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Unix Shell Scripting

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Course Objectives
 The participant will learn
 Linux Introduction


Linux file related commands
 Linux text manipulation

commands
 Environment variables

 The vi-editor

 Shell programming


Awk programming

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Introduction to Linux
 Features of Linux System:
1. Simple design, organization and functioning
2. Portability
3. Background processing
4. Hierarchical File System
5. Multi-user
6. Multi-tasking
7. Security
8. Interactive Operating System
9. Communication facilities
10. Utilities
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Introduction to Linux
 Utility Software:
1. Text Manipulation tools: cut, grep, tr, etc.
2. Advanced filters: sed, awk, etc.
3. Document Formatting tools: troff, nroff, etc.
4. Various Programming Languages: C, C++,
Java, etc.
5. Interactive Calculators : bc, dc, etc.
6. Advanced tools : lex, yacc.

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Linux File System
 The Linux file system is the structure in which
all the information on your computer is stored.
 It has hierarchical file structure, where each
directory can contain files, as well as other
directories.
 It looks like an upside down tree.
 Linux looks at everything as a file.
 At the top is the root directory, represented by
a forward slash (/).
 At the children node of it is a set of common
directories in the Linux system, such as /bin,
/dev, /home, etc.
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Linux File System
 The diagram shows the Linux file structure
/

bin/ home/ etc/ dev/ …

itp1/ itp2/ …

test1.sh test2.sh …

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Linux File System
 In Windows file systems, drive letters
represent different storage devices like A: is a
floppy drive, C: is a hard disk, etc. In Linux, all
storage devices are in the same file system
hierarchy.
 Windows file systems uses backslash (\) to
separate directory names, whereas Linux uses
forward slash (/) for the same.
 Every file and directory in a Linux system has
permissions and ownership associated with it.
 File names have suffixes in Windows, whereas
in Linux you can use them as conventions.
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Linux File System
 The chunk of the disk is divided into blocks
(1024-bytes block, or 4096-bytes block, etc.) in
multiple of 512 bytes in size.
 These blocks are organized into four
groupings- boot block, superblock, inode
blocks and data blocks.
FS1
Boot Super
FS block block inode list Data blocks …..
2
FS3

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Linux Users
 Users
1. Super user
2. Owner
3. Group
4. Others

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Introduction to Linux
 Logging on and Logging off.
Step 1: telnet <System Address>
Step 2: login : ravindra
Step 3: password : ******
Login incorrect
Step 4: login : ravindra
Step 5: password : ******
Step 6: $ Command prompt to execute
commands
Step 7: $ logout
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Unix Shells
 The Bourne shell /bin/sh (written by S. R.
Bourne).
 Along came the people from UCB and the C-
shell /bin/csh was born. Into this shell they put
several concepts which were new, (the
majority of these being job control and
aliasing) and managed to produce a shell that
was much better for interactive use.
 Eventually David Korn from AT&T had the
bright idea to sort out this mess and the Korn
shell /bin/ksh made its appearance. The Korn
shell became part of System V but had one
major problem; unlike the rest of the UNIX
shells it wasn't free, you had to pay AT&T for11
Unix Shells
 Also at about this time the GNU project was
underway and they decided that they needed
a free shell, they also decided that they
wanted to make this new shell POSIX
compatible, thus bash (the Bourne again shell)
was born.
 Like the Korn shell bash was based upon the
Bourne shells language and like the Korn shell,
it also pinched features from the C shell and
other operating systems.

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Unix Shells
 The Bourne Shell
 The Bourne shell is the original UNIX shell
program. It is very widely used. You can start
the Bourne shell—if it hasn't been set as your
default startup shell—by typing "sh" or
"/bin/sh" at the command prompt. This will not
spawn a new shell window, but rather will just
change your current shell to the Bourne shell.
 The Bourne shell supports conditional
branching in the form of if/then/else
statements. In addition, the Bourne shell
supports case statements and loops (for,
while, and until).
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 The Bourne shell uses the $ as a prompt.
Unix Shells
 The Korn shell
 The Korn shell is a much newer variation of the
Bourne shell. It supports everything the
Bourne shell does, and adds features not
available in the Bourne shell. The Korn shell is
not a standard offering in UNIX installations. If
you have the Korn shell, you can run it by
typing ksh or /bin/ksh at the shell prompt. A
public-domain version of the Korn shell, called
pdksh.
 The Korn shell was originally written by David
Korn and is copyrighted by AT&T.
 The programming structure of the Korn shell is
very similar to that of the Bourne shell. The 14
Unix Shells
 The C shell
 The C shell is a very commonly used shell. Its
programming structure closely resembles that
of the programming language "C."
 The C shell uses the "%" as a prompt.
 The C shell supports all of the features that the
Bourne shell supports, and has a more natural
syntax for programming.
 The C shell is more interactive than the Bourne
shell, with additional features that aren't
available in older shells.
 The configuration of the C shell is controlled by
the .rc and the .login files. 15
Unix Shells
 The tc shell
 The tc shell is a more modern variation of the
C shell.
 It reads the same configuration files that the C
shell uses.
 Tcsh contains command line editing
keystrokes that the C shell is missing, and has
more "modern" conveniences that the C shell
lacks.

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Unix Shells
 The Bourne-Again shell
 The Bourne-Again shell is  a variation of the
Bourne shell.
 It is commonly used in Linux, but is widely
available in other standard UNIX distributions.
 The Bourne Again shell is another modification
of the Bourne shell, and uses the $ as a
prompt.
 To start the Bourne Again shell, type "bash" at
the shell prompt.
 The behavior and environment of the Bourne
Again shell is controlled by the .bashrc file,
which you'll find as a hidden file in your home17
Unix Shells
 Unix Shell application comparison table
 Application sh csh ksh bash
tcsh
 Job control N Y Y Y Y
 Aliases N Y Y Y Y
 Input/Output redirection Y N Y Y N
 Command history N Y Y Y Y
 Command line editing N N Y Y Y
 Vi Command line editing N N Y Y Y
 Underlying Syntax sh csh ksh sh
csh 18
Basic commands in Linux
 $ who
 The command shows who is logged on

 $ who am I
 The command shows who are you

 $ who \
> am \
>i\
 We can type a command over two or more
lines. A backslash character before the end of
the line followed by a new line is taken to be
continuation of the line.
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Commands In Linux
 $ man
 The command formats and displays on-line

manual pages.
 The manual pages are divided into logical

grouping of the commands called the


sections. Sections are numbered from 1
through 9. For example, commands are 1,
system calls are 2, library function are 3, file
formats are 5, & management commands
are 8.
 If section is specified, man only looks in
that section of the manual.
 The command man 2 open will display the
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Commands In Linux
 Option Description
–k searches a set of database files
containing short descriptions of
system commands for
keywords and displays the result on
the standard output.
-f gives one line introduction to the
command (only complete word
matches are displayed).

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Basic commands in Linux
 $ date
 The command prints or sets the system

date and time


 $ date –r TestFile
 It displays the last modification time of the

file “TestFile”
 $ date string
 The super user can invoke the date

command with a numeric argument to set


the system date.
 This argument is usually an eight-character

string of the form MMDDhhmm (month, day,


hour in 24-hour format, minutes), and 22
Basic commands in Linux
 The command can be used with suitable
format specifiers as arguments. Each format
is preceded by a + symbol, followed by the %
operator, and a single character describing the
format.
 Sequence Interpretation
+%a abbreviated weekday name (Mon ..
Sun)
+%b abbreviated month name (Jan .. Dec)
+%d day of month (01 .. 31)
+%r time (12- hour)
+%T time (24- hour)
+%y last two digits of year (00 .. 99) 23
Commands In Linux
 $ ls
 The command lists contents of directories

 Option Description
-l list in long format
-C multicolumn output
-F indicates type of file by /, *
-R recursive listing of all subdirectories
encountered
-a list all files including hidden files

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Commands In Linux
 $ cat
 The command concatenates files and prints

on the standard output


 $ cat file1 file2 …
 It displays contents of all files specified on

the command line one below the other


 $ cat > file
 It creates a new file by accepting text from

the standard input


 Press CTRL-d to save and exit the file

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Commands In Linux
 $ mkdir [-p] dirname
 The command makes a directory dirname.

 The dirname can contain the full path prefix

of the directory to be created.


 When executed with –p option, it won’t give

any error if the directory dirname already


exists.
 When executed with option –p, it makes

parent directories in the path if needed (if


any parent directory in the path is not
available) .
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Commands In Linux
 cd [directory]
 change working directory to the directory if

specified or to the home directory otherwise

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Commands In Linux
 $ pwd
 The command prints name of your current

working directory

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Commands In Linux
 $cp
 Copies files and directories

 $ cp file1 file2
 It copies file1 to file2

 $ cp file1 file2 … dest_directory


 It copies multiple files in the specified

existing directory
 $ cp -r directory1 directory2 … dest_directory
 Recursively copies files from directory1,

directory2 etc. to the dest_directory

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Commands In Linux
 $ mv
 The command changes name of your file or

moves your file to the specified destination


path
 $ mv file1 new-file
 It renames file1 as new-file

 $ mv file1 file2 … dest_directory


 It moves multiple files to the specified

existing directory
 $ mv directory1 directory2 … dest_directory
 moves one or more directory subtrees to an

existing or new dest_directory


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Commands In Linux

 $ rm
 The command is used to get rid of

unwanted files/directories
 $ rm [-i] file …
 It is interactive removal (option –i) of

specified files.
 $ rm -r directory …
 It is recursive deletion of all files within the

specified directories and also the directories


themselves.

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Commands In Linux
 Wild characters
 ^ beginning of the line
 $ end of the line
 ? Matches any character
 [ ] set of characters character hyphen(-)
represents range
 { } a number enclosed in it specifies the
number of times the preceding
expression is to be
repeated
 ! represents negation

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Linux Users
 Users
1. Super user
2. Owner
3. Group
4. Others

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Commands In Linux
 $ chmod
 The command changes file permission.

 Using absolute value.


4 - Read, 2 - Write, 1 – Execute

 $ chmod 740 zz

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Commands In Linux
 Using Symbolic Mode
Code Meaning
a all
u user
g group
o other
+ add
- remove
= assign

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Commands In Linux
 $ umask
 The command changes initial Permission of

newly created file.


 The value of the argument can be calculated
by subtracting the mode you want as default
from the current default mode.
 Assume the current default mode is 0666 and
you want it as 0644 then 666 – 644 = 022 will
be the parameter which we have to pass with
umask command.
 $umask 0 – sets default mode which is 0666.

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Text Manipulation Commands
 Filters :
 Filters : A filter is a shell command which takes
input from the standard input, processes it,
and sends its output to the standard output.
 At run time, the system supplies data to the
filter as standard input. This std input file can
not be altered by the program.

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Text Manipulation Commands
 An important characteristic of filter is that all
the input, output and error channels have the
same structure. They are all unstructured
byte streams data delimited by an end-of-data
marker.
 Some widely used filters in Unix are: sort,
grep, and wc.
 Filters allows the users to create the complex
programs from the simpler programs.
 The commands cp, mv and cd are not filter
commands.
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Text Manipulation Commands
 wc : word count.
 $ wc -[wlc] [filename]
 head : displays first ‘n’ lines
 $ head -[n] [filename]
 tail : displays last ‘n’ lines
 $ tail -[n] [filename]
 split : divides files horizontally
 $ split -[n] [filename]
 we get m subfiles of size n (xaa, xab,…).

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Text Manipulation Commands

$ cut -[cfd] [filename]


-c characters
-f field no
-d field separator

$ cut -c2-5 sample


cuts characters from 2 to 5 from file sample.
continued...

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Text Manipulation Commands
 $ cut -c1,2 file
 cuts 1st and 2nd characters from file.

 $ cut -d” “ -f1-2 file


 cuts first 2 fields of the file.

 $ cut -c2- names


 cuts from 2nd char to the end of line.

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Text Manipulation Commands
 paste: join files column-wise
 $ paste -d[field separator] [list of files]

 uniq: removes duplicate lines from a sorted file


 $ uniq –[dcf] [file]

-d only print duplicate lines


-c prefix lines with number of
occurences
-f2 avoid comparing first two
fields.

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Text Manipulation Commands
 sort: Sorting text files
 Self study.
 Try to find out different options for this
command using man pages.

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Text Manipulation Commands
 tee: read from standard input and write to
standard output and files
 $ls –l | tee dircontents
 displays the directory contents on the
standard output as well as stores them to
file dircontents.
 nl: number lines of files
 nl –[options] [files]

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Text Manipulation Commands
 tr : Translating Characters.
$ tr [options] < [file]
-d : deletes specified characters.
-cd : do not delete specified characters.
-s : substitute characters.
$ tr “abc” “ABC” < samp : replaces all
occurrences of a with A, b with B, c with C.

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Commands In Linux
 grep: it is called as global regular
expression pattern. It searches for a
given pattern in the file(s)
 $ grep -[cvnl] [pattern] [files]
 Option Description
-c counts the total no of lines
containing that pattern.
-v displays all the lines not containing
that pattern.
-n displays lines with line no.
-l displays file names containing the
pattern. 46
Commands In Linux
 fgrep: fast searching for fixed strings
 It handles fixed character strings as text
patterns.
 It cannot process wild-card matches, character
classes.
 egrep: used to search with full regular
expressions.
 It is called as extended grep.
 egrep ‘ (Ravi|Ravindra) Joshi ‘ employee.txt

 This will search for Ravi Joshi as well as

for Ravindra Joshi


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Commands In Linux
 $ ps
 It shows process status.

 Display the attribute of a process.


 Options
 $ ps -f --> Full option
 $ ps -f -u itp5 --> gives processes of user

itp5
 $ ps -a --> all users processes.
 $ ps -e --> all processes on the
system including
system processes. 48
Commands In Linux
 $ kill
 The command is used to terminate a

process. The command uses one or more


PIDs as its arguments.
 $ Kill 105
 It will terminate job with PID 105.

 $ kill -9 121
 The option –9 indicates sure kill signal.

 $ kill $!
 The system variable $! Stores the PID of the

last background job.


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Commands In Linux
 To execute any process in background just
use & at the end of the command.
 $ sh test &

 To bring the process in foreground use fg


 To check out jobs currently running in
background use command --> jobs
 $ jobs

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The Environment
 The Unix system is controlled by a number of
shell variables that are separately set by the
system some during boot sequence, and some
after logging in. These variables are called
system variables or environment variables.
 The set statement displays the complete list of
all these variables. Built-in variable names are
defined in uppercase.

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The Environment
 The PATH : is a variable that instructs the shell
about the route it should follow to locate any
executable command.
 The HOME : when you log in, UNIX normally
places you in a directory named after your
login name.
 The MAIL : determines where all incoming mail
addressed to the user is to be stored.
 The PS1 and PS2 : PS1 - your command
prompt and PS2-Multi-line command string.
 The SHELL: determines the type of shell that a
user sees on logging in.
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The Environment
 .bash_profile : the script executed during login
time. Every time you make changes to it, you
should log out and log in again.
 The .bash_profile must be located in your
home directory, and it is executed after
/etc/profile, the universal profile for all users.
Universal environment settings are kept by the
administrator in /etc/profile so that they are
available to all users.

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The Environment
 ALIASES : it allows you to assign short-hand
names for commands you may be using quite
frequently. This is done with the alias
statement. Consider following ex.
 $ alias l=‘ls -l’

 Aliases are listed when the alias statement is


used without argument.
 The alias feature also allows you to incorporate
positional parameters as variables in an alias.
For ex.
 $ alias showdir=‘cd $1 ; ls -l’

 When you want to see the contents of the


directory /home/itp5 use the alias as 54
The Environment
 Setting the Environment variable:
 Environment variables can provide a way of
storing information that you need to use often
from the shell.
 Assigning a value to a variable will set an
environment variable temporarily. For
example:
 $ x=50
 This example will set value 50 to the variable
x. Use the export (discussed latter) command
to export the value to the shell so that it can
be propagated to other shells you may open.
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The Environment
 The variable will not be available if you exit
the shell. Add these variables to configuration
files (discussed earlier) to set them
permanently.
 If you no longer want a variable to be set, you
can use the unset command to erase its
value.
 For example
 $ unset x
 This command will cause x to have no value
set.
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The Environment
 By default,the values stored in shell variables
are local to the shell, i.e., they are available
only in the shell in which they are defined.
They are not passed on to a child shell. But
the shell can also export those variables
recursively to all child processes so that, once
defined, they are available globally. This is
done with the export command.
 For example, consider a simple script
 $vi exporttest.sh

echo the value of x is $x
– x=50
– echo the new value of x is $x 57
The Environment
 Now at the command prompt, first assign
value 25 to x, and then execute the above
script and observe, we will get following output
 $ x=25
 $ ./exporttest.sh
 the value of x is
 the new value of x is 50
 $ echo $x
 $ 25
 Because x is a local variable in the login shell,
its value can’t be accessed in the script
exporttest.sh.
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The Environment
 We will use the export command and observe
the change.
 $ x=25
 $ export x
 $ ./exporttest.sh
 the value of x is 25
 the new value of x is 50
 $ echo $x
 25
 When x is exported, its assigned value 25 is
available in the script. A reassignment (x=50)
in the script which is a sub-shell, is not seen in
the parent shell which executed the script. 59
The Environment
 Executing commands from a file: . (dot)
 If we have a list of commands in a file sample
then we can execute it using command .
sample
 It is like executing a shell script, but with
following difference:
 Standard shell scripts cause a new sub shell

to be created to run the script. The dot


command, uses the same shell and it just
needs redirection to take the commands
from the file instead of from the keyboard.
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The Environment
 The dot command can change the value of a
shell variable in the current shell.
 The export command lets you pass a variable’s
value from parent shell to child shell, but there
is no comparable mechanism for passing a
value from child to parent.
 The dot command, however, creates no child
process, so any changes it produces apply to
the original shell.
 It also doesn’t require the script to have
executable permission.

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The Environment
 For example, consider the simple script
 $vi dottest.sh
– echo the value of x is $x
– x=50
– echo the new value of x is $x
 Now we will observe the change by exporting
variable x and executing the script using dot
command.

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The Environment
 $ x=25
 $ export x

 $ . dottest.sh

 $ the value of x is 25

 $ the new value of x is 50

 $ echo $x

 $ 50

 When x is exported, its assigned value 25 is


available in the script. A reassignment (x=50)
in the script has also changed the value of x in
the parent shell which executed the script.
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The vi Editor
A vi session begins by invoking the command
“vi” with or without a filename.
$ vi
After executing this command you will get a
full empty screen, each line beginning with a
~(tilde). The last line in the screen is reserved
for some commands that you can enter to act
on the text. This line is also used by the
system to display messages.

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Modes of operation
The three different modes of operations are:
• Command mode : This is the mode where you
can pass the commands to act on the text,
using most of the keys of the keyboard.
Example: Key “x” is used to delete the
character at the cursor position.
You can switch to this mode using “ESC” key.
contd..

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Modes of operation
• Insert (Input) mode: To enter the text, you
have to enter into input mode. Press key “i”
to enter into insert mode from command
mode.
• ex mode or line mode : You have to save your
file or switch to another file or make a global
substitution in the file. You then have to use
ex mode, where you can enter the instruction
in the last line of the screen. To enter into this
mode press “ESC” & “:”
Example: ex mode command “:wq” will save
the current file and will quit from the editor.
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Text insertion commands
Command Description
2. i inserts text at cursor position
3. a inserts text after cursor
position
4. I inserts text at beginning of line
5. A inserts text after end of line
6. o opens line below current line to
insert text
7. O opens line above current line
to insert text
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Cursor movement commands
Command Description
2. h left by one character
3. l right by one character
4. k up by one line
5. j down by one line
6. w right by one word
7. b left by one word
8. 0 beginning of line
9. $ end of line

68
Text deletion commands
Command Description
2. x character under cursor
3. X character before cursor
4. dw word
5. d0 beginning to cursor position
6. d$ cursor position to end of line
7. [n]dd n lines from current line
8. [n]dd p p will paste deleted lines to
current cursor position.
Equivalent to Ctrl-X and
Ctrl-V [in Windows]

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Text copy commands
Command Description
2. y character
3. y0 beginning to cursor position
4. y$ cursor position to end of line
5. yw word
6. [n]yy n lines from current line in to
the buffer
7. [n]yy p p will paste copied lines to
current cursor position.
Equivalent to Ctrl-C
and Ctrl-V [in windows]

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Text modification commands
Command Description
• nc [space] overwrites next n characters
• c0 overwrites the portion between
beginning of line to
cursor position
• c$ overwrites the portion between
cursor to end of line
• cw overwrites current word
• :[addr1,addr2]s/pattern1/pattern2[/g]
globally replaces pattern1 with
pattern2 on the specified
lines
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File related commands
Command Description
• ZZ or :wq save and exit
• :w save & continue editing
• :q! quit without saving
• :r filnam insert file filnam
• :[addr1,addr2]w filname
write the lines between line
number addr1 and line number
addr2 in the file filname

contd..

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File related commands
Command Description
1. “a4yy copy 4 lines into buffer a
2. “ap paste contents of buffer a to
current cursor position.
Maximum 26 buffers are
available buffer having
names “a” to “z”
4. ctrl-v select particular columns
5. “byy copy selected into buffer b
6. “bp paste contents of buffer b to
current cursor position.

contd.. 73
File related commands
Command Description
• 1,$s/source/target/ substitute string source
by string target from
line number 1 to last
line
• u undo last change on the line
• U undo last changes on the line
• Ctrl-R redo the undone
changes.
• e edit multiple files
• e# return to original file
• rew back to first file in command
line 74
Visual mode commands
Command Description
2. v_u converts the character to
lower case
3. v_U converts the character to
upper case
4. sp splitting window
5. Ctrl-w toggle between windows
6. <Ctrl-w>j moves to lower window
7. <Ctrl-w>k moves to upper window

75
Customizing vi
 The set command
 When the string “no” is prefixed to any
option, it indicates that the option is
inoperative.
Command Description
4. :Set all displays all set option
5. :set autoindent does automatic
indentation
6. :set number shows all line duly
numbered
7. :set showmatch helps to locate matching
brackets
8. :set tabstop=5 sets tab=5 for display 76
Advanced Commands
 The .exrc File and exinit : all sets, maps and
abbreviations can be conveniently stored in
the file $HOME/.exrc
 Vi looks for this file on startup and executes
the instructions as ex mode command

77
Shell Programming
 When a group of commands has to be
executed regularly, they are stored in a file.
All such files are called shell scripts, shell
programs, or shell procedures.
 There is no restrictions on extension of these
files, but conventionally extension .sh is used
for a shell program.
 You can use the vi editor to create the shell
script.

78
Shell Programming
 You can execute the shell scripts using either
command sh or by just typing shell script
name at the prompt (make sure that you have
execute permission).
 $ sh test.sh
 $ test.sh
 $ ./test.sh

79
Shell Programming
 User-created Shell Variables :
variable=value => will assign value to
variable.
$variable => will print value of
the variable.
 Command echo : it displays message on the

screen. Consider following ex.


$ var=hello
$ echo $var “$var” ‘$var’
with this the output will be
$ hello hello $var
2. read var => will read value from keyboard
to var. 80
Shell Programming
 Operators
Arithmetic : + - / * %
Relational : -lt -le -gt -ge –eq –ne
Logical : -a -o
 Expression
expr 10 + 20
 Assignment statement.
x=77
 Command substitution: when a command is
enclosed in back quotes, the command is
replaced by the output it produces. Ex. The
command
81
x=`expr $x + 1` will set x=78
Shell Programming
 Shell Metacharacters:
 Wildcard substitution: * ? []

 Redirection: > >> < 2> <<

 Piping: |

 Command substitution: ``

 Sequential commands: semicolon (;)

 Inserting comment: #

 Command grouping: () parenthesis

 Ex. (date; cat employee.txt) > Report

 This will copy contents of employee.txt

with current date to a file Report.


82
Shell Programming
 Creating a here document (<< operator):
 It allows a shell script to get its input from the
same file that holds the script.
 Data used this way is said to be in a here
document.
 To create a here document, we use the <<
operator.
 Any command using standard input can also
have the input from a here document.
 The here document symbol (<<) followed by
the data, and a delimiter (the termination
string). 83
Shell Programming
 The example for here document
 $ wc << EOF

 >This is for testing the here document. It

will >give us the count of lines, words and


characters >till the terminator given after
here document >symbol, the terminator
which is the EOF.
 We will get output of the command as number
of lines, words, characters till first occurrence
of the EOF symbol in the script
 We can use any string as a terminator.
84
Shell Programming
 Debugging the scripts
 Command set is used for debugging purpose
 The –v option of sh causes the shell to echo
each command before it is executed.
 Command Action
5. set –v sets the debugging
mode on
6. sh –v sample.sh echoes each command of
script sample.sh
before it is executed
7. set +v turns off –v option of sh
 We can also use –x option. What is
difference? 85
Shell Programming
 Conditional Statement – if then else
 Syntax:
if test <condition>
then
command1
command2
else
command3
fi
 The if statement takes two-way decisions
depending on the condition .
86
Shell Programming
 String Tests used by the command test
String Comparison True if
string1 = string2 strings equal
string1 != string2 strings not equal
-n string string not null
-z string string is null

87
Shell Programming
 Arithmetic expression comparisons used by
the command test
Arithmetic comparison True if
expr1 -eq expr2 expressions equal
expr1 -ne expr2 expressions not
equal
expr1 -gt expr2 expr1 > expr2
expr1 -ge expr2 expr1 >= expr2
expr1 -lt expr2 expr1 < expr2
expr1 -le expr2 expr1 <=expr2
! expression expression is false
88
Shell Programming
 String Tests used by the command test
Test True if
-d file file exists and is a directory
-e file file exists
-f file file exists and is a regular file
-r file file exists and is a readable
-s file file exists and has a size > 0
-w file file exists and is a writable
-x file file exists and is a executable

89
Shell Programming
 Conditional Statement - case
 Syntax:
case $value in
val1) command1
command2;;
val2) command3;;
….
*) command4;;
esac
 The statement matches an expression for
more than one alternative, and permits multi-
way branching. 90
Shell Programming
 Example of case statement:
echo “Enter the color”
read color
case $color in
Red | red) echo “You have selected red
color”;;
Blue | blue) echo “You have selected blue
color”;;
*) echo “Sorry! Yet to add this color in our
list”
esac 91
Shell Programming
 Loop Statement - while
 Syntax:
while test <condition>
do
command1
command2
done
 While statement repeatedly performs a set of
instructions till the control command returns a
true exit status.

92
Shell Programming
 Loop Statement – until
 Syntax:
until test <condition>
do
command1
command2
done
 The set of instructions is executed repeatedly
as long as the condition remains false.
 The until statement complements the while
statement.
93
Shell Programming
 Unconditional loop – for
 Syntax
for <var> in <val1 val2 …>
do
command1
command2
done
 The loop body (do-done) is executed as many
times as there are items in the list. It doesn’t
test condition but uses a list.

94
Shell Programming
 Example of for statement
 Assume file “Users.txt” contains names of
users.
for name in `cat Users.txt`
do
echo Hello, $name
done
 This statement when executed, will print the
message “Hello, user-name” for each user
name from the file.
95
Shell Programming
 Command Line parameters (positional
parameters)
 When arguments are specified with a shell
script, they are assigned to variables called
positional parameters.
 The first argument is read by the shell into the
parameter $1, the second into the parameter
$2, and so on.
 The $# represents total no of arguments
passed to the script.
 The command is assigned to a variable $0.
 You can use these variables up to $9.
96
Shell Programming
 The $* indicates all arguments, in a single
variable, separated by the first character in
the environment variable IFS
 The $@ is same as $* except when enclosed in
double quotes.
 The “$@” works with string input.
 The parameter $? stores the exit status of the
last command. On success, the command
stores value 0 in $?, and a non-zero value if it
fails.

97
Shell Programming
 set : Assigning values to positional
parameters.
 $ set 23 532
 The command assigns value 23 to the
positional parameter $1, value 532 to $2.
 It also sets $#, $*.

98
Shell Programming
 shift : shifting arguments to left.
 The command shift copies the contents of a
positional parameter to its immediate lower
numbered positional parameter. When called
once, contents of $2 are copied to $1, $3 to $2
and so on.
 $ shift 2

 The command does two shifts i.e. $1=$3,

$2=$4, and so on.


 Using shift command we can use more than 9
command line parameters.
99
Shell Programming
 Finding the length of the string:
 The regular expression .* signifies to command
expr that it has to print the number of
characters matching the pattern, i.e., the
length of the entire string.
 We can also use keyword length with
command expr
 $ expr “abcd” : “.*”
 $4
 $ expr length “abcd”
 $4

100
Shell Programming
 Command grouping using parenthesis ()
 Commands are grouped using parenthesis ()
 Using parenthesis, we can collectively redirect
the standard output of two commands with a
single redirection symbol.
 For example:
 $ (date; cat employee.txt) > Report.txt

 This will redirect the collective output which is


current date and employee.txt file contents to
Report.txt file.

101
Shell Programming
 Command grouping using curly braces {}
 The curly braces {} are also used to group
commands.
 The difference between () and {} is that
parenthesis () executes the commands group
in a sub-shell, while the curly braces {} uses
the current shell only.
 The closing curly brace must be on a separate
line by itself, or simply terminate the last
command with a semi-colon.
 For example, observe output of the following:
 $ pwd ; ( cd /home/ravindra/test ; pwd) ;

pwd 102
Shell Programming
 Shell Functions:
 A function consists of a group of statements
which are executed together as a bunch.
 For function we need function definition (body
of function) and function call.
 A shell function must precede the statements
that call it.
 The return statement, when present, returns a
value representing the success or failure of the
function.
 The return statement is optional.
103
Shell Programming
 The syntax for function definition:
 function_test() {

 Command1

 Command2


Command3

return value
 }

 When function is invoked it executes all the


commands enclosed by the curly braces.
 Use only function name (function_test ) to
invoke it.
104
Shell Programming
 Shell functions can be defined at a number of
places:
 At the beginning of every script

 In a separate file, so that other scripts can

also use them


 In the .bash_profile, so that they are

available in the current session


 If we store the functions in a file called
function_library then you must include this file
in your script using dot command as follows:
 $ . function_library
105
Shell Programming
 The positional parameters made available to
shell scripts externally are not available
directly to a shell function.
 We have to store these parameters in the shell
variables and then pass them to the function.
 The parameters are passed on the function call
statement itself.
 These parameters are accessed in the function
using system variables $1, $2, etc.

106
Advanced Filter - awk
 AWK Programming.
 Aho, Weinberger, Kernighan
 A typical and complete awk command
specifies address and an action.
 $ awk ‘/unix/ { print }’ filename

 the address section /unix/ selects lines that are


processed in the action section { print }
 the print statement, when used without any
field specifiers, prints entire line.

107
Advanced Filter - awk
 Splitting a line into fields : awk uses the
special “variable” $0 to indicate the entire
line. It also identifies fields by $1, $2, $3, etc.
 awk uses -F option for indicating the field
separator.
 For ex. password file contains colon (:)
separated fields.
 So if you have to use awk you can use as
 $ awk -F”:” ‘/itp/ { print $1, $3, $2 }’

passwd

108
Advanced Filter - awk
 The logical and relational operators.
 $ awk -F”:” ‘$1 == “itp3” || $1 == “itp5” {

printf “%-20s %-12s “ , $2, $5}’ passwd


 The awk can also handle numbers, both
integer and floating type, and all the relational
tests can be handled by awk. (ex. <,<=,==,
etc)
 awk has certain built-in variables, like NR-
cumulative record no and $0 (whole record)
 $ awk ‘NR == 3, NR ==5 { print $3, $4 }’

tex
109
Advanced Filter - awk
 Storing awk Programs in a File
 Large awk programs should be stored in files.
The extension should be preferable .awk to
distinguish it from other files.No quotes are
used to enclose the awk program.
 $ vi test.awk

 NR == 3, NR ==5 {print $3, $4}

 you can use awk with -f to get result as


 $ awk -f test.awk text

110
Advanced Filter - awk
 The BEGIN and END sections
 these are optional, and take the form
 BEGIN { action }
 END { action }
 you can use them to print a suitable heading
at the beginning and the average salary at the
end. Always start the opening brace in the
same line the section (BEGIN or END) begins.

111
Advanced Filter - awk
 Built-In variables:
 NR cumulative no of records read
 FS input field separator
 OFS output field separator
 NF number of fields in current record
 FILENAME current input file

112
Advanced Filter - awk
 FUNCTIONS : awk has several built-in functions
for arithmetic and string operation
 int(x) returns integer value of x
 sqrt(x) returns sqare root of x
 length returns length of complete record
 length(x) returns length of x
 substr(s1,s2,s3) returns portion of string of
length s3, starting from position s2 in str s1

113
Advanced Filter - awk
 CONTROL FLOW : awk has practically all the
features of a modern programming language.
 If statement :
 if($5 >20000)
 interest = 0.10 * $5
 else
 interest = 0.05 * $5

114
Advanced Filter - awk
 Looping with for
 for( i=1; i<10; i++)
 Looping with while
 while ( i < 10)
 print $2 * i

115
Thanks!
Contact - Sharda Centre - ext. 5160

116