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Add time

Suppose that you want to know how many hours and minutes it will take to complete two tasks. You
estimate that the first task will take 6 hours and 45 minutes and the second task will take 9 hours and 30
1. In cell B2 type 6:45, and in cell B3 type 9:30.
2. Type =B2+B3 in cell B4, and then press Enter.
It will take 16 hours and 15 minutes to complete the two tasks.
You can also add up times by using AutoSum to sum numbers. Click in cell B4. Then on the Hometab, click
AutoSum. The formula will look like this: =SUM(B2:B3). Press Enter to get the result, 16 hours and 15

Subtract time
You know your start and end times at a volunteer project, and want to know the elapsed time.
1. In cell B2 type the start time, enter a space, and then type a for AM or p for PM, and press Enter.
In cell C2, type the end time, including a or p as appropriate, and press Enter. Type the other
start and end times for your friends Joy and Leslie.
2. In cell D2, subtract the end time from the start time by typing the formula: =C2-B2, and then
pressing Enter.
We need to format cell D2 to get rid of AM.
3. Then on the Hometab, click Format> Format Cells.
4. In the Format Cellsbox, click Customin the Categorylist.
5. In the Type list, click h:mm(for hours and minutes), and then click OK. Now we see that Richard
worked 3 hours and 45 minutes.
6. To get the results for Joy and Leslie, copy the formula by clicking in cell D2 and dragging to cell D4.
The formatting in cell D2 is copied along with the formula.

Average a group of numbers

Use AutoSum to quickly find the average

AutoSum lets you find the average in a column or row of numbers where there are no blank cells.
1. Click a cell below the column or to the right of the row of the numbers for which you want to find
the average.
2. On the Hometab, click the arrow next to AutoSum> Average, and then press Enter.
Find the average of numbers that arent in a contiguous row or column

Use the AVERAGE or the AVERAGEIF functions. Both functions return the arithmetic mean by adding a
group of numbers, and then dividing by the count of those numbers. AVERAGE ignores blank cells. The
AVERAGEIF function does a bit more by letting you include a condition (thats the IF part of the
Find a weighted average

Use the SUMPRODUCT and the SUM functions to find a weighted average, which depends on the weight
thats applied to the values.
For example, a shipment of 10 cases of pencils is 20 cents per case. But a second shipment of 40 cases costs
30 cents per case, because pencils are in high demand. If you averaged the cost of each shipment this way
(0.20+0.30)/2 = 0.25, the result isnt accurate. The math doesnt take into account that there are more cases

being sold at 30 cents than at 20 cents. To get the correct average, use this formula to get the result (28 cents
per shipment):
The formula works by dividing the total cost of the two orders by the total number of cases ordered:

Insert headers and footers

Add a header to a worksheet

You can add information to a header so itll print at the top of every page. For example, you can create a
header that contains page numbers to help your readers find pages in a printed worksheet.
1. Click Insert > Header & Footer.
2. Click the left, center, or right box at the top of the worksheet and add the information you want.
3. When the header is set up the way you want, click anywhere in the worksheet, and then click View >
Why cant I see the header in my workbook?

Click View > Page Layout. Headers show up only in Page Layout view, Print Preview, and on printed
Remove the header or footer text from a worksheet

1. On the View tab, click Page Layout.

2. Delete the information you want to remove.
3. Click anywhere in the worksheet, and then click View > Normal.
Remove all headers or footers at once

If you dont want your workbook to have any headers or footers, you can remove them all at once.
1. On thePage Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click the arrow.
2. In the Page Setup box, on the Header/Footer tab, do one of the following:

Under Header select (none).

Under Footer select (none).

3. Click anywhere in the worksheet, and then click View > Normal.

Make the switch to Excel 2013

Just start working

Open a file from Excel 2003, or click File > New.

The ribbon

Instead of menus, the ribbon gives you tabs with groups of commands. The tools you use most are on the
Home tab. Click Insert to add a chart or PivotChart. Click Page Layout to set page sizes, margins, and
print areas. Use the Formulas tab to add formulas. Use the Data tab to connect to other data sources. Go to
the Review tab to add comments and protect a worksheet or workbook. And check out the View tab to
freeze or unlock rows or columns.
Save your files

Click File > Save As. Select a location for your file and click Save. If you use Office 365 or OneDrive, click
Add a Place, click the service you want to use, then log in.
Use files between versions

Excel 2003 files should open and run in 2013. Files created in 2013 but saved in the 2003 format, then
opened in 2003 may look different. And any features unique to 2013, such as the Quick Analysis Lens, are
not available in Excel 2003.

When you create a table or chart, Excel gives you a Styles gallery. Point at a style to see a live preview.
Contextual tabs

Some tabs appear and disappear, depending on what youre doing. For example, when you click a table, the
Design tab appears until you click outside the table.
Convert to other Excel formats

Convert an Excel 2003 file to Excel 2013

1. Click File > Info > Convert.
2. Use the Save As dialog to save the file.
Convert an Excel 2013 file to Excel 2003
1. Click File > Info > Check for issues > Check Compatibility.
2. Click OK to close the compatibility checker.
3. Click File > Save As, click a location, and in the Save As dialog, open the Save As type list and
click Excel 97-2003

Sort and filter data

Select the data that you want to sort

Select a range of data, such as A1:L5 (multiple rows and columns) or C1:C80 (a single column). The range
can include titles (headers) that you create to identify columns or rows.
Sort quickly

1. Select a single cell in the column you want to sort.

2. Click Sort A to Z to perform an ascending sort (A to Z or smallest number to largest).
3. Click Sort Z to A to perform a descending sort (Z to A or largest number to smallest).
Sort by specifying criteria

Use this technique to choose the column you want to sort, plus other criteria such as font or cell colors.
1. Select a single cell anywhere in the range that you want to sort.
2. On the Datatab, in the Sort & Filtergroup, click Sort. The Sortdialog box appears.
3. In the Sort by list, select the first column on which you want to sort.
4. In the Sort On list, select either Values, Cell Color, Font Color, or Cell Icon.
5. In the Orderlist, select the order that you want to apply to the sort operation alphabetically or
numerically ascending or descending (that is, A to Z or Z to A for text or lower to higher or higher to
lower for numbers).
Remove a filter from a column

Click the Filtericon button next to the column heading, and then click Clear Filter from <Column
Remove all the filters in a worksheet

Click Data > Clear.

Use conditional formatting

Find duplicate values fast

Finding duplicate values can be time consuming and frustrating. Leave the stress behind by applying
conditional formatting and letting Excel do the work for you.
1. Select the range of cells you think might contain duplicates.
2. Click Home> Conditional Formatting> Highlight Cells Rules> Duplicate Values.
3. In the Duplicate Values box, make sure that Duplicate is selected in the first drop-down box.
4. Then select the format for duplicate values in the other drop-down box. Click OK. All the duplicate
numbers or text are highlighted.

Apply conditional formatting based on text in a cell

1. Select the cells you want to apply conditional formatting to. Click the first cell in the range, and then
drag to the last cell.
2. Click Home> Conditional Formatting> Highlight Cells Rules> Text that Contains. In the Text
that Containsbox, on the left, enter the text you want highlighted.
3. Select the color format for the text, and click OK.
Copy conditional formatting

If you have a conditional formatting rule you want to use for new data, copy the conditional formatting to
the new data using the Format Painter.
1. Click a cell that has the conditional formatting you want to copy.
2. Click Home > Format Painter. The pointer changes to a paintbrush. Double-click Format Painter
if you want to copy the formatting to multiple selections.
3. To copy the formatting, drag the mouse pointer across the cells or ranges of cells that you want to
4. To stop the formatting, press Esc.