as described above. All you need to do is select a few
design criteria and the Applet includes advice on how to choose these.

Mannings formula
The simplest way to design a channel is to use Mannings formula but first it is necessary to
understand the Continuity Equation.
The continuity equation describes the fact that flow rate can be calculated by multiplying the
cross sectional area of flow by velocity of flow, it is written:

Q
Where: Q =
A=
V=

A uV

flow rate (discharge) (m /s)


cross-sectional area of the flow (m2)
velocity (m/s)

Study and Design Guidelines

I-136

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Once the size of flow has been decided, the size of the canal can be calculated using Mannings
formula. Mannings formula calculates flow velocity. In some books use of Mannings Formula
is referred to as the Slope Area Method.

Where: V :
A:
P:
s:
n:

1 A

nP

2/3

s1 / 2

velocity (m/s)
cross-sectional area of the flow (m2)
length of wetted bed at the cross-section (m)
gradient of water surface or bed slope
Mannings n representing the channel roughness, see Table 5.9.

Table 5.9 Mannings n

Channel surface
Earth (Primary and Secondary canals)
Earth (Tertiary and Quaternary canals)
Earth (Drain)
Concrete (and plastered masonry)
Masonry
Gabions

Mannings n
0.025
0.030
0.035
0.015
0.020
0.025

Mannings formula is also used to calculate flow, simply by using the continuity
equation Q A u V , which means we only have to multiply the velocity V calculated by
Mannings formula by the flow cross-sectional area.

Where: Q :
A:
P:
s:
n:
The

A A

n P

2/3

s1 / 2

flow volume (m3/s)


Cross-sectional area of the flow (m2)
Length of wetted bed at the cross-section (m)
gradient of water surface or bed slope
Mannings n representing the channel roughness

A
expression in Mannings formula is sometimes written as R which is called the
P

hydraulic radius or hydraulic mean depth.

A
P

Design calculation
Hand calculation for channel design using Mannings formula is a trial and error process
because you first must select the channel dimensions, make the calculation and compare that
with the required capacity. Therefore designers tend to use charts or spreadsheets to quickly
complete the design. Form T22 calls-up Applet T22-Design canal or drain which will do the
calculation.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-137

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

It is necessary to answer a series of question on Applet T22 to complete the


design. The questions are listed below together with explanation of the reason for
the questions and advice on how to answer.
What will be the bed level at the upstream end (m elevation)?
What will be the bed level at the downstream end (m elevation)?
What is the distance in metres along the centreline between the upstream and
downstream ends of the channel?
These questions must be answered to
Strictly it is the water surface (hydraulic)
calculate the gradient s. Hence channel
gradient that controls flow but for simple
gradient is (upstream level downstream
channel design it is good enough to use the
level) distance
bed gradient. Even more helpful is that the
canals and drains must follow the slope of
the ground so if you know the ground slope
you can fill in answers that will give this slope
as the gradient, although you can then
change it to get the optimum design.
What is the bank slope V:H?
Follow the advice on slopes
This is used to calculate the crossgiven at the soils box of
sectional flow area and the length of
V
Form T22, rectangular lined
wetted bed.
H
channels will be 1:0.
What is the bed width (m)?
This is used to calculate the cross-sectional
flow area and the length of wetted bed.
Bed width

What is the freeboard (m)?


Freeboard is the difference in height
between the top of the bank and the water
surface. It is provided as a margin of
safety so that the design flow is contained
within the channel.
Freeboard

Form T22 gives the following advice based


on general practice on MOWRAM projects:
Secondary canals:
0.5 m
Tertiary canals:
0.2 m
Drains  2 m3/s:
0.1 m
Drains 2 to 8 m3/s:
0.2 m
Drains >8 m3/s:
0.3 m

What is Mannings n (channel roughness)?


Form T22 gives the following advice:
Earth secondary canal:
0.025
Earth tertiary canal:
0.030
Earth drain:
0.035
Concrete lined:
0.015
Masonry lined:
0.020
What is the design flow?
This will be taken from form T22 unless you
chose to enter another flow.
You will finally get the results as the followings:
x Water depth (m):
x Bed depth below ground level (m) (at upstream and downstream surveyed locations):
x Width between tops of bank (m) (at upstream and downstream surveyed locations):
x Velocity of design flow (m/s)

Study and Design Guidelines

I-138

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

5.3.3 Irrigation structure: Form T23


Irrigation structures Form T23 is used for all irrigation structures. There must be one form for
each structure, e.g. there must be one form for one spillway, and one form for one head
regulator, and two forms for two culverts. This is because the design guidance can only be
specific to one structure at a time, and for different structures the flow requirements will be
different each time.
The form requires that you select the type of structure; it will be noted in form itself whether
what questions to answer and what should not according to the chosen structure. For small
irrigation flow control structures, output can be selected according to the Table 5.10 below.
Material available for construction
These questions indicate whether there will be problems complying with the Specification, e.g. if
gravel will come from a river then it will be rounded and unsuitable for concrete.
Soils and Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCP)
Information on soils and DCP tests is needed to consider whether the foundations will be strong
enough to support the structure, also whether they will be particularly vulnerable to erosion and
scour.
The DCP results are used in the same way as described for road projects. One test may be
sufficient for a small culvert but for a spillway or structure of large extent it is recommended to
check each bank and the water channel, as many times as necessary.
Road crossing
Irrigation structures are often used as road crossings. The template designs a suitable for
Tertiary Roads. These questions are included as a check whether special provisions are
necessary.
Hydraulic capacity
These questions apply for irrigation flow control structures. Since these will be on canals or
drains you should already know the capacity needed from the T22.
Indicative capacities for template designs are given in Table 5.10. These are not absolute
because the flow depends on the relative upstream and downstream water levels.
There are questions asking if the flow at the structure can be larger than the design flow and if
so what provision can be made to safely pass the additional flow. This is important because for
example although you may have designed a canal for a certain flow farmers might leave a gate
open too wide upstream and extra flow may come down the canal, on drains a larger flow than
designed for will likely occur every few years. Make sure that the design will survive this type of
occurrence.
Table 5.10 Indicative hydraulic capacity of template small irrigation flow structures

Code
1020201
1020202
1020203
1020204
1020211
1020212
1020213
1020221
xxxxxxx
xxxxxxx
1020251
1020251

Description
Medium size water gate (2.0 mW)
Single pipe culvert 0.6 m diameter with gate
Single pipe culvert 0.8 m diameter with gate
Single pipe culvert 1.0 m diameter with gate
Double pipe culvert 0.6 m diameter with gate
Double pipe culvert 0.8 m diameter with gate
Double pipe culvert 1.0 m diameter with gate
Triple pipe culvert 1.0 m diameter with gate
Single cell box culvert with gate (2.0 mW x 1.0 mH)
Double cell box culvert with gate (2No 2.0 mW x 1.0 mH)
Pipe head regulator 0.3 m diameter
Pipe head regulator 0.6 m diameter

Study and Design Guidelines

Capacity
m3/s
5.5
0.5
1.0
1.8
1.0
2.0
3.6
5.4
5.5
11.0
0.1
0.5
I-139

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

1020251
1020251
1020252

Pipe head regulator 0.8 m diameter


Pipe head regulator 1.0 m diameter
Check structure

1.0
1.8
Varies

Spillways and diversion weirs


A dam spillway, or a weir across a river that raises water levels to divert flow for irrigation must
be designed to pass flood flow without suffering damage. It is common for spillways on
reservoirs in lowland areas to flow up to two months a year because the reservoirs are too small
to capture all the wet season flow. Weirs across rivers will spill water for even longer, in some
locations all through the year.
The design should be for a large flood. International practice is to design for very large floods
because of the risk of loss of life and damage should a dam fail because of too small a spillway.
These standards are not applied to small irrigation reservoirs in Cambodia; in flat areas the
reasons can include the relatively small storage volume and that water escaping is not confined
in a valley but can quickly spread over the fields. These are not universally safe assumptions
and would not be appropriate for a reservoir in a hill valley with a village or scattered houses
downstream.
The guidance applies for small lowland reservoirs in flat areas. In these cases spillways and
river weirs can be designed for a 1 in 50 year peak flow. In the case of a reservoir the flow will
actually be lower than this because some of the flood will be delayed a short time passing
through the reservoir but for simplicity this has been ignored.
Form T23 uses an applet to estimate the peak flow and to calculate the length of
weir required to pass the design flood.
When a spillway or weir is proposed Form T23 will call-up Applet T23 Length of weir which
estimates the peak flow and calculate the length of weir. Flow is estimated using the GTFM as
described for Form T12, except that it designs for the 1 in 50 year flood and only outputs the
flow.
The Applet will ask for the maximum acceptable water level upstream of the spillway or weir and
the proposed crest level. The maximum acceptable water level should take into account
property that could be flooded or the freeboard allowed at a dam. The crest level will be the full
supply level for a reservoir or the level needed for water to flow to a diversion canal. The
difference between the two water levels is the head available at the weir. The applet works out
how much water will flow over a metre length of weir at this head. It then divides this into the 1
in 50 year peak flow to calculate the length of weir needed.
The weir must be capable of passing the full flood flow. Never include flow that
could bypass the weir by opening a water gate or head regulator because when
the flood comes there may be no one there to open the gate. This was a frequent
problem with Khmer Rouge schemes which relied on someone opening the gates
to pass the flood flow it is amongst the many reasons why so many of these
structures have failed.
Pumping capacity
If the selected output is a pump then the pump capacity must be entered. This may have been
calculated on a Form T22 if a canal is included in the project.

5.4 Water Supply: Group 103


Simple design guidance is provided for Water Supply. Four types of water supply infrastructure
are addressed:
x

Wells

Ponds

Study and Design Guidelines

I-140

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Rainwater storage

Piped water systems

The guidance does not include:


x

Calculation of water supply volume based on per-capita consumption.

Pipe sizing and hydraulic design for piped and pumped water supply systems.

Form T31 is used. The form is designed for a water supply project, but there must be one form
for each output. If a project comprises several outputs such as pumped wells, water tanks and
a pipe distribution system, it is required one Form T31 for the pumped wells, another for the
water tanks, and the other one for the pipe water system. It is because one form can only
provide one set of associated templates drawings and quantity table.
Quantity of proposed outputs
The proposed outputs you have chosen need to be quantified in number or size before
proceeding to complete the form.
Purpose of water supply
These questions establish whether the water supply is for a community (domestic), a school,
health or other facility. School and health projects often include water supply and if the projects
include the water supply, the Project Generator will require a Form T31 to be completed.
Information about the number of users
This indicates the number of people who will benefit. It is also an indication of the potential
demand on the water supply.
The questions establish the population of the village(s) and the number of households in the
villages benefiting from the water supply. It also asks how many households will use the water
supply. For schools it asks the number of pupils.
Water demand
Form T31 does not calculate the water demand but you should still consider this. The World
Health Organization recommends 30 l/head/day for domestic use. Consumption is also
influenced by the distance from a well or water point if water has to be carried.
Table 5.11 - Water consumption and distance to water source (well or water point)

Distance to source

Estimated consumption (litres per person per day)

More than 1000 m

500 to 1000 m

12

Less than 250 m


In the compound of the dwelling

20 to 30
40

You can use these figures to make a side calculation to check whether the proposed project
can supply enough water. Remember that children at school or visitors to a community
facility such as a health post get only part of their daily requirement there. However, it is
quite common for a well in a school grounds to be used by nearby residents so you must
consider if the project can satisfy such an additional demand.
Existing water supply
These questions are designed to establish the existing sources of water supply by type, number
of users and where relevant distance from the household to the source.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-141

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Will the new water supply replace the water supply or will it be additional to the
original supply? Will the existing and new systems compete for the same water?
Information about site of proposed facility
These questions establish ownership of the land, if the land is not in public ownership there may
be disputes about access in the future.
Political considerations may influence accessibility. There may be pressure to put the well near
the dwelling of an influential member of the community. A compromise may be necessary.
There are also questions about flooding. There is a risk of contamination of the supply if the
land floods; a well provides a path for pollution to reach the groundwater which can be
permanently contaminated making it unusable for water supply. It may be necessary to
construct the water supply, e.g. a well head, on a mound or platform so that it is accessible and
protected against contamination when there is a flood.
Existing wells
Information on existing wells is very
useful for designing a new well. The
primary objective when sinking a
new well is to sink it where ground
water is likely to be found. Existing
wells are the best indication of the
presence of ground water. The
history of the old well will provide
information on seasonal changes in
the water tab1e, which may indicate
that the new well should be deeper
than the old one. The questions ask
about the type of well and its use,
the depth of water particularly during
the dry season, the soil and rock
that the well is sunk in. The
questions about the colour, taste
and smell of the water are good
indicators of the water quality18.

Useful Definitions
Aquifer

A water-saturated geologic zone that


will yield water to springs and wells.

Bacteria

One-celled microorganisms which


multiply by simple division and which
can be seen through a microscope.

Contaminate

To make unclean by introducing an


infectious (disease-causing) impurity
such as bacteria.

Drawdown

The distance between the water table


and the water level in a well during
continued pumping.

Ground Water

Water stored below the grounds


surface.

Impermeable

Not allowing liquid to pass through.

Permeability

The ability of soil to absorb liquid.

Form T31 is designed to collect


Porosity
A soils ability to store water.
information about every nearby well.
Water Table
The top or upper limit, of an aquifer.
However, if there are many existing
wells, household hand pumps or
farm tube wells, then it is only necessary to get a representative sample of wells, say a few
wells for one project depending on how much they vary. The location of all existing wells should
be plotted using MangoMap.
Proposed wells
Groundwater is water that is stored underground in porous layers called aquifers and can be a
reliable source of drinking water. Naturally occurring sources of groundwater are usually free
from disease causing bacteria. There is usually less seasonal variation in groundwater
quantities than in surface water.
Wells are used to extract groundwater. A well is simply a hole that pierces an aquifer so that
water may be pumped or lifted out. Wells can be classified according to their method of
construction. Five types of wells are: hand-dug, driven, jetted, bored, and cable tool.
18

These questions are the same as used on the RGC National Water Well Log Sheet.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-142

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Selecting a well site


Selecting a well site properly is important to ensure that the well will tap into a reliable source of
good quality ground water, and to ensure that the water will not be contaminated in the future.
Selecting a site involves considering existing wells, local geography, quality and quantity of
groundwater, possible sources of contamination, accessibility to users, and proposed methods
of well construction.
Where possible, sink a new well near an old one and groundwater will probably be reached at
about the same depth. However, if the new well is to be used in addition to the old one, care
must be taken not to sink it too close to the existing well. Otherwise, the yield of one or both
wells may be adversely affected. This is due to the effect that a well has on the surrounding
water table.

Drawdown
When water is pumped or lifted
out of a well, the water level in
the well falls below the original
level, called the initial or static
water level, until it stabilises at
a new level, called the pumped
level. The distance between
the static level and the
pumped level is the drawdown.
The water table surrounding a
wells curves down to the
pumped level, forming a cone
of depression as shown by
Figure 5.7. If the cones of
depression of two wells
overlap, the pumped level in
one or both wells will be
lowered and the yield will be
decreased.

Local Geography

Figure 5.7 Well components and drawdown


Ground level

Initial or static water level

Drawdown
Cone of depression
(Pumped level)
Well casing
Aquifer
Well Screen

Impermeable layer

If no wells exist, the presence


of ground water can be
indicated by surface water, topography, and certain types of vegetation.
Surface water. A successful well can generally be sunk near a river because the river
will replenish the ground water and reduce changes in the water tab1e. Water taken
from such a well is usually cleaner and cooler than water taken from the river. If the well
is deep, water may be available even when there is no water in the river during the dry
season.
Topography. Ground water gathers in low areas. Therefore, the lowest ground is
generally the best place to sink a well. In hi1ly areas, valley bottoms are the best places
for wells. An exception to this could be where there is a spring on the side of a hill. The
spring may indicate lateral movement of ground water over a layer of impermeable soil.
If so a successful well could be sunk uphill from the spring.
Use MangoMap to draw all rivers, springs, and topographical features (that are not
already shown on the base mapping).
Vegetation. Certain types of vegetation can indicate that ground water lies near the
surface. The most useful indicators of ground water are perennial plants (those present
year round), especially trees and shrubs. Annual plants, such as grasses, are not good
Study and Design Guidelines

I-143

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

indicators, because they come and go with the seasons. The dry season is probably the
best time to survey vegetation for indications of ground water.

Quality of Ground Water


Once ground water is located, its quality must be checked before constructing permanent wells.
Of course, the best way to establish water quality is chemical and biological water quality tests,
but you have to consider whether the extra time and cost is justified. As a minimum the water
must be clean, clear, and good-tasting, and be free from disease causing organisms. If the
ground water is contaminated, another source may have to be found. If physical, chemical and
bacteriological water testing is possible then indicative standards are given in the Water Quality
section which follows below.

Quantity of Ground Water


The quantity of a groundwater source is nearly as important as its quality. Unfortunately, the
only way to test the yield of an aquifer is to sink a we1l and pump it. You can, however, make a
rough estimate of the yield by identifying the sediment and rock which compose the aquifer.
The two most significant elements of an aquifer are its porosity and permeability. Porosity
governs the amount of water that an aquifer can contain. Permeability governs the amount of
water that can be brought to the surface. For example, some aquifers may contain large
quantities of water, but their rate of yield is too slow to suit the needs of the user. Porosity and
permeability depend on a number of factors including particle size, arrangement and
distribution.
Table 5.12 shows the estimated yields of aquifers composed of different types of sediment. The
table should not be used for exact calculations but only for indications of yield.
Table 5.12 - Estimated yields of aquifers

Aquifer

Estimated Yield (litres per minute)

Sand and gravel

11,000; could be less based on pump and well design

Sand, gravel, and clay

1,900-3,800

Sand and clay

1,900

Fractured sandstone

1,900

Limestone

38-190; more if near stream, or if there are underground caverns

Granite or hard rock

38 or less

As a general guide during the dry season drilled wells should be able to sustain yields of at least
1,000 l/h for 8 h/day. For dug wells for a standing water depth at least 3 m should have a
minimum yield of 10 l/minute, or 2.5 m of water and 15 l/minute, or 2.0 m of water and
20 l/minute.
If the quantity of ground water is insufficient, another or additional well sites or even alternative
sources will have to be found.

Possible Sources of Contamination


A well should not be dug in areas where the ground water is likely to be contaminated. A well
site should be uphill and at least the safe distances listed in Table 5.13.
Table 5.13 Safe distance of well from sources of contamination

Safe distance
50 m
30 m
30 m
30 m
15 m
7m
50 m
Study and Design Guidelines

Source of contamination
Seepage pit or cesspool;
Sub-surface absorption system;
Pit latrine;
Animal pens, sheds, or silos;
Septic tank;
Drain, ditch, or house foundation.
Petro-chemical or agri-chemical store;
I-144

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Flooding
The well site should not be subject to flooding during the wet season or any other time. This will
be of greatest concern where the well is in a low area or near a river that yearly overflows its
banks. The site can be protected from flooding by raising the well head above maximum flood
levels; building small dams or ditches to prevent flooding is an unreliable solution. If the well
cannot be protected against flooding, another site should be considered.
Record all possible sources of contamination using MangoMap.

Accessibility to Users
The well site should be as close as possible to the users. As the distance between the well and
the user increases, the per capita water consumption decreases. The typical effect is shown in
Table 5.11.

Methods of Well Construction


The proposed method of well construction must be suitable to the soil conditions at the well site.
If not, another site must be found or another method of construction must be considered. Table
5.14 shows some of the limitations of well construction methods based on soil conditions.
Table 5.14 - Well construction methods and soil conditions

Construction method

Unsuitable Soil

Hand Dug

Hard rock, large boulders

Driven

Hard rock, heavy clay, boulders, coarse gravel

Jetted

Hard rock, boulders

Bored

Hard rock, boulders larger than auger

Cable Tool

None

Drainage of well site


It is important to provide drainage for water spilt at the well head. If this is not done there will be
muddy puddles; these have potential to pollute the well and are a breading place for
mosquitoes. The template designs show a soakaway but if there is a suitable pond or ditch this
can also be used.
Suitable pump for well
The type of hand pump depends on the dynamic water level (static water level plus drawdown).
MRD established hand pump standardization in 1994 for different levels of lift capacity:
Standard Pump type
Lift capacity
(preferred) in m.
Max. Discharge in
liters/hour
Cost price (appr.) in
US$
Regular spares for 1
year operation

VN No 6

Tara

Afridev

13

30

1,200

1,000

1,000

35

250

500

cup seal, flap valve,


pivot axles

cup seal, 2 flap


valves, O-ring

U seal, 2 bobbins, Oring, 4 bearings

These days standardization is not followed anymore and mostly the VN No6 hand pump is used
for low lifts and the Afridev for medium lifts. The locally manufactured Rovai Pump (also called
the Rope Pump) is used for all lifts in both hand dug wells and drilled wells.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-145

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

More advice on pump selection can be found in: UNICEF A Water Handbook19.
For medium lift 30 to 50 m. UNICEF include Afridev amongst recommended pumps but
generally in Cambodia they are not used at this depth. Such deep wells are not usually
provided under the C/S Fund but if one is required it is advisable to seek specialist advice.
Ponds
The questions for ponds are similar in concept to wells except that the pond will usually be
shallower and will cover a large area. Information on the soils will decide the suitability of the
ground as well as the stable side slopes. The questions ask where the water to fill the pond will
come from and whether there are potential sources of contamination nearby.
Table 5.15 Recommend maximum slopes for dug water supply ponds

Soils type
Clay group
Sandy group
Silty soils
Dispersive clays20

Maximum stable slope (V:H)


1 : 1.25
1 : 1.5
1 : 1.5
May require additional slope protection.

A pond in sandy soil will probably filled by shallow groundwater flow during the wet season but
water will quickly drain away once the groundwater levels drop in the dry season. A pond in a
clay soil will retain water much better but groundwater inflow will be small and to fill it will have
to rely on direct rainfall or captured runoff from surrounding land. You should consider the
possibility of low bunds and channels in situations where this will increase the capture of runoff.
Water quality
The Royal Government of Cambodia has established a comprehensive policy on National
Water Supply and Sanitation, covering both urban and rural water supplies. Based on this policy
and to ensure access to safe drinking water to all people, it required the Drinking Water Quality
Standard (DWS) for Cambodia21. These standards were developed by an inter-ministerial
process initiated by Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy and concerned ministries with
support from the World Health Organization in 2004.
Drinking water should be clean and clear with pleasant taste and odor. The public will assess
drinking water quality using these aesthetic indicators but actually the safety of water is
determined by microbiological, physical, and chemical quality. It should be safe so that it does
not contain suspended matter, harmful chemical substances, and disease-causing
microorganisms. Microbiological quality is most important and is a priority for monitoring.
Tables
The associated templates drawings and quantity table can then be called up by the Project
Generator. For some outputs there may be no Template design. In these cases a design and
quantities will have to be provided.
All water supply systems should be tested for water quality parameters set out in Tables 1
through 4 prior to commissioning to ensure compliance with DWS. Small water supply systems
(those serving less than 100 people or delivering less than 10 m3/day) should be tested for
priority parameters set out in Table 5.20
Priority parameters in small water supplies
Table 5.16
Bacteriological quality for drinking water
Parameter
Maximum Value
0 per 100 mL
a) Thermotolerant (Fecal) Coliforms
or E. coli
b) Total coliforms
0 per 100 mL
19

UNICEF. Towards Better Programming - A Water Handbook, Water, Environment and Sanitation
Technical Guidelines Series - No. 2, United Nations Childrens Fund, 1999.
20
Clays which dissolve in contact with water.
21
MRD, Drinking Water Quality Standards for Cambodia, January 2004
Study and Design Guidelines

I-146

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines


Table 5.17 Inorganic constituents of health significance in drinking water
Parameter
Maximum Value*
mg/L, (ppm)
Arsenic
0.05
Barium
0.7
Cadmium
0.003
Chromium
0.05
Cyanide
0.07
Fluoride
1.5
Lead
0.01
Mercury
0.001
Nickel
0.02
Nitrate as NO350
Nitrite as NO23
Selenium
0.01
* For very low concentrations, laboratory results are reported in g/L or ppb. Note the
conversion: 1 mg/L (ppm) = 1000 g/L (ppb)
Table 5.18
Parameter*

Organic constituents of health significance to drinking water


Maximum Value**
g/L (ppb)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
0.5
Benzene
10
Disinfection-by-product
Trihalomethanes
250
Pesticides
2,4 D
30
Aldrin and Dieldrin
0.3
Carbofuran
10
Chlordane
0.2
DDT
20
Dichlorvos
1
Dimethoate
6
Endosulfan
30
Endrin
0.6
Glyphosate
10
Heptachlor
0.3
Hexaclorobenzene
1
Methyl parathion
0.3
Mevinphos
5
Monocrotophos
1
Paraquat
30
Parathion
10
Permethrin
20
* Routine monitoring for organic constituents (Table 3) is not required unless there is
a potential for contamination of water supplies.
** For very low concentration, laboratory results are reported in g/L or ppb. Note the
conversion: 1 mg/L (ppm) = 1000 g/L (ppb)
Table 5.19

Physical and chemical quality: aesthetic quality

Parameter
Taste
Odor
Color
Turbidity
Residual chlorine
pH
Aluminum
Ammonia
Study and Design Guidelines

Maximum Value, mg/L


Acceptable
Acceptable
5 TCU
5 NTU
0.2-0.5
6.5 8.5 (no unit)
0.2
1.5
I-147

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Chloride
Copper
Hardness*
Hydrogen Sulfide
Iron
Manganese
Sodium
Sulfate
Total dissolved solids**
Zinc
*
**

250
1
300
0.05
0.3
0.1
200
250
800
3

Hardness is expressed as mg/L CaCO3


Conductivity (S/cm) can also be measured and it is roughly equivalent to twice the
TDS value.

Table 5.20
Priority parameters in small water supplies
Parameter*
Maximum Value
pH
6.5-8.5
Turbidity
5 NTU
Arsenic
0.05 mg/L
Iron
0.3 mg/L
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
800 mg/L
Thermotolerant Coliforms or E. coli
0 per 100 mL
* Additional parameters such as conductivity can be monitored but these are the
minimum requirements.

5.5 Education Facilities: Group 104


Only limited design guidance is provided for education facilities. This is because education
projects are predominantly building work. Brick schools are standard MoEYS designs with
some minor modifications to comply with C/S Fund requirements and specifications. The
Wooden school design is the same as used under the Seila Program, except for some minor
changes to improve the building quality. Water supply and sanitation works are provided as
outputs under the Water Supply (103) and Sanitation (110) groups. Ancillary works such as
gates and fences may be provided according to the project requirements. Special education
buildings may require specific designs.
Form T41 is used. The form is designed for a complete education facility project, it incorporates
all of questionnaires related to education, but it allows only one output per form. Typically a
school project could require several outputs in addition to the basic classrooms, e.g. furniture,
latrines, rainwater tanks, a well, yard, fence, wall and gate. All school outputs can be prepared
by using the same form -Form T41, yet there must be one form T41 for each output because
one form can only provide one set of associated templates drawings and quantity table; add
form T101 water supply and T31 sanitation for the outputs of latrines, rainwater tanks and wells.
Quantity of proposed outputs
The proposed outputs you have selected need to be quantified in number or length before
proceeding to complete the form.
Information about education requirements
The questions provide information on the number of students, existing classrooms, availability
of teachers and provision for community management. The answers should be considered for
appropriateness of the project and its sustainability. The responsibility for operation and
maintenance of Education Facilities is normally passed to the line agency, the Provincial
Department of Education.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-148

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

Physical characteristics of the site


There are questions to establish whether the site floods, and whether this is seasonal deep
water flooding, or due to slow drainage after heavy rainfall. Essentially if there is a flood
problem the decision has to be made whether this can be dealt with by drainage ditches or
other means so that a standard 0.5 m plinth classroom design can be used. If the problem of
flooding cannot be controlled then higher floor levels will be needed, either 1.5 or 2.5 m plinths,
2.5 or 3.5 m piers.
There are a series of questions intended to confirm suitability of the site. These include whether
it is free of UXO, status of the land title, boundary demarcation and whether the site is of
sufficient size. The existing water supply and sanitation provisions should be determined
because water supply and sanitation outputs may be needed.
Foundation soils
Form T41 provides for ground investigation by trial pit and DCP, as many pits and tests as are
needed.
Form T41 creates in advance the trial pit log; you enter the soil type and the
depths at which the soil types change. The 20 percentile value for DCP needs to
be calculated and filled into the form. You can use Applet T11 for the calculation.
Templates drawings are currently for 0.5 m plinth 3 classroom wooded schools
and 5 classroom brick schools. However, Form T41 automatically calls-up the
correct quantities within the project generator according to the number of
classrooms and options chosen.

For a site specific output such as a fence the quantity will have to be measured.
For some outputs such as higher floor levels there may be no Template design. In these cases
a design and quantities will have to be provided.

5.6 Health Facilities: Group 105


Only limited design guidance is provided for health facilities. This is because health projects are
predominantly building work. Brick and wooden health post designs are MoH standard designs
with some minor modifications to comply with C/S Fund requirements and specifications. Water
supply and sanitation works are provided as outputs under the Water Supply (103) and
Sanitation (110) groups. Ancillary works such as gates and fences may be provided according
to the project requirements.
Form T51 is used. The form is designed for a complete health facility project; it incorporates all
of questionnaires related to health facilities, but it allows only one output per form. Typically a
health facility could require several outputs in addition to the basic building, e.g. latrines,
rainwater tanks, a well, fence, wall and gate and access culvert. All of health facility outputs can
be prepared by using the same form - Form T41, yet there must be one form T51 for each
output because one form can only provide one set of associated templates drawings and
quantity table; add form T101 water supply and T31 sanitation for the outputs of latrines,
rainwater tanks and wells.
Quantity of proposed outputs
The proposed outputs you have selected need to be quantified in number or length before
proceeding to complete the form.
Information about health requirements
The questions provide information on the population that will be served by the facility and the
distance they will have to travel. If you do not know the distances use MangoMap to measures
them between the facility site and village centres. There are also questions about availability of
Study and Design Guidelines

I-149

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

trained staff and who will provide these staff. The answers should be considered for
appropriateness of the project and its sustainability. The responsibility for operation and
maintenance of Health Facilities is normally passed to the line agency, the Provincial
Department of Health.
Physical characteristics of the site
There are questions to establish whether the site floods, and whether this is seasonal deep
water flooding, or due to slow drainage after heavy rainfall. Essentially if there is a flood
problem the decision has to be made whether this can be dealt with by drainage ditches or
other means.
There are a series of questions intended to confirm suitability of the site. These include whether
it is free of UXO, the status of land title, boundary demarcation and whether the site is of
sufficient size. The existing water supply and sanitation provision should be determined
because water supply and sanitation outputs may be needed.
Foundation soils
Form T51 provides for ground investigation by trial pit and DCP, as many pits and tests as are
needed.
Form T51 creates in advance the trial pit log; you enter the soil type and the
depths at which the soil types change. The 20 percentile value for DCP needs to
be calculated and filled into the form. You can use Ms. Excel for the calculation.
Form T51 automatically calls-up the correct quantities within the project generator
according to the outputs chosen.

For a site specific output such as a fence the quantity will have to be measured.

5.7 Market Construction: Group 106


No design guidance is provided for market construction.

5.8 Crop Storage and Processing: Group 107


No design guidance is provided for crop storage and processing.

5.9 Social Infrastructure: Group 108


No design guidance is provided for social infrastructure.

5.10 Energy: Group 109


No design guidance is provided for energy.

5.11 Sanitation: Group 110


Form T101 is used for sanitation projects.
The sanitation group includes:
x

Latrines

Waste water

Solid waste management

(Storm water) Drainage

Study and Design Guidelines

I-150

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

5.11.1

Latrines

In the case of schools there should be two latrines for every 5 classrooms; template designs are
available for two and four latrines. Health posts should be provided with a two room latrine
building, one room provides a toilet, the second room provides a shower.

5.11.2

Waste water and solid waste

There is no design guidance for waste water treatment and solid waste management; specialist
advice should be sought for these outputs.
Waste water
Waste water is a mixture of toilet waste (excreta) and sullage. Sullage is household waste
which has been used for washing, cooking or cleaning purposes, it is sometimes known as
grey water. Modern practice is to provide separate drainage systems for wastewater and
surface water runoff. If a wastewater system is provided it will be under sub-group 11002.
However more often, and especially in villages and peri-urban areas, only surface water
drainage will be provided. As discussed at section 5.11.3 below in these circumstances the
drains will also remove sullage.

5.11.3

Drainage

The objective of drainage is to remove unwanted water from settlements in a controlled and
hygienic manner in order to minimise public health hazards, inconvenience to residents and
deterioration of other infrastructure. This requires:
x

the removal of surface water, that is, water which runs off the land and buildings as a
result of rainfall; and

the removal of sullage, that is, household wastewater which has been used for washing,
cooking or cleaning purposes but which does not contain excreta.

Sullage increases the potential of pollution by the drainage system. The risk is greatest when
the proportion of sullage water is high, as occurs during the dry season.
If drains convey sullage, pay attention to the location of wells and water supply
sources. It may be necessary to protect these by extending the length of piped or
lined drain to outfall a safe distance away. The safe distances quoted on Table
5.13 should be applied.
Under no circumstances allow toilet waste and excreta into the surface water
drainage system because it will create a serious health risk. Promote the use of
latrines.
Capacity of drain
In order to calculate the required capacity of the drain it is necessary to establish the catchment
for a drain. In a peri-urban or village centre location there are building frontages and roofs
discharging to the strip of land beside the road. If a roadside drain is proposed it is
recommended to allow for drainage of a strip extending 50 m back from the road. In such
locations it is normal to provide a drain both sides of the road, if a drain is only provided one
side of the road consider whether it will capture some water from both sides of the road and
adjust the area accordingly.
Form T101 uses a default value of 3.5 l/s/ha to estimate the runoff from land beside the drain.
This is the same as used for irrigation drainage. This figure comes from an analysis typical
rainfall in Cambodia that is only exceeded by very heavy storms that occur occasionally,
perhaps several times in one year, not at all in others. Therefore if drainage is provided for this
runoff, there may be local flooding for short periods on a few occasions but most of the time the
drains will be large enough. This is a compromise to reduce the cost of the drains. The form
Study and Design Guidelines

I-151

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

allows another value to be entered. The required capacity is then calculated manually and
enter to the form.
Form T101 asks if the drain collects water from beyond the immediate area, e.g. a small area of
paddy. If it does you are asked to describe how the drain is affected, e.g. you may find that the
water from the paddy must be added to the runoff within the village. It is also necessary to
enter the extra area of catchment. If the area is 1 km2 then the form will calculate the extra
flow based on 3.5 l/s/ha (or whatever other flow rate you enter) and adds it to the runoff from
beside the drain. If the area is >1.0 km2 then the form advises the flow is probably too large for
the drain and should be directed to flow another way.
Hydraulic design of channel
Different procedures apply for the hydraulic design of channels compared to pipes. The advice
on pipes follows below.
The theory for design of channels is the same as irrigation canals and drains.
Form T101 calls-up Applet T101 Channel drain that will choose the channel size
provided you answer a few questions. You then need to fill the results into the
generator.
You have to enter the level of the bed at the upstream and downstream ends plus the length of
the drain so that the Applet can calculate the gradient. You choose a bank slope, the Template
for a concrete or brick drain has vertical sides. You select a bed width. You also chose a
freeboard, 0.1 m is recommended as the minimum freeboard but you can choose a larger
freeboard. You enter Mannings n for channel roughness, the form lists recommended values
for earth, concrete and masonry. You then need to enter the required capacity previously
calculated manually and write into the form to the Appet T101 but you may enter another flow if
you chose.
Applet T101 then prints the required depth of drain, the width between top of banks (which is
the same as the bed width except for trapezoidal drains), and the flow velocity. If the
recommended dimensions are not suitable then you can try changing the bed levels and the
bed widths to see if this will improve the design. Finally, copy those results to the form T101.
Hydraulic design of pipe drain
Pipe design is based on solution of the Colebrook-White formula. The full solution is too
complex to provide rapid solution for design so Universal design charts were developed by
Ackers22 to permit direct solution. These are now in their 8th Edition in tabular form23.
The relevant results have to be taken from the charts to fill into Form T101.
The results used by Form T110 are show in Table 5.21 and Table 5.22 for concrete and plastics
pipes respectively. The form allows you to choose between these two pipe materials. The
difference is the pipe roughness (friction) expressed as the Colebrook-White coefficient k (see
tables). Plastic pipes are smoother so have a marginally greater capacity.
At design capacity the pipes are intended to run full. For this condition the headwalls in the
intermediate chambers must be submerged. Hence the hydraulic gradient is calculated
assuming the water rises to 200 mm below ground level at the head of the drain and is the
depth of the drain at the outfall. The applet then enters the table for this gradient and reads off
the discharge and velocity for the chosen pipe size. If this does not match the required capacity
chose a different pipe size, or alter the drain depth to change the gradient until you are satisfied
the drain will be large enough.
22

23

Ackers P. Charts for Hydraulic Design of Channels and Pipes, Hydraulics Research Paper No2,
Hydraulics Research Station, Wallingford, Her Majestys Stationery Office, UK, First Edition, 1958.
Barr DIH. Tables for Hydraulic Design of Pipes, Sewers and Channels, Eighth Edition, Volume 1. HR
Wallingford, UK, March 2005.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-152

Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines

The best pipe size is a compromise. Most of the time the drain will convey small
flows. Small flows will deposit sediment and rubbish, especially if the flow includes
sullage. The larger the drain, the more likely it is that sediment deposits will build
up. Some of the sediment will be washed away by storm flows if velocity is above
about 0.5 m/s. But an oversize drain will require frequent cleaning whereas a too
small drain will often overtop and cause localised flooding.

5.12 Flood Protection Structures: Group 111


No design guidance is provided for flood protection structure.
Table 5.21 Pipe full flow and velocity for concrete pipes

Discharge
(l/s)

Velocity
(m/s)

Discharge
(l/s)

Velocity
(m/s)

Discharge
(l/s)

Velocity
(m/s)

Discharge
(l/s)

Velocity
(m/s)

Discharge
(l/s)

Velocity
(m/s)

Discharge
(l/s)

Velocity
(m/s)

Pipe
diameter
1.0m

Hydraulic gradient

USE THIS TABLE FOR CONCRETE PIPES (k = 0.3 mm)


Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
diameter
diameter
diameter
diameter
diameter
0.8m
0.6m
0.5m
0.4m
0.3m

0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.020

6
7
8
9
10
10
11
12
13
14
14
15
16

0.08
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.20
0.21
0.23

12
15
16
18
20
22
23
24
27
29
31
33
35

0.10
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.26
0.28

24
27
30
33
36
39
42
45
48
51
55
59
63

0.12
0.14
0.15
0.17
0.18
0.20
0.21
0.23
0.24
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.32

37
42
47
53
58
62
66
70
78
85
90
96
102

0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.25
0.28
0.30
0.32
0.34
0.36

80
95
108
120
131
139
144
150
170
180
200
210
220

0.16
0.19
0.21
0.24
0.26
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.34
0.36
0.40
0.42
0.44

145
165
195
215
235
250
260
270
310
330
350
375
400

0.18
0.21
0.25
0.27
0.30
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.39
0.42
0.45
0.48
0.51

24
28
32
35
38
41
44
47
50
55
60
65
69

0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.22
0.24
0.25
0.28
0.31
0.33
0.35

Study and Design Guidelines

38
46
51
56
61
66
71
76
82
91
99
106
114

Discharge
(l/s)

Velocity
(m/s)

0.10
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.26
0.29
0.31

Velocity
(m/s)

Discharge
(l/s)

13
16
18
20
21
23
24
26
29
31
33
36
39

Discharge
(l/s)

Velocity
(m/s)

0.08
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.20
0.21
0.23
0.25

Velocity
(m/s)

Discharge
(l/s)

6
7
8
9
10
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18

Pipe
diameter
1.0m

Discharge
(l/s)

Velocity
(m/s)

0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.020

USE THIS TABLE FOR PLASTICS PIPES (k = 0.003 mm)


Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
diameter
diameter
diameter
diameter
diameter
0.8m
0.6m
0.5m
0.4m
0.3m
Discharge
(l/s)

Hydraulic gradient

Table 5.22 - Pipe full flow and velocity for plastics pipes

0.13
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.22
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.32
0.35
0.37
0.40

88
102
117
126
136
146
154
160
175
200
215
230
250

0.18
0.20
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.31
0.32
0.35
0.40
0.43
0.46
0.50

160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
330
360
390
420
450

0.20
0.23
0.25
0.28
0.31
0.33
0.36
0.38
0.42
0.46
0.50
0.53
0.57
I-153

ANNEX 1:
TECHNICAL FORMS

I-154

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Technical Form T11 Transport: Roads


Form T11 Transport: Road

Province :

District :

Name of project :
Name of TSO :

S/C:
Code of S/C :

Date of form preparation :

1. Location: where is the earth road located within the Sangkat/Commune?


* Describe this location
2. Give the coordinates of GPS
If there are many road segments which have the same condition width and pavement,
give the coordinates of start points and end points of each segment. One row is for
one segment.
Start point
Ending point
X of GPS
Y of GPS
X of GPS
Y of GPS
3. Type of road project: What kind of road work is required?

New road construction

Rehabilitate existing road, the same width and surface

Improve and widen existing road, same surface

Improve existing road, the same width upgraded surface

Improve and widen existing road, upgrade surface.

4. Length of road: what is the length of the road (in kilometer)?


5. Road classification:

District to district road, Tertiary Road, (T Road), 6.0 m

District to Sangkat/Commune, Sub-tertiary Road Type 1, ( ST1 road) 6.0 m

Commune to commune road, Sub-tertiary Road Type 2, (ST2 road), 5.0m

Commune to village road, Sub-tertiary Road Type 3, (ST3 road), 4.0m

Village to village road, Sub-tertiary Road Type 3, (ST3 road), 4.0m

6. Structures: are there existing structures?


* If yes answer the following questions; if no skip to the next question.

Yes

No

7. List number, description and dimensions of existing structures.


8. What new structures are required (number of each)?
* fill a form T12 for each structure, number the structure in the table.
Study and Design Guidelines

I-155

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Bridge

culvert

drift

vented causeway

9. Type of existing road: is there existing path, car-track or road ?

Yes

No

10. Is the road on an embankment?

Yes

No

11. What is the width of the road?


12. Condition of road: what is the condition of the road?
* first row for rainy season, the second row for dry season. Write Can or Cannot.
Can: Can go, Cannot: Cannot go.
Bicycle
Motorcycle
MotorCar or truck heavy truck
Koyun or
remorque
small truck for carrying for carrying
people
goods
for carrying
goods
13. Main cause of road damage: What causes the main damage?
If Something else, answer the below question

Flooding

Ponding on the road surface

Gully erosion from runoff from the surface

Carts pulled by animals

Small cars or pickup trucks

Heavy trucks for carrying goods

Something else (fill in the below question)

14. Others main causes:


15. Material availability for road construction.
Remark: For the material which are required for road construction for the road type
you have chosen skip to others questions!
16. Fill material from roadside borrow as dug:

Meets specification requirements for Type 3 Fill

Meets specification requirements for Type 1

Can meet specification for Type 3 material by mixing with imported material

Can meet specification for Type 1 material by mixing with imported material

Is unsuitable material (mud, organic soils or Peat).

17. Fill material from remote borrow pit:

Meets specification requirements for Type 3 Fill

Study and Design Guidelines

I-156

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Meets specification requirements for Type 1

18. Distance of borrow pit(s) from road (Km):


19. Source of sand:

Borrow pit

Stream bed

20. Distance from road (Km):


21. Source of gravel:

Borrow pit

Stream bed

22. Distance from road (Km):


23. Laterite
Put good, medium or poor in the box of quality.
Source
distance of transportation
(Km)

quality

24. Type of stone from quarry


* It the source is not borrow pit, please choose the answer below

Hard metamorphic rock (granite, basalt, etc)

Limestone

Sandstone

25. Type of stone for stream bed:


* If the source is not stream bed, please choose the answer below

Hard metamorphic rock (granite, basalt, etc)

Limestone

Sandstone

26. Water supply for earth work


Source

distance from road (Km)

27. Road traffic: what are the proportion of the cars and trucks using the road?
*Write in percentage.
One place to another in
commune

Go from the commune to


a place outside the
commune or vice versa

Go from one place


outside the commune to
another outside the
commune

28. the proportion of the cars and trucks using the road is:
* Put it into percentage.
Belong to people who live in the
commune

Belong to people who live outside the


commune

29. Foundation soils: what kind of soil the structure stand on?
Study and Design Guidelines

I-157

Annex 1: Technical Forms

* if other, mention in the following question:

Soil that is very easily eroded

Normal clay

Sandy soils

Gravels

Earth with big stones in it

Other.

30. For others soil kinds.


31. Side slope: Fill slope
Vertical

Horizontal

32. Cut slope


Vertical

Horizontal

33. Choice of road: what is thickness of the pavement proposed?

Surface (if applicable)

Wearing course (if applicable)

Base course (if applicable)

Road base (if applicable)

Sub base (if applicable)

34. Fill with the thickness of the road pavement choosing above:
Road pavement
thickness
35. Road maintenance: Does the commune have a Commune Road Sub-Committee?

Yes

No

36. Who is responsible for road maintenance?


* if Other mention your answer in the question below.

Ministry of Rural Development

Sangkat/Commune

Others

37. Write the person who is responsible for road maintenance if you choose other
38. Remark:
You must upload Applet in which you entered your data to get the answers and the
advices about road pavement. If you chose the road pavement that is not suitable
less or more than recommendation from Applet T11, give your reason on Advice
Tab.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-158

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Technical Form T12 Transport: Structures


Form T12 Transport : Road structure
Province :

District :

S/C:

Name of project :

Code of S/C :

Name of TSO :

Date of form preparation :

1. Location: where is the structure located within the Sangkat/Commune?


*Describe the location
2. Give the coordinates of the GPS.
X of GPS
3. Road Classification :

Y of GPS

* Road classification: T, ST1, ST2, or ST3. *Road standard: A or B


Classification

Road standard

Width of pavement (m)

4. Scope of work: is the structure part of a road project to be carried out at the same
time or is the work for the structure only?

A part of road project

Structure only.

5. Is there an existing structure and if so what is its condition and description?


If Yes, answer only the questions about the existing structure, then go to question
13. If No go directly to question 13.

Yes

No

6. Describe of existing pipe culvert:


* Material can be: Concrete, Clay, Plastic or steel. Headwalls can be: wood, masonry,
mass concrete, Reinforced concrete, or none.
Number of pipe

diameter (m)

Pipe material

Headwalls

Carriageway
width over
culvert

7. Describe the existing box culvert.


* Headwall can be: Wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete or none.
Road slab can be: on wall or integrated with wall.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-159

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Number of
box

Width (m)

Height

Walls

Road slab

Carriage
width over
culvert

8. Describe the existing concrete bridge.


* Abutment material can be: wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete,
none. The piers can be: concrete on footing, concrete on piles. Deck material can be:
wood or reinforced concrete.
Number of
spans

Width of
each
span

Height of
each span

Abutment
material

Piers

Deck
material

Deck
carriageway
width(m)

9. Describe the existing steel bridge.


* Steel bridge can be: Bailey, Vietnamese or others. Abutment material can be: wood,
masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete or none. The piers can be: wood on
footing, wood on piles, steel on footing, steel on piles, concrete on footing or concrete
on piles. The deck can be: wood or steel plates.
Type

Number
of spans

Width of
each
span

Height of
each
span

Abutment
material

Piers

Deck
material

Deck
carriageway
width(m)

10. Describe the existing wooden bridge.


* Abutment material can be: wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete,
none. The piers can be: wood on footing, wood on piles. Deck material can be: wood
or steel plate.
Number of
spans

Width of
each
span

Height of
each span

Abutment
material

Piers

Deck
material

Deck
carriageway
width(m)

11. Describe the existing drift.


*Road material can be: earth or laterite, stone, concrete or others.
Width of
crossing (m)

ramp slope

Difference in level
between road on
embankment and
crossing (m)

road material

carriageway
width (m)

12. Describe the existing vented causeway.


Road material can be: earth or laterite, stone, concrete or others.
Width of
crossing
(m)

ramp
slope

Difference in
level between
road on
embankment and
crossing (m)

road
material

carriageway
width (m)

Size of
opening
Width/Dia

Size of
opening
Height

13. What is the condition and cause damage of the structure?




Good, no restriction on traffic (age of structure)


Poor, most 4 wheel traffic can cross with care (bad design, material or
construction)

Study and Design Guidelines

I-160

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Bad, impassable to 4 wheel traffic (not suitable for current traffic)

Collapsed and useless (damage by water or flood)

14. Available construction material: Part 1


* For construction material, fill with Need below type of material, then fill the source
and distance. If No need, fill nothing. Source of fill type 3: borrow pit. Source of
sands: borrow pit or stream bed. Source of gravel: borrow pit or stream bed.
Type
3 fill

source

distance
(km)

sand

source
of
sands

distance
(km)

gravel

source
of
gravel

distance
(km)

15. Part 2
* Source of stone: quarry or stream bed. Type of stone: hard metamorphic rocks
(granite, basalt, etc).
Stone

Source of
stone

type of
stone

distance
(km)

water
supply for
concrete

source

distance
(km)

16. Foundation soils: What kind of soil is the structure founded on ?


* if others, answers the following questions.

Soil that is very easily eroded

Normal clay

Sandy soil

Gravel

Earth with big stone in it

Others

17. Others, mention them.


18. Foundation strength of DCP (mm/blow) and location of each test.
* Location: stream bed road centre line, stream bed upstream, stream bed
downstream, left bank abutment, right bank abutment or others.
DCP (mm/blow)

location

19. what is the 20 percentile DCP?


20. Hydrology and required hydraulic capacity of structure: did you use Applet to
calculate the design flow, velocity, type and size of structure?
* You can use Applet T12 to determine the simple flow system, but for the
Study and Design Guidelines

I-161

Annex 1: Technical Forms

complicated one, you have to find help from an engineer.

Yes

No

21. Maximum design flow (m3/s) from Applet or engineer is:


* If you use Applet, write down the answer from form T12, worksheet GTFM:C32.
22. Velocity (m/s) which downstream structure can withstand is
* if you use Applet, write down the answer from form T12, worksheet GTFM:C34
23. Remark:
Upload Applet in which you fill the data to get the design flow, suitable structures
and the velocity above. If you dont use Applet to get the recommended structure,
give your suitable reasons and upload the related documents that you use to
determine design flow and velocity.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-162

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Technical Form T21 Irrigation: Project


Form T21 : Irrigation projet
Province :
Name of project :
Name of TSO :

District :

S/C:
Code of S/C :

Date of form preparation :

1. Location: where is the project located within the Sangkat/Commune?


2. Give the coordinate of GPS.
X of GPS
Y of GPS
3. Project description: provide the description about the project including the proposed
components and size of command area.
4. Farmer water user community: is there a farmer user community to support the project?
* if you chose No, skip to question 7.




Yes

No
5. How many farmers (families) are members of the Community?
6. Have the farmers discussed together and agreed how they will pay the operation and
maintenance costs of the project?




Yes

No
7. Operation and maintenance responsibilities:
Who will be responsible to do the operation and maintenance?
* if the scheme dont need a pump, fill with No need.
Open and close
Collect
Organize
Solve disputes
Operate the
water gates?
water user
maintenance
between
pump (if the
fees?
work?
farmers about
scheme needs
the water?
a pump)?
8. Irrigation system requirement: what is the irrigated area in hectares?
* Remark: if the project will be a part of a big irrigation project, only describe the part
that will be affected by the project.
Wet season
dry season
9. What is the main type of crop that will be grown on the land?
wet season

dry season

10. How much of the land that has enough water every year already?
Wet season
number of families
dry season
number of families
11. How much of the land that has enough water some years?
Wet season
number of families
dry season

number of families

12. How much of the land never has enough water at present?
Wet season
number of families
dry season

number of families

13. Total size of land and total number of families.


* Totalize the size of wet season irrigated area, the number of families, the size of dry
Study and Design Guidelines

I-163

Annex 1: Technical Forms

season irrigated area, the number of families.


Wet season
number of families

dry season

number of families

14. Flooding: Do the fields flood for some days each year?
If Yes, answer the following questions, if No, skip to question 18.




Yes

No
15. How long are the fields flooded (days)?
16. What is the flood depth during these days (m)?
17. What is the flood path, does the water flow concentrate is some places, describe and
flow path(s) on map?
18. Existing irrigation system: is there and existing irrigation system?
If Yes, answer the following question. If No skip to question 28.




Yes

No
19. When was the irrigation system built?
If 1980 to 2000 or After 2000, answer the following questions. If not, skip one
question below.







French era
Sihanouk era
Khmer Rouge era
1980 to 2000

After 2000.
20. Under what program or which donor paid for the project?
21. Does the system work?






Working
Working 50%
Works a little

Not working
22. What are the main components of the system and what is their condition?









River intake
Reservoir
Dam
Spillways
Large water gates
Canals

Small water gates and culverts


23. What is the condition of the irrigation project?
Answer: Working, works a little, Not working or collapse for the main components of the
Study and Design Guidelines

I-164

Annex 1: Technical Forms

system choosing above.


Main components of the system
24. How many months is water available?








condition

< 1 month
1 to 2 months
3 to 4 months
5 months
6 months

> 6 months
25. What do you judge as the main problem with the existing irrigation system?
26. How can a new irrigation project overcome these problems?
27. Do you have any other comments relevant to the proposed irrigation project?
28. Water resource: where will the water come from?






River
Reservoir
Flood lake

Canal
29. What is the water depth existing river, reservoir, lake or canal each month of the year
and is the water stationary or flowing (include largest river flowing into or out of an
existing reservoir)?
Month
depth (m)
flowing, not flowing
30. How will the water be delivered from the source to the distribution canals and fields?




By pumping

By gravity
31. What is the difference in between the lowest water level at the source and the level of
the fields (m)?
* It is recommended to measure the difference in level with a survey instrument.
32. Irrigation water requirement: remark
Use Applet T21 to get monthly water requirement for irrigation and gravity flow
capacity per second.
33. Works proposed for irrigation project: What are the main works items include size that
will be repaired or newly constructed for the Irrigation Project?
* For these following questions, answer only about situation and size of the structures
chosen in this question.








Reservoir
Dam
Spillways
River weir or gate
Head regulator
Secondary canal

Study and Design Guidelines

I-165

Annex 1: Technical Forms






Tertiary canal
Canal, water gate or regulator
Off-take

Culverts
34. Reservoir works
Repair or New

Area (ha)

Volume (m3)

35. Dam works


* Fill the questionnaire form T22
Repair or New
length (m)
maximum height (m)
36. Spillways works
* Fill the questionnaire form T23
Repair or New
length (m)
drop (m)
37. River weir or gates
Repair or New
length (m)
height water raised (m)
38. Head regulator works
* Fill the questionnaire form T23
Repair or New
Number
gate size (m)
39. Secondary canal works
* Fill the questionnaire form T22
Repair or New
Number
Length (m)
40. Tertiary canal works
* Fill the questionnaire form T22
Repair or New
Number
Total Length (m)
41. Canal water gates or regulators work
* Fill the questionnaire form T23
Repair or new
number
42. Off-take works
* Fill the questionnaire form T23
Repair or new
number
43. Culvert works
* Fill the questionnaire form T23
Repair or new
number
size (m)
with gate or not
44. Remark:
Upload Applet T21 that youve used into the Project Generator!


Study and Design Guidelines

I-166

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Technical Form T22 Irrigation: Earthwork


Form T22 Irrigation earthworks
Province :
Name of project :
Name of TSO :

District :

S/C:
Code of S/C :

Date of form preparation :

1. Location: where is the project located within the Sangkat/Commune?


Location description:
2. Provide the coordinate of GPS.
* First is the starting point, the flow row is the ending point
X of GPS
Y of GPS
3. What type of earthwork is required?







Build a new earthwork


Improve the existing earthwork
earthwork (e.g. raise or deepen, widen, add road surfacing)
Repair a badly damage earthwork

Periodic maintenance
4. Traffic use of earthwork: Is the earthwork used as a public road or for farm access?
If Not used skip to question 11.





Public road
Farm access

Not used
5. Has the earthwork ever had Laterite or any other kind of improved surface in the
past?




Yes

No
6. Is there any Laterite or any other kind of surface on the earthwork now?




Yes

No
7. What is the largest vehicle that uses the earthwork?










Passenger car
People walking
Motorcycle
Motor-remorque
Bicycle
Animal cart
Light vehicle/van
Koyun

Study and Design Guidelines

I-167

Annex 1: Technical Forms






Medium truck (6 tyres)


Heavy truck (6 tyres)
Bus (>4 tyres)

Mini-bus (4 tyres).
8. Approximately how many of these vehicles use the earthwork per day?
* In PCU units, you can use Applet T11 to help your calculation of the number of
vehicle.
9. According the traffic of vehicle above, what type of pavement is suitable for this
earthwork?
* if the number of vehicle is < 21 Earth surface is satisfactory.
* if the number of vehicle is < 25 Light Laterite surface is satisfactory
* If number of vehicles is <100 Medium Laterite surface is satisfactory
* If number of vehicles is >100 Too much traffic for Laterite surface consider other
option.
10. Condition of the existing dams or dykes and Canals or drains: describe the condition
of the existing earthwork.
11. What causes most damage to the earthwork?
* if Other, answer the question 12













Dam: traffic, people or animal


Erosion from rain
Wave damage from reservoir of flooding
Flooding overtopping and breaching
Flooding overtopping and breaching
Water flow along channels at toe or structures
Others
Canal: too small for flow
Blocked by weed
Silted-up

Bank erosion
12. If Others mention them.
13. Soils: What kind of soil is at the project site, (a) for use as fill, (b) for excavating
canals and drains?






Clay group, stable slope: upstream 1:2.00, downstream 1:1.75, Canal and
drain 1:1.25
Sandy group, stable slope: upstream 1:2.50, downstream 1:2.00, Canal and
drain 1:1.50
Silty soil, stable slope: upstream not suitable, downstream not suitable,
Canal and drain 1:1.50
Dispersive clay, upstream not suitable, downstream not suitable, canal and

Study and Design Guidelines

I-168

Annex 1: Technical Forms

drain : Line canal

Organic soils, upstream not suitable, downstream not suitable, canal and
drain : Line canal.
14. Material for road construction: remark
Skip the materias which are not chosen for road construction.
15. Fill material from borrow beside earth works.




Meets the specification requirement for type 3 fill

Exceeds specification for Type 3 Fill with high clay content


16. Fill material from remote borrow pit
* fill material can be 1. Meets the specification for type 3 fill, 2. Exceeds specification
for type 3 fill with high clay content.
Suitability, source (km).
Suitability
source (km)
17. Sands
* Source: borrow pit, stream bed.
Source
distance (km)
18. Gravel
* Source: borrow pit, stream bed
.Source
distance (km)
19. Laterite
* Source: borrow pit, stream bed. Quality: Good, medium or poor.
Source
Quality
distance (km)
20. Stone
* Source: quarry, stream bed. Type: granite, basalt, limestone
Source
type
distance (km)
21. Water supply for earthwork
Source
distance (km)
22. Design of dam and dyke: What is reservoir full supply level at dam or flood levels at
dyke (m)?
23. What freeboard will be allowed (m)?
* You can get the values of freeboard from PIM.
24. Dam or dyke crests level (before any road surface is added), (m).
25. Will the dam or dyke be used as a road?
26. What is the crest width?
27. Will the crest be surfaced?
If Others, answer the following question.





Not surfaced
Laterite

Others
28. Others, mention them.
29. If laterite, what is the thickness of laterite (mm) ?
30. What will be the upstream slope (see advice in question 13)?
31. What will be the downstream slope (see advice in question 13)?
32. What slope protect will be provided to the upstream slope?
* If not Rock riprap, skip the question 34 to 36.
Study and Design Guidelines

I-169

Annex 1: Technical Forms






None
Grass
Rock riprap

Others
33. If Others, mention them.
34. If Rock riprap, What class of riprap (Class A suitable for small reservoirs)?






Class A
Class B
Class C

Class D
35. What thickness of riprap in millimeters (300 mm minimum for Class A)?
36. What filter will be placed below riprap?




150mm gravel

50mm sands over geotextile


37. What slope protect will be provided to the downstream slope?




None

Grass
38. Capacity of canal: Will the canal be irrigated continuously (24 hours) by gravity or by
pumping?
If Gravity, answer the question 40, then skip the question 41. If Pumping, skip the
question 41, then answer the question 41.




Gravity

Pumping
39. Required flow capacity (gravity).
* the design peak flow rate : 2l/s/h or another higher flow rate.
* flow capacity (l/s) = irrigation area (ha) x flow rate (l/s/ha)
Flow rate (l/s/ha)
irrigation area (ha)
flow capacity (l/s)
40. Required flow capacity (pumping)
* Recommended flow rate is 2l/s/ha, or another higher flow rate.
* Pumping rate = flow rate / number of pumping hours x24hours
* flow capacity = irrigation area (ha) x flow rate (l/s.ha)
Flow rate (l/s/ha)
number of pumping hours
pumping rate (l.s.ha)
(hour)
41. Capacity of drain: How will the fields be drained?
If Irrigation canals provide drainage the canals must be sized (larger) top work as
drains. So you have to carry on the question about the drain. If No drain, explain the
following question, and then skip to question 48.





Separate drain
Canal as a drain
No drain

Study and Design Guidelines

I-170

Annex 1: Technical Forms

42. Explain how excess rainfall and flood water will be drained from the fields?
43. Drain capacity
* Recommended flow rate 3.5l/s/ha, or another higher flow rate.
* Flow capacity (m3/s) = area (ha) x flow rate (m3/s/ha)
Drainage area (ha)
flow rate (l/s/ha)
flow capacity (m3/s)
44. Will the drain collect water from catchments beyond the fields?
* E.g. a stream flows into the head of the drain from a small catchment or another
irrigation system? If Yes, answer the following questions, if No skip to question 48.




Yes

No
45. What is the catchment area in km2?
If the catchment < 1.00km2 , Add this area to the area of fields above and recalculate
new field drainage flow rate. If the catchment > 1.00km2, use Applet form T22, flow
external catchment or get help from engineer to calculate the total flow (with the flow
in the catchment above).
46. The flow rate of external catchment (m3/s) is:
Use Applet T22 external catchment then copy form column C32.
If the flow system of the external catchment is too complicate, you have to discuss
with the engineer to get the flow capacity of this catchment.
47. Total drain design flow (m3/s) is the flow from irrigated area + flow from external
catchment.
* Value of question 43 + value of question 46.
48. Hydraulic design of canal and drain: remark
Use Applet T22 Hydraulic design of canal and drain to calculate the minimum water
height, bottom width and design velocity.
49. Responsibility for operation and maintenance: is there a Farmer Water Use Comity
(FWUC) or similar group of people who are responsible for operation and
maintenance of the earthwork.




Yes

No
50. Who will take to operate and maintain the earthwork ?
51. Remark
Upload all of Applet T22 that you used into Project generator for engineer to
examine.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-171

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Technical Form T23 Irrigation: Structure


Form T23 Irrigation structure
Province :
Name of project :
Name of TSO :

District :

S/C:
Code of S/C :

Date of form preparation :

1. Location: where is the structure located within the Sangkat/Commune ?


2. Provide the coordinates of GPS.
X of GPS
Y of GPS
3. Fill type 3
Source: borrow pit
Source
distance from structure (km)
4. Sands
Source: borrow pit or stream bed.
Source
distance from structure (km)
5. Gravel
Source: borrow pit or stream bed. Remark: for concrete work, the gravel from stream
bed is not permitted.
Source
distance from structure (km)
6. Stone
Source: quarry or stream bed. Type of stone: Hard metamorphic rock (granite, basalt,
etc), limestone and sandstone.
Source
type of stone
distance from structure
(km)
7. Water supply for earthwork
Source
distance from structure (km)
8. Foundation soils: what kind of soils is the structure founded on?
If Others, fill the questions following.

 Very easily eroded soil


 Normal clay
 Sandy soil
 Gravel
 Earth with big stone in it
 Others
9. Other types of soils: mention them.
10. Foundation strength of DCP (mm/blow) and location of each test.
* Location: stream bed road centre line, stream bed up stream, stream bed
downstream, left bank abutment, right bank abutment or others.
DCP (mm/blow)
location
11. what is the 20 percentile DCP
* You can calculate this value with Applet T11
12. Crossing structure: is there an existing crossing structure ?
* if Yes, answer the following questions, if Not, go to Flow capacity

 Yes
Study and Design Guidelines

I-172

Annex 1: Technical Forms

No
13. Road classification:

 District to district
 District to commune
 Commune to commune
 Commune to village
 Village to village
 Farm acces
14. What is the largest vehicle that uses the earthwork?

 Passenger car
 People walking
 Motorcycle
 Motor-remorque
 Bicycle
 Animal cart
 Light vehicle/van
 Koyun
 Medium truck (6 tyres)
 Heavy truck (6 tyres)
 Bus (>4 tyres)
 Mini-bus (4 tyres).

15. Flow capacity: what is the design flow capacity (can be from T22), (m3/s)?
* Calculated from canal capacity. You can skip this question for spillways or river
intake. Generally, if the design structure is passed by the irrigation flow and drainage
flow, you must design the structure the drainage flow, because its value is always
higher.
16. What is the flow capacity at the structure (m3/s)?
* Calculated from canal capacity. You can copy skip question for spillways or river
intake. Generally, if the design structure is passed by the irrigation flow and drainage
flow, you must design the structure the drainage flow, because its value is always
higher.
17. Can this flow capacity be higher than design one?
If Can, answer the following questions, if Can not skip them.

 Can
 Can not
18. Describe the circumstance and consequence for the structure also what provision will
be provided to survive an extreme flow?
Using the design guidance spillways is sized for 1 in 50 year flow into the reservoir;
Study and Design Guidelines

I-173

Annex 1: Technical Forms

the reservoir freeboard allows some of the flood to stay temporarily in the reservoir
until it call all pass over the spillways. A concrete stilling basin and erosion protection
will be provided downstream.
19. Did you use Applet to determine the design flow and length of structure? (Spillway
and diversion weirs)
* if you dont design the spillway or river intake, skip them.

 Yes
 No
20. Spillway and diversion weirs: is the structure for reservoir or river intake?

 Reservoir
 River intake
21. What is the design flow for spillway or river intake (m3/s) ?
* Copy from Applet T23, worksheet GTFM: C32.
22. What is the maximum safe water level at the upstream of structure? ( higher than this
level, it can be flooded, overtopped).
* Copy from Applet T23, worksheet GTFP: C33.
23. What is the proposed weirs crest level? ( it is a full water level of a reservoir or river
level intaking to the system).
* Copy from Applet T23, worksheet GTFM:C34.
24. Required weirs length (m):
* Copy from Applet T23, worksheet GTFM:C35.
25. Pumping capacity: provide the pumping capacity (m3/s).
* Answer if there is a pumping, see the irrigation project form T22.
26. Responsibility for operation and maintenance: is there a Farmer Water User Comity
(FWUC) or similar group of people who are willing to take responsibility to operate
and maintain the structure?

 Yes
 No
27. Who will operate and maintain the irrigation structure?
Commune council
28. Remark:
Dont forget to upload Applet that you used in your calculation.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-174

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Technical Form T31 Water Supply


Form T31 Water supply
Province :
Name of project :
Name of TSO :

District :

S/C:
Code of S/C :

Date of form preparation :

1. Location: where is the water supply located within the Sangkat/Commune?


2. Provide the coordinates of GPS.
X of GPS
Y of GPS
3. Number of proposed output: provide the number of proposed output?
* Remark: Form T31 is only for one water supply output, it mean that, if you have
many exactly the same output and same output data, you just make one output,
answer just one technical form and provide the number of those output.
4. Purpose of water supply: for what purpose is the water supply used?
If the Village, answer the question 5, if School or Health center, answer question
6.

 Village
 School
 Health centre
5. Information about number of users: how many people use the water supply? In which
village do they live?
* Totalize the numbers above and write it down in the last row.
Name of village
people in village
number of family using
the water supply
6. Number of supplier in school and health post
* If you chose School in the answer above, write down only the number of rooms
and number of students. If you choose Health post write down only the number of
users in the health center.
Number of school rooms
number of students or health post
7. Maintenance: Who will maintain the water supply?
8. Existing water supply: how many families use the existing water supply?
* if the existing water supply is for school, write down only use for school.
9. Have the families who will use the supply agreed to form a Water Supply Committee?

 Yes
 No
10. Where does the domestic water used by these people come from now?
* Source: watercourse, natural pond, dug pond, rain water harvesting, spring, village
well, household will, water-point piped. Totalize the number of users, and then write it
down in the last row.
Source
number of users
distance to the centre of village
(km)
11. Information about proposed facility: Who owns the land where the new facility will be
constructed?
* if the land is in private ownership, answer the question 12.

 Community
Study and Design Guidelines

I-175

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Private
12. Does the landowner agree to construction and unrestricted use of the facility?

 Yes
 No
13. Does the location of the facility ever flood?
* if Yes, answer the questions 14 and 15.

 Yes
 No
14. What is the depth of flooding in meters ?
15. What type of flooding?

 Seasonal and prolonged flooding from high river levels


 Short periods of flooding following heavy rain
16. Existing well: what type of well are in the village or near vicinity?
* You should choose the existing well which is closest to the new well

 Dug well
 Drilled well
 Mixed well
17. Provide the coordinates of GPS
Type of well
X of GPS
Y of GPS
18. What is the distance (closest) from the existing well to the proposed well (km)?
19. Who owns this existing well?
20. Is the existing well used for domestic water or farming?

 Domestic water
 Framing
21. How old is the existing well?
22. How deep is the existing well?
23. What is the static water level in the dry seasons?
24. What is the static water level in the wet seasons?
2
25. How many families use the sell?
26. Does the existing well have enough water all year?

 Enough
 Not enough
27. What does water from the well taste like?

 Note taste
 Salty
 Bitter
28. What is the color of the water in the existing well?

 Clear
Study and Design Guidelines

I-176

Annex 1: Technical Forms

 Gray
 Yellow
 Brown
29. Does it smell?

 Yes
 No
30. Has the water from the existing well ever been tested for arsenic?

 Yes, ever
 No, never
31. What kind of soil or rock is the well sunk in?
From depth (m)
to depth (m)

kind of soil or rock

32. How do you know about the information on the soil or rock?
33. How are the other well ?

 No information on other wells


 To many well to list
 Other wells similar
34. Proposed well: name of proposed well
35. What kinds of soil or rock will the well sunk in?
From depth (m) to depth (m), kind of soil or rock.
From depth (m)
to depth (m)
kind of soil or rock
36. How deep is the water bearing soil or rock (the aquifer)?
37. What is the depth of proposed well?
38. What is the static water level in the dry season (depth below ground in metres)?
39. What is the estimated dynamic water level in the dry season (drawn down by
pumping) (depth below ground in metres)?
40. How do you know the information on the proposed well?
41. Where will wastewater from the new well drain to?
If Other, answer the question 43.

 Soak away
 Watercourse
 Pond
 Other
42. If Other, list your answers.
43. Is there anything close to the well that could cause contamination of the well?
* If Other, answer the question 45.

 None
 Latrine
 Animal pens
 Cmetery
Study and Design Guidelines

I-177

Annex 1: Technical Forms

 Chemical store
 Fuel store
 Other
44. If other, list your answers.
45. if a potential cause of contamination is identified, write it down.
Consider another well location a safe distance from contamination source or explain
in the box below what measures will be taken to prevent contamination.
46. Suitable pump for well

 VN N6 pump, dynamic water level d 6m (suction pump)


 Afridev Tara, dynamic water level 0 to 25m (force mode)
 Seek specialist advice, dynamic water level > 50m
 None
47. Proposed pond: what kind of soil or rock will the pond be dug in?
From depth (m)
to depth (m)
kind of soil or rock
48. Are there any wells, natural or dug ponds nearby?
If Yes, answer the question 49.
49. If Yes, what is the standing water level in metres below ground level?
Depth in dry season (m)
depth in wet season (m)
50. Where will the water to fill the pond come from?
If the answer is rainwater harvesting, answer the question 52, if Other, answer the
question 53.

 Rainfall directly into pond


 Rainwater harvesting
 High groundwater levels
 Other
51. If rainwater harvesting, over what area will the water be harvested?
52. If Other, list your answer.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-178

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Technical Form T41 Education Facility


Form T41 Education
Province :
District :
S/C:
Name of project :
Code of S/C :
Name of TSO :
Date of form preparation :
1. Location: where is the education facility located within the Sangkat/Commune?
Describe the location of education facility.
2. Provide the coordinates of GPS
* Coordinate of school location
X of GPS
Y of GPS
3. List the number and length of the proposed facility.
* Rooms of the new school, list the number of room. Furniture: list the number of set
of chairs and tables.
Primary school, training room, library, school dormitory, school yard, list the number
of place. List the length of school wall and school fence in meters.
4. Information about education requirement: (about students)
How many students will use the school and which village will they come from?
Name of village
Number of children go to
distance from village to
the school
school in kilometers
5. Total number of children goes to the school.
6. About the number of classroom.
How many classrooms on the site now?
7. About the number of teachers
teachers provided by the
teachers will be hired for
Total number of teachers
education department
the school
available
8. About the school management: is there a school parent committee?

 Yes
 No
9. Physical characteristics of the site: does the site ever flood in the wet season?
* if Ever, answer the two following questions.

 Ever
 Never
10. What is the maximum depth of flooding in meters?
11. What type of flooding?

 Seasonal flooding and prolonged by the high river level


 Short periods of flooding following heavy rain
12. Is the site free of mines and UXO?
* if Yes, answer the following question.

 Yes
 No
13. Does land title exist for the site?
* If Yes, answer the following questions.

 Yes
 No
Study and Design Guidelines

I-179

Annex 1: Technical Forms

14. What stage is the documentation (district, province)?


15. Is the site presently occupied?
* If Yes, answer the following questions

 Yes
 No
16. Whom or what? (E.g. building, rice field and will compensation be
expected/demanded?)
17. Is the site presently walled or fenced?

 Yes
 No
18. Will land fill or embankments be needed to protect against flooding?
* If Yes, answer the question 19

 Yes
 No
19. If Yes, describe it.
20. Is there enough space for students to play sports?

 Yes
 No
21. Is there enough space to build more classrooms in the future?

 Yes
 No
22. What is the water supply at the site?
* If Pond or Pumping well, answer the following question

 None
 Pond
 Pumping well
 Piped supply from off site
23. Write down the dry season water level below ground (m)
24. How many existing latrines at the sites?
25. Foundation soils: (for school building construction, school fence and walls)
What kind of soil will the school be constructed on?
* Type of soil: gravel, silty sand, micaceous sand, lateritic sand, clayey sand, loams,
organic clays, lateritic clays, dandy, silty or clayey peats.
Number
X of
Y of
Depth (m)
Type of
group of soil
of trial pit
GPS
GPS
soil
26. DCP test (mm/blow)
DCP (mm/blow)
X of GPS
Y of GPS
27. 20 percentile of DCP (mm/blow)

Study and Design Guidelines

I-180

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Technical Form T51 Health


Form T51 Health
Province :
Name of project :
Name of TSO :

District :

S/C:
Code of S/C :

Date of form preparation :

1. Location: where is the health facility located within the Sangkat/Commune?


Next to the commune centre, in Phsar Leu market
2. Provide the coordinates of GPS
* First line is the starting point; last line is the ending point
X of GPS
Y of GPS
3. List the number and length of output chosen.
* Fence in meter, and other output in number.
4. Information about health facility: how many people will use the health facility and
which villages will they come from?
* Copy the total number of people from the Project Information Form.
5. How many trained staff will be provided by the health department?
6. How many staff will be hired for the health facility?
7. What is the total number of staff available?
* totalize both numbers above.
8. Physical characteristics of the site: does the site ever flood in the wet season?
* if Ever, answer the following questions.




Ever

Never
9. If Ever, what is the maximum depth of flooding in meters?
10. If Ever, what type of flooding?




Seasonal and prolonged flooding from high river levels.

Short periods of flooding following heavy rain.


11. Is the site free of mines and UXO?




Yes

No
12. Does land title exist for the site? If yes, at what stage is the documentation (district,
province)
13. Is the site presently occupied? If yes, list them.
* e.g. building, rice field will compensation be expected/demanded?
14. Is the site presently walled or fenced?




Yes

No
15. Will land fill or embankments be needed to protect against flooding?




Yes

No
16. What is the water supply at the site?




None
Pond

Study and Design Guidelines

I-181

Annex 1: Technical Forms




Pumping well

Piped supply from off site


17. How many existing latrines at the site?
18. Foundation soils: what kind of soil will the health facility be constructed on?
* Kind of soil: gravel, silty sand, micaceous sand, lateritic sand, clayey sand, loams,
clayey silts, organic silts, micaceous silts, sandy clays, silty clays, organic clays,
sandy; silty or clayey peats.
Number
X of
Y of
Depth (m)
Type of
group of soil
of trial pit
GPS
GPS
soil
19. Foundation strength DCP Test (mm/blow).
DCP (mm/blow)
X of GPS
Y of GPS
20. 20 percentile of DCP (mm/blow) ?

Study and Design Guidelines

I-182

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Technical Form T101 Sanitation


Form T101 Sanitation and drainage
Province :
Name of project :
Name of TSO :

District :

S/C:
Code of S/C :

Date of form preparation :

1. Location: where is the sanitation and drainage located within the Sangkat/commune?
Describe the location
2. Provide de coordinate of GPS.
* if it is a point, fill only the first row. First row is the starting point and the second row
is the ending point.
X of GPS
Y of GPS
3. Description of requirements: give a brief description about the project.
4. List the number or length of the proposed outputs.
* provide the number for the latrines and length for the drain.
Output
Number or length
5. Drainage capacity: give drain a name; area of land drained, flow rate (m3/s/ha), flow
capacity and external catchment.
* in peri-urban or village can allow for 50m wide strip from road centerline for drains
each side of road. Recommended flow rate is 3.5l/s/ha, but you choose another
value. The required flow capacity of drain = flow rate x drained area. Will the drain
collect water from catchments beyond the drain, e.g. a stream flow into the head of
the drain from a small catchment or drain system? Write down Collect or Does not
collect.
Name of drain Drained area
Flow rate
Flow capacity
External
(ha)
(l/s.ha)
(l/s)
catchment
6. Remark
* if you chose Collect, answer the two following questions.
7. Describe briefly how the extra catchment affects the requirements, e.g. it may only
affect a drain one side of the road.
Name of drain
Description
8. Give a name of drain collecting water from external catchment, area of external
catchment, flow rate (l/s/ha) and extra flow capacity.
* if catchment area > 1.0Km2, flow from this catchment will be too big for a culvert or a
drain, so let think about the flow conveyance or a special advice.
* Recommended drain flow capacity is 3.5l/s.ha, but you can choose another one.
* flow capacity extra = catchment area (ha) x flow rate (l/s.ha).
Name of drain
External catchment
Flow rate (l/s.ha)
Extra flow capacity
area (ha)
(l/s)
9. Calculate the total design flow capacity for box culvert (l/s).
* Total design flow capacity = drain flow capacity (l/s) + extra flow capacity of external
catchment (l/s)
Name of drain
Design flow capacity (l/s)
10. Design of box drain: remark
You must use Applet Form T101 Drain to determine the design flow, channel bed
level, bottom width and channel velocity.
11. Result of the design of box drain and drain from Applet T101.
* Skip it if you dont design the box drain. Copy the answer from Applet T101 that you
used to calculate.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-183

Annex 1: Technical Forms

Name of drain

Required flow Bed depth (m)


Width of box
Design
capacity (l/s)
drain (m)
velocity (m/s)
12. Design of pipe drain: remark
Use Applet Pipe Chart to determine the diameter of pipe drain.
13. Result of the design of pipe drain from Applet Pipe Chart
* Skip it if you dont design the pipe drain.
* calculate the flow capacity, see the suitable pipe and copy the answer from Applet
Pipe Chart that you used.
Name
Required Pipe
Pipe
Efficient
Type
Minimum Chosen
of drain flow
drain
length
hydraulic of pipe diameter diameter
capacity
depth
(m)
gradient
(m)
(m)
(l/s)
(m)
14. Remark
Upload the Applets youve used to get the result as above.

Study and Design Guidelines

I-184