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OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN HANDBOOK

Version 7.0
Date August 2009

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES

2.1
3

Basic Methodology
ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS

9
11

3.1

Clearance and Spacing for Overhead Lines

11

3.2

Tower top geometry

13

3.3

Transpositions

15

SELECTION OF CONDUCTOR
Steady state thermal current rating
Short-circuit thermal current rating

15
15
15

Conductor long term electrical performance


Conductor Limit states

16
16

4.1

17

Sag-tension calculation

INSULATOR DESIGN
Design for pollution

17
18

BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN


6.1.1
Determination of height
6.1.2
Loading on Structures
6.1.3
Limit State Design

22
22
22
23

ACTION ON LINES

24

SUPPORTS

26

FOUNDATION DESIGN

27

10

EARTHING

30

Earthing and Insulation of Stay Wires

33

Conductor Failure Protection

33

Broken Stay Wire Protection

33

11

WORKED EXAMPLES

36

11.1

Electrical Clearances between conductors

36

11.2

Determination of conductor rating

37

References

38

11.3

38

Design for lightning performance

11.4 Electrical and Mechanical Design for Insulators


11.4.1 Design for pollution
11.4.2 Design for power frequency voltages (Wet withstand requirement)
11.4.3 Design for switching surge voltages
11.4.4 Selection of Insulator to meet Electrical Performance
11.4.5 Insulator mechanical design

40
40
41
41
41
43

References

43

11.5 Limit State Design Worked Examples


11.5.1 Pole Tip Load Calculation
CALCULATIONS
Distibution Worked Example 3

44
45
52
54

SWING ANGLE CALCULATIONS

56

APPENDICES

57

APPENDICES

57

11.6

Conductor Clashing

57

12

ROUTE SELECTION PROCESS

59

12.1

Risk Management Principle

59

12.2

Prudent Avoidance Principle

59

12.3

Aesthetic Considerations

59

12.4

Electric and Magnetic Fields

60

13

LAYOUT DESIGN PROCESS

60

Terrain

61

Terrain Model

61

Alignment

62

13.1

Pole Locations in Traffic Corridors

72

13.2

Railway and Tramway Crossings

73

13.3

Waterway Crossings

73

13.4

Co-ordination with other Services

73

13.5

Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft

74

13.6

Rural Activities in Proximity to Line

74

13.7

Ruling Span

75

14

COST OF OVERHEAD LINE (BY COMPONENTS)

75

15

GUIDELINES FOR POLE LOCATION

77

15.1

Acceptable Location of Poles in Road Corridors

77

15.2

Special Considerations for Slip based poles

77

15.3

Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft

78

15.4

Country Line Road Crossings

79

15.5 Markers
Permanent Markers
Temporary Markers
Over Crossing Markers

79
79
80
80

16

VEGETATION CLEARANCES

80

17

LIST OF AVAILABLE LINE DESIGN PROGRAMS

83

18
COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX B WIND LOADS
Figure B 1 Wind Regions for Australian Design Wind Gust Types
B4. Downdraft wind regions (Australia Zone II and Zone III and New Zealand Zones
Region A 7 )
B4.1 Downdraft Winds

84
84
85
85

19
COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX D - GUIDELINES ON SERVICE LIFE OF
OVERHEAD LINES

88

20

89

COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX F - TIMBER POLES

Clause F1

General

90

Clause F1.2 Characteristic strengths and elastic moduli


21

COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX I - CONCRETE POLES

22

APPENDIX L - STRUCTURE FOOTING DESIGN

L1

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

L2 GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS

90
97
100
100
100

L3 FOOTING DESIGN OF DIRECTLY EMBEDDED OVERHEAD LINE POLES FOR


LATERAL LOADS AND MOMENTS
101
3.1.1 Bearing strength
104
3.2 Shear strength
105
3.3 FOOTINGS AND EMBEDMENT DEPTH IN SOILS
23

LOW VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE

105
82

1.2 general

82

1.3 Aerial cable


1.3.1 Supports
1.3.2 Cable tension
1.3.3 Clearances

82
82
82
82

1.4 Facade cable


1.4.1 Mechanical design
1.4.2 Clearances

82
83
83

1.5 References

84

24

85

HIGH VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE

1.6 General

85

1.7 Mechanical

85

1.8 Electrical

85

1.9 Clearances

86

1.10 references

86

25

86

COVERED CONDUCTOR SYSTEMS

1.11 general

86

1.12 CC

86

1.13 CCt

86

1.14 Clearances

87

1.15 references

87

26

88

SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS

SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS FOR HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS

88

THERMAL LIMITS
General
Maximum design operating temperatures
Conductor permanent elongation
Fault ratings

88
88
89
91
92

Handbook for the Overhead Line Design Standard


1

INTRODUCTION

Scope
This Handbook is the second in the Overhead Line Design Standard suite of documents and is a
companion to the Standard. The Handbook steps the Designer through the design process with
application guidelines, relevant information and worked examples which comply with the
Overhead Line Design Standard.
The application guidelines will apply to both transmission and distribution lines used in Australia.
Typical distribution voltages in Australia and New Zealand are at 33 kV, 11 kV and 415/240
volts, commonly referred to as low voltage. Typical sub-transmission voltages in Australia and
New Zealand are; 66 kV and 110/132 kV and transmission voltages are; 220 kV, 275 kV, 330 kV
and 500 kV.
In particular, the Handbook has an emphasis on pole type sub-transmission and distribution lines.
An overview of the steps in the Overhead Line Design process is given in the flowchart below.

Determine Design Inputs / Parameters


Select Route
Select Conductor Type
Select Structure Suite
Conduct Route Survey and Draw Ground Line Profile
Nominate Structure Type/Strength, Height and Position
Produce Layout Design
Establish Final Electrical Parameters
Obtain Relevant Approvals
Produce Detailed Drawings and Specification
Conduct Design Review and Verification
Provide Design Support for Construction
Conduct Audit and Relevant Tests
Document As-Constructed Records
Monitor Performance of Overhead Line

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES
2.1

Basic Methodology

The design methodology involves the development of a suite of appropriate structures, insulation
and constructions for use at the various voltage levels to comply with the Overhead Line Design
Standard. The overhead line has to perform with suitable levels of reliability and security for the
weather loads expected in the region for its intended life.
Reliability levels
All overhead lines should be designed for a selected reliability level relevant to the lines
importance to the system (including consideration of system redundancy), its location and
exposure to climatic conditions, and with due consideration for public safety.
Design Working and Service Life
The design life, or target nominal service life expectancy, of the line is dependent on its exposure to
a number of variable factors such as solar radiation, temperature, precipitation, wind, ice, and
seismic effects.

The service life of an overhead line is the period over which it will continue to serve its intended
purpose safely, without undue maintenance or repair disproportionate to its cost of replacement
and without exceeding any specified serviceability criteria.
Structural components of the support must be able to withstand the ultimate design loadings
without failure within this period. This may include providing allowance for a reducing load
factor over time due to progressive degradation such as soft rot in timber pole elements and
corrosion of steel elements.
Security levels
Clause 6.2.1 of the Standard provides a framework for the designer to evaluate and select a standard of
design to suit a relevant security level appropriate to a particular line or a line construction class or type.
In this evaluation consideration must be given to the lines importance to the system (including any system
redundancy), its location, exposure to extreme climatic conditions, public safety and design working life.
Initially a generic Security Level is selected (as set out in Clause 6.2.2 of the Standard) to reflect the
importance of the line within the network.

Level I

Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line may be tolerable


with respect to social and economic consequences. (Normal distribution
lines)

Level II

Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line would cause


negligible danger to life and property and alternative arrangements can
be provided if loss of support services occurs. (Higher security
distribution lines and normal transmission lines)

Level III

Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line would cause


unacceptable danger to life or significant economic loss to the
community and sever vital post disaster services. (Higher security
transmission lines)

Table 6.1 of the Standard provides Reliability load multipliers for each Security Level relative to a range
of design working life options.
The design wind loads for an overhead line are be based on 50-year return period wind speeds
as defined in AS/NZ 1170.2. The calculated wind loads shall be then multiplied by an
appropriate reliability load multiplier based on the required security level and design life as
selected from Table 6.1.
As the design working life or security level increase so to do the wind and other applied loads
proportionally increase as the load multiplier increases.

TABLE 6.1
RELIABILITY MULTIPLIER FOR DESIGN WORKING LIFE AND
LINE SECURITY LEVELS
Minimum reliability load multiplier M rel
Line security level
Design working life

Level I

Level II

Level III

Temporary construction and construction


equipment, e.g. hurdles, scaffolding and
temporary line diversions with design life of
less than 6 months

0.67

0.67

0.77

< 5 years

0.77

0.9

1.0

25 years

0.9

1.0

1.2

50 years

1.0

1.2

1.4

100 years

1.2

1.4

1.4

These Multipliers are applied to loads derived from 50-year return period wind speeds as defined in
AS/NZ 1170.2.
AS/NZS1170.2 provides regional design wind velocities VR for a number of wind regions and design
return periods. The load multipliers tabulated in Table 6.1 above have been derived from an analysis of all
regional values of VR and expressed as a factor (VR /V50)2 against each design life.

When these load factors are applied, a probability of exceedance equivalent to that provided in AS/NZS
1170.2 for each of these return periods / design life values will be provided.
The standard also refers in Notes to Table 6.1 to giving consideration to the line length, number of
circuits and proximity to other lines or infrastructure, special exposed locations such as long span water or
valley crossings, or line locations where access is difficult (where time and cost to restore the construction
can be high). In these cases a higher security level could be adopted for a particular structure or short
sections of the line, or the whole line.
Design wind velocities greater than the regional value of V50 values in AS/NZS 1170.2 could be used if
considered more appropriate however the simplest approach is to increase the design working life.
.

Clause 6.2.4 of the standard sets out additional security requirements.


It requires that security requirements shall be provided in all designs to prevent or limit progressive or
cascading structure failures in the event of collapse or failure of a support structure resulting from any
external cause.
In general, on major transmission lines longitudinal design loads relevant to residual loads for broken or
terminated and aerial phase conductor are provided to meet this requirement. This is an important
consideration as restoration costs and disruption to supply in the event of structure failure can be
considerable.
On distribution overhead pole lines, pole deflection (usually rotational and lateral or longitudinal )
combined with partial foundation deformation, will occur when abnormal longitudinal loads are applied.
When a single pole structure fails and conductors are broken (due to say vehicle impact or storm debris
overload) the adjacent pole structures deflect such that they may provide sufficient release of load in the
conductors to limit the extent of damage, particularly when there is localized failure of the overhead line. It
is most probable when a single pole fails due to ground line failure the conductor system will most
probably restrain the pole from falling to the ground. However the conductor tensions in the adjacent spans
will increase dramatically and pose a maintenance work safety issue. Where more extensive overload
occurs due to major wind storm with extensive wind blown debris, or major flooding occurs the
containment potential provides some benefit in conserving major structure elements, whereas the aerial
conductors most probably will be brought down.

ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS
3.1

Clearance and Spacing for Overhead Lines

From safety considerations, overhead conductors should maintain requisite clearances to ground,
over roads, rivers, railways, tracks, telecommunication lines, other existing power lines.
The ground clearance for different voltages at maximum design temperature are given in Table 3
[ Table 3.7 of Overhead Line Design Standard].

TABLE 3
CLEARANCE FROM GROUND, LINES OTHER
THAN INSULATED SERVICE LINES
Distance to ground in any direction
m
Nominal system voltage
Over the
carriageway of
roads

Over land other


than the
carriageway of
roads

Over land which due to its


steepness or swampiness is
not traversable by
vehicles more than 3 m in
height

Bare or insulated conductor or any


other cable U 1000 V
OR

5.5

5.5

4.5

6.0

5.5

4.5

Insulated conductor with earthed


screen
U > 1000 V
Insulated conductor without earthed
screen U > 1000 V
Bare or covered conductor
1000 V <U 33 kV

6.7

5.5

4.5

33 V <U 132 kV

6.7

6.7

5.5

132 kV <U 275 kV

7.5

7.5

6.0

Other clearances given in the Overhead Line Design Standard are:

Clearances to Earthed Structures Table 3.5


HV AC Live Line Approach Distances Table 3.6
Clearances from Structures Table 3.8

A coverage of vegetation clearances are given in Appendix .


The spacing of conductors is determined by considerations, which are partly electrical and partly
mechanical. Usually conductors will swing synchronously (in phase) with the wind, but with long
spans and small size of conductors, there is always possibility of the conductors swinging nonsynchronously, and the size of the conductor and the maximum sag at the centre of the span are
factors, which should be taken into account in determining the phase distance apart at which they
should strung. As a rule of thumb, minimum horizontal spacing between conductors should not be
less than 1% of the span length in order to minimize the risk of phases coming into contact with
each other during swing.
The conductor separation in the Overhead Line Design Standard is as follows.

X 2 + (1.2Y ) 2

U
+ k D + li
150

where
X

is the projected horizontal distance in metres between the conductors at mid span;

3.2

is the projected vertical distance in metres between the conductors at mid span;

is the r.m.s. vector difference in potential (kV) between the two conductors when
each is operating at its nominal voltage.

is a constant, normally equal to 0.4. Where experience has shown that other
values are appropriate, these may be applied.

is the greater of the two conductor sags in metres at the centre of an equivalent
level span and at a conductor operating temperature of 50C in still air

Ii

is the length in metres of any free swing suspension insulator associated with
either conductor.

Tower top geometry

There are a number of electrical clearance which determine the tower top geometry. These
clearances are:
(A)

Maintenance approach and live line working under 100 Pa wind

(B)

Switching and lightning impulse flashover under 300 Pa wind

(C)

Power frequency flashover under 500 Pa wind

(D)

Hand reach under 100 Pa wind

These clearances are shown in Figure 2. To determine the swing angle from the wind pressure
Appendix R of the Detailed Procedure can be used with the following guidelines:
(1)

The transverse force is derived from the conductor diameter and wind span

(2)

The vertical force is derived from the conductor weight (N/metre) times the weight span

(3)

The minimum recommended weight to wind span ratio is 0.7

(4)

In general the weight and wind area of the insulator can be ignored

The vertical clearance between earthwire and top conductor, is governed by the desired lightning
performance and angle of shielding. The shield angle generally varies from about 250 to
400,depending on the configuration of conductors.

FIGURE 2 STRUCTURE GEOMETRY FOR 132 KV LINE SHOWING ELECTRICAL


CLEARANCES

Insulator Swing Angles T Gillespie


Produce worked example for insulator swing angle and blowout
Provide another drawing showing a line post insulator

Blowout clearance calculations are useful to determine clearances along the span to structures
along the route.
The recommended conditions for calculating blowout are:
(1)

500 Pa wind on conductor

(2)

15 deg C or ambient temperature applicable to the location of line

(3)

3.3

Include the horizontal displacement of a swinging insulator

Transpositions

Transpositions may be required on long transmission lines or heavily loaded lines to reduce the
level of negative sequence voltage unbalance and reduce the interference in adjacent
telecommunication circuits.

SELECTION OF CONDUCTOR

The selection of conductor size is primarily governed by two factors:


1. Electrical requirement
2. Mechanical strength
Electrical requirements
Steady state thermal current rating
The steady state thermal current rating of a conductor is the maximum current inducing the
maximum steady state temperature for a given ambient condition and is based on conductor heat
gain equals conductor heat loss that is
Pj + P s = P r + P c

where the heat gain terms are Pj which is the joule heating due to the resistance of the conductor
and Ps is the solar heat gain The heat loss terms are Pc which is natural and forced convection
cooling and Pr is the radiation cooling. The terms for heat gain for cyclic
Short-circuit thermal current rating
The short-circuit thermal current rating shall be based on adiabatic heating, that is due to the
transient nature of the current flow the conductor heat gain and loss at the surface of the conductor
shall be ignored. The rating is a function of the conductor cross sectional area, the thermal
conductivity of the conductor, the specific heat capacity of the conductor, the conductor resistivity,
the conductor temperature coefficient of resistance, the duration of the transient current, the
conductor initial temperature, the magnitude of the current and maximum permissible temperature.

Corona Effect

For high voltage lines generally above 100 kV, the conductor size may be determined on the
corona performance which can cause adverse impacts such as Radio Interference
Voltage (RIV), and Audible Noise. The surface voltage gradient on the conductor should be
around 16 kV/cm or less to limit the generation of corona discharges.

Conductor long term electrical performance


The long term performance of a conductor is dependent on the degree of electrical and mechanical
overload and the weathering effects. Conductors will suffer some degree of annealing (loss of
mechanical strength) and this is dependent on the operating and overload temperature on the
conductor.

Mechanical strength
The mechanical strength of the conductor is one of the major parameter during the selection of the
conductor of the line.
Conductor Limit states
The overhead line is considered intact when its conductors and or tension fittings are used at
stresses below their damage limit.
When subjected to increasing loads, conductors and or tension fittings may exhibit at some level,
permanent deformation particularly if the failure mode is ductile; or for wind induced aeolian
vibration, conductors may exhibit wire and or whole conductor fracture. This level is called the
damage limit and conductors and or tension fittings will be in damaged state if the conductors and
or tension fittings have exceeded the damage limit.
If the load is further increased, failure of the conductor and or tension fittings occurs at a level
called the failure limit. The conductors and or tension fittings will be in a failed state if the
conductors and or tension fittings have exceeded the failure limit.
The state of system and the damage and failure limits are illustrated in Figure 1 [ Section 2.2.1.2 of
Overhead Line Design Standard]

FIGURE 1 LIMIT STATES OF CONDUCTOR DESIGN

Table 2 gives the damage and failure limit for a bare conductor.

TABLE 2
DAMAGE AND FAILURE LIMITS OF CONDUCTORS
Conductors and tension fittings

Damage limit

Failure limit

Lowest of
Bare

vibration limit (see Note 1); or


0.5 conductor CBL (see Note 2)

0.7 conductor CBL (see Note 3)

Selection of Conductors G Brennan and G Bruce

Selection of Conductor Tensions


Topics to cover:
Fatigue endurance limit
Lower tensions based on service experience
Lower tensions for short spans
Adjacent span effects
4.1

Sag-tension calculation

The sag and tension of the conductor are subject to variations due to the changes in temperatures
and loading. For spans of the order of 300 meters and less, the sag and tension calculation can be
carried out by parabolic formula with sufficient degree of accuracy. For the case of very long
spans, catenary formula gives more accurate results than parabolic.
Parabolic formula:

SAG =

wL2
8T

Catenary formula:

SAG =

c cosh
2c

C = Horizontal Tension / Weight


Where:
L
= horizontal length (m)
c
= catenary constant (m)
T
= horizontal tension (N)
w
= weight of conductor (N/m)
5

INSULATOR DESIGN

Insulation is required to withstand the electrical and mechanical stresses applied to it during its
lifetime. The electrical stresses include power frequency, switching and lightning overvoltages and
the mechanical stresses include the tensile, compressive or cantilever loadings from conductor
tension and weight.

Air gap clearance refers to the minimum distance which must be maintained between the live
conductor and earthed metal parts of the support to avoid flashover. The minimum air clearance
has to be maintained even under the conditions of system over-voltages with the insulator strings
in the deflected position due to the action of wind pressure. The three types of over voltages
which can occur on overhead lines are:

1. Lightning induced
2. Switching surges
3. Power frequency over voltages
Design for pollution
For medium to high voltage lines, the pollution performance of the insulator usually dictates the
amount of insulation is required for the particular voltage. When determining the insulation
requirements in a contaminated environment, the following criteria need to be considered:
(a)

Creepage (or leakage) distance.

(b)

The ability of the material to endure the electrical activity without being degraded.

(c)

The shape of the insulator to assist in reducing the likelihood of contamination collection
and facilitate washing.

AS 4436 provides guidance on the selection of insulators for polluted conditions. The basic concept
is to increase the surface creepage distance so that it is long enough to prevent a pollution flashover
across the surface.

Mechanical Design of Insulators


Explanation of limit states T Gillespie
There are three states for the mechanical design of insulators identified in the Detailed Procedure, these
being the
(a) everyday load;
(b) serviceable wind load; and
(c) failure containment load.

WORKED EXAMPLES:
Transmission Line Insulator Examples
Calculate the strength of a tension ceramic disc insulator used for oxygen conductor strung to everyday
tension of 20% CBL.
Based on Appendix DD, the state to determine the mechanical design is the ultimate strength state.
(a)

failure containment load at 1300 Pa

Conductor tension at 1300 Pa = 39162 N


Component strength factor for ceramic insulator = 0.8 (Table 6.5)
Minimum insulator ultimate strength = 39162 / 0.8 = 48952 N
Calculate the strength of a composite line post insulator used to support oxygen conductor in a clamp top
with a weight of 0.925 kg/metre, weight span of 200 metres, and strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL.
(b)

everyday load

Conductor weight = 0.925 * 9.806* 200 N = 1814 N


Longitudinal load for 3:1 adjacent span ratio, and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 5000 N

Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (1814^2 * 5000^2) = 5318 N


Component strength factor for composite post insulator = 0.9 (Table 6.5)
Insulator maximum design cantilever load = 5318 / 0.9 = 5909 N
Note: The maximum design cantilever load of a post insulator is typically 40 to 50% of the ultimate
strength.
(c)

serviceable wind load at 500 Pa

Conductor weight = 0.925 * 9.806* 200 N = 1814 N


Longitudinal load for 3:1 adjacent span ratio, and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 5000 N
Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (1814^2 + 5000^2) = 5318 N
Insulator ultimate cantilever strength without transverse load = 5318 / 0.9 = 5909 N
Transverse compressive load = 0.0238*500*200 = 2380 N
Simplified method:
Compressive strength of 2.5 inch line post = 50 kN
Derating factor = 1-2380 / 50000 = 0.94
Insulator maximum design cantilever load with transverse load = 5909 / 0.94 = 6200 N
(d)

failure containment load at 1300 Pa

Conductor weight = 0.925 * 9.806* 200 N = 1814 N


Longitudinal load for 3:1 adjacent span ratio, and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 5000 N
Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (1814^2 * 5000^2) = 5318 N
Insulator ultimate cantilever strength without transverse load = 5318 / 0.9 = 5909 N
Transverse compressive load = 0.0238*1300*200 = 6188 N
Simplified method:
Compressive strength of 2.5 inch line post = 50 kN
Derating factor = 1- 6188 / 50000 = 0.87
Insulator maximum design cantilever strength with transverse load = 5909 / 0.87 = 6800 N
Comments:
(1)

The determining state is the failure containment load where the maximum design
cantilever strength is 6800 N.

(2)

A 2.5 inch post insulator is typically rated at 6 kN MDCL and is not appropriate for
this load

(3)

The design options to support the failure containment load are:

Brace 2.5 inch post with a long rod insulator

Limit the line layout to an adjacent span ratio of 2 or less

Use a 3 inch post which has a MDCL of around 9 kN

Calculate the strength of a suspension composite long rod used to support oxygen conductor with a weight
of 0.925 kg/metre, weight and wind span of 400 metres, and strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL. For
broken conductor condition assume a serviceable wind of 500 Pa.
(a)

everyday load

Conductor weight = 0.925 * 9.806* 400 N = 3628 N


Assume no longitudinal load due to free swinging insulator
Component strength factor for long rod insulator = 0.5 (Table 6.5)
Insulator specified mechanical load = 3628 / 0.5 = 7256 N
(b)

ultimate strength state under 1300 Pa wind

Conductor weight = 0.925 * 9.806* 400 N = 3628 N


Assume no longitudinal load due to free swinging insulator
Transverse load = 0.0238 * 1300 * 400 N = 12376
Resultant load = SQRT (3628^2 + 12376^2) = 12896 N
Component strength factor for long rod insulator = 0.5 (Table 6.5)
Insulator specified mechanical load = 12896 / 0.5 = 25793 N
(c)

failing containment load under broken conductor

Longitudinal load = 22700 N * 0.7 factor (load relief due to insulator swing) = 15890 N
Component strength factor for long rod insulator = 0.5 (Table 6.5)
Insulator specified mechanical load = 15890 / 0.5 = 31780 N
Comments:
(4)

The determining state is the failure containment load under broken conductor
conditions

(5)

The minimum recommended size for the suspension insulator is 111 kN (specified
mechanical load). The SML is a one minute withstand load.

(6)

If a ceramic disc insulator would be used, then the recommended minimum size is 70
kN (minimum breaking load).

(7)

The minimum recommended strengths are based on the requirement to achieve a


design life comparable to other line components

Distribution Line Insulator Examples


Calculate the strength of a tension ceramic disc insulator used for moon conductor strung to everyday
tension of 20% CBL.
(e)

failure containment load at 900 Pa

Conductor tension at 900 Pa = 8617 N


Component strength factor for ceramic insulator = 0.8 (Table 6.5)
Minimum insulator ultimate strength = 8617 / 0.8 = 10771 N
Refer to Note 1 in Appendix CC which states insulator strength to be greater than conductor CBL or
coordination of strength between conductor, insulator, fittings, crossarm and structure.
To achieve a long life for the ceramic disc insulator, the minimum standard of 70 kN is recommended.

Calculate the strength of a ceramic line post insulator used to support moon conductor in a clamp top with
a weight of 0.34 kg/metre, weight span of 100 metres, and strung to everyday tension of 20% CBL.
(f)

everyday load

Conductor weight = 0.34 * 9.806* 100 N = 333 N


Longitudinal load for 2:1 adjacent span ratio (75 and 150 m spans), and max operating temperature of 75
deg C = 3300 N
Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (333^2 * 3300^2) = 3316 N
Component strength factor for ceramic post insulator = 0.8 (Table 6.5)
Insulator minimum failing load = 3316 / 0.8 = 4145 N
(g)

serviceable wind load at 500 Pa

Conductor weight = 0.34 * 9.806* 100 N = 333 N


Longitudinal load for 2:1 adjacent span ratio, and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 3300 N
Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (333^2 * 3300^2) = 3316 N
Insulator minimum failing load without transverse load = 3316 / 0.8 = 4145 N
Transverse compressive load = 0.0143*500*100 = 715 N
Simplified method:
Compressive strength of ceramic post = 100 kN
Since the transverse compressive load is insignificant compared to the compressive strength of the ceramic
post, this can be ignored.
(h)

failure containment load at 900 Pa

Conductor weight = 0.34 * 9.806* 100 N = 333 N


Longitudinal load for 2:1 adjacent span ratio, and max operating temperature of 75 deg C = 3300 N
Resultant bending moment load = SQRT (333^2 * 3300^2) = 3316 N
Insulator minimum failing load without transverse load = 3316 / 0.8 = 4145 N
Transverse compressive load = 0.0143*900*100 = 1287 N
Simplified method:
Compressive strength of ceramic post = 100 kN
Since the transverse compressive load is insignificant compared to the compressive strength of the ceramic
post, this can be ignored.

Produce worked examples for the following insulators: - T Gillespie

Tension string
Suspension or I string
Line post
Pin (G Bailey to provide)

BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN

6.1.1 Determination of height


The factors governing the height of structure are:

Minimum permissible ground clearance, h1


Maximum sag, h2
Vertical spacing between conductors, h3
Vertical clearance between earthwire and top conductor, h4

The total height of structure will be determined by:


H T = h1 + h2 + h3 + h4

6.1.2 Loading on Structures


The loads on a structure consist of three mutually perpendicular systems of load acting vertical,
normal to the direction of line, and parallel to the direction of the line. These loads can be
described as:

Vertical load
Transverse load
Longitudinal load

Vertical loads
Vertical loads include the weight of conductors, earthwire, crossarms and pole mounted plant.
Transverse loads
Transverse loads are caused by wind on conductor and structure and horizontal tension from
deviation angle in the line.
Longitudinal loads
Longitudinal loads are caused by difference in conductor tension on either side of termination
structures, adjacent spans being of different lengths and an abnormal (broken wire) load on the
structure.
Wind load
A complete coverage of wind loading is given in Appendix B of the Overhead Line Design
Standards.
The design site wind speed is taken as
Vz
where

V50 Md Mz,cat MsMt

Mz,cat =

gust winds speed multiplier for terrain category at height z. Refer


AS/NZS 1170.2 for all regions use Table 4.1(A).

Md

wind direction multiplier.

Ms

shielding multiplier.

Mt

topographic multiplier for gust wind speed.

V50

basic regional wind velocity for the region corresponding to the 50 year return
period.

The design pressure qz shall be calculated as follows:

qz

Mrel x 0.6Vz2 103 kPa

6.1.3 Limit State Design


Current practice in Australia for the design of Overhead Line Structural Components is to use a
Limit State design approach as set out in ENA C(b)1 Guidelines for Design and Maintenance of
Overhead Distribution and Transmission Lines.
The Limit State design approach uses a reliability based (risk of failure) approach to match
component strengths (modified by a factor to reflect strength variability) to the effect of loads
calculated on the basis of an acceptably low probability of occurrence.
Rn > effect of loads ( MRel Wn + xX)
where
X

the applied loads pertinent to each loading condition


Reliability multiplier given in Table 3

MRel =
x

are load factors which take into account variability of loads, importance of
structure, stringing, maintenance and safety considerations etc.

Wn

wind load based on a 50 year return period scaled by the appropriate reliability
load factor or specified design wind pressure

the strength factor which takes into account variability of material, workmanship
etc.

Rn

the nominal strength of the component

Some of the Limit State load cases given in the Overhead Line Design Standard are as follows:
The Ultimate Strength Limit State Condition

Rn > Wn+1.25Gc +1.1Gs + 1.25 Ft


Where:
Wn = Effect of transverse wind loads
Gc = Vertical dead loads resulting from conductors under limit state wind conditions

Gs = Vertical dead loads resulting from non conductor loads


Ft = Intact conductor tension loads under limit state wind conditions
R = Component design stress for limit state condition
The Maintenance Load Condition

R > 1.1Gs +1.5 Gc +2.0Q + 1.25 Ft


Where:
Gc = Vertical dead loads resulting from conductors under everyday condition
Gs = Vertical dead loads resulting from non conductor loads
Q = Maintenance loads
Ft = Intact conductor tension loads under maintenance wind
Component Strength Factors
Wood Poles Preserved
The relevant component strength factor for a preserved wood poles is dependent on the following
characteristics and usage of the pole
Durability class
Strength class
Security class
Design life

ACTION ON LINES

Conductor Everyday Load Horizontal Tension


The recommended weather cases used in design of overhead line conductor tensions are given in
Table
Condition

Temp

Wind

Maximum
Tension
Refer Table Z1

Fatigue
Endurance
Conditions
Design
Everyday
Condition
Ultimate wind

Avg temp for coldest


month

Design at 0.5 to
7 m/sec

Avg ambient temp for


year

0 Pa

Refer Table Z1

Avg ambient temp for


year

Regional design
value

.5 CBL for
linear
.7 CBL for nonlinear

Initial / Final
Final

Servicability
wind electrical
Cold Condition

Avg ambient temp for


year
Coldest day of year
based on design life

Ice Loading 10 Coldest day of year


mm thickness
based on design life
Snow loading
up to 100 mm
thickness
Conductor runout
Conductor pretension
Sagging
Maintenance
Failure
Containment

500 Pa
.5 x CBL for
linear
.7 x CBL for
non-linear

Final

0 Pa

0.3 x CBL

Initial

0 Pa

0.3 x CBL

Initial

0 Pa

Everyday
tension plus
creep factor

0 Pa

1 to 5 year
return period
(300 Pa
nominal)
30 Pa

0 deg C
Temp at time of run
out
Temp at time of pretension
Temp at time of
sagging minus creep
correction factor
Avg ambient temp for
year

100 Pa
.25 x Ult wind

Note: The relevant temperatures for a selection location is available from the Australia Bureau of
Meteorology (BOM) website or NIWA for New Zealand
Establishment of loads cases - J McCormack, B Clulow and J Giles
Include basic limit state wind pressure for distribution designs; - B Clulow, R McLennan

900 Pa for conductors


1300 Pa for round surfaces such as poles

Modify wind pressures for various drag coefficients for poles and Regions/ Topography R
Fairweather and L Elder

Application Table
Overhead Line
System

Line Component
or Parameter

Ultimate

Support System
(structures and
foundations)
Structures
detailed

Ultimate wind

Applicable Wind Loads


Servicability

Everyday

procedure
Pole detailed
procedure

Ultimate wind

Pole simplified
method

900 Pa in
Region A & B

Deflection Limit
at serviceable
wind
Deflection Limit
at 300 Pa

0 Pa

Electrical
System
Clearances
low wind
Clearances
moderate wind
Clearances
high wind
Clearances
Maintenance

60 to 100 Pa
100 to 300 Pa
500 Pa
60 to 100 Pa

Conductors
Insulators
tension
Insulators vee
string

Insulators post
or pin

Ultimate or 900
Pa
Ultimate
conductor
transverse or
Failure
containment
Ultimate
conductor
transverse or
Failure
containment

500 Pa

0 Pa

Fittings
8

SUPPORTS

Pole Strength and Deflection Design


The recommended limit state wind pressures for distribution designs for a typical life of 50 years
in Regions A and B are:
Ultimate Loads (WN)

900 Pa to conductor
1300 Pa to round pole (this allows for crossarms, pole steps, insulators but not metal clad
plant)

These wind pressures allow for span reduction factors, drag factors and terrain categories 2 to 4.
For stayed poles, the vertical loads due to the stay reaction forces needs to be taken into account.
The relevant multiplier for the vertical loads produced by the stay is 1.25 ??.

Rn > Wn+1.25Gc +1.1Gs + 1.25 Ft


For stayed poles with long length and small diameter, the buckling failure mode of the pole
should be considered. Consideration should also be given to the P delta effects should they occur.
The Euler buckling failure equations can be found in the relevant codes (eg AS1720).
Servicability Limits
Sustained Everyday tension loads on angle and termination poles

0 Pa for conductors
0 Pa for round surfaces such as poles

Deflection limits for maintenance and clearances

100 Pa for conductors


300 Pa for round surfaces such as poles

A deflection serviceability limit will apply to concrete poles which may crack under load.
The maximum crack width is typically in the range 0.1 to 0.3 mm (refer Appendix D3.7) with
a maximum deflection limit at 5% of the pole length.

FOUNDATION DESIGN

The foundation is called upon to resist the following types of forces:

Uplift
Downthrust
Lateral load
Overturning moment

Foundations for supports may take the form of single foundations in the case of pole type structures
and guy anchors or separate footings for each leg of towers.
The loading on single footings is predominantly in the form of overturning moment, which is
usually resisted by lateral soil pressure, together with additional shear and vertical forces resisted
by upwards soil pressure.
Common types of single foundations are direct buried poles, bored caissons, mono-bloc footings,
pad or raft footings, bored pier foundations, and single pile or pile group foundations.
When separate footings are provided for each leg the predominant loadings are compression and
uplift forces, however, shear forces should be considered.

Uplift and compression forces are usually resisted by combinations of dead weight of the foundation
bulk, earth surcharges, shear forces and bearing in the soil. This also applies to guy foundations.
Common types of separate footing foundations are (stepped) block footings with or without
undercut (pad and chimney, spread footings); auger bored footings with or without expanded base;
pier or caisson foundations; grillage foundations; and vertical or raked pile foundations.

Foundation for poles (distribution lines) L Elder

Use simple formula

Distribution pole foundation design


There are various methods used for pole foundation design and these are covered in Table
The Brinch Hanson method is regarded as the superior method for pole structures, however more
simple techniques, such as that outlines in AS4676 have been found to be suitable for
intermediate poles in firm soil and with small conductors.
Table
Foundation
Design
Brinch Hanson

Formula
Precise calculation,

Advantage
/ Comment
Disadvantage
Complex,
requires
soil
modelling

AS4676
Formula
C(b) 1 pre 10% pole length + 0.6 Simple
1992
to 0.8
New Zealand

Pole length / 6

Simple

Applies to firm soil and


small conductors assoc
with intermediate poles
Applies to firm soil and
small conductors assoc
with intermediate poles

The simplified embedment depth formula is given in Equation 13.2 (from AS4676).

Example:
Servicable wind at 500 Pa on conductors and 750 Pa on pole
Pole Tip Load, Hg = 8 kN
Height = 14 m
Normal soil cohesive strength, Fb = 300 kPa
Pole dia, b = 0.35
Embedment Depth = 2.22

This depth correlates with a traditional rule of thumb of 10% of the pole length + 0.8 m
Ultimate wind at 900 Pa on conductors and 1300 Pa on pole
Pole Tip Load, Hg = 14 kN
Height = 14 m
Normal soil cohesive strength, Fb = 300 kPa
Pole dia, b = 0.35
Embedment Depth = 2.41
Variation of soil cohesive strengths
For low cohesive strength soils, the options are:
(1)
(2)

Increase the embedment depth for the above case, with 150 kPa soil, the embedment
depth is 3.23 m under serviceable wind and 3.5 m under ultimate wind
Increase the effective width of pole by installing a sand/cement backfill in the hole for
the above case with 150 kPa soil to achieve the same foundation strength, a hole of
diameter 700 mm will be required for both serviceable and ultimate wind loads

To achieve a consistent above ground height (for clearances), option 2 is generally preferred.

10 EARTHING
An earthing system of overhead earthwires, earth down leads, grading rings and counterpoise
earthing addresses the following objectives:
(d)

Ensure protective equipment will operate in faulted situations.

(e)

Provide acceptable reliability (lightning performance) on the line.

(f)

Control touch and step potentials around the base of the structure.

(g)

Provide a conductive path for fault current.

(h)

Avoid damage to properties and equipment.

The dimensioning of earthing systems considers the following requirements:


(i)

To ensure mechanical strength and corrosion resistance.

(ii)

To withstand, from a thermal point of view, the highest fault current as determined by
calculation

(iii) Limit lightning induced voltages on earth down leads


The transfer of potential by nearby metallic objects may occur due to fault currents flowing in the
earth system.

It is a desirable goal to achieve an average structure footing resistance for the line of less than 10
ohms. This can ensure the lightning performance of a line is acceptable and ensure touch and
step potentials are at an acceptable level. The structure footing resistance can be controlled

during the construction phase of the line by installing additional earth rods or counterpoise wires
in the soil away from the structure.
Practical Earthing Schemes T Gillespie
Design for Touch and Step Potential for conductive structures
The range of mitigation measures to address touch and step potentials are:
1. Installation of overhead and underslung earthwire
2. Installation of grading ring
3. Reduction of footing resistance
4. Installing high conductivity earthwires
5. Installation of high resistivity surface layer (eg ashphalt)
6. Installation of NER or NEX on zone transformer to limit earth fault current
7. Connection to CMEN earthing system
8. Insulating base of pole
9. Installing a fence around conductive structure
10. Appropriate insulation of low voltage circuits
Replacing a non-conductive pole with a conductive pole
When replacing a non-conductive pole with a conductive pole, due consideration needs to be
taken to address step and touch potentials.
SWER Earthing
For public safety, a SWER high voltage earth needs to be restricted to around 20 volts or less
(Queensland Code of Practice for Works Earthing)

Risk Based Approach to Earthing


The risk based approach is covered in the ENA EG-0 Power System Earthing Guide Part 1:
Management Principles
Risk Based Earthing Examples:
1

HV Distribution Earth (eg Pole mounted transformer, recloser, air break switch) in a CMEN
urban area

Voltage = 11 kV
Fault Current = 5,000 A
Fault Clearing Time = 1 sec
Fault Rate = 2 x 100 m span without earthwire at 40 faults per 100 km per year
Contacts per year = 40 for 4 seconds
Footwear = standard distribution
Earthing resistance = 1 ohm
Soil resistivity = 100 ohm-m

Prospective Touch Voltage = 1,000 Volt (derived by impedance model of footwear and soil
resistivity)
Prospective Touch Voltage Curve DU for 1 sec clearing = 800 Volts
Mitigation Options:
(1)

Insulate earth (this is standard practice for HV earth downleads but may not be practical for
air break switches with exposed metal operating rod and handle)

(2)

Installation of NER or NEX to limit fault current to typically 1000 A

(3)

Installation of grading ring this would lower prospective touch voltage

(4)

Reduce protection clearing times at 0.5 seconds, the prospective touch limit is 4,000 volts

Conductive distribution pole in an urban area

Voltage = 11 kV
Fault Current = 5,000 A
Fault Clearing Time = 1 sec
Fault Rate = 2 x 100 m span without earthwire at 40 faults per 100 km per year
Contacts per year = 40 for 4 seconds
Footwear = standard distribution
Earthing resistance = 10 ohm
Soil resistivity = 100 ohm-m
Prospective Touch Voltage = 10,000 Volt (derived by impedance model of footwear and soil
resistivity)
Prospective Touch Voltage Curve DU for 1 sec clearing = 800 Volts
Mitigation Options:
(1)

Insulate pole (there have been trials on networks but no proven product is available)

(2)

Installation of NER or NEX to limit fault current to typically 1000 A prospective touch
voltage reduces to 2,000 volts. This is still above limit

(3)

Installation of grading ring this would lower prospective touch voltage to around 5,000
volts. This is still above limit.

(4)

Reduce protection clearing times at 0.5 seconds, the prospective touch limit is 4,000 volts.
The prospective touch voltage is above limit.

(5)

Combination of (2) and (3) still above limit

(6)

Combination of (2 and (4) meets limit

(7)

Installation of underslung earthwire this reduces prospective touch voltage to less than 800
volts (underslung earthwire is expected to reduce fault current on striken pole to range of 5 to
8% of previous value). This meets limits.

The installation of underslung earthwire is also effective in addressing touch hazards on all
conductive poles on the feeder.

Distribution Earthing Systems


Multiple Earthed Neutral (MEN)
In a low voltage MEN system of earthing the elements of an installation that require earthing are
commonly connected to earth, and in addition are connected to the neutral conductor of the
supply system. This results in a well distributed, low impedance earthing system with many
connections to the general mass of the earth. A well connected MEN system has a resistance of
less than 1 ohms.
Common Multiple Earthed Neutral (CMEN)
This is where the HV and LV earthing systems are commonly bonded together with the LV MEN
customer installation. With this type of system special consideration should be given to protection
against HV earth faults and EPR. Where CMEN systems are installed, an MEN value of <1ohm
is desirable.
Separate Earthed System
A separated earthing system is implemented with a pole top transformer by providing high
voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) earths on opposite sides of the pole and installing a nonconductive covering for the earthing conductors within 2.4m of the ground. Again earth electrode
separation should be kept to the length of the electrode or 4m at a minimum.
Where a separate earthed system is installed, a resistance of 30 ohms or less is desirable.
Earthing and Insulation of Stay Wires
Stay wires on lines should have insulators installed to limit the chance of an energised stay wire
coming into contact with the public or staff. There are two possible mechanisms that may
energise a stay wire; a conductor falling and energising the stay wire and a broken stay wire
coming in contact with live conductors. Mitigations methods for either scenario are given below:
Conductor Failure Protection
Stay wires within 2.4 metres of the ground should be earthed in accordance with Clause 11
unless they are insulated by means of an insulator placed in the stay wire.
The stay wire insulator shall be placed so its lowest point is not less than 2.4 metres above the
ground. The stay wire insulator must also be placed so it is lower than the lowest conductor,
excluding any underslung earth wire.
The wet flashover voltage of the insulator must be 50% greater than the highest conductor on the
pole phase to earth voltage.

Broken Stay Wire Protection

A failed stay wire can fall onto live conductors and bring an energized stay wire closer than 2.4
metres in height from the ground. The following diagrams showing various broken stay wire
scenarios.
To protect for these scenarios more than one stay wire insulator may be required.

11 WORKED EXAMPLES
11.1 Electrical Clearances between conductors

Example 1:
Single circuit 19/3.25 AAC at 33 kV 3 phase on pin insulators in a delta configuration with a
span of 200 m. What is the mid span vertical separation required between phases if a crossarm
with a separation of 2.1 m between outer phases is used?
Sag at 50 degrees C is 6.07 m and sited in Region A.
Refer Figure 10.3.1.
where
X

1.05

33

0.4

6.07

li

X 2 + (1.2Y ) 2

U
+ k D + li
150

1.052 + (1.2Y ) 2

33
+ 0.4 6.07 + 0
150

1.052 + (1.2Y ) 2 0.22 + 0.985


1.052 + (1.2Y ) 2 1.205
1.2 Y 1..2052 1.052
Y

0.591
1.2

Y 0.493
Therefore required minimum vertical separation for centre phase is 0.493 m.
Example 2:

Upper circuit 19/3.25 AAC at 33 kV 3 phase on pin insulators in a delta configuration with a
span of 200 m located directly above the lower circuit. The lower circuit conductor is 19/.064
copper at 11 kV. The lower circuit has a 120 phase differential to the upper circuit.
What is the mid span vertical separation required between circuits if a crossarm with a
separation of 2.1 m between outer phases is used?
Sag at 50 degrees C is 6.07 m 19/3.25 AAC and 5.81 m for 19/.064 Copper sited in Region
Type A.
Refer Figure 10.3.2.

Because the circuits are located vertically above each other the horizontal component is taken
as zero and
U

Va2 + Vb2 2 Va Vb Cos from U above

33 11
33 11

Cos120

+
2
3
3
3 3

22.9 kV

22.9 (the difference in the vector r.m.s. potential of the circuit voltages)

0.4 (Region A)

6.07 (greater of the two sags)

li

0 (Pin insulators)

X 2 + (1.2Y ) 2
0 + (1.2Y ) 2

U
+ k D + li
150

22.9
+ 0.4 6.07 + 0
150

(1.2Y ) 2 0.153 + 0.985


1.2Y 1.138
Y

1.138
1.2

Y 0.948

11.2 Determination of conductor rating


Once a conductor and its maximum operating temperature have been chosen, the conductor rating
can be calculated. The method is based on the heat balance equations where Heat In (Solar
Radiation Current Heating) = Heat Out (Convection Cooling from Wind and Radiated Losses). A
coverage of the method is given in Reference [1]. Should further detail be required refer to
Reference [2].
TNSP have agreed on a common method for conducting conductor ratings [Ref 3].
Conductor ratings are usually calculated for a combination of ambient temperatures and wind
speeds. Guidelines for the use of these parameters are given in Table 4.1.

TABLE 4.1
AMBIENT TEMPERATURES AND WIND SPEEDS
FOR CONDUCTOR RATINGS
Rating type

Ambient temperature
(C)

Wind speed
(ms 1 )

Summer noon normal

Max summer temp at location

0.5 to 1.0

Summer noon emergency

Max summer temp at location

1.0 to 2.0

Winter evening normal

Mild winter evening temp at location

0.5 to 1.0

Winter evening emergency

Mild winter evening temp at location

1.0 to 2.0

References
1

Electricity Supply Association of Australia, D (b) 51998, Current Rating of Bare Overhead
Line Conductors published by Standards Association of Australia.

MORGAN, V.T. Thermal Behaviour of Electrical Conductors, Steady, Dynamic and FaultCurrent Ratings. Published in Brisbane by John Wiley and Sons Inc, 1991.

3.

Standard Line Ratings Methodology for Transmission Network Services Providers.

IEEE 738 Thermal Rating of Conductors

IEC 60909 Calculation of the short-circuit currents in three phase a.c. systems

EN 60865-1 Calculation of the effects of short-circuit current

11.3

Design for lightning performance

Lightning induced outages are one of the major cause of outages on overhead lines in areas of
moderate to high ceraunic activity. A moderate ceraunic level is between 30 and 50 thunderdays per
year, and high level above 50 thunderdays per year.
The acceptable outage rate due to lightning is therefore one of the most dominant design parameters
for an overhead line. In a low to moderate ceraunic activity area, an acceptable outage rate from
lightning for overhead lines with overhead earthwires is typically 2 to 5 outages per 100 km per
year.
Process for design balance shielding failures vs backflashover performance T Gillespie

Estimation of line outages due to lightning


There are 3 types of outages caused by lightning; shielding failure / direct strike , backflashover and
induced voltage.
A shielding failure occurs when the overhead earthwire fails to intercept the lightning stroke and the
voltage developed by the surge current (1/2 stroke current x surge impedance of conductor) exceeds
the insulation strength of the insulation. The electrogeometric model developed by IEEE (and
incorporated in lightning prediction programs, like Flash) can be used to determine the probability
of a shielding flashover.
Backflashovers are the predominant cause of lighting induced flashovers on overhead lines
protected by an earth or shield wire. The mechanism of a backflashover is that the lightning current
flowing in the overhead earthwire couples inductively and capacitively with the phase conductor

and induces a voltage in it. A portion of current also flows down the conductive structure (or earth
down lead) to ground and develops a voltage on the structure. The magnitude of the voltage is
dependent on the structure surge impedance and the ground footing resistance. The lower the
footing resistance, the smaller is the reflection co-efficient and this results in a lower voltage on the
structure.
Distribution lines are generally unshielded and the major causes of lightning outages are direct
strikes and induced voltages from nearby lightning strikes.
The prediction of lightning outages is not an exact science and the methods adopted in one
Authority may not be appropriate in others. It has been found that the parameters which can be
varied to achieve the largest influence on the lightning performance of overhead lines are
(i)

installation of earthwire;

(j)

having wood in the flashover circuit (crossarm or pole);

(k)

Critical Flashover voltage (CFO) of the insulators; and

(l)

pole footing resistance.

Overhead earthwires are used to shield the line from lightning strikes and are usually installed on
high reliability lines operating at sub-transmission and transmission voltage levels. They are also
installed on overhead distribution lines for short distances (typically 800 m) out of a substation to
protect the substation equipment from damaging overvoltages. One earthwire is usually sufficient to
cater for shielding flashovers on structures below 20 m, but higher structures will need two
earthwires to achieve effective shielding. With a single earthwire, the shielding angle is usually in
the range of 30 to 40 degrees.
The lightning performance of a shielded overhead line is complex and requires mathematical
modelling to determine the optimal shielding and backflashover rates.
The arc quenching properties of wood has been used by Authorities to reduce lightning induced
outages on the network. When wood is added to the insulation path, the combined insulation
strength of the insulator and wood is increased. The higher the impulse strength of the
insulator/wood combination, the higher the resistance to flashover. Refer to Reference [8] for the
electrical properties of wood. The effective impulse strength of a series wood and insulator path can
be calculated as follows:
Itotal =

[Iwood 2 + Iinsulator 2 ]1/2

...1

where
Iwood

Iinsulator =

Impulse strength of wood


Impulse strength of insulator

When an overhead earthwire is installed on powerlines, generally a down lead is run to earth to
provide a low resistance path to ground. A low pole footing resistance not only reduces the
probability of lightning induced backflashovers but also offers the following advantages:
(a)

Reduces risk of injury to persons or animals due to rises in earth potential at the structure and
the surrounding soil.

(b)

Provides a low impedance path for earth faults to ensure there is sufficient fault current to
operate protection relays

Application of Surge Arresters

Surge arresters can be applied to an overhead line to improve the lightning performance. Surge
arresters have been used in the following applications:

11.4

11.4.1

(1)

Protection of pole mounted plant

(2)

Protection of underground terminations

(3)

Protect covered conductor from failure

(4)

To improve lightning outage rate

(5)

Where it is difficult or costly to install an overhead earthwire (eg


retrofitting an existing line)

Electrical and Mechanical Design for Insulators

Design for pollution

When determining the insulation requirements for an overhead power line or an outdoor substation
in a contaminated environment, the following criteria need to be considered:
1. Creepage (or leakage) distance.
2. The ability of the material to endure the electrical activity without being degraded.
3. The shape of the insulator to assist in reducing the likelihood of contamination collection and
facilitate washing.

There are two approaches which can be used to select the appropriate creepage distance for various
levels of contamination severity. The recommendations are given in Table 5.1 (titled Relationship
between severity of pollution at site to various parameters) of Reference [1]. Table 5.2 reproduces
the guidelines in Reference [2]. The basic concept is to increase the surface creepage distance so
that it is long enough to prevent a pollution flashover across the surface.
TABLE 5.2
GUIDE FOR SELECTING INSULATORS IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS
ESDD range (1)

Minimum nominal specific


creepage distance (2)

g/m

mm/kV

Light

0 to1.2

16

Medium

1.2 to 2.0

20

Contamination severity

Heavy

2.0 to 3.0

25

Very Heavy

Above 3.0

31

(1)

ESDD is the equivalent salt deposit density.

(2)

Ratio of leakage distance measured between phase and earth over the r.m.s phase to phase voltage of
the highest voltage of the equipment.

(3) Consideration should be given to increasing the creepage distances is areas where there are long
periods without rainfall or very close to the marine coast

11.4.2
Design for power frequency voltages (Wet withstand
requirement)
The line insulation should be designed to withstand the maximum voltage expected on the line.
Overhead powerlines usually operate at 1.1 per unit voltage to take into account the effects of
voltage drop with loading and there is the possibility that with capacitors on the line, the powerline
could operate up to 1.4 per unit which can be regarded as the maximum dynamic overvoltage.
Maximum dynamic overvoltage can occur during faults and load rejection. (1.4 per unit is for a
three phase power system that is effectively earthed e.g. the neutral is earthed). The wet power
frequency withstand voltage of the line insulation should be selected to exceed this maximum
dynamic overvoltage.

11.4.3

Design for switching surge voltages

Switching surge overvoltages up to 3 per unit peak voltage can arise when overhead lines are
switched. The extent of this overvoltage is dependent on (1) the point of voltage wave when the line
is switched, (2) the capacitance or amount of trapped charges on the line and (3) other equipment
connected to the line. When high speed autoreclosing is installed, overvoltage can exceed 3 per unit
voltage, particularly on transmission lines. In these cases, it would be common to install surge
arresters on the line to limit the overvoltages to the designed line insulation.
A good coverage on the design for switching surge is given in AS 1824.2. When designing for
switching surges, one of the parameters which is difficult to obtain is the switching surge impulse
voltage. There are 2 main types of electrical tests conducted on insulators; one being the lightning
impulse and the other the power frequency flashover (wet and dry). Switching tests have been
conducted in laboratories and the flashover voltages have been inconsistent and found to be
dependent on the shape of the surge, the type of electrodes and the presence of earth planes.
In lieu of adequate test data on switching surges a good approximation for the switching surge
flashover voltage is 0.8 times the lightning impulse flashover voltage.
The insulator parameter that determines the insulator impulse performance ( i.e. switching surge and
lightning ) is the arc distance across the insulator.
Line insulation is usually selected independent of substation insulation. It is necessary to check
substation insulation impulse performance and install surge arresters, especially when the line
insulation is longer than the substation insulation.

11.4.4

Selection of Insulator to meet Electrical Performance

String Insulator Units:

Min Failing
Load (kN)

Min Creepage
Dist (mm)

Dry Lightning
Impulse (kVp)

70
70
70
70

280
360
280
360

95
95
95
95

Wet Power
Freq
withstand
(kVp)
40
40
40
40

7
7
22
18 (cantil)
6 (axial)
12 (cantil)
18 (axial)
12 (cantil)
18 (axial)
8 (cantil)
1.2 (kNm tors)
8.25 (OML)
25 (MML)

180
360
180
425

95
95
95
150

30
30
30
38

425

150

38

425

150

38

360

95

350

95

38

33 kV Insulators:

Min Failing
Load (kN)

Min Creepage
Dist (mm)

Dry Lightning
Impulse (kVp)

Pin - Two part


Standoff Line Post with
Tie Top
Standoff Line Post with
Clamp Top
Station Post

11
9 (cantil)
11 (axial)
9 (cantil)
11 (axial)
5 (cantil)
1 (kNm tors)
8.25 (OML)
25 (MML)

534
785

200
200

Wet Power
Freq
withstand
(kVp)
65
95

785

200

95

760

200

900

200

Clevis Tongue - Normal


Clevis Tongue - Fog
Ball Socket - Normal
Ball Socket - Fog
11 kV Insulators:
Pin - Normal
Pin - Fog
Shackle Type SH.11
Line Post Tie Top
Line Post Clamp Top
Standoff Line Post with
Trunnion Clamp
Station Post
Composite Long Rod

Composite Long Rod

70

Example:

Select a suitable disc insulator string for a 33 kV line subject to extreme contamination. Normal
disc profiles have a creepage length of 300 mm and fog discs of 400 mm.
System Highest Voltage

36 kV

Minimum nominal specific creepage


distance

31 mm/kV for extreme


contamination

Required creepage distance for 36 kV

1116 mm

Number of normal discs = 1116/300

3.72 4 discs

Number of fog discs = 1116/400

2.79 3 discs

Select a suitable disc insulator string for a 275 kV line subject to heavy contamination. Use normal
or fog disc profiles where the creepage length is 300 mm normal and 400 mm for fog.
System Highest Voltage

300 kV

Minimum nominal specific creepage


distance

25 mm/kV for heavy contamination

Required creepage distance for 300 kV

7500 mm

Number of normal discs = 7500/300

25 discs

Number of fog discs = 7500/400

18.75 19 discs

11.4.5

Insulator mechanical design

The loads on an insulator can be calculated using the Limit State methodology outlined in Section 3.
The guidelines for the strength factor are given in Table 3.1.

References
1.

AS 1824.21985, Insulation coordination, Part 2: Application guide.

2.

IEC 60815, Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions.

3.

AS 4436 Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions. (Identical to
ISO Report 815).

11.5

Limit State Design Worked Examples

Basic Formula for Bending Moment Loads

PZ

TX

TX
/2

/2

FT

PZ x D x W d

FT
PZ
D
Wd
TX

=
=
=
=
=
=

2 T X sin

force on the conductor


wind pressure
conductor diameter
wind span
horizontal tension
structure deviation angle

11.5.1

Pole Tip Load Calculation

Calculate the tip load on a 33 kV monopole with a Libra earthwire and Pluto phase conductors
vertically configured on the pole. There is also a line deviation of 20 degrees.

F1

(Load from earthwire)

2.4m
1.5m

d1

1.5m

F2

(Load from A Phase)

F3

(Load from B Phase)

F4

(Load from C Phase)

d2
d3
Fw

d4

(Load on pole)

20o
deviation

Input

Pole height
Earth wire
Conductors
Line deviation
Wind span
Average pole OD
Wind pressure

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

17.4m
Libra AAC (Tx = 5000N)
Pluto AAC (Tx = 13000N)
20o
180m
0.4m
900 Pa on conductor/OHEW, and
1300 Pa on pole

F1

Tip Load =

F1

=
=

+ 2 TX sin

Fw
2

900 x 0.009 x 180 + 2 x 1.25 x5000 x sin 10

3628 N
900 x 0.0188 x 180 + 2 x 1.25 x13000 x sin 10

=
Fw

d + d3 + d4
+
F2, 3, 4 2
d1

PW x OD x Wd

F2 , F3 , F4

8688 N
Pw x OD x d 1

=
=

1300 X 0.4 X 17.4


9048 N

F1

Tip Load =

d + d3 + d4
+
F2,3, 4 2
d1

15 + 13.5 + 12
3628 + 8688
+
17.4

Fw
2

9048
2

= 3628 + 20221 + 4524

= 28.4 kN

SELECTION OF POLE

WOOD POLE
Select a pole with a limit state design load of 28.4 kN
Preserved wood pole component strength factor = 0.72 (Table 6.5 for range)
Ultimate Strength of Wood Pole = 28.4 / 0.72 = 39.4 kN
Wood poles typically decay during their life and designers may choose a pole with a higher
strength to achieve a longer design life.
Considerations for Un-stayed Pole
For an un-stayed pole, deflection limits need to be considered to ensure electrical clearances are
met and complaints are minimized from the public. The recommended deflection limits are:

Serviceable wind loads (typically 750 Pa wind on pole and 500 Pa on conductors) 5% of
the pole length out of ground
Ultimate wind loads (typically 1300 Pa on pole and 900 Pa on conductors) 15% of pole
length out of ground

Consideration for Stayed Pole


A stayed pole should be designed to meet the following conditions:
(1) Poles should be self supporting under every day load conditions without stay (should not
suffer failure due to loss of stay)
Everyday load = 16 kN
Component strength factor for wood pole = 0.72

Ultimate strength of pole to meet everyday load = 22 kN


(2)

If ground stay used and attached to top of pole


Ultimate tip load due to wind load = 28.4 kN
Angle of stay = 45 degrees
Tension in stay = 28.4 * 1.414 = 40 kN
Component strength factor for stay = 0.7
Ultimate strength of stay = 57 kN select SC/GZ stay of 19/2.75
Compressive load in pole due to stay = 28.4 kN
Compressive strength of wood pole with 300 mm dia is typically around 250 kN
Ratio of compressive load to compressive strength = 11%
Ultimate strength of pole to allow for stay load = 20 * 1.11 = 22 kN

STEEL POLE
Steel pole component strength factor = 1.0
Ultimate Strength of Steel Pole = 28.4 / 1.0 = 28.4 kN

COMPARISON TO WORKING STRESS METHOD


Pole height
Earth wire
Conductors
Line deviation
Wind span
Average pole OD
Wind pressure
=

F1

+ 2 TX sin

500 x 0.009 x 180 + 2 x 2700 x sin 10

1747.7 N
500 x 0.0188 x 180 + 2 x9000 x sin 10

=
N

Fw

17.4m
Libra AAC (Tx = 2700N)
Pluto AAC (Tx = 9000N)
20o
180m
0.4m
500 Pa on conductor/OHEW, and
750 Pa on pole
PW x OD x Wd

F2 , F3 , F4

Tip Load =

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4817.7
Pw x OD x d1

750 X 0.4 X 17.4

5220 N

F1

d + d3 + d4
+
F2,3, 4 2
d1

15 + 13.5 + 12
+
17.4

= 1747.7 + 4817.7

= 1747 7 + 11213 6 + 2610


= 15.6 kN
SELECTION OF POLE

WOOD POLE
Maximum Working Load on Pole = 15.6 kN

Fw
2

5220
2

Distribution Worked Example 2


Determine the required pole loads and foundation size for an 11 kV/415 V line in an urban area.
Consider a 12.5 m wood pole on a 15 line deviation with a ruling span (RS) of 45 m. Neighbouring
spans are 40 m and 55 m on level ground. The LV ABC conductor is strung to a tension to
approximate the conductor sag in a span of 45m at 15C.
NOTE: Although the example is based on a timber distribution pole, the structural design principles are
similar for other materials or support types.

DESIGN DATA
1200

1200

11 kV Conductor type:
200

400

19/3.75 AAC (Pluto) to AS 1531 strung at 5% of CBL at 15C.


Conductor
Pluto

Dia

Mass

Area
2

Mod of E Exp Coef

CBL

(mm)

(kg/m)

(mm )

(MPa)

(/deg C)

(kN)

18.8

0.576

209.8

65000

0.000023

31.9
LV Bracket - ABC

10200

11 kV Conductor positions:
Conductor 1:

1.2 m left, 10.2 m above ground

Conductor 2:

above top of pole, 10.6 m above ground

Conductor 3:

1.2 m right, 10.2 m above ground

8700

415 V Cable type:


4 95 mm2 LV Aerial Bundled Cable (ABC) to AS/NZS 3560
and strung at 7% of CBL at 15C.
Conductor
4/95 ABC

Dia

Mass

Area
2

Mod of E Exp Coef

2300

CBL

(mm)

(kg/m)

(mm )

(MPa)

(/deg C)

(kN)

38.4

1.35

380

56000

0.000023

53.2

415 V Cable position:


0.225 m left, 8.7 m above ground

Pole details:
Mixed Australian hardwood classified to AS 1720.11997 as strength group S4 - stress grade
F17 (i.e. Jarrah, Ash type eucalypts)
Unseasoned, unpreserved and unshaved timber
Top diameter 300 mm
Ground line diameter 400 mm
Height above ground 10.2 m (i.e. depth in ground 2.3 m)
Crossarm size: 100 by 150 mm
11 kV insulators are ALP 11/275

The soil conditions are specified in three layers: 0-0.5 m of loose gravel with sand, 0.5-1.0 m
of firm cohesive soil and 1.0 m or more of very stiff cohesive soil.

CALCULATIONS
Use the approximate wind pressures based on Clause 3.4.1.
Conductor tensions are abbreviated as follows: for everyday load conditionEDT (i.e. every day
tension) and for short duration load conditionMWT (i.e. maximum wind tension).
11 kV Conductor load conditions (RS = 45 m)

Load

Everyday load condition (Clause 3.3.2.3) Temp. = 15C,


Wind = 0 kPa (EDT)

Ft = 1.60 kN

Sustained load condition (Clause 3.3.2.2) Temp. = 5C,


Wind = 0 kPa

Ft = 1.79 kN

Short duration load condition (Clause 3.3.2.1) Temp. = 15C,


Wind = 0.9 kPa (MWT)

Ft = 4.58 kN

Intact conductor tension (Ft ) under average wind (Clause 3.6.1)


Temp. = 15C, Wind = 0.5 kPa

Ft = 2.96 kN

Failure containment loads (Fc ) (Clause 3.7.1) Temp. = 15C,


Wind = 0.24 kPa

Fc = 2.01 kN

415 V Cable load condition (RS=45 m)

Load

Every day load condition (Clause 3.3.2.3) Temp. = 15C,


Wind = 0 kPa (EDT)

Ft = 3.72 kN

Sustained load condition (Clause 3.3.2.2) Temp. = 5C,


Wind = 0 kPa

Ft = 4.16 kN

Short duration load condition (Clause 3.3.2.1) Temp. = 15C,


Wind = 0.9 kPa (MWT)

Ft = 9.32 kN

Intact conductor tension (Ft) under average wind (Clause 3.6.1)


Temp. = 15C, Wind = 0.5 kPa

Ft = 6.23 Kn

Failure containment loads (Fc ) (Clause 3.7.1) Temp. = 15C,


Wind = 0.24 kPa

Fc = 4.47 kN

Ultimate strength limit state (Clause 3.3.1)


Maximum wind load (from any direction) is given by
Rn > Wn + 1.1G s + 1.25G c + 1.5Ft
Capacity of 11 kV conductor

Determine Rn
Strength factor = 0.7 from Table 3.1
Rn

31.9 kN

Rn

22.3 kN

Conductor short duration load (MWT) = 6.87 kN, therefore for each 11 kV conductor,
capacity: 22.3 > 6.87, i.e. Rn > load is satisfied.
Capacity of 415 V cable

Determine Rn

Strength factor = 0.7 from Table 3.1


Rn

53.2 kN from AS/NZS 3560.1 (CBL for 4 95)

Rn

37.24 kN

ABC Short Duration Load Condition (MWT) for 415 V cable = 13.98 kN
Capacity: 37.24 > 13.98, i.e. R n > load is satisfied.
Pole capacity

Determine Rn
Strength factor = 0.5 (from Table 3.1) to be applied on modulus of rupture determined from
AS 1720.1
M

k1 [fb Z] (all other kmod factors taken as 1.0)

k1

1.15 for MWT, i.e. k1 = 0.575

and k1 =

0.57 for EDT , i.e. k1 = 0.285

using

NOTE: capacity factor depends on grading methodology and support importance.

Pole capacity in bending taken as equivalent tip load:


Rn

MWT

(0.575 50 103 Z) / 10.2 = 17.71 kN and

R n

EDT

(0.285 50 103 Z) / 10.2 = 8.78 kN

where
Z = D 3 /32 = 0.0063 m3
Ultimate transverse wind load Wn will comprise wind loads on pole, conductor/cable and hardware:
wind on pole = 1.3 kPa (Clause 3.4.1(b))
pole wind load =1.3 0.5 (0.3 + 0.4) 10.2 = 4.64 kN acting 4.8 m above ground
wind on crossarm = 2.1 kPa (Clause 3.4.1(b))
crossarm load = 0.1 0.15 2.1 = 0.032 kN acting at 10 m above ground
wind on insulators = 1.4 kPa (Clause 3.4.1(c))
insulator load = 1.4 0.152 0.136 = 0.029 kN each, two acting at 10.2 m above ground and
one acting at 10.6 m above ground
wind load on 11 kV conductors = 0.9 47.5 0.0188 = 0.8 kN each, two acting at 10.2 m
above ground and one acting at 10.6 m above ground
wind load on 415 V ABC = 0.9 47.5 0.0384 = 1.64 kN acting at 8.7 m above ground
Therefore, taking moments about ground line
BM

4.64 4.8 + 0.032 10 + 2 0.029 10.2 + 0.029 10.6 + 2


+0.8 10.6 + 1.64 8.7

62.5 kNm

0.8 10.2

Gs will comprise vertical loads due to weight of pole, weight of crossarms, insulators and other
ancillary hardware. This load is small in relation to the compressive strength of the pole and will be
ignored for this example.
Gc will vary for non-level terrain and unequal adjacent pole attachment heights, however for equal
height poles on flat terrain the conductor vertical loads are

For each 11 kV conductor:

Gc

0.27 kN

For 415 V cable:

Gc

0.63 kN

Transverse load due to Ft for each 11 kV conductor = 2 T 15C,0.9kPa sin(15 /2 ) = 1.2 kN


Transverse load due to Ft for 415 V cable = 2 T15C,0.9kPa sin(15 / 2) = 2.1 kN
The total pole base moment:
The equivalent ultimate load at the top of pole:
BMtot =
=

62.56 + (1.25 0.134 0.63) + 1.5 (2 1.2 10.2 + 1.2 10.6 + 2.1 8.7)
145.87 kNm

The equivalent ultimate pole tip load = 145.87/10.2 = 14.3 kN


Capacity: 17.71 > 14.3, i.e. Rn > load is satisfied
Similar loads can be calculated for failure containment, maintenance and serviceability conditions.
NOTE: It is advisable where designers use standard supports containing stay(s) that the structural
behaviour is confirmed through the use of a non-linear design program.

Foundation capacity

Assuming that the pole met the design criteria the foundation can be designed using the ESAA
Brinch Hansen Pile program.
Using a foundation strength factor = 0.5 for foundations relying on empirical assessment from
Table 3.1, the ultimate ground line moment as calculated above is
BMult =
Hult

=
=

145.87 kNm and the ultimate shear load at ground line is:
Wn + 1.1G s + 1.25Gc + 1.5 Ft
4.64+0.032+3 0.029+0.8 3+1.64+1.2 3 1.5+2.1 1.5 = 17.35 kN

By entering the ultimate loads and soil properties obtained from Appendix B for each soil layer, the
ESAA BH Pile program output, as shown in Figure 3.2, delivers a minimum depth requirement of
2.6 m for a foundation diameter of 0.8 m.
Once a satisfactory pole and footing design for the maximum wind load condition is achieved, a
similar calculation may be followed for failure containment, maintenance and serviceability
conditions as appropriate.
The above calculations may also be accomplished by following the detail design approach given in
Appendix A.

Distibution Worked Example 3


A limited number of conductor loads are calculated in this example to illustrate the development of
conductor tensions using the method given in Appendix A.
Determine the conductor loads for a suspension structure in a rural area on level ground. Consider
an average conductor height of 30m above ground with no line deviation and a ruling span of
300 m. Use wind and weight spans of 285m within a tension section of 2400 m.
The conductor is AAAC (Fluorine) with diameter = 9 mm, weight = 0.135 kg/m and
CBL = 11.8 kN. The line is in terrain category 2.5 of Region B and the wind non-directional. Use a
RP of 50 years (LR = 1 as per Table A.1).

Conductor Tensions for 7/3.00 AAAC (Fluorine) strung at 20% CBL at 15C
(Ruling span of 300 m)
Load condition

Load

Everyday load condition (Clause 3.3.2.3) Temp. = 15C,


Wind = 0 kPa

Ft = 2.36 kN

Sustained load condition (Clause 3.3.2.2) Temp. = 5C, Wind = 0 kPa

Ft = 2.55 kN

Short duration load condition (Clause 3.3.2.1) Temp. = 15C,


Terrain category = 2.5, mean conductor height = 8 m,
Height multiplier Mz,cat = 1.06, Mt = 1, Md = 1 (AS/NZS 1170.2,
Section 3)
Regional wind speed V50 = 44 m/s

Ft = 7.00 kN

Design site wind speed = 44 1.06 = 46.64 m/s


Dynamic wind pressure = 1.305 kPa
SRF = 0.5 (for a tension section of 2400 m)
Ultimate wind pressure on conductor for tension calculation = 1.305
0.5 = 0.653 kPa
Failure containment loads (Clause 3.7.1) Temp. = 15C,
Wind pressure= 0.24 kPa

Fc = 3.79 kN
Ft = 3.79 kN

NOTE: The conductor loads below exclude the weight of insulators and ancillaries.

Ultimate conductor loads

From Clause 3.3.1 the ultimate strength limit state the maximum wind load is given by
Wn + 1.1G s + 1.25G c + 1.5Ft
For each conductor the contribution is:
Wn

1.25G c =
1.5Ft

1.305 285 0.009 0.666 = 2.23 kN (where 0.666 is the SRF for a 285 m
span)
1.25 0.135 285 9.81/1000 = 0.47 kN
1.5 7.00 = 10.5 kN

Failure containment loads

From Clause 3.7.1 failure containment limit state is given by


0.25Wn + 1.5Ft + 1.1Gs + 1.25Gc + 1.2Fb
For each conductor the contribution is
0.25Wn =
1.5Ft

0.25 1.305 285 0.009 0.666 = 0.557 kN


1.5 3.79 = 5.69 kN

1.25G c =

1.25 0.135 285 9.81/1000 = 0.47 kN

1.2Fb

1.2 3.79 0.45 = 2.05 kN

(the 0.45 factor is due to tension reduction resulting from insulator string swing where
span/sag = 45 and span/string length = 195 and derived from Figure 3.1)

Using the above approach, all the relevant loads for the ultimate, maintenance and serviceability
load cases can be calculated in a similar fashion to those in example

SWING ANGLE CALCULATIONS


CALCULATE THE SWING ANGLE OF OXYGEN cONDUCTOR SUBJECTED TO 500
PA WIND:

WIND PRESSURE: 500 PA


CONDUCTOR WEIGHT: 0.925 KG/METRE
CONDUCTOR DIAMETER: 23.8 MM
WIND SPAN: 300 M
WEIGHT TO WIND SPAN RATIO: 0.7
TRANSVERSE FORCE FT = 500 X 0.0238 X 300 = 3570 N
VERTICAL FORCE FV = 0.925 X 9.806 X 300 X 0.7 = 1905 N
SWING ANGLE = ARCTAN (FT / FV) =
BLOW OUT CALCULATIONS (SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE)

CALCULATE THE BLOW OUT OF OXYGEN cONDUCTOR ON A 300 M SPAN


SUBJECTED TO 500 PA WIND:
SWINGING INSULATOR LENGTH = 1.5 M
FROM A SAG TENSION CALCULATION, INCLINED SAG AT 500 PA WIND = 12 M
TOTAL INCLINED LENGTH = 13.5 M
HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT = SIN (SWING ANGLE) X TOTAL INCLINED LENGTH
=

APPENDICES
11.6 Conductor Clashing

Under short circuit conditions conductors experience forces of attraction and repulsion due to
electromagnetic force from the fault current in the conductors. If the fault current is large and
experienced for a long enough time the movement can be substantial and cause conductor
clashing (particularly on distribution lines). For phase-to-phase faults the conductor movement is
more pronounced as the fault current is very high and the protection clearance times are typically
long.
Primary Conductor Clashing
Primary conductor clashing may occur when there is a phase to phase fault on one of two
overhead lines connecting the same substations. When a phase to phase fault occurs, one end of
the faulted line will usually trip first and fault current will then increase significantly on the other
unfaulted line. The increase in fault current may then cause the conductors on this line to clash,
resulting in the loss of two overhead lines. Constructions which are prone to conductor clashing
are underslung or suspension, flat pin and transitions from flat to vertical.
Secondary Conductor Clashing
Secondary conductor clashing may occur on a distribution feeder when a recloser trips and
isolates an initial fault and the live oscillating conductors upstream of the recloser subsequently
clash together. When the initial phase-to-phase fault occurs the faulted phase conductors repell
each other due to the current in the phase conductors. When the recloser trips the fault current and
thus the repulsion forces between the conductors is removed the conductors pendulum back into
equilibrium. Both phase conductors pendulum simultaneously towards each other and if they get
close enough they cause a secondary conductor clashing fault. Figure 2.5 below shows
diagrammatically the feeder, recloser and fault positions.

The repulsion forces can be great enough to exceed wind force design limits.
Conductor clashing has a higher probability of occurrence when the fault occurs on two adjacent
conductors at the same height and the conductor has low weight. Conductor clashing can be
avoided or mitigated by the following measures:

Introduce a vertical spacing between conductors,

Increase the horizontal spacing between conductors,

Insert additional poles midspan between conductors,

Install midspan spacers between conductors,

Reduce protection clearing times

To determine whether a line is susceptible to conductor clashing the calculations can be


performed with formula provided in the following EPRI publication, Bathold L.O., Clayton R.E.,
Grant I.S., Longo V.J., Stewart J.R & Wilson D.D., Transmission Line Reference Book: 115-138
kV Compact Line Design, EPRI, 1978.

12 ROUTE SELECTION PROCESS

Appropriate consideration must be given at the route selection stage to the use of the land
proposed for the power line corridor. There are zoning maps available from local government
authorities which describe the land usage in the region.
Local jurisdiction planning instruments, particularly those regulating the clearing of trees, may
also influence the selection of the most appropriate route for the power line. Some areas may be
of high environmental significance such as aboriginal and cultural heritage or sensitive vegetation
(mangroves) and the line route will need to avoid these areas where possible.
Where power lines traverse private property the approval of the property owner is required. This
would normally take the form of a negotiated easement detailing any restrictions on land use
necessary for reliable operation of the line.
On public land the agreement of the management agency must be obtained for the proposed line.
12.1 Risk Management Principle

The layout design process should include the identification and assessment of risks associated
with the construction, maintenance and operation of the proposed line leading to the evaluation
and implementation of risk treatment options which ensure that the residual risk is acceptable to
the organization.
The risk management process used should align with AS/NZS 4360 Risk Management and
companion handbook HB 436 Risk Management Guidelines
12.2 Prudent Avoidance Principle

Where potential risks with unproven consequences are involved a prudent avoidance approach is
recommended.
The original recommendation related to electric and magnetic field exposures where prudent
avoidance was defined as doing what can be done without undue inconvenience and at modest
expense to avert the possible risk
12.3 Aesthetic Considerations

Visual amenity is now playing a major role in the selection of structures and other components on
an overhead power line to gain community acceptance. Visual amenity can be improved by
applying the following design principles:
- Locate power lines in corridors screened by vegetation or natural landscape
- Install like with like structures (if there is an existing tower line, select towers for the
second line in the corridor)
- Use of low height and compact structures
- Avoid placing structures which dominate the skyline

Use of non specular finish conductor


Painting of structures (in particular poles) to match the existing landscape

Compacting the phase conductors will improve visual amenity but will increase the surface
voltage gradient on the conductors and the noise (radio interference and audible). To offset the
increase in electric field strength, a larger diameter conductor may need to be selected to ensure
the surface voltage gradient is below the corona threshold level.
Non specular conductor will reduce the initial glare of the conductors and the high corona noise
produced when the line is initially energised. Non specular conductor will make the conductor
more hydrophilic to water and minimise the water drop corona effects.
12.4 Electric and Magnetic Fields

The principle of prudent avoidance has been adopted by the electricity industry for dealing with
electromagnetic fields from overhead lines (refer Section XXX). Where there are vertically
configured double circuit lines, electromagnetic fields can be minimised by diagonal phasing of
the phase conductors.
Where there are 2 or more circuits installed horizontally on the structures, it may also be prudent
to configure the phase conductors in a diagonal arrangement to minimise the electromagnetic
fields.

13 LAYOUT DESIGN PROCESS

The layout design process involves the selection of a suite of structure types, the location of these
structures on a line corridor, the profiling of the conductors and the calculation of wind, weight
and ruling spans. The layout design shall ensure the following outcomes are met:

Acceptable electrical clearances to structures and ground for the voltage of line
Maximum adjacent span ratio selected to ensure longitudinal loading on insulators and
supports do not cause failures under adverse environmental conditions. The adjacent span
ratio is typically less than 3:1 (where there is free movement of conductors on insulators)
or 2:1 (where there is no free movement of conductors on insulators)
Weight to wind span ratio greater than 0.7 to ensure there are acceptable electrical
clearances on structures under wind conditions
Acceptable clearance of structures and conductors alignment to objects (eg buildings,
swimming pools, billboards)
Set back on roads appropriate to the speed of the road. These set backs can be reduced
where there are kerbing or natural barriers (drain or mounds)
Suitable foundation integrity (eg avoid side slopes)
Co-ordination with other Authorities and Services (Road, Rail, Water, Telecommunication
and Aerial Operations)

Designers need to ensure that the ground and environmental conditions are factored into the
layout process and need to consider for example the existence of steep slopes, existing and future
services, heritage sites, sensitive environmental areas, etc.

Formatted: Indent: Left: 18


pt

Terrain
A 3-dimensional GIS-type (Geographic Information System) terrain model is suggested for its
flexibility and compatibility with modern electronic surveying equipment and mapping
techniques. Terrain data are normally collected electronically (total station, photogrammetry,
lidar, etc.) and are subsequently downloaded into ASCII terrain files. A terrain model normally
includes information about the location and type of a large number of terrain or above-terrain
points. Above terrain points will be referred to as "obstacle" points. There are two ways to
describe an obstacle point.
You can either: 1) describe the obstacle by its height above a ground point and the coordinates of
that ground point, or 2) locate the top of the obstacle directly with its own coordinates.

Before generating a terrain, one should decide on broad categories of terrain or obstacle points
which have unique requirements. These requirements include minimum code clearances to be met
above or to the side of the points as well as symbols to be used to display these points on the final
drawings. (See Table 3.7)
Code clearances depend on the voltage of particular conductors.

If a point having the feature code is an obstacle described by its height above the ground, whether
to draw a line between that point and the ground or
If a point having the feature code is an aerial obstacle which your wires are allowed to pass under,
whether to check vertical clearances both above and below that point. whether a point having the
feature code is a ground point that will be used to draw a ground profile or a point that should be
by-passed when drawing the ground profile (for example the top of an obstacle), minimum
required vertical clearances above (and below for aerial points) points having the feature code and
minimum horizontal clearances to the side of these points for the voltages selected
Terrain Model

The XYZ model includes points described by their global coordinates X,Y,and Z.
The PFL model includes points described by their Station (cumulative distance from an arbitrary
reference point along the centerline of the line), Offset (lateral distance from the centerline) and
elevation, Z.
Also included for each ground or obstacle point are optional surveyor's notes to be displayed on
profile or plan views.
An XYZ file can be prepared and edited with a text editor or word processor or it can be created
by downloading survey data from an automatic instrument. There are many tools and techniques
available for importing and filtering XYZ terrain points data specially for LIDAR data which may
contain many millions of points.
Survey Information
The survey requirements for an overhead line design may include:

1. Width of the line corridor to be surveyed (which may be different than the easement
width)
2. Contour interval
3. Key features to be surveyed (fences, gates, roads, trees, railway lines, existing services)
4. Land use and limitations / constraints
5. Centreline and line deviations
6. Coordinate system and height datum
Alignment

The alignment (or alignments) of a project need to be defined before any engineering can be
performed. In the plan view, the alignments consist of straight line segments between PI points
(Points of Inflection). If you start with an XYZ terrain model, the alignments are defined in the
plan view by selecting the PI points. This is not required when using a PFL terrain model since
the alignment is implied (however, the PFL model is limited to a single alignment).
Once you have at least one alignment defined, you can create: 1) other independent unconnected
alignments, 2) alignment branches, or 3) alignment loops.
When you have multiple alignments you can build lines on all of them.
Values for the Maximum Offset for Profile View (MOPV) and the Maximum Offset for Centerline
Ground Profile (MOCGP) are to be selected. All ground or obstacle points within the MOPV
(measured from the center-line) are displayed with the appropriate symbols in the various profile
views, whether on screen or on a sheet of paper. Points outside the MOPV are not displayed in the
profile views. In addition, any structure or wire with an offset greater than MOPV will not be
shown in the profile view. Once you have an alignment defined on an XYZ terrain model, you
can create an equivalent PFL model.
The center-line is defined in the plan view as the collection of straight line segments connecting
alignment corners. The center-line ground profile is theoretically the intersection of vertical
planes going through the center-line and the ground. However, because the terrain data maybe
defined at discrete points within the line corridor, there is a need for rules to define how the
profile is displayed on drawings. The ground profile line displayed is a line that joins all ground
points within a specified offset from the center-line. That offset (MOCGP), is for two widths. The
points are joined in ascending order of stations. For example, if one selects a MOCGP of 3m, then
the profile line will pass through all the points within 3m of the center-line.
If there is significant side slope (perpendicular to the line) the line profile may look jagged when
it joins points of significantly different elevations on alternate sides of the center-line. If the
jaggedness of the profile line is objectionable, one may draw separate side profiles. Or better, one
may generate additional interpolated center line and side profile points using a Triangulated
Irregular Network (TIN) model of the terrain or by using breaklines.
Triangulating an XYZ terrain

The XYZ terrain model consists of individual points with their coordinates and feature codes .
The Triangulated Irregular Network (or TIN) model of the XYZ terrain is a surface made up of
triangles having the terrain points at their apexes using Delauney triangles.

Formatted: Bullets and


Numbering

The primary advantage of a TIN model over the basic XYZ model is that it is a surface and not a
collection of points. That surface can be used to generate accurate center line and side profiles, to
find the elevations of arbitrary points or to locate points at the intersection of latticed tower legs
or guys with the ground. The TIN surface can be rendered in different colors to give a more
realistic display of the ground, including elevations and light incidence. Bitmaps (aerial
photographs) can be projected onto it to give an even more realistic appearance of the terrain.
Break Lines

Break lines (or break line segments) can be used to enhance XYZ terrain models. While break
lines can be defined and displayed entirely by themselves, they are most useful in conjunction
with XYZ terrain points and TIN models.
A break line or break line string consists of break line segments. Each segment is a straight line
with known origin and end points. The location of each segment in 3-dimensions is fully known
from the global coordinates X, Y and Z of its two end points. Break line segments which have one
end in common are said to be part of the same break line string.
Using break lines to describe existing or planned facilities

Surveyors can provide data on portion of a larger terrain described by many thousands of break
line segments and an even larger number of XYZ points. Some of the break lines correspond to
yet unbuilt but planned road improvements.
PFL Terrain Model

The PFL terrain model requires that the center-line of the power line be defined first. The
locations of terrain or obstacle points are then described relative to that center-line. The station of
a point is the cumulative distance from an arbitrary reference point on the center-line to the
projection of the point on the center-line and its offset is its lateral distance to the center-line.
Positive offsets and positive line angles are defined as follows; If one travels the line in the
direction of increasing stations, positive offsets are to the right and positive line angles are
clockwise. Prior to the days of electronic surveying and computers, the PFL terrain
representation was used almost exclusively in power line work. Therefore, by tradition, many of
the early line design programs used that representation. However the XYZ model is more
powerful as it allows the designer to easily change a line route and to move a structure in the plan
view without being constrained by the existing center-line.
The data for a ground point in a PFL model include the feature code, an optional label or
description, the point station, its offset and elevation, the line angle at the location of the point (if
the point is on the center-line) and a zero obstacle height.
For an obstacle described by its height above a ground point, the data include the obstacle feature
code, an optional label or description, the station, offset and elevation of the ground point directly
below the obstacle, the line angle at the ground point (if on center-line), and the height of the
obstacle above the ground.
For an obstacle described by its own coordinates, the data include the obstacle feature code, an
optional label or description, the station, offset and elevation of the top of the obstacle, a zero line
angle and a zero obstacle height.

Also included for each ground or obstacle point are optional surveyor's notes to be displayed on
profile or plan views. Stations in a PFL file should be "true stations". They cannot be "equation
stations".
Using scanned raster drawings to create PFL terrain model

There are basically two approaches to building models of existing lines. The better approach is to
resurvey the terrain, the structure locations and the positions of the conductors with modern
equipment, i.e. to create a XYZ terrain model. A limited and less accurate alternative is to get the
locations of terrain, structure and conductor points from existing drawings or from scanned
images of these drawings. These drawings can be displayed in the background of the profile view.
Once the drawings are properly positioned in the profile view you need only digitize at locations
where you wish to create PFL points.
It is generally not recommended to use existing drawings as templates for building models of
older lines because of the potential accumulation of errors at each step of the process. The
original survey may have been inaccurate. The nature of the terrain below and in the vicinity of
the line may have changed over the years. The as-built locations of the conductor attachment
points may not be well reflected by the drawing. The catenary curves showing the positions of the
conductors at some temperature may have been based on crude assumptions not reflecting actual
sagging conditions and creep effects. These curves may have been drawn with templates not
adjusted to the actual ruling spans in the lines. The digitizing process itself, through scaling and
clicking on lines of finite thicknesses, will also add errors.
However, there are cases where one would want to quickly build a line model on top of a raster
drawing. You should make sure that the scanned drawing clearly shows labeled station and
elevation axes, with the station axis ideally labeled with true stations, as well as line angle
locations. This can be done before scanning by overwriting the axes with a dark pen. True
stations, that is stations measured from a point near the origin of the line can easily be calculated
and marked with a pen, if they are not already shown.
XYZ or PFL?

Given the choice of working with an XYZ or a PFL terrain model, the XYZ model is much better.
The alignment can easily be changed on top of an XYZ terrain model. There is no simple way to
change the alignment with a PFL terrain model as you do not have the ability to work in the plan
view.
With an XYZ model you can better visualize the terrain. A terrain TIN surface can be developed
and used for color rendering and the automatic display of contour lines. Maps and raster images
can easily be superposed to the plan view. Raster images can be projected onto the TIN surface
for realistic 3-d photo rendering of the terrain.
With an XYZ model, you can reference the locations of all your structures to the same coordinate
system used for the management of your line (GIS, databases, etc.). You can integrate a computer
model with other management tools used by your company.
While we highly recommend the use of the XYZ model over that of the PFL, you should
understand that both models are just alternate ways to look at the same 3-dimensional terrain and

alignment information. In fact, you can convert an XYZ model to a PFL model or convert a PFL
model to an XYZ model.
Side profiles, clearance lines, prohibited zones and special cost zones
Similar to the center line ground profile, side profiles are defined by an Offset from the center line
and an Offset Tolerance. All adjacent points (in order of increasing stations) within the Offset
Tolerance distance from the Offset line which are not separated by more than the Maximum
Separation will be connected to form a side profile. Side profiles are only shown where there are
terrain points within the specified Offset Tolerance.
A required clearance line (or several clearance lines if there are side profiles) can be displayed as
a dotted line and dotted spikes above the profile. The line and spikes are displayed for the voltage
specified. The clearance line consists of two parts. The first part is the basic ground clearance
consisting of copies of the centerline and side profiles shifted upward by a specified value. The
second part of the clearance line consists of vertical spikes indicating required vertical clearances
above (or below) specific terrain points or objects within the Maximum Offset for Profile View.
Prohibited zones and special cost zones can be defined along an alignment These zones are only
taken into account when optimizing the spotting of a line.
Equation stations
Once an alignment is defined, any terrain point has a station (distance along the alignment) and an
offset (distance from the center line).
"True station" is defined as the total distance measured from the first P.I. in the alignment to
which is added the designated station of that first P.I. The station of the first alignment point can
be changed from the default value of zero to any value.
"Equation station" is defined as a relative distance measured either forward or backward along the
alignment from an arbitrary point along the alignment. Unlike "True stations", "Equation stations"
are not continuous.
Design Criteria
Design criteria for power lines are often not the same in various countries and in different
companies within the same country. These criteria also change over time. However, in spite of
differences in particular numerical values, there are many similarities. General design check
functions could easily apply to a wide variety of design practices, from very simple requirements
for distribution lines to the most highly engineered processes for extra high voltage lines.
Modeling of wire system

One of the most complex parts of a transmission line is the wire system (conductors and ground
wires) in a tension section (from one dead end structure to the next dead end structure). Questions
arise regarding: 1) the handling of wind load which may not be uniform over the length of the
section (wind on individual spans may be larger than the average wind over the section because of
varying gust response factors and different wind incidences), 2) the handling of non-uniform ice
loads, 3) the handling of the many phenomena that generate longitudinal loads (broken wires,

slack redistribution, etc.), and 4) the possibility of interaction between flexible structures and all
wires in the tension section. Therefore, for practical design reasons, approximations and
assumptions have to be made.
There are several modeling levels are available to determine the response of the wire system to
some loading criteria. These levels are summarized as;
The simplest modeling level is based on the concept of the Ruling Span (RS) and it is sufficient
in most cases. The most advanced modeling level (Finite Element) is based on a full structural
analysis of the entire tension section, including detailed models of all supporting structures and all
cables. Because it is computer time intensive and is not justified in most situations, FE should
only be used in special cases where a very accurate representation of the interaction between the
structures and the wires needs to be considered. You likely will never have the need for this
advanced modeling capability (FE). Between RS and FE, there are some intermediate modeling
levels. These are defined herein as Real Span (because it works with actual real lengths of wires
in each span) or Finite Element (FE) modeling. The general assumptions used at these different
levels are discussed in this section.
Ruling Span method (RS) modeling - Usefulness and practicality of method:

This is by far the most practical method and it is applicable to the overwhelming majority of line
design situations. It should be used in all preliminary design situations. This is what you will use
most of the time. This method works well with legislated design loads which are generally
applied uniformly over a tension section. It should always be used at the preliminary design stage.
Assumptions:
1) The analysis involves a single wire (cable), in one or more spans, between dead ends, i.e. it is
assumed that there is no interaction between the wire and other phases of the same electrical
circuit or wires in other circuits.

2) The horizontal component of tension along the wire in all the spans of the tension section
between dead ends is constant, i.e. all intermediate supports are assumed to be perfectly flexible
in the longitudinal direction. This may not be very accurate in the case of rigid post insulators and
short suspension insulators subjected to large vertical loads. It is usually considered sufficiently
accurate in view of all the other uncertainties and approximations associated with line design.
3) Based on the horizontal component of its tension, the geometry of each span is determined as
the equilibrium configuration of a span is always a "catenary". The catenary lies in the plane
defined by the chord length of the span and the resultant wire load per unit length, UR, which is
assumed to have constant magnitude and direction at any point along the cable in a given span.
UR is based on the direction of the chord (a straight line), even though actual points along the
cable are below the chord. Without wind, UR is vertical and oriented downward. With wind, UR
is not vertical and it defines the swing angle of the span plane.
The catenary constant is the ratio H / UR, where H is the horizontal component of tension and UR
the load per unit length of cable. H is constant throughout the span.
The formula for ruling span is:
S3

L
L

L RS

Where:

L = length of each span in a tension section


LRS = Ruling Span

S4
for inclined spans

Limitations:
1) All the spans need to be subjected to the same loading, i.e. this level of modeling is not capable
of analyzing situations with different ice thicknesses in various spans.
2) There is no way to study the effect of slack re-allocation due to moving a conductor attachment
point or cutting/adding some wire length in a span.
3) There is no way to account for support displacements in a system where there is a fixed length
of wire, for example inserting or raising a structure to fix a clearance problem without resagging
the wires.
4) This level of modeling cannot be used to model an existing line where unequal tensions have
been surveyed in various spans of a given tension section.
Finite Element (FE) modeling ignoring interaction between wires
Usefulness and practicality of method:
With this method, all supports (towers, poles and frames) are assumed infinitely rigid unless you
chose to insert fictitious springs between the supports and the insulators).
For conductors supported by latticed towers with suspension insulators, should give you better
sags at very high temperature than RS and very good approximations of unbalanced loading
situations.
Assumptions:
1) As with RS, the analysis involves a single wire at a time between dead ends, i.e. it is
assumed that there is no interaction between different wires (other phases).

2) An accurate finite element model of the wire in all the spans between dead ends is used. This
model is assumed in longitudinal equilibrium (i.e. the horizontal component of tension is assumed
to be the same in all the spans) for the sagging condition, i.e.for a specified weather case and
cable condition or unstressed lengths can be specified. Strain, suspension and 2-parts insulators
are modeled as structural elements. Attachment points at the tips of post insulators and at the
structure ends of strain, suspension and 2-parts insulators are assumed fixed in the vertical
direction, but can optionally be allowed to move in the transverse and longitudinal directions. The
transverse and longitudinal movements of the attachment points depend on their assumed
transverse and longitudinal flexibilities (or stiffnesses). With zero flexibilities, the supports are
fixed..
3) Once the tensions in all the spans of the tension section are determined (unlike with ruling
Span, you will get different tensions in different spans), the corresponding design loads are
calculated using the same procedures as used with RS.
Limitations:
With this model, you can apply different loads in different spans (unbalanced ice, broken
conductor, etc.), you can reallocate slack between spans and you can move attachment points.

However:
1) There is still no accounting of the possible mechanical coupling between wires in different
phases.
2) In the case of post insulators, it is difficult to know what value of longitudinal stiffness should
be used.
Finite Element (FE) modeling accounting for interaction between wires

This modeling is similar to modeling above, except that all the wires between two limiting
infinitely rigid dead end structures (the ends of the model) are analyzed simultaneously, thus
accounting for the possibility of some longitudinal interaction between the phases. If a dead end
structure is is being checked for strength with potentially different loads on each side, the limiting
dead end structures are at the ends of the tension sections to the left and to the right of the
structure being checked. If not a limiting dead end, a dead end structure is treated as any other
structure as far as its flexibility is concerned. The interaction between the wires is accounted for
through the flexibility matrices of the supporting structures between the limiting dead ends. With
the above model, you do not consider structure flexibility (unless you specify two flexibility
numbers at each support).
With this level, software determines a flexibility matrix at each structure. A flexibility matrix is
just a device to represent the behavior of a flexible structure without having to model it in its
entirety when you connect it to supported wires (Peyrot and Goulois, 1978).
Structure flexibility matrices are determined automatically by our software programs for Finite
Element structures. Therefore, there is no additional complexity required if you are already using
FE structures. Flexibility matrices include flexibility coefficients. Consider two insulator
attachment points, I and J,. These points can arbitrarily be located in space, for example " I "
could be a ground wire attachment point and " J " the structure attachment point of the insulator
supporting the lower left phase of a double circuit tower. If a single unit longitudinal load is
applied at point I, the corresponding longitudinal displacement J,I at point J is the flexibility
coefficient F . For a transmission structure with N attachment points, the I,J NxN symmetrical
matrix that includes all the coefficients F is called the structure longitudinal flexibility matrix. If,
instead of restricting yourself to longitudinal loads and longitudinal displacements, you consider
both transverse and longitudinal unit loads and their corresponding displacements, you get a
flexibility matrix of size 2N x 2N. This is in fact the flexibility matrix used by software at each
structure location when the wire system is modeled at FE considering wires.
Usefulness and practicality of method:
This method only works with FE structures, as the flexibility matrices for all the structures are
automatically re-calculated by programs when needed. Except for some additional computer time,
FE with conductors has all the advantages of FE without conductors without its limitations: it
accounts for the interaction between the wires and relieves you from having to assume a
flexibility value.
However, expect approximately an order of magnitude more computer time when you use FE as
compared to RS. This modeling is the recommended method when you have longitudinal load
issues in lines supported by flexible poles and frames.
Assumptions and limitations:

If a deadend structure is being checked for loads or is part of a tension section for which tensions
are calculated, its flexibility matrix, if available, is taken into account.
1) Interaction between the wires is modeled through structure flexibility matrices which are
inherently linear. Thus the nonlinear effects of extremely flexible poles and frames (which may
account for 10 to 20 percent of the stresses) cannot be accounted for. Guyed structures, which are
also highly nonlinear, may not exhibit the correct behavior.
2) The effect on the equilibrium of the system of the wind load applied directly to the structures
cannot be taken into account.
Full system analysis

At Finite Element models all the wires and supporting structures of an entire range of tension
sections as a single gigantic structure. A gigantic finite element model is created automatically
from the individual finite element models of the individual supports and the interconnected
cables. This method requires that you use FE structures.
Usefulness and practicality of method:
Due to the large number of nodes and elements in the gigantic finite element model that is used
internally, this method can be prohibitively computer intensive as it requires orders of magnitude
more computer time and memory than other models. However, you may be able to work around
the prohibitive time and memory demands by specifying that FE only be used for guyed or
flexible structures, while all latticed towers are modeled at otherwise.
Assumptions:
A Finite Element model includes few limiting assumptions unless wind is involved. The finite
element model is as accurate a model of your physical line as you can hope to get. There is
complete interaction between the wires through accurate behavior of the supporting structures,
including their nonlinear behavior.
Limitations:
While the idea of accurately modeling an entire line segment by finite element is theoretically
attractive, its practicality is limited.
1) You will rarely be able to justify the extensive time needed to run a full system model. It may
take a very long time to analyze just one load case.
2) Some regulators require that you apply load factors between the reactions at the ends of the
spans and the supporting structures. This is an impossible situation to model with FE for that
matter) since the structures will always respond to the unfactored loads provided by the cables to
which they are connected while your may dictate that you analyze and check the strength of these
structures under factored loads.
3) While we can apply a uniform wind to an entire model (same velocity and global direction
blowing on each and every span of a multi-spans model), this is not realistic. In fact we will never
know what would be an appropriate wind or even a legislated wind with gust response factors to
apply simultaneously to all wires and structures.

Assumptions for Ruling Span


With RS, the horizontal tensions in the left and right spans are assumed to be those of their ruling
spans.

With Finite Element, the complete system is modeled to determine the tensions. It is assumed
that the wind direction on each span is either normal to the span, or is the same on all spans, i.e.
there is a global wind direction. The global wind direction is determined from your choice of
Wind Direction (other than NA+ or NA-). The unit wind load on each span is based on its gust
response factor which depends on the span length and average elevation.

Detailed design criteria


This section describes the many design criteria that can be used and checked. Criteria can be
developed in standard libraries to be shared among various projects or they can be developed only
for a specific project.
Weather cases
Many strength and serviceability (clearances) criteria assume that the line is subjected to a given
combination of wind, ice (or snow) and temperature. Such a combination is defined herein as a
"weather case". All cable sag and tension calculations, and consequently all loads and clearance
calculations, are made for designated weather cases. All weather cases which will be used in a
particular design must be described. A weather case table typically includes a group of weather
cases for checking the strength of the structures, a group for checking various geometric
clearances (to ground, blowout, between phases, swings, etc.), and a group for checking ground
wires and conductors tensions. It also includes the weather case assumed to cause creep, the
heavy load case which potentially causes permanent stretch of the various cables, and various
weather cases needed for displaying the cables at various temperatures.

Typical load cases for distribution and transmission lines are given in Section 6 of this Handbook.
There are usually a number of conditions for checking vertical, lateral and galloping clearances.
For checking the cables, the conditions may include: 1) the everyday combination, 2) no ice and
no wind at an everyday temperature, etc. Therefore, for a given project, the checks may contain a
substantial number of weather cases.
Weather Cases include data on:
Air density factor: Factor Q
Wind velocity or Pressure: Basic (or reference) velocity or pressure.
Wire Ice thickness, t: Thickness of ice assumed uniformly deposited on wire.
Wire Ice density, DENS:
Wire Ice load, Wice : Ice load per unit length of wire.
Wire Temp: Conductor or ground wire temperature
Weather Load Factor: Factor applied to wind and ice loads. Default = 1
NESC Constant, K: Constant K used only used for the NESC District Case
Wire Wind Height Select None, if you want your input values of wind velocity and pressure
Adjust Model: to be used on all wires and structures regardless of their height above ground
Wire Gust Response Gust response factor for all wires.
Conditions for cable creep and permanent stretch

The cable is assumed to be in its "Initial " condition for the few hours which follow its
installation. It is in its final after " Creep " condition after it has been assumed exposed to a

particular creep weather condition for a long period of time, say 10 years. It is normally assumed
that the weather case that causes creep consists of a no wind/ no ice condition at some average
temperature.
The average temperature of 15 deg. C is often used in Australia, unless the line spends several
months in very cold weather, in which case a colder value is appropriate. The final after " Load "
(also referred to as " final after common point " ) condition assumes that the cable has been
permanently stretched by a specified weather condition.
For example, .
Weight span
Depending on the method used to check the strength of your structures, you may need to calculate
a weight (or vertical) span. There are different ways, from very approximate to accurate, of
calculating weight spans.

For level spans, the weight span is equal to the wind span.
For inclined spans the distance between the low points in adjacent spans has no relationship
to the wind span. That weight span changes with different weather and cable conditions.
Therefore, a weight span can only be defined for a particular combination of weather and cable
conditions. When wind is blowing on inclined spans, it is actually difficult to locate the low
points in the elevation view. For a given cable tension, the location of the low point in the
elevation view depends on the swing angle of the entire span. In addition, the length of cable
between low points may be substantially different from the horizontal distance between these
points. Therefore, one should clearly understand the assumptions behind any weight span
calculation. Since weight spans are an indirect measure of vertical loads through the equation VL
= UV x VS, the validity of a particular method for calculating weight spans should be judged by
the ability of the method to predict correct vertical loads.
With traditional hand calculations and some computerized versions of these calculations, the
effect of the span swing angle is neglected. A catenary template corresponding to the resultant
load per unit length of cable is drawn in the vertical plane and the horizontal distance measured
between low points is taken as the weight span.
When structures are checked by the "basic allowable wind and weight spans" method (see Ruling
Span), the actual weight spans of their heaviest attached cable are compared to corresponding
allowable values for three weather conditions.
These conditions normally include a "wind", a "cold", and an "iced" condition.
Load trees for Finite Element structures.
When the strength of FE structures is checked, loading trees are established for a certain number
of "load cases" and are used for the analysis of the structures. There are many assumptions which
can be used to determine a loading tree.
.
Conductor sets
A cable "set" (also referred to as a tension section) is defined as a group or ensemble of one to
three cables (also called phases) with identical mechanical properties and tensions. For example,
an electrical circuit between dead ends is often modeled as one set. Corresponding to cable sets
are sets of structure attachment points and insulators (or attachment devices). For example a
double circuit tower, the two ground wire attachment points and attachment devices are made part
of Set #1,the three conductors in the left circuit and their suspension insulators are made part of

Deleted: Cable

Set #2 and the three conductors in the right circuit and their V-String insulators are made part of
Set #3.
If more than one attachment point on a structure is made part of a set, it is imperative that the
insulators (or attachment devices) at all attachment points of that set be identical. If two different
cables of the same circuit are not sagged at the same tension or if at any supporting structure the
insulators are not identical (for example one tower supports a circuit with an IVI insulator
configuration or with three I insulators of different properties), then they should be made
members of different sets. The only reason for grouping wires together in a set is that come
stringing and sagging time you can string the wires through all the attachment points within the
set and sag these wires simultaneously. If on the other hand you put each wire in independently (3
sets of one wire) then you will need to repeat the stringing and sagging operation three times,
once for each set. However, even with the time penalty associated with modeling only one wire
per set, there are several advantages to this approach: you can sag each phase separately and can
vary individual insulator properties at any location along the tension section.
When a set has more than one cable, each cable is identified by a "phase" number and its structure
attachment is identified by an "attachment" number. There can only be one, two or three phases
per set, therefore the "phase" or "attachment" numbers can only be 1, 2 or 3. When you string a
circuit, you have the ability to take any "phase" and attach it to any structure "attachment". This
allows you to transpose phases at intervals along your line.
Post insulators are handled differently when attached to Ruling Span structures as opposed to
Finite Element structures. With Ruling Span structures, post insulators have weight but no
geometric dimensions. Instead, you need to define the location of each insulator tip where the
conductor is attached. With Finite Element structure, post insulators have geometric dimensions,
as they are cantilevered from structure attachment points.
One of the reasons we have to include insulators as part of a structure top geometry, is that their
allowable swings or load angles are specific to the actual geometry of the structure to which the
insulators are attached .

13.1 Pole Locations in Traffic Corridors

Pole locations in traffic corridors are influenced by factors including traffic speed, traffic volume,
road deviation and traffic calming devices (roundabouts, chicanes, etc), embankments (cut or fill
slopes) next to the road, frangibility of the pole, road kerbing and parking.
Poles can be positioned closer to the road where there is a permanent barrier between the poles
and the road. Barriers can take the form of natural items such as kerbs, trees, rocks, and crash
barriers such as walls, wire rope, W-barrier, etc.
Frangible poles can typically be positioned closer to the road because they absorb the impact of
the vehicle to a greater extent than non-frangible poles.
Setback requirements will vary with the jurisdiction and various Codes of Practice exist at both
local and state government level. Supply Authorities should endeavor to work with relevant road

transport authorities, such as Councils, Shires and Main Roads Departments, to position poles in
mutually acceptable positions.
Guidance to setbacks and barriers is provided in :.
i)
AS/NZS 1158.1.3 Road Lighting - Vehicular Traffic (Category V) Lighting
Guide to Design, Installation, Operation and Maintenance
ii)
Austroads publications and guidelines for Rural and Urban Road Design.
iii)
AS/NZS 3845 Road Safety Barrier Systems.
Other pole location aspects are covered in Appendix
13.2 Railway and Tramway Crossings

Due to the potential for disruption to the community, for the installation and ongoing
maintenance, overhead power-lines that cross railways should be minimized where practical.
Crossings of railway and tramway tracks and property are subject to the requirements and
approval of the controlling authority. Special constructions, increased clearances and higher
safety factors generally apply in these areas. These conditions will vary with the jurisdiction and
should be ascertained prior to commencing the design layout.
Where railway power-lines crossings are required the installation should be designed to minimize
the impact of any future maintenance on the community. For example, the support conductor
structures and fittings should be of high integrity with a long life expectancy.
When designing railway crossing AS 4799 should be referred to in addition to requirements by
local rail authorities.

13.3 Waterway Crossings

Navigable waterways that are traversed by overhead power lines must allow for the potential for
boat with masts and eliminate this risk of the masts coming in contact with the power lines.
Crossings of navigable waterways shall be designed in accordance with AS/NZS ????. The design
process includes liaison with the local maritime jurisdiction to ascertain likely vessel heights and
determination of maximum water levels prior to layout design in order to achieve the required
safety clearances. Guidance on appropriate signage and marking is also provided in AS/NZS ????

13.4 Co-ordination with other Services

In order to better utilise service corridors and improve visual amenity joint use of infrastructure
with other utilities should be considered where it can be effectively implemented.

It is important to coordinate with nearby utility services to avoid both physical and electrical
interference. Overhead power-lines can electrically interfere with other utility services by
creating Earth Potential Rise (EPR) and Low Frequency Induction (LFI) hazards . EPR may
occur where high voltage earths are installed in the vicinity of these services. LFI can occur
where overhead power lines are run in parallel and in close proximity with utillity services that
are conductive (ie oil, gas and water pipelines, telecommunications equipment and road control
equipment).
Prior to commencement of line construction, arrangements should be made with the relevant
utilities to locate assets (in order to avoid damage during construction) and coordinate joint use
arrangements where agreed.
Particular consideration should be given to step and touch potentials and induced voltages
associated with the line which could impact on the operation of other services.
Publications relevant to the coordination of power and telecommunication circuits include :
AS/NZS 3835.1 Earth Potential Rise Code of practice
AS/NZS 3835.2 Earth Potential Rise Application Guide
SAA HB 219 Earth Potential Rise Worked Examples
SAA HB 87 Joint Use of Poles
SAA HB 88 Unbalanced High Voltage Power Lines Code of Practice
SAA HB 100 Safe Working Practices
SAA HB 101 Low Frequency Induction Code of Practice
SAA HB 102 Low Frequency Induction Application Guide
SAA HB 103 Crossings Code of Practice
CJC 4 - Coordination of power and telecommunications standard
13.5 Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft

Where overhead lines are located neat takeoff and landing areas for aircraft, special precautions
need to be considered in the overhead design process. A coverage of the obstacle limitation
surfaces (OLS), final approach and takeoff (FATO) areas and marking of the overhead line are
given in Appendix ..
13.6 Rural Activities in Proximity to Line

The layout design process should identify activities which are likely to occur in proximity to the
line and which might impact on the safe and reliable operation of the line. Risk assessment should
be undertaken and risk treatments applied to ensure that the residual risk is acceptable to the
organization.
It may be necessary to place restrictions on activities which might impact on line reliability
(including those involving high machinery, propagation of trees or irrigation under or near the
line) or to design for additional clearances to accommodate them. Where possible a line route
should be selected which avoids areas where they are likely to be affected by such activities.
Where usage of land is such that it is reasonable to expect that agricultural activities involving the
handling, movement or storage of large lengths of conductive material, take place or may take
place, the positioning of structures may need to be considered to minimise the risk of contact.

This may require consideration of:

design layouts that position structures away from regular agricultural activities eg:
along fence lines instead of across paddocks.
away from material and equipment storage areas
away from vehicle, machinery and plant storage areas
the use of underground cables and covered conductor
underground services
designs that achieve maximum practical clearances

Where there is a significant bushfire risk designers may need to take precautions to ensure that
there is low risk of conductor clashing such as increased conductor separation, use of covered or
insulated conductors and mid span spacers.
In areas of sensitive vegetation, covered or insulated conductors may be considered to reduce the
environmental impact

13.7 Ruling Span


The Ruling Span means that level dead-end span in which the behaviour of the tension closely
follows that of the tension in every span of a series of suspension spans in a tension section. A
tension section is the length of line between 2 termination structures. The ruling span is often
called the mean equivalent span.
The formula for ruling span is:

L
L

L RS
Where:

L = length of each span in a tension section


LRS = Ruling Span

14 COST OF OVERHEAD LINE (BY COMPONENTS)


The cost of an overhead line can be broken down into different component costs: conductor,
earthwire, insulators/fittings, towers, foundation, and engineering. Each component includes
material and erection (construction). The breakdown of transmission lines into component costs,
which is averaged internationally is given in Table 4.

TABLE 4 -TYPICAL BREAK DOWN INTO COMPONENT COSTS


(All figures are % of total line costs)
Components

< 150 kV

150 300 kV

Single circuit
Double circuit
Single circuit
Double circuit
Matr. Erec Total Matr. Erec Total Matr. Erec Total Matr. Erec Total

Conductors
Earthwires
Insulators
/fittings
Towers
Foundation
Right
of
way,
Engineering
Totals

20.2

11.4

31.6

25.0

11.5

36.5

20.7

12.0

32.7

27.0

11.5

38.5

2.4

1.7

4.1

1.5

1.1

2.6

2.1

1.6

3.7

1.3

1.2

2.5

5.2

3.5

8.7

6.5

3.5

10.0

6.5

2.4

8.9

5.0

3.0

8.0

21.9

11.2

33.1

21.0

9.4

30.4

21.0

11.8

32.8

21.5

9.8

31.3

11.5

5.0

16.5

11.5

5.0

16.5

11.2

5.4

16.6

10.7

5.5

16.2

3.0

3.0

6.0

2.0

2.0

4.0

2.5

2.8

5.3

1.5

2.0

3.5

64.2

35.8

100.0

67.5

32.5

100.0

64.0

36.0

100.0

67.0

33.0

100.0

15 GUIDELINES FOR POLE LOCATION


Normal Carriageway Use
Poles shall be setback from carriageways to prevent them from being hit by a vehicle normally
traversing the carriageway and to provide clear vision for the driver.

Errant Vehicles

Pole set backs are influenced by factors including, traffic speed, traffic volume, road
deviation and traffic calming devices (roundabouts, chicanes, etc), embankments (cut or fill
slopes) next to the road, frangibility of the pole, road kerbing and parking.

Poles can be positioned closer to the road where there is a permanent barrier between the
poles and the road. Barriers can take the form of natural items such as kerbs, trees, rocks,
and manmade crash barriers such as walls, wire rope, W-barrier, etc.

The poles should be positioned behind the man made crash barriers to be outside the deflective
zone of the barrier.

Frangible poles can typically be positioned closer to the road because they absorb the
impact of the vehicle to a greater extent than non-frangible poles.

15.1 Acceptable Location of Poles in Road Corridors


Supply Authorities should endeavor to work with relevant road transport authorities, such as
Councils, Shires and Main Roads Departments, to position poles in mutually acceptable
positions. Alternatively, guidance to setbacks and barriers are covered in the following
Standards.
i)
ii)
iii)

Australian Standard AS1158.1.3.


Austroads Rural and Urban Road Design.
Road Safety Barrier Design AS/NZS 3845.

15.2 Special Considerations for Slip based poles


Slip based poles should not be used in areas with high pedestrian based activity. The slip based
poles are unsuitable for these areas as these poles are deliberately designed to fall over after
vehicle impact to lessen the damage to the vehicle occupants. Having these poles fall over in
high pedestrian areas introduces an unacceptable risk. High pedestrian areas are schools,

shopping centres, major entrances/ exits to sporting or entertainment venues, and train or bus
stations entrances/ exits, .

15.3 Aerial Lines in the Vicinity of Aircraft


Lines Near Takeoff and Landing Areas
Where lines are installed near takeoff and landing areas for aircraft, the structures shall not
interfere with the takeoff and landing of aircraft. That is, for fixed wing aircraft the poles shall
not enter the obstacle restricted area or the obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) and for helicopter
landing areas the poles shall not enter final approach and takeoff (FATO) areas.
OLS and FATO limits may be ignored where there are other permanent taller structures in the
vicinity of the new line, such as trees or radio masts.
OLS limits are defined in Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASR) Part 139 Aerodromes.
FATO limits are defined in Civil Aviation Advisory Publication 922 (1) Guidelines for the
establishment and use of helicopter landing sites.
Military sites have take off and landing restrictions that are different to civilian requirements.
The take off and landing restrictions can be obtained from the relevant site.
The standards do not have limitations on pole placements near hot air balloon take off and landing
area.

Lines in Areas Other Than Takeoff and Landing Areas


In areas, other than takeoff and landing areas, overhead lines shall be located to avoid possible
interference with normal aircraft flight paths. In areas where overhead lines may be significantly
higher than the pole height, which are known flight areas, permanent markers should be fitted.
Areas that may have conductors higher than some of the poles are in valleys, across water ways
and near hills.

Marking of Powerlines in Proximity to Airstrips


Marking of power lines is required in close proximity to airstrips and on spans with exceptionally
high ground clearance across deep valleys. Consideration should also be given to the marking of
power lines in areas where regular low-level flying operations take place.
Guidance on the marking of power lines in Australia for the purposes of air navigation is
provided in :
AS 3891 Air Navigation Cables and their supporting structures Mapping and marking
- Part 1: Permanent marking of overhead cables and their supporting structures
- Part 2: Marking of overhead cables for low-level flying
Suggested changes and additions to exiting Section 14?
In general aerial lines shall not be installed so as to cause a hazard with aircraft.

15.4 Country Line Road Crossings


It is not uncommon in country areas for lines to fall and the line to be left suspended above the
ground. That is, the line is left suspended on a fence or held up with part of the failed pole.
There is also a risk that this situation could be in place for longer time periods than in
metropolitan areas. The longer time periods can be caused by a line patrolworker taking longer
to find the fault due to distance or terrain or the general public not being in the vicinity of the fault
to be able to see and report the problem.
When a suspended line is in a remote area, across a high-speed road and the line is of low
visibility the consequences could be catastrophic for the occupants of a vehicle impacting the
wires.
Strain poles either side of the road would increase the security of the line but it would not
eliminate the possibility of the line falling and being left suspended above the road.
Low visibility lines are typically SWER one and two bare wire systems.
To reduce the chance of a collision between a motorist and a suspended line consideration shall
be given by the designer to increase the visibility of bare single-phase overhead lines that cross
remote high speed roads. Increased visibility devices should be used on roads where speed limits
are equal to or above 90kmh.
Increased visibility can take the form of pre-form fluorescent wraps or marker balls.
The above practice is not required for three phase bare, ABC, CC or CCT installations as they are
more visible.
The above practice is not required on low speed country roads, as these tend to be near populated
areas or where the driver will have a greater opportunity to break in time to avoid collision with
the wire. The above practice is not required in metropolitan areas.

15.5 Markers
Conductors and structures in locations susceptible to bird strike or inadvertent contact in the
vicinity of the line can be marked to improve their visibility and reduce the risk of contact.
Marking may take the form of reflective or brightly coloured discs, flags or marker balls attached
to the cables or structures. Care should be taken to ensure that markers do not compromise circuit
clearances and overload structures.

Permanent Markers
The fitting of permanent makers is the responsibility of the line owner. Permanent makers may
be in the form of spheres attached to the conductors as described AS3891.
Where spheres are used, account must be taken of their weight and resistance to wind when
determining swing, sag and tension. In simple cases the performance of the conductor may be
determined by approximating the point load of the sphere to a distributed load but software

packages, which more accurately reflect actual condition, are available and should be used where
practicable.

Temporary Markers
Where aircraft operations such as crop dusting are carried out in the vicinity of overhead lines it is
the responsibility of the aircraft operator to mark the location and direction of the lines. Such
markers may be attached to the conductors or supports (subject to approval of the line owner) or
placed on the ground in the vicinity of the overhead line.

Over Crossing Markers


Where inspection of overhead lines by aircraft is conducted, supports should be marked each side
of any over crossing.

16 VEGETATION CLEARANCES
There are situations where there are conflicts with Trees and Powerlines. Trees, shrubs and other
vegetation enhance our lifestyles by providing shade and privacy around our homes, offer a
habitat for birds and wildlife, and add aesthetic value to our gardens. However, vegetation
interfering with powerlines is a proven risk to public safety, the environment and one of the main
causes of power supply problems.
Vegetation Management Principles
The basis for undertaking vegetation clearing is covered in the following principles:

To achieve a balance between environmental responsibilities and ensuring a safe, reliable


and economical electricity supply to our customers.

Recognise that there are sites with vegetation of significance located near powerlines
requiring special consideration and treatment because of their importance to the
community and the environment.

When selecting line routes, establish the most economical, technically acceptable option,
taking into account the ongoing costs of vegetation management, the objectives of
environmental policy, and maintenance of the overhead network.

Vegetation Clearance Zones


Figure shows the vegetation zones surrounding an overhead powerline. These zones are
described as:
Clearance Zone - is the space that must be clear of vegetation at all times, including the
period between trimming cycles.

Regrowth Zone - is a space beyond the clearance zone that must be trimmed so that the
regrowth does not enter the clearance zone within the trimming cycle
Risk Management Zone - is a space in which trees or limbs may pose a risk in adverse
weather conditions due to factors such as instability and weakness. Clearance in this zone
is discretionary.
Low Growth Zone - is the space below the clearance zone where vegetation is allowed
which will not have a height of more than a specified distance, depending on the
circumstance

Figure .. Vegetation Clearance Zones surrounding Overhead Line

Clearances to vegetation are generally established by regulations and industry guidelines in


various jurisdictions. Additional clearing may be needed to improve the reliability of the
overhead line. Typical clearance distances for a high reliability lines operating up to 33 kV are
shown in Table 1.

Typical clearance distances for low voltage Aerial Bundled Cable and Insulated Service Cable are
shown in Table 2.

Special Considerations for Transmission Lines


On Transmission Lines special consideration should be given to extend the vegetation clearing to
meet the higher levels of security and reliability for the line. The extended clearance may include
clearing to the sky (refer Figure ..) and allowance for blow out of the conductors in the mid
sections of the line.

17 LIST OF AVAILABLE LINE DESIGN PROGRAMS


Structural Programs:

PLS Tower
PLS Pole
MS Tower
Microstran
SpaceGass
I Tower
Catan
TL Pro
Livewire
Poles and Wires

Layout Programs:

PLS Cadd
Catan
TL Pro
Livewire
Poles and Wires
SagTen

Geotechnical Programs:

PLS Caisson
Brinch Hanson Foundation Package
Livewire

Electrical Programs:

EMTP
CDEGS
IEEE Flash 1.8
Sigma SLP

18

COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX B WIND LOADS

Clause B1 - Australia
The provisions in this clause are a major departure from the previous Cb1 and AS/NZS 1170.2 in the
definition of wind regions. It acknowledges that most wind damage in Australia and New Zealand to the
overhead line networks occur during severe thunderstorms and provides a more reasonable interpretation
of wind regions based performance of overhead line networks over a number of years.

Figure B 1

Wind Regions for Australian Design Wind Gust Types

Figure B1 shows a zoning map to determine which storm type should be considered in design for wind. On
the mainland, the regions on this map are delineated by a boundary 200 kilometres from the smoothed
coastline. This contrasts to the multiple narrow 50km wide zones in AS/NZS 1170.2 for the near coastal
areas. Wind velocities are selected from AS/NZS 1170.2 as appropriate to the security level selected for
the relevant location and wind zone required in the standard Figure B1.
This leaves some latitude to the designer to select the V50 value for a selected Security Level as required in
Section 6 of the standard.
For example in Zone 1 for Australia where cyclonic events occur AS/NZS 1170.2 provides for wind zones
C, D and B. Recent experience suggests that these arbitrary 50km zones are not relevant to severe
Category 4 and Category 5 cyclonic events as the storm damage paths have been observed to extend
100km inland over a width of some 20km. In these cases it would be appropriate to select a V50 value from
region C
For the remainder of the non cyclonic regions within Zone 1 such as New South Wales coastal area only
one V50 value is provided but a higher return period value may be adopted in some local areas where
regular storm damage occurs.

For example in the coastal area immediately north of Sydney or the south east Queensland regions it might
be prudent to adopt a V100 value or a higher security level as appropriate, in view of the relatively high
frequency of severe thunderstorms.
It should be noted that the selection of the regional wind speed is relevant to the lines location, and care
needs to be exercised where standard designs are applied to multiple sites. Where an overhead line is of
significant length, variations in wind loading may be required as the line passes through differing wind
exposure situations.
For example a line emanating from a coastal substation in a cyclonic region passing inland over a coastal
range to an inland supply point could pass through three significant design wind climates that should be
incorporated in the line design.

B2 New Zealand
Apart from the probability in some areas of turbulent effects near large mountains the majority of New
Zealand is within Region A7 of AS/NZS 1170.2. Some caution needs to be applied to locations on hills in
close proximity to sea coasts.
B3 Synoptic wind regions

In Clause B3 reference is made to wind direction multipliers Md as provided in Table 3.2 of


AS/NZS 1170.2 being taken as 1.0 to provide for multiple changes in direction of the route of
overhead lines. In some cases it could be argued that where a line route is in a predominate
direction for its entire route and the line design is unique for that line only, that consideration be
given for a lower value direction multiplier. However line designs once created usually have repeat
applications on other line projects which could have multidirectional characteristics and extreme
caution is required if reduced values of Md are used.
Cyclonic wind amplification factors Fc and Fd provided in AS/NZS 1170 Clause 3.4 are to be taken as 1.0
for all overhead lines, based on performance of overhead lines in cyclonic areas over time. These factors
are provided in AS/NZS 1170.2 to apply additional security due to some uncertainty with wind velocities
in the light of the recent incidence of several major Category 5 events. Performance of major transmission
lines in these regions over the last 50 years has been very good, despite some structure failures occurring.
Distribution line network failures in such extreme events occur regardless of magnitude of wind velocities
primarily as a result of airborne vegetation and building debris. Hence the value of 1.0 has been applied
for all lines in these areas.
B4. Downdraft wind regions (Australia Zone II and Zone III and New Zealand Zones
Region A 7 )
B4.1 Downdraft Winds
The standard provides for all structures to be designed for V50 3 second gust regional wind speeds as defined
in AS/NZS 1170.2. Higher or lower security levels of line design are then adjusted from this value using
Security Multipliers from Section 6.

Downdraft winds are the predominate wind that governs the design of overhead lines in Australia with the
exception of cyclonic coastal regions. The wind velocities provided in AS/NZS 1170.2 include this type of
event.
The important aspect that is different is the span reduction factor when compared to that applicable to the
larger scale synoptic wind gust events. Downdraft wind gusts are relatively narrow and when they strike
the ground observations of vegetation damage suggests a burst swath varying from 100m up to 1000m in
width being common occurrences during more severe thunderstorms and hence the wind can envelop one
or more spans simultaneously.

The standard provides a Span Reduction Factor (SRF) to be applied as provided in Figure B 6
Terrain -Height Multiplier Mz,cat for the common range of structure in open terrain and heights < 50m is
1.0
B4.2 Tornadoes
The standard identifies that these events do occur in some parts of the country but that they are relatively
rare random events and of low intensity < F2 strength when compared to those in United States of America
and Argentina. Unless a line has a very high security requirement it is recommended that no special
loadings be generally considered.
B5. Wind Pressures
For distribution overhead lines a simplified approach to wind loadings can be applied
particularly as most lines are located in Category 3 or Category 4 exposure and significant
shielding from vegetation and structures occurs.

The basic regional wind pressure (pb ) as selected from Table E1 below for the relevant wind region
from AS1170.2 and limit-state being considered and ps and p u represent the corresponding basic
pressures for the serviceability and strength limit-states, respectively.TABLE E1
BASIC REGIONAL PRESSURES
Country

Geographic region (1)

New Zealand

I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII

Australia

Basic regional pressures (kPa) for limit states

P s (2)
0.7
0.7

p u (2)
1.2
1.4

A
B

0.9
0.9

1.5
2.2

NOTES:
1 Geographic regions are shown separately for New Zealand and Australia, the symbols for each region being
those given in the respective wind-load Standards.
2 The basic regional wind speeds, from which the basic pressures are derived, do not differ greatly from one
region to the next in New Zealand. To simplify this, the regions have been grouped around two values, namely
45 m/s and 48 m/s.

B5.1 Wind Pressures on Lattice Steel Towers

The standard provides detailed guidance on the derivation of wind loadings on structures. An important
issue to consider is the angle of incident of the wind. Studies have shown that for a square based tower an
angle of incidence of 22.5 degrees to the plane at right angles to the direction of the line will be critical for
the design of main tower leg members.
Drag factors for a range of Solidity Ratios are provided in Table B2. Care needs to be taken in calculation
of these rations to ensure adequate allowance is made for connection gusset plates and actual member sizes
used, particularly on compact tower superstructures and beams on horizontal configuration single circuit
towers.

B5.2 Wind Pressure on Poles


Many utility poles have ancillary items attached to them either in a temporary or permanent capacity. This
can include banner support brackets, banners, cable television boosters, and communications cables.
Where these items are added at some time after the initial overhead line was constructed, support
structures need to be reviewed to ensure that public safety margins are not jeopardised.
B5.3 Wind Forces on Conductors

The Span Reduction Factor for each wind climate region is a significant issue for design of structures. In
Wind Zone 1 and Zone 111 the designer needs to consider both downdraft SRF as well as synoptic SRF
although the downdraft will be found to be the controlling condition.
In Zone 11, only downdraft conditions apply and is significant in the design of distribution pole lines
where average spanning will be typically in the 50 -300m range. In these cases a SRF of 1.0 is required.
B5.4 Wind forces on insulators and fittings

While this is standard design consideration allowance needs to be made for any other devices and
apparatus that may be provided on conductors. Item such as aerial markers at regular intervals along a
conductor or earthwire spans near feeder and waterway crossings and airports, temperature transponders,
and surge arrestors, need to be considered. Retrospective installation or aerial markers may justify design
checks particularly where placed on earthwires.

B6 Topographical Effects
This is an informative section of Appendix B and is based on localised performance of lines over time, and
these details provide application guidelines to be considered during the line layout process in particular to
minimise potential risks of wind overload due to topographical influences. In locations where a structure
position cannot be relocated to avoid a high risk situation then a higher duty/strength structure is usually
the simplest option.

19 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX D - GUIDELINES ON SERVICE LIFE OF


OVERHEAD LINES
(Informative)
While this is an informative appendix, the information presented is drawn from a number of
industry reference groups and research experts and reflects best estimates for general
application in design of overhead lines for a range of construction types.
Section 6 Table 6.1 sets out security levels and design working life combinations for the
selection of security load multipliers to be applied to design loadings.
The selection of the appropriate Design Working Life for each design suite of supports and
type of support can have a significant influence on the reliability of the structure and public
safety.
The information provided is considered conservative for each exposure condition assumed.
Clause D1 GENERAL of the standard defines the Design working life or service life of a
structure as the period (generally in years) over which it will continue to serve its intended
purpose safely, without undue maintenance or repair disproportionate to its cost of replacement
and without exceeding any specified serviceability criteria. This recognizes that cumulative
deterioration of the structure over time will occur, due to wear and tear or environmental
effects. Therefore, in order to maintain structural integrity within adequate design margins
adequate maintenance and possible minor repairs will be required from time to time to maintain
the structure in a safe and useable condition over its service life.
The design life, or target nominal service life expectancy, of a structure is dependent on a
number of variable factors. The information contained in this Appendix is given as a
reasonable basis for the economic evaluation of alternative support systems; the selection of a
particular structure type for given site conditions; the detail design of a particular structure; or
the selection of suitable materials or protective treatment.
Structures and fittings located within 1.0 km of the sea will be subjected to more severe
exposure and would normally require either special protection or a shorter service life.
Experience in these coastal regions suggests that metallic fittings will be the weakest link over
time and may need to be replaced more than once during the economic life of the structure.
Clause D2 SUGGESTED NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE and Tables D2 and D4 provide
recommended nominal service lives for steel, concrete and timber pole structures and lattice
steel towers based on a range of above-ground exposure classes as set out in Table D1.

TABLE D1
ABOVE-GROUND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION (AUSTRALIA)
Climatic zone
(see Figure D1)
Arid

Temperate (4)

Tropical

Geographic region (1)


Inland
Near-coastal
Coastal
Inland
Near-coastal
Coastal
Inland
Near-coastal
Coastal

Industrial proximity (2)

Exposure class (3)

Non-industrial

A1

Industrial

Non-industrial

B1
B1
B2
A2

Industrial

Non-industrial

B1
B1
B2
B1

Industrial

B2
B1
B2

(See Note 4)

Any

TABLE D2
SUGGESTED RANGE OF NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE OF
STEEL STRUCTURES AND CONCRETE POLES
Suggested nominal service life (years)
Galvanized steel(5)

Exposure class
200 g/m

2(1)

400 g/m

Concrete

2(1)

600 g/m

2(1)

C (2)

A1

60100+

100+

100++

100+

A2

2560

60100

75100+

80100

B1

1225

2550

3575

6080

B2

825

1550

3575

5060

( 3)

312

(6)

625

(6)

935

(6)

50

(4)

TABLE D4
SUGGESTED RANGE OF NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE OF
TIMBER POLES
Zone
(see
Figure D3)

Service life expectancy (years)


H5 treated timber to AS 1604

Desapped untreated timber

Class 1
4555

Class 2
3545

Class 3
2535

Class 4
4050

Class 1
2535

Class 2
1525

50+

50+

3040

50+

3040

2535

50+

50+

4050

50+

50+

3040

These service life expectancies are indicative ranges and should be used in conjunction with
local service experience and exposure in order provide a basis for design.

20 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX F - TIMBER POLES

TABLE G1 (continued)
Clause F1

General

This clause sets out the design properties and design methods for timber poles and components in
accordance with AS 1720.1 or NZS 3606.
Clause F1.2 Characteristic strengths and elastic moduli

Strength groups for timber poles are as given in AS 2878 and as summarised below. Those in
parenthesis have provisional status as specified in AS 2878.

TABLE G1
TIMBER SPECIES, STRENGTH GROUPS, NATURAL DURABILITY RATINGS AND
BRAND MARKS
Standard trade common name

Softwood (S) or Strength group Natural durability


hardwood (H)
(Unseasoned)
ratings

Species
brand

box, coast grey

S1

CB

gum, grey

S1

GG

ironbark, broad- leaved red

S1

BU

ironbark, grey

S1

GI

blackbutt

S2

BB

box, grey

S2

1*

GB

box, white

(S2)

2*

WX

box, white topped

S2

2*

WT

gum, poplar

(S2)

3*

PG

gum, salmon

(S2)

3*

SA

gum, spotted

S2

SG

ironbark, narrow-leaved red

S2

NI

ironbark, red

S2

RI

mahogany, red

(S2)

RM

mahogany, southern

S2

SM

mahogany, white

S2

WM

stringybark, blue-leaved

S2

3*

SL

stringybark, silvertop

S2

SS

Tallowwood

S2

TW

ash, silvertop

S3

ST

blackbutt, New England

S3

NA

bloodwood, brown

S3

2*

BD

(Continued)

Standard trade common name


bloodwood, red

Softwood (S) or Strength group Natural durability


hardwood (H)
(Unseasoned)
ratings
H

S3

1*

Species
brand
RW

box, brush

S3

BH

box, red

S3

2*

RX

box, yellow

S3

YB

gum, southern blue

S3

BG

gum, forest red

S3

FR

gum, Maiden's

S3

3*

MG

gum, mountain grey

S3

MT

gum, rose

S3

RO

gum, Sydney blue

S3

3*

SY

peppermint, broad- leaved

S3

BT

satinay

S3

stringybark, brown

S3

BS

stringybark, messmate

S3

MS

stringybark, red

S3

RS

stringybark, white

S3

WS

stringybark, yellow

S3

YS

turpentine

S3

TP

ash, alpine

S4

AA

ash, mountain

S4

MA

brownbarrel

S4

BL

gum, manna

S4

MN

gum, mountain

S4

MO

gum, yellow

(S4)

YG

peppermint, narrow-leaved

S4

NL

peppermint, Sydney

(S4)

SP
RR

gum, river red

S5

peppermint, black

(S5)

3*

BP

pine, cypress white

S5

1*

WC

pine, slash

S5

PS

fir, Douglas (Oregon)North America

S5

DF

fir, Douglas (Oregon)elsewhere

S6

DF

pine, Caribbean

(S6)

PB

pine, hoop

S6

HP

pine, loblolly

S6

PL

pine, maritime

(S6)

PM

pine, radiata

S6

PR

pine Corsican

(S7)

4*

PC

(Continued)

Softwood (S) or Strength group Natural durability


hardwood (H)
(Unseasoned)
ratings

Standard trade common name


pine, patula

(S7)

pine, ponderosa

pine, Canary Island

pine, long-leaf

Species
brand

4*

PP

(<S7)

4*

PW

4*

PI

4*

PF

* These durability ratings are not listed in AS 5604 and have been assigned the classification in AS 2209.
NOTES:
1

See AS 5604 for definitions of timber natural durability ratings.

The strength groups assigned in the above table are those given in AS 2878 for unseasoned timber.
Provisional strength groups are shown in brackets. These are assigned in those cases where the evidence
was inadequate to allow positive grouping at the time AS 2878 was published.

For information on species not listed refer to CSIRO, Forest Products or state forestry authorities.

The characteristic strengths and elastic moduli for untrimmed poles that conform in quality to the
grade requirements specified in AS 2209 are as specified in Tables F.3.1 and F.3.2, unless verified
by testing of samples from the same grade.
Strength groups and joint group classifications are assigned to species in accordance with
AS 1720.2.
TABLE F.3.1
POLE TIMBERS GRADED TO AS 2209 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRENGTH
GROUPS AND CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES (MPa)
Strength
group

Stress
grade

Bending
(f b )(3)

S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7

F34
F27
F22
F17
F14
F11
F8

100
80
65
50
40
35
25

Tension parallel to
grain (f t )(3)
Hardwood

Softwood

60
50
40
30
25
20
15

26
21
17
13

Shear
(f s ) (3)

Compression
parallel to
grain (f c ) (3)

7.2
6.1
5.0
4.3
3.7
3.1
2.5

75
60
50
40
30
25
20

Short
duration
modulus of
elasticity (E)
21500
18500
16000
14000
12000
10500
9100

F2 Design Capacity
Using the design method set out in the standard and timber pole characteristic properties as indicated
above, the following design bending strength capacities result for each strength group and assumed ground
line pole diameter.
It should be noted that the maximum bending moment will occur at a point around 200 mm below ground
level in average soil backfill conditions. This is due to several factors. Clayey soils will shrink away from
the pole as they dry out; the sub soil requires some distance to provide fixity to develop restraint, and

significant degradation in the zone 300mm below ground surface level will occur over time. In deep
cracking/ reactive clays this 200mm allowance could be deeper unless breast logs or stabilized backfill is
used.

Assumed
tip loading
position

Tip
dt

hr

Ground level
200mm
dg

db

Assumed critical cross section for


design dgl

Refer tabulated Ultimate bending moment capacities Tables F4.1


F4.2 and F4.3
L GL

Butt

Pole planting depth see comments on


Appendix L

TABLE F4.1
ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH AT GROUND LINE
PRESSURE IMPREGNATED NATURAL ROUND HARDWOOD POLES
(kNm)

Strength group

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

Pole diameter at GL
(mm)

100

80

65

50

40

35

150

25.3

20.3

16.5

12.7

10.1

8.9

175

40.3

32.2

26.2

20.1

16.1

14.1

200

60.1

48.1

39.1

30.0

24.0

21.0

225

85.5

68.4

55.6

42.8

34.2

29.9

250

117.3

93.9

76.3

58.7

46.9

41.1

Characteristic bending strength (MPa)

275

156.2

125.0

101.5

78.1

62.5

54.7

300

202.8

162.2

131.8

101.4

81.1

71.0

325

257.8

206.3

167.6

128.9

103.1

90.2

350

322.0

257.6

209.3

161.0

128.8

112.7

375

396.1

316.8

257.4

198.0

158.4

138.6

400

480.7

384.5

312.4

240.3

192.3

168.2

425

576.5

461.2

374.7

288.3

230.6

201.8

450

684.4

547.5

444.8

342.2

273.8

239.5

475

804.9

643.9

523.2

402.5

322.0

281.7

500

938.8

751.0

610.2

469.4

375.5

328.6

550

1249.5

999.6

812.2

624.8

499.8

437.3

600

1622.2

1297.8

1054.5

811.1

648.9

567.8

k 20 immaturity factor applied for poles of diameter less than 200 mm.

= 0.90, normal use; change to 0.75 for critical importance.

k 1 = 1.00; use 0.57 for permanent loads.

k 21 = 1.00, shaving factor (in critical zone, i.e., 1 m < GL < +2 m).

k 22 = 0.85, steam processingassumed for all CCA poles.

k d = 1.00, preservative treated Eucalypt, 25 year expected maintenance free service life.

TABLE F4.2
ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH AT GROUND LINE
UNTREATED, SHAVED/UNPROCESSED HARDWOOD POLES
(kNm)

Strength group

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

Pole diameter at GL
(mm)

100

80

65

50

150

20.3

16.2

13.2

10.1

8.1

7.1

175

32.2

25.8

20.9

16.1

12.9

11.3

200

48.1

38.5

31.2

24.0

19.2

16.8

225

68.4

54.8

44.5

34.2

27.4

24.0

250

93.9

75.1

61.0

46.9

37.6

32.9

275

125.0

100.0

81.2

62.5

50.0

43.7

300

162.2

129.8

105.4

81.1

64.9

56.8

325

206.3

165.0

134.1

103.1

82.5

72.2

350

257.6

206.1

167.4

128.8

103.0

90.2

375

316.8

253.5

205.9

158.4

126.7

110.9

400

384.5

307.6

249.9

192.3

153.8

134.6

425

461.2

369.0

299.8

230.6

184.5

161.4

450

547.5

438.0

355.9

273.8

219.0

191.6

475

643.9

515.1

418.5

322.0

257.6

225.4

500

751.0

600.8

488.2

375.5

300.4

262.9

Characteristic bending strength (MPa)


40

35

550

999.6

799.7

649.8

499.8

399.9

349.9

600

1297.8

1038.2

843.6

648.9

519.1

454.2

NOTES:
1

k 20 immaturity factor applied for poles of diameter less than 200 mm.

= 0.90, normal use; change to 0.75 for critical importance.

k 1 = 1.00; use 0.57 for permanent loads.

k 21 = 0.85, shaving factor (in critical zone, i.e., 1 m < GL < +2 m).

k 22 = 1.00, no processing.

k d = 0.80, preservative treated Eucalypt, 25 year expected maintenance free service life.

TABLE F4.3
ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH AT GROUND LINE
PRESSURE IMPREGNATED, SHAVED SOFTWOOD POLES
(kNm)

Strength group

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

Characteristic bending strength (MPa)

Pole diameter at GL
(mm)

100

80

65

50

40

35

150

18.3

14.7

11.9

9.2

7.3

6.4

175

30.8

24.6

20.0

15.4

12.3

10.8

200

51.1

40.9

33.2

25.5

20.4

17.9

225

72.7

58.2

47.3

36.4

29.1

25.5

250

99.7

79.8

64.8

49.9

39.9

34.9

275

132.8

106.2

86.3

66.4

53.1

46.5

300

172.4

137.9

112.0

86.2

68.9

60.3

325

219.1

175.3

142.4

109.6

87.7

76.7

350

273.7

219.0

177.9

136.9

109.5

95.8

375

336.6

269.3

218.8

168.3

134.7

117.8

400

408.6

326.9

265.6

204.3

163.4

143.0

425

490.1

392.0

318.5

245.0

196.0

171.5

450

581.7

465.4

378.1

290.9

232.7

203.6

475

684.2

547.3

444.7

342.1

273.7

239.5

500

798.0

638.4

518.7

399.0

319.2

279.3

550

1062.1

849.7

690.4

531.1

424.8

371.7

600

1378.9

1103.1

896.3

689.5

551.6

482.6

NOTES:
1

k 20 immaturity factor applied for poles of diameter less than 200 mm.

= 0.90, normal use; change to 0.75 for critical importance.

k 1 = 1.00; use 0.57 for permanent loads.

k 21 = 0.85, shaving factor in critical zone (1 m < GL < +2 m).

k 22 = 0.85, steam processingassumed for all CCA poles.

k d = 1.00, preservative treated Eucalypt, 25 year expected maintenance free service life.

21 COMMENTARY ON APPENDIX I - CONCRETE POLES


Design of Concrete Poles
Concrete poles produced in Australia and New Zealand are either designed as a normal reinforced
concrete cast product based on calculated design or as a centrifugally spun cast product that has a
proprietary design correlated and supported by extensive testing.
Some pole designs have prestressed tendons or partially prestressed tendons that provide
permanent compression of the pole element under most loading conditions and result in most
cases in a more durable pole product.
The design provisions of the standard are general application clauses covering all types of design,
but more specifically to poles designed by calculation as set pout in Clause I 3.
The most important requirements for concrete pole designs apart from strength are concrete
durability and control of deflections and related crack widths.
Clause I 4.2 Deflection and rotation identifies the potential problem but it is a significant issue
on stayed poles or poles subjected to permanent bending moments. Even though bending stresses
may be low, concrete strain/creep over time can result in crack widths that may not effectively
autogenous self seal. This type of cracking may take 6 9 months of exposure to permanent load to
develop discernable creep related cracking and field experience indicates that the creep will
continue and cracks widen further with time with the potential for corrosion of exposed steel
reinforcement. Deflection of pole elements with permanent bending stresses should be checked and
assessed for potential cracking that may exceed the specified limits.
Clause I 4.3 Crack width sets out that crack widths at the serviceability limit state shall not exceed
0.25 mm.
All concrete will develop barely measurable minute cracks and most self seal. Crack widths from
handling stains and construction or other flexural loadings <0.25mm are acceptable for average
exposure conditions
In addition Appendix D of the Standard also sets out the following crack width recommendations in
relation to design service life requirements for a range of general exposure classifications:
(1)

Width <0.3 mm

Exposure Classifications A1, A2, B1.

(2)

Width <0.2 mm

Exposure Classification B2.

(3)

Width <0.1 mm

Exposure Classification C.

The crack width limit of 0.25mm is therefore set to provide a conservative but important
serviceability standard for concrete poles. In more severe exposure sites (Classification C
particularly) other design considerations need to be taken as set out in Appendix D.
Concrete cover is the other important consideration for providing concrete durability.
Clause I 5 Concrete Cover - sets out minimum cover requirements for varying exposure conditions,
reinforcing bar, concrete aggregate sizes and water absorption limits.

With the high characteristic compressive strengths that can be achieve through mix design, concrete
compaction (particularly by centrifugal spinning), the provision of high and consistent standards of
initial concrete curing will greatly enhance long and durable service life of pole elements.
Water absorption testing (Appendix O) on prototype pole is essential where concrete cover of 19mm
and less is provided. Keep in mind that with all dimensions there must be an acceptance tolerance
and +/- 2mm is sometimes difficult to achieve during high mechanical compaction of concrete and
it is more than likely that at some locations on a pole element it could result in tolerances of
+/- 3mm occurring.
ie 19mm nominal cover could be reduced to possibly 15mm and durability then becomes a
significant issue. This means that if concrete cover is expected to be on dimensional tolerance limit
or greater, then additional effort needs to be placed on the curing process once the pole product is
stripped from the moulds.
As an example there is some standard prestressed concrete pole products produced in Japan that
have characteristic strength of typically 60MPa and 9 mm cover over tendons and they are cured by
full immersion in water for 10 days.
Service experience in Europe with some of the earliest centrifugally spun poles has shown that even
in cold climates with ice and snow exposure that there are some poles still in excellent service
condition after over 90 years.
Testing of Concrete Poles
Clause 8.5.2 of the Standard sets out Load Testing requirements for pole type structures. Where
large volumes of similar type/length /strength poles are in mass production these tests form a very
important check on design and consistency of manufacturing standards

In particular it sets out the following requirements:


1. Load testing of prototype poles may be used as an acceptable alternative to strength calculations to
verify flexural bending and shear capacity strengths for pole type elements.
2. Routine Sample poles shall be tested to determine whether structurally similar poles are deemed
to comply with the requirements for strength and serviceability of this Standard. Deflection
characteristics of repetitive sample pole tests compared to prototype test deflections provides a
useful tool for monitoring quality of pole product manufacture.

Prototype testing is the most important test in ensuring flexural and shear strength characteristics of
any pole and it is important in these tests to model the design loading assumptions as close as
possible.
P-delta (load/deflection) considerations are very important for concrete pole testing due to their
inherent flexibility, and if load tests are carried out in the horizontal mode then additional loading
in the longitudinal plane should be considered in order to reflect deflected vertical self weight mass
eccentric loading stresses.
Vertical prototype load tests if possible, are preferred to enable realistically model loading
characteristics, but should also be accompanied by a horizontal test if horizontal routine testing is
carried out, so that a comparative base line test deflection characteristic is established for
production control through further routine sample tests.

Crack development during load testing must be carefully monitored and significant or accelerated
crack width development with small load increase could signify structural design weakness at loads
below 50% of ultimate capacity.
Cracks in non prestressed poles above 40% load capacity most likely will not close up after release
of load on test, however if the pole were to experience this level of loading in service, the self
weight load will most likely close resultant cracks.
It should be noted that the advantage of prestressing and partial prestressing tendons in pole designs
provides control of cracking under all normal service loading conditions likely to be experienced.

Pole Manufacture Related Design Issues

It is most important in the production control for concrete pole manufacture to not only ensure
consistency of the concrete mix but also in the measured volume of concrete batched and added to
the moulds to ensure design wall thickness is provided. In spun poles the internal wall can have in
part minimum fines in the surface zone and hence durability of the internal concrete may need to be
enhanced by sealing off the butt to prevent ground water ingress.
If the total internal void in circular concrete poles is sealed off top and bottom and with through
tubes for bolting, significant thermal differentials from air temperature variations during the day
will cause pressure variations internally and can cause ground water to be pumped inside the void if
any below ground opening exists.
Butt sealing of hollow poles is recommended for most applications, particularly where high ground
water tables are known to exist, or can be expected to occur after seasonal rainfall.
Handling Stresses

While the standard does not cover the area of handling stresses, the normal approach adopted is for
construction and transport induced stresses be restricted to be less than normal design stresses.
However on cross country lines, particularly in through difficult terrain and where longer pole
elements are used, transport and handling stresses can result in pole damage can easily occur. On
such line projects, flexural stresses from off road transporters, possible snigging along the ground at
very difficult sites, and lifting /erection stresses, need to be included as a specific design loading
case.

22 APPENDIX L - STRUCTURE FOOTING DESIGN


AND
GUIDELINES FOR THE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS

L1

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

While this is an informative appendix in the standard it establishes some important principles for
acceptable design methods associated with overhead line footings and their foundations.
While several alternative approaches can be used for the design of footings and the interpretation of the
foundation conditions, the designer should exercise sound engineering judgment in determining which
method is most appropriate for the standard of construction required.
When designing overhead line foundations, the designer also has the option to design each footing for sitespecific loadings and actual subsurface conditions or to develop standard designs that can be used at sites
within application guidelines for various possible sub soil conditions.
Reference is also made in the standard to relevant references for design methods such as IEEE Std 6912001 Guide for Transmission Structure Foundation Design and Testing.
Reference could also be made to American Society of Agricultural Engineers ANSI/ASAE EP486.1 OCT
00 Shallow Post Foundation Design for distribution pole structure footing design.
L2 GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS

The standard provides some typical detailed information on a range of soil types that may be encountered
on any overhead line in Tables L1 L4.
On major transmission lines it can be expected that a higher level of specialist engineering will be applied
to the geotechnical design of footings and their foundations and hence some form of subsurface
investigation could be expected to be carried out along the easement of transmission lines, to obtain
geotechnical parameters required to design the transmission structure footings. However this may not
always be practical and some simplified assessments may be required to establish some indicative yet
conservative parameters. Table L4 can be used in the absence of more detailed site information as a
conservative guide. The values in Table L4 are based on research data and pull out tests on test piles, and
their use should be assessed against any known properties from soil tests for a particular region or site.
The method that is adopted for design and the application of assumed soil properties , must take into
consideration the expertise and experience of the on site construction supervisor, boring machine operator
and any full time network owner inspector utilised on site.
In distribution line construction simple subsurface application design guidelines are commonly applied,
except for the heavier steel or concrete pole construction sometimes used on special aesthetic lines and sub
transmission type lines. In the later case a higher level of engineering design usually can be expected.

L3 FOOTING DESIGN OF DIRECTLY EMBEDDED OVERHEAD LINE POLES


FOR LATERAL LOADS AND MOMENTS
The Brinch Hansen methodology provided in this clause and other methods referenced such
as Broms ASCE 1964, while theoretically applied in some areas for major pole or single
bored pier footings they are not commonly used for directly embedded pole type
distribution overhead line construction, as they require a level of engineering that is not
always available to that sector of the electricity supply industry and in particular to
distribution lines.
In addition simple design methods have been in use for distribution pole overhead lines
throughout Australia and New Zealand and overseas for many years and these overhead
lines have performed well over time. This suggests that either the design loadings have not
generally reached the failure limit state at a particular structure such as to cause failure or
that the footing design methods adopted have been conservative.

There are three commonly used methods


1. American Society of Agricultural Engineers ANSI/ASAE EP486.1 OCT 00 Shallow Post
Foundation Design and as approved OCT 2000 by American National Standards Institute.
For the simple unrestrained top pole the following pressure diagram refers.

This design method utilizes two soil assumptions. First, it is assumed that the soil resistance to deformation
is proportional to displacement for the range of deformations used in design. Secondly, it is assumed that the
resistance to deformation increases linearly with depth below the ground surface. This increasing resistance
to deformation is due to the confining pressure of the soil overburden. For each case, the maximum soil
pressure is limited to the allowable lateral pressure.

8Ma
d
Sb

6Va +
Where d =

b = effective width of the pole in the soil perpendicular to the


direction of movement,( m)
d = minimum pole embedment depth to resist applied forces with
a maximum soil pressure of S ( m)
Ma= moment applied to foundation at ground surface, kNm
S = allowable lateral bearing soil pressure, per unit of depth
including increases, kPa/m
Va = shear force applied to foundation at ground surface, kN

2. Empirical Design Formula This method is based purely on the height above ground for a given pole diameter at ground level
and has no direct relationship with the loads applied to the pole.
Assumed
tip loading
position

Tip
dt

h
r

Assumed critical cross section for


design dgl

Ground level
200mm
dg

Refer tabulated Ultimate bending moment capacities Tables F4.1


F4.2 and F4.3
L GL

db

Pole planting depth see comments on


Appendix L

Butt

The embedment lengths LGL are based on a simplified method, as defined in Equations E1
and E2 and relate purely to pole height above ground hr .
For poles where the height from the ground line (GL) to the conductors is less than 18 m,
the embedment length is calculated by Equation E1, with a maximum of 3.6 m. For longer
poles, up to 21 m in height, the embedment length is calculated by Equation E2, with a
maximum of 4.8 m.
Equations E1 and E2 are specified as follows:
L GL = Min[(1 + 0.1 h r) (d g/250),3.6] for h r <18

. . . E1

= Min[(1 + 0.1 h r) (d g/330),4.8] for h r 18

. . . E2

where
L GL = min. embedment depth, in metres

hr

= height from the ground line to the conductors, in metres

d g = diameter of the pole at the ground line (GL), in metres

Table EI gives numerical values for the planting depths for the common range of pole
dimensions.

TABLE E1
MINIMUM EMBEDMENT DEPTH LGL (m)
Height from GL (ground line) to conductor (m)

Pole dia. at
GL (mm)

7.5

10.5

12

13.5

15

16.5

18

150

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.3

175

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.8

1.9

1.5

200

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

1.7

225

1.4

1.6

1.7

1.8

2.0

2.1

2.3

2.4

1.9

250

1.6

1.8

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.4

2.5

2.7

2.1

275

1.8

1.9

2.1

2.3

2.4

2.6

2.8

2.9

2.3

300

1.9

2.1

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.2

2.5

325

2.1

2.3

2.5

2.7

2.9

3.1

3.3

3.4

2.8

350

2.2

2.5

2.7

2.9

3.1

3.3

3.5

3.6

3.0

375

2.4

2.6

2.9

3.1

3.3

3.5

3.6

3.6

3.2

400

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.3

3.5

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.4

425

2.7

3.0

3.2

3.5

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

450

2.9

3.2

3.4

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.8

475

3.0

3.3

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

4.0

500

3.2

3.5

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

4.2

550

3.5

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

4.7

600

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

3.6

4.8

3 ASCE Method (EX AS/NZS 4676)


This method also assumes soil pressures increasing linearly below ground surface and
calculation of embedment depth is based on ultimate limit design principles and utilises soil
properties for generalised cases likely to be experienced in the field.

The assumptions made are :


1. the centre of rotation of the footing as located at two thirds of
depth below the ground surface;
2

embedment

the vertical distribution of bearing pressure above the centre of rotation is in the form of
symmetrical parabola with its axis of symmetry located at one third of the embedment
depth below the ground surface with its maximum value taken as 1.5 f b; and

the vertical distribution of the bearing pressure below the centre of rotation is a skewed
parabola for which the resultant horizontal reaction force is located at eight ninths of the
embedment depth below ground level. The method relies primarily on varying the
embedment depth and its projected area to engage the required resistance of the foundation
to overturning and sliding
3.1

FOUNDATION PROPERTIES

3.1.1 Bearing strength


3.1.1.1 Serviceability limit state
Table I1 has been prepared using a simple broad classification of soil types, with bearing
strengths based on degree of firmness or resistance to indentation. This can be readily
assessed on site by simple standard penetrometer test (AS 1289.F.3.2) at the appropriate
depth. The boundaries between the classes are in fact quite arbitrary but correlate well with
permissible bearing stress values quoted in the technical literature.

TABLE I1
BEARING STRENGTH OF SOILS AT THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Class

Very soft

Soil description

Soft

Silty clays and


sands; loose dry
sands
f b 60

Strength (f b ) kPa

Wet clays; silty


loams; wet or
loose sands
60 < f b 100

Firm

Very firm

Hard

Damp clays; sandy


clays; damp sands

Dry clays; clayey


sands; coarse sand
s; compact sands

Gravels; dry
clays

100 < f b 150

150 < f b 240

240 < f b

The above values are based on foundation deformations of approximately 12 mm


under serviceability loads on building structures. For poles supporting services that are
sensitive to displacements at their supporting points (e.g. microwave antennas), this degree
of deformation might be inappropriate. Therefore, suitable reduction of these values may be
necessary. This may be achieved by increasing the embedment depth, or the footing
diameter, or both, which will reduce the bearing pressures and, consequently, the
deformations.

NOTE:

3.1.1.2 Strength limit state


The behaviour of soils under high levels of stress can vary from plastic for very soft soils to
brittle for very hard materials such as rock.
Consequently ultimate compressive strengths can be reliably determined only for some
rocks and certain very stiff cohesive soils.
In these circumstances, it is more practicable to adopt the permissible bearing strength
concepts used for the serviceability limit state and extend them by suitable factoring.
Therefore, the bearing strength for the strength limit state (fbu) should be taken as 1.5 times
the value obtained from Table I1.
3.2 Shear strength
For soils with fb less than 150 kPa, the shear strength may be determined directly in a
laboratory shear-box test or by the vane test in the field. The values obtained from such
tests indicate an average shear strength value of about half the bearing strength value
obtained from a bearing plate test. Because there are a large number of variables involved,
there is a wide scatter of results although the soils may exhibit the same bearing strength.
Consequently, the shear strength of a soil should be taken as not greater than 0.4 fb where fb
is the value obtained from Table I1.
3.3 FOOTINGS AND EMBEDMENT DEPTH IN SOILS
3.3.1 Design Method
Based on the above assumptions, the embedment depth (D) may be determined from the
following equation:

D=

3.6 H R + 12.96 H R2 + 16.2 CM


2C

. . . I3.2(1)

where
C

fbu.b for ultimate limit state, or fb .b for serviceability limit state


fb

the nominal maximum bearing strength of the foundation


material (kPa)

fbu

1.5fb

the effective width of the footing, projected on a plane

perpendicular to the direction of the resultant horizontal force


acting on the pole (m)
M

the overturning moment acting on the pole at ground level (kNm)

HR .h r
HR

the resultant of the horizontal forces acting on


the pole (kN)

hr

the height above ground level at which HR acts (m)

Embedment support is most commonly achieved by boring an oversize hole to the required
depth and after installing the pole, backfilling the space between the pole and the perimeter
of the hole. Hence the nature and condition of the backfilling material becomes an
important consideration in the choice of an appropriate value for the parameter b.
The following are recommended:
(i)

If the backfill is properly prepared concrete, b may be taken as the diameter of the
bored hole.

(ii)

If the backfill is the excavated material, b should be taken as the diameter of the pole
and, unless full recompaction of the fill can be assured, the value of fb should be
reduced from its undisturbed value.

(iii) If the backfill is cement-stabilized soil, b may be taken as the mean value of the
diameters of the pole and the bored hole.
The physical representation of the assumptions and the relevant equation parameters are
illustrated in Figure I3.1. The derivation of the equation is given in Paragraph I4 of this
Appendix.
For poles, particularly guyed or stayed poles, the minimum plan area of the footing required
at its lowest extremity (Afb ) is calculated from the following equation:

Afb = ( Fv + Fgt ) / f b

where
Fgt

the sum of the vertical components of the guy or stay tensions

Fv

the sum of the vertical forces acting on the pole from loads other than F gt

(a)

Fixed embedment depth

For this arrangement, the following assumptions are made:


1
2
3
4

The embedment depth (D) is a fixed proportion (k) of the height of


the top of the pole above ground level (h p ) i.e. D = kh p .
The centroid of area of the upper (breast) bearer is located at 0.3 m
below ground level.
The centroid of area of the lower (toe) bearer is located at 0.1 m
above the bottom of the footing.
The foundation pressure acting on the bearers is distributed
uniformly over their contact surfaces with a maximum magnitude of
0.85 f b.

Based on the above assumptions, the reaction force on upper bearer (Rb1) is given by

Rb1 = H R ( Khp + hr 0.1) /( khp 0.4)

. . . I3.3(1)

the reaction force on the lower bearer is given by

Rb2 = Rb1 H R ; and

. . . I3.3(2)

the face areas of the bearers (Ab ) are calculated from

Ab = Rb / 0.85 f bu

. . . I3.3(3)

where the symbols are illustrated in Figure I3.2.

FIGURE I3.2 FORCES ON FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS (FIXED EMBEDMENT)


(AS/NZS 4676)

DERIVATION OF EMBEDMENT FORMULA

Referring to Figure I3.1 for static equilibrium:


1

The sum of the horizontal forces is zero

i.e. HR + R2 R1 = 0
Reaction R1 =

Projected width of pole times the area of the upper pressure


distribution

4
D
= b f bu .
3
3

4 b f bu D
9
2

The sum of the moments about any point in the vertical plane
containing H R and the reactions is zero. Taking moments about the
line of action of R 2

HR (hr + 8D/9) R1 (5D/9) = 0

. . . I4(1)

Expanding and multiplying throughout by 9


9HR hr + 8HR D 5R1 D = 0
Substituting the value from (a) for R1 gives

9 H R hr + 8 H R D 5 D

(4b. f bu .D)
=0
9

. . . I4(2)

Multiplying throughout by 9/20 and rearranging gives

b. f bu .D 2 3.6 H R D 4.05 H R hr = 0
which is a simple quadratic of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0
Solving for D

D = 3.6 H R +

12.96( H R )2 + 16.2. b. f bu .H R . hr
2b. f bu

. . . I4(3)

Substituting C for b.fbu and M for HR h r


D=

3.6 H R + 12.96( H R )2 + 16.2.CM


2C

. . . I4(4)

TABLES OF MINIMUM EMBEDMENT DEPTHS

Table I2 has been prepared from Equation I4(3) for an fb value of 150 kPa and various
values of H, b and h r. Note that the tabulated depths include the additional 0.2 m to allow
for soil shrinkage in the ground line zone. As can be seen from the equation, linear
interpolation or extrapolation cannot be used for values different from those tabulated;
however, the tabulated values will be conservative for foundation materials with fb greater
than 150 kPa but should not be taken as less than 0.5 m.
Embedment depths for materials with a bearing strength less than 150 kPa should be
calculated directly from Equation I4(3), to which a further 0.2 m has to be added. Practical
considerations of foundation materials and available excavating equipment will determine
which combination of hole diameter and embedment depth that will be economically viable
at each location.

TABLE I2(A)

POLE EMBEDMENT DEPTHS FOR SOILS WITH f b = 150 kPa


Embedment depth (D) (Note 1) m, for horizontal force (H) kN
Effective height
h (m)

H = 1.5

H = 3.0

H = 6.0

H = 10

b=0.3

0.45

0.60

0.30

0.45

0.60

0.3

0.45

0.6

0.75

0.9

0.3

0.45

0.6

0.75

0.9

3.0

0.8

0.7

0.6

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.9

1.8

1.5

1.3

1.2

1.1

4.5

0.9

0.7

0.7

1.2

1.0

0.9

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.1

1.0

2.1

1.7

1.5

1.4

1.2

6.0

1.0

0.8

0.7

1.3

1.1

1.0

1.8

1.5

1.3

1.2

1.1

2.4

1.9

1.7

1.5

1.4

7.5

1.1

0.9

0.8

1.4

1.2

1.1

2.0

1.7

1.4

1.3

1.2

2.6

2.1

1.8

1.7

1.5

9.0

1.1

1.0

0.9

1.6

1.3

1.1

2.2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.3

2.8

2.3

2.0

1.8

1.6

10.5

1.2

1.0

0.9

1.7

1.4

1.2

2.3

1.9

1.7

1.5

1.4

3.0

2.4

2.1

1.9

1.7

12.0

1.3

1.1

1.0

1.8

1.5

1.3

2.4

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.5

3.2

2.6

2.2

2.0

1.8

13.5

1.3

1.1

1.0

1.8

1.5

1.3

2.6

2.1

1.8

1.7

1.5

3.3

2.7

2.4

2.1

1.9

15.0

1.4

1.2

1.0

1.9

1.6

1.4

2.7

2.2

1.9

1.7

1.6

3.5

2.8

2.4

2.2

2.0

16.5

1.5

1.2

1.1

2.0

1.7

1.5

2.8

2.3

2.0

1.8

1.7

3.6

3.0

2.6

2.3

2.1

18.0

1.5

1.3

1.1

2.1

1.7

1.5

2.9

2.4

2.1

1.9

1.7

3.8

3.1

2.7

2.4

2.2

19.5

1.6

1.3

1.2

2.2

1.8

1.6

3.0

2.5

2.2

1.9

1.8

3.9

3.2

2.8

2.5

2.3

22.0

1.6

1.4

1.2

2.3

1.9

1.6

3.2

2.6

2.3

2.1

1.9

4.1

3.4

2.9

2.6

2.4

NOTES:
1

Tabulated depths include the 0.2 m additional depth required by Clause 6.4

The embedment depth should be not less than 0.5 m in any soil.

TABLE I2(B)
POLE EMBEDMENT DEPTHS FOR SOILS WITH f b = 150 kPa
Effective
height h
(m)

Embedment depth (D) m, for horizontal force (H) kN


H = 16

H = 24

H = 32

H = 40

b = 0.3

0.45

0.6

0.75

0.9

0.45

0.6

0.75

0.9

1.2

0.45

0.6

0.75

0.9

1.2

0.6

0.75

0.9

1.2

1.5

3.0

2.4

1.9

1.6

1.5

1.3

2.4

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

2.8

2.4

2.1

1.9

1.6

2.7

2.4

2.2

1.8

1.6

4.5

2.8

2.2

1.9

1.7

1.6

2.8

2.4

2.1

1.9

1.6

3.2

2.8

2.4

2.2

1.9

3.1

2.8

2.5

2.1

1.9

6.0

3.1

2.5

2.1

1.9

1.7

3.1

2.6

2.3

2.1

1.8

3.6

3.1

2.7

2.5

2.1

3.5

3.1

2.8

2.4

2.1

7.5

3.3

2.7

2.3

2.1

1.9

3.3

2.9

2.6

2.3

2.0

3.9

3.3

3.0

2.7

2.3

3.8

3.3

3.0

2.6

2.3

9.0

3.6

2.9

2.5

2.2

2.1

3.6

3.1

2.8

2.5

2.2

4.2

3.6

3.2

2.9

2.5

4.1

3.6

3.3

2.8

2.5

10.5

3.8

3.1

2.7

2.4

2.2

3.8

3.3

2.9

2.7

2.3

4.5

3.8

3.4

3.1

2.7

4.3

3.8

3.5

3.0

2.7

12.0

4.1

3.3

2.8

2.5

2.3

4.1

3.5

3.1

2.8

2.4

4.7

4.1

3.6

3.3

2.8

4.6

4.1

3.7

3.2

2.8

13.5

4.3

3.4

3.0

2.7

2.4

4.3

3.7

3.3

3.0

2.6

5.0

4.3

3.8

3.4

3.0

4.8

4.3

3.9

3.3

3.0

15.0

4.5

3.6

3.1

2.8

2.5

4.5

3.8

3.4

3.1

2.7

5.2

4.5

4.0

3.6

3.1

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.1

16.5

4.6

3.8

3.2

2.9

2.6

4.6

4.0

3.6

3.2

2.8

5.4

4.6

4.1

3.8

3.2

5.2

4.6

4.2

3.6

3.2

18.0

4.8

3.9

3.4

3.0

2.8

4.8

4.1

3.7

3.4

2.9

5.6

4.8

4.3

3.9

3.4

5.4

4.8

4.4

3.8

3.4

19.5

5.0

4.0

3.5

3.1

2.8

5.0

4.3

3.8

3.5

3.0

5.8

5.0

4.4

4.0

3.5

5.6

5.0

4.5

3.9

3.5

22.0

5.2

4.3

3.7

3.3

3.0

5.2

4.5

4.0

3.7

3.2

6.1

5.2

4.7

4.3

3.7

5.9

5.2

4.8

4.1

3.7

NOTES:
1

Tabulated depths include the 0.2 m additional depth required by Clause 6.4

The embedment depth should be not less than 0.5 m in any soil.

There are close similarities between Method 1 and 3 and later was adopted as a more practical
solution in AS/NZS 4676. Method 2 is completely arbitrary and while resulting in solutions
that have been seemingly conservative. The reality is that in the past the majority of poles have
been for lightly loaded and concurrent with some conservative planting depths for the design
load applied ,that the lines have performed well as you would expect.

Method 3 is the most appropriate practical and recommended method. It also provides a method
where soft soil conditions require the installation of bearing logs/ blocks to develop strength.

L2. FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR LATTICE STEEL TOWERS.


This section of the standard provides basic design methods that have been used around the
world over many years. These methods for the most part have been the subject of
investigation and research over many years by Cigre, EPRI and post graduate research
projects.
The design methods provided in the standard are simple, conservative and provide a
reasonable minimum standard for adoption. The basic methods have been in use for many
years and have performed well and are supported by full scale and scale model load tests.
There are however other methods and refinements that have evolved based on research
reports. Not all are adequately supported by exhaustive testing programs due to the variable
nature of the soil conditions modelled and the nature of the loads being considered. Some also
imply a higher level of engineering interpretation that may have some practical difficulty in
being able to be applied during construction.
Such methods should be used with caution and should be correlated with the assumed soil
characteristics of where the research was carried out.

23

LOW VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE

1.2 general
LVABC may be used as
(a)

an aerial cable suspended between two or more supports; or

(b)

a cable attached to the facades of buildings.

1.3 Aerial cable


1.3.1 Supports
Mechanical support fittings, including pole fittings, strain clamps and suspension clamps,
should comply with the requirements of AS 3766.
(i)

The first element to fail should be the suspension support by failure of the
suspension clamp or the pole hardware supporting the suspension clamp. The cable
should not be allowed to slip through the suspension clamp as this causes insulation
damage, especially if an insulation piercing connector is fitted near the support.

(ii)

The second element to fail should be mains and service tee connections to minimize
the number of live cables lying on the ground.

(iii) The third element to fail should be the pole hardware supporting the strain clamp.
(iv)

This should be followed by pole footing failure, cable failure and pole failure.

1.3.2 Cable tension


In addition to the requirements of Section 7 the following considerations apply:
(a)

Under the short duration load of Clause 3.3.2.1, the tangential tension in the cable should
not exceed 28% CBL. This is based on a maximum working conductor stress of 40 MPa
on 95 mm2 LVABC. This is the limit for transferring the conductor tension through the
insulation to the strain clamp and is based on French experience with heavily filled XLPE
compounds.

(b)

The highest horizontal tension used for the everyday load (Clause 3.3.2.3) should take
into account the working ratings of cable tensioning equipment such as lugalls,
comealongs, etc. Also for 3 or 4 core cables experience has shown that the cores are
difficult to separate to fit Insulation Piercing Connectors at cable tensions exceeding
4.5 kN.

1.3.3 Clearances
The clearance requirements of Sections 8, 9 and 10 for Insulated Conductor, U 1000 V apply
to LVABC.
1.4 Facade cable
The mounting of LVABC on the facades (frontages) of buildings was the original and still the
most common method of using LVABC in France. Its initial use was in narrow laneways and
streets where poles could not be used. Australias capital and provincial cities have many such
laneways and narrow streets.
Before LVABC is attached to the facade agreement on the following issues should be reached
with all the building owners:
(a)

Liability for all expenses resulting from the attachment of the cable to the facade.

(b)

Conditions relating to building owners painting the LVABC and any attachments to
further harmonize the cable with the facade.

(c)

Liabilities for damage to the cable system resulting from failure of the building or its
facade.

(d)

Liabilities for any damage done to the facade resulting from the attachment of the cable
system.

(e)

Supply authority access to the cable and fittings.

(f)

Notification to the supply authority in advance of modification or demolition of the


facade.

1.4.1 Mechanical design


Care should be taken to protect the building fabric from damage due to external influences on
the cable.
The cable on the facade may be either tensioned or non-tensioned. The choice is dependent
on the type of facade, the strength of the fittings and the length of straight runs.
(a)

(b)

Non-tensioned construction is used in most installations and the cable is only tight
enough to remove any twists. The cable is lifted onto the wall brackets and has sufficient
tension so that there are no unsightly sags between supports.
(i)

Strain clamps are recommended for all runs but should be used to terminate cable
for all runs over 10 m. In-line strains are used so that no run between strain clamps
is more than 60 m.

(ii)

Intermediate wall supports are spaced at 500 to 700 mm intervals.

Tensioned construction is seldom used but is applicable where the facade cable crosses
over laneways or other discontinuities. An everyday tension of 1.4 kN is recommended
for 4 95 mm2. Tensions for other sizes should be chosen to give equivalent sag to this.
(i)

Strain clamps are used for all runs and in-line strains are used so that no run
between strain clamps is more than 60 m.

(ii)

Intermediate wall supports are spaced at 3 to 6 m intervals.

1.4.2 Clearances
Where the cable is in excess of 300 mm from the facade of the building which supports it, the
requirements of Sections 8 and 9 apply.
The minimum clearance from any part of the facade of the building which supports it, to any
position the cable may assume due to the influence of load current and solar radiation, should be
as specified in Table 16.1. Mechanical barriers or enclosures may be used to reduce these
clearances.
TABLE 16.1
CLEARANCES FOR FACADE SYSTEMS

Clearance

Facade situation

Clearance vertically from


ground or path level

Minimum
permissible
clearances
m
2.5

Comments

This should be increased if


local conditions make it
possible for bundle to be
touched or damaged

Above windows and


doors

0.3

Each side of and below


windows

0.5

Each side of doors and


balconies

1.0

From metallic parts of


buildings, e.g. downpipes

0.05

This may be reduced to


0.2 m only where it is
physically impossible to
obtain 0.3 m

Whichever is wider

FIGURE 16.1 MINIMUM PERMISSIBLE CLEARANCES FOR TABLE 15.1

1.5 References
SEBIRE, J. and GEELAN, G. Mechanical Design and Co-ordinated Mechanical Failure of Low
Voltage ABC Lines. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
MORGAN, V.T. The Current Rating of Aerial Bundled Cables. Distribution 2000, May 1991,
Sydney Australia.
SEBIRE, J. The Facade Mounting of Low Voltage ABC. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney
Australia.
MCLEOD, D., DEMKO, M. and GRIFFIN, M. Design of Low Voltage Networks Using LVABC.
Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
MURRAY, T. and KREMER, H. Design Aspects of LVABC Lines in Severe Environments.
Distribution 2000, November 1993, Melbourne Australia.

24

HIGH VOLTAGE AERIAL BUNDLED CABLE

1.6 General
HVABC is fully insulated for the service voltage. There are three types, as follows:
(a)

Metallic Screened High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable (to AS/NZS 3599.1)MSHVABC

(b)

Non-metallic Screened High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable (to AS/NZS 3599.2)
NMSHVABC

(c)

Self-supporting High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable (not currently covered by an


Australian Standard).

In Self-supporting High Voltage Aerial Bundled Cable the mechanical load has to be transferred
to the insulated conductors and is supported at intermediate structures on line insulators rated
for the nominal operating voltage. Cables at low tension are tensioned with clamps similar to
LVABC strain clamps but at higher tensions the bundle is opened out and bare conductor
terminations are fitted to the core conductors.
The rest of this Clause covers MSHVABC and NMSHVABC only, which use a support
conductor to carry the mechanical load.
1.7 Mechanical
MSHVABC and NMSHVABC consist of three cores wrapped around a support conductor. In
both types the support conductor mechanically supports the cable bundle and in NMSHVABC it
also provides electrical earthing.
The cable bundle is supported at intermediate supports on suspension clamps with the support
conductor firmly clamped and the cores clamped sufficiently to prevent the cores slipping
relative to the support conductor. Measures should be taken to maintain the insulation screens of
the three cores of NMSHVABC and the metallic screens of MSHVABC within the prospective
touch voltage limits in Section 11 by earthing at appropriate intervals.
On strain or tension structures the support conductor is separated from the bundle and
terminated using standard bare conductor fittings. In both cable types measures should be taken
to prevent the cores slipping relative to the support conductor and again measures should be
taken to maintain the insulation screens or metallic screens within appropriate potentials.
At intermediate supports consideration may also be given to using line fittings specifically
designed to cause the cable to separate from its support at a predetermined load, such as that
caused by a falling tree or limb.
1.8 Electrical
In MSHVABC the fault return path is provided by the metallic screens in each core, but
measures should be taken to ensure that the support conductor is not damaged by the passage of
fault current to the extent that it cannot support the cable for mechanical loading and ground
clearance considerations.
In NMSHVABC the support conductor should be effectively earthed to ensure that it
(a)

maintains the outer semi-conducting insulation screen potentials at acceptable levels


under all operating conditions; and

(b)

provides a defined path for any fault current.

Also, measures should be taken to ensure that the support conductor is not damaged by the
passage of fault current to the extent that it cannot support the cable for mechanical loading and
ground clearance considerations.

1.9 Clearances
The clearance requirements of Sections 8, 9 and 10 for U 1000 V, Insulated with Earthed
Screen, apply to HVABC.
1.10 references
WILLIAMSON, C.E., CHEALES, J.A., and MCLEOD, D. Overview of Insulated HV Overhead
Systems and Applications. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
COULTER, R., SEBIRE, J. and MCLEOD, D. Some Design Aspects of High Voltage Nonmetallic Screened Aerial Bundled Cable Systems. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney
Australia.
KENT, H., CLAY, J., RICHTER, K. and MCLEOD, D. Economic and Technical
Considerations of High Voltage Insulated Overhead Lines. Distribution 2000, November 1993,
Melbourne Australia.
SEBIRE, J., PIASENTIN, S. and SOUPROUNOVICH, K. The Development, Introduction and
Experience with HVABC in the State Electricity Commission of Victoria. Distribution 2000,
November 1993, Melbourne Australia.

25

COVERED CONDUCTOR SYSTEMS

1.11 general
Covered conductor manufactured to AS/NZS 3675 may be used in a similar manner to an open
wire 11 to 33 kV bare overhead system, except that the following should apply:
(a)

The system should include adequate protection to prevent burndown at support points.
Such matters as lightning surge protection, fault clearing times and the need for fault
current limitation should be considered.

(b)

When attaching covered conductors to insulators, special measures should be taken to


manage radio interference voltage and leakage currents, particularly in high pollution
areas.

(c)

Clearance between phases may be reduced (See Clause 10.3 Note 3).

(d)

Clearance to trees may be reduced.

(e)

Consideration may be given to reducing the permissible limits of approach for safe
working conditions.

Covered conductor to AS/NZS 3675 contains a water blocking compound to prevent the
migration of water under the covering and between the wires. Covered conductors have
previously been used in Australia without water blocking. These conductors suffered corrosion
of the conductor under the covering and eventual failure. The corrosion also contributed to
conductor burndown.
1.12 CC
CC can withstand intermittent contact with conductive material between phases or to ground,
e.g. trees and branches, but should not remain in permanent contact.
1.13 CCt
CCT has the following additional features:
(a)

Clearance between phases and to trees may be further reduced compared with CC

(b)

CCT has electrical and mechanical characteristics which permit it to remain in contact
with tree limbs for an extended period of time. In determining the period, account should
be taken of
(i)

abrasion due to the species of tree and its growing pattern;

(ii)

frequency and strength of prevailing winds; and

(iii) operating temperature.


(c)

Better performance in polluted environments.

(d)

Suitable for use in the Insulated Unscreened Conductor (IUC) system.

(e)

Suitable for use in spacer cable systems, however, consideration should be given to
using CCT which has an outer layer of tracking resistance material, especially at nominal
voltages of 22 kV and above.

1.14 Clearances
The clearance requirements of Sections 8, 9 and 10 for U 1000 V, Bare or Covered, apply to
CC.
The clearance requirements of Sections 8, 9 and 10 for U 1000 V, Insulated without earthed
screen, apply to CCT, providing that the covering thickness is appropriate to the operating
voltage.
1.15 references
WILLIAMSON, C.E., CHEALES, J.A., and MCLEOD, D. Overview of Insulated HV Overhead
Systems and Applications. Distribution 2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
ELFORD, R.F., KATO, K., NAGASAKA, H., and MATSUMOTO, J. Development and
Introduction of Aerial Insulated Unscreened Conductor (IUC) in South Australia. Distribution
2000, May 1991, Sydney Australia.
KENT, H., CLAY, J., RICHTER, K. and MCLEOD, D. Economic and Technical
Considerations of High Voltage Insulated Overhead Lines. Distribution 2000, November 1993,
Melbourne Australia.
HINKKURI, A., LEHTINEN, I. AND NOPONEN, K. ON THE DESIGN AND
EXPERIENCE WITH HIGH VOLTAGE COVERED CONDUCTOR SYSTEMS. Distribution
2000, November 1993, Melbourne Australia.
MCLEOD, D., KATO, K. and MCPHEE, A. Development of 22 kV Covered Conductor for
SECV. Distribution 2000, November 1993, Melbourne Australia.
ELFORD, R. Design Considerations for Covered Conductor (CC) Distribution. Distribution
2000, November 1993, Melbourne Australia.
RICHTER, K. An Overview on Overhead Insulated Systems in South Australia. Distribution
2000, November 1993, Melbourne Australia.

26 SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS
SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS FOR HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS
This Appendix provides an indication of the relative corrosion performance of various
conductor types. The recommendations should be modified by local experience, for example,
for salt spray pollution the relative distances from the source depend upon the prevailing winds
and the terrain. Special circumstances such as crop dusting, which has been known to produce
severe effects, should also be taken into account.
TABLE D1
SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS FOR HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS
Conductor
type

Salt spray pollution

Industrial pollution

Open ocean

Bay, inlets and salt


lakes

Acidic

Alkaline

AAC

AAAC/6201

AAAC/1120

ACSR/GZ

ACSR/AZ

ACSR/AC

SC/GZ

SC/AC

OPGW

HDCu

NOTES:
1.

= good performance

2.

= average performance

3.

= poor performance

When selecting a conductor for a hostile environment the following factors should be
considered:
(a)

Full or partial greasing of the conductor significantly improves corrosion resistance.

(b)

Ensure that all fittings are compatible so that electrolytic corrosion does not occur.

(c)

Insulated/covered conductor systems may provide protection against corrosion provided


the conductors are completely sealed by the insulation/covering and do not provide traps
for corrosive solutions nor allow ingress of moisture.

(d)

The aluminium coating on SC/AC is very soft and should be treated carefully if it is to
provide adequate corrosion protection. The corrosion resistance of SC/AC is very
dependent on the thickness of the coating.
THERMAL LIMITS

General
Knowledge of the behaviour of conductors when subjected to various heating conditions is
essential when designing and operating overhead lines.

Maximum design operating temperatures


The design maximum operating temperature is a function of the acceptable level of permanent
loss of tensile strength (annealing) of the conductor.
Annealing is caused by the heating of a material generally followed by a cooling period. During
the annealing process, the material experiences a change in its microstructure and for metals,
this not only results in a loss in tensile strength but also an increase in conductivity. In general,
changes of conductivity will be insignificant compared with the changes of tensile strength.
Isothermal annealing curves are illustrated in Figures D1, D2 and D3 for AAC 1350,
AAAC/1120 and AAAC/6201 respectively. These curves demonstrate the permanent loss of
tensile strength when a conductor operates at an elevated temperature. The loss of tensile
strength results in increased sag. It is appropriate to establish the maximum design temperature
at which a conductor can operate while maintaining acceptable levels of degradation of tensile
properties.
More recent research indicates that the annealing characteristics of a conductor depend not only
on temperature and time of exposure but also on the diameter of the wires in the conductor.
Typically the loss of strength curves shown in Figures D1, D2 and D3 will comprise a range of
values for a given period with the smallest wire size suffering the greatest loss in strength and
the largest size the least. The magnitude of this wire size dependence is considered, at this
stage, to be of a lower order than the effect of temperature.
The following comments are applicable for aluminium conductors. Copper has similar annealing
properties which are not as well documented as those for aluminium, but it has less loss of
strength for the same temperature.
The recommended maximum temperature limit for normal operation of AAC, AAAC, and
ACSR is 100C. This permits an approximate loss of strength of 3% of the original tensile
strength after 1000 hours operation at this temperature. Figures D1, D2 and D3 show that the
heating period is not a major factor until this temperature is exceeded.
For ratings for emergency conditions (e.g. when one circuit has to carry more than normal
current for a short time), both the maximum temperature and the duration of the emergency load
should be taken into account in determining the annealing of the aluminium wires. The
annealing effect is cumulative. For example, if a conductor is heated to 150C under emergency
conditions for 24 hours a year for 30 years it is much the same as heating the conductor
continuously at that temperature for 720 hours. For this example the loss of ultimate strength in
AAC would be approximately 15%. For 30/7 ACSR the ultimate tensile strength would be
reduced approximately 7%. The effect is less significant for ACSR where an increase in
temperature results in a load transfer from the aluminium to the steel. The steel provides most
of the strength of the conductor and is essentially unaffected by the temperature.
If ratings for emergency conditions are to be applied then the combined effects of elevated
temperature and sustained high conductor tension on the sag of the line should be taken into
account. Practically, the tension in a line reduces with increasing temperature so the effect is
less severe.
For main grid transmission lines, where it is possible to control the loads in the lines to a great
extent, the emergency condition rating concept may be applied. For radial transmission lines
and sub-transmission lines, the maximum temperature limit of 100C should be applied.

For distribution lines where a lower standard of load control and monitoring usually applies it is
recommended that an additional margin be applied. Maximum Design Temperatures of 50C to
65C are commonly used.

FIGURE D1 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH


FOR ALLOY 1350 vs AGEING TIME

FIGURE D2 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH


FOR ALLOY 1120 vs AGEING TIME

FIGURE D3 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH


FOR ALLOY 6201 vs AGEING TIME

Conductor permanent elongation


Further information on designing for conductor permanent elongation is contained in the
following references:
Permanent Elongation of Conductors Predictor Equations and Evaluation Methods, CIGRE
Electra 75.
BRENNAN, G. F., Methodology for Assessment of Serviceability of Aged Transmission Line
Conductors. Postgraduate Thesis, Wollongong University, 1989.
DRURY, M. D. The Effect of Prestressing on Inelastic (Creep) Behaviour of Australian Made
Base Overhead Conductors. Postgraduate Thesis, Wollongong University, 1993.
Conductor permanent elongation is non-recoverable or inelastic material plastic deformation
that is a logarithmic function of conductor stress, conductor temperature and exposure duration.
Permanent elongation begins at the instant of applied axial tensile load and continues at a
decreasing rate providing tension and temperature remain constant.
The permanent elongation consists of, in the short term, primarily wire radial and tangential
movement during the early loading period and in the longer term, primary metallurgical
logarithmic creep.
To compensate for conductor inelastic stretch it is necessary to carry out one or a combination
of the following:
a) Add a margin on the statutory ground clearance requirements.
b) Subtract an allowance on the maximum design temperature.
c) Prestress conductors prior to final sagging.
d) Over-tension conductors.
Conductor permanent elongation expressed as a function of time, temperature, conductor stress
and conductor constants is given as:

kt c1c2ec3(20)

In most cases the conductor exposure period at elevated temperatures is very small relative to an
everyday exposure temperature assessed to be 20C hence the above equation may be reduced
to:
t

kt c1c2

unit strain in mm/km

time in years

conductor average stress in MPa

conductor average temperature in C

where

k, c1, c2 and c3 are constants


Conductor creep is cumulative for a given set of operating conditions of time, temperature and
stress.
c1

t eq ( i )

( i 1)
=

teq(i)

the equivalent time in years for unit strain at stress level (i)

(i-1)

the stress level in MPa associated with time interval t(i!1)

(i)

the stress level in MPa associated with time interval teq (i)

t(i-1)

time interval in years associated with stress level (i1)

interval

c 2t( i 1 )

where

Fault ratings
General
The main factors to consider when determining the fault rating of a line are
a) the annealing of the conductor resulting from overheating due to the magnitude and
duration of the fault current; and
b) the sagging of the conductor into another conductor below it; and
c) movement of conductors due to electromagnetic forces leading to conductor clashing,
arcing, conductor damage, secondary faults, etc.
Annealing
It is assumed that the electrical protection for the line will operate and that the duration of the
fault will be short, in the order of a few cycles to a number of seconds for distribution feeder
protection comprising initial clearance plus reclose clearance times. For such periods it may be
assumed that no heat will be dissipated from the conductor. A reasonable approximation of the
final temperature of the conductor is given by:

T2

Ar RJ 2 r

DC

1
1
= 20
+ T1 20 + e
Ar
Ar

where
T2

final temperature in C

T1

initial temperature in C

. . .D1

Ar

temperature coefficient of resistance in C1

resistivity in ohm mm at 20C

density in g/mm3

current density in A/mm2

duration in seconds (includes reclosure times)

specific heat =

C20

specific heat at 20C in Jg-1 C-1

Ac

temperature coefficient of specific heat

T + T2

C 20 1 + Ac 1
20
2

Transposing equation D1 gives D2

J t

T + T2

20
DC 20 1 + Ac 1
T2 20 +
2

ln
Ar R
T 20 +
1

1
Ar
1
Ar

. . . D2

TABLE D2
CONDUCTOR CONSTANTS
Constants

Units

AAAC/
1120

AAC

AAAC/
6201A

HD
copper

SC/GZ

SC/AC

Ar
(at 20C) *

C1

0.00403

0.00390

0.00360

0.00381

0.00440

0.00360

R
(at 20C) *

mm

28.3 10 6

29.3 10 6

32.8 10 6

17.77 10 6

190 10 6

85 10 6

D*

g/mm 3

2.70 10 3

2.70 10 3

2.70 10 3

8.89 10 3

7.8 10 3

6.59 10 3

C20 **

Jg 1C 1

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.4

0.5

0.5

A c**

C1

4.5 10 4

4.5 10 4

4.5 10 4

2.9 10 4

1.0 10 4

1.0 10 4

Value taken from the appropriate Australian Standard, i.e. AS 1531, AS 1746, AS 1222.1, AS 1222.2.

**

Values are median values of data sourced from several references including:

V T Morgan, Rating of Bare Overhead Conductors for Intermittent and Cyclic Currents, Proc
IEE, 1361-1376, 116(8), 1969.

V T Morgan, Rating of Conductors for Short-Duration Currents, Proc IEE, 555-570, 118(3/4),
1971.

Draft IEEE Standard, Calculating the Current-Temperature relationship of Bare Overhead


Conductors, 1993.

From equation D2 the fault rating can be determined once an allowable final temperature has
been determined. Constants for specific conductor types are contained in the relevant Australian
Standards.
Aluminium loses approximately 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 210C with a
significant proportion of the annealing taking place during the cooling period following a fault.
This annealing is cumulative over the life of the conductor. It anneals rapidly at temperatures
exceeding 340C and commences melting at approximately 645C. The mechanical properties
of the steel core of ACSR are affected very little at these temperatures. Zinc melts at
approximately 420C. Copper loses 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 220C.

To provide for a loss of conductor tensile strength of less than 5% due to fault conditions over
its life, the following temperatures should not be exceeded. The rate of cooling is dependent on
the thermal mass of the conductor, therefore lower maximum temperatures are applicable to
conductors of large cross-section.
TABLE D3
GUIDELINES FOR 5% LOSS OF TENSILE STRENGTH
FOR TOTAL FAULT CLEARING TIME (INCLUDING RECLOSES)
Approximate size
(mm)

Maximum
temperature

HDCu

60

200C

AAC, AAAC/1120,
ACSR/GZ,

100

160C

300 to 500

150C

100

220C

Conductor type

ACSR/AZ,
ACSR/AC
AAAC/6201A
SC/GZ, SC/AC
OPGW

400C
***

***Dependent on construction.
Reference: Roehmann, LF and Hazan, E Short time annealing characteristics of
electrical conductors, AIEE Trans 82/3 p1061, Dec 1963.

Sag under fault


Overhead lines have been known to sag into subsidiary lines or undercrossings under fault. If
this is to be avoided it may be advisable for the line to be designed to have a positive clearance
to the lower conductor. It is recommended that the appropriate non-flashover distance from
AS 2067 for the system voltage be used for this clearance.
Movement of conductors under fault
The movement of conductors due to the electromagnetic forces generated by large short time
current is a complex matter for which a simple satisfactory solution is not available. The
Transmission Line Reference Book115-138 kV Compact Line Design (EPRI EL-100-V3,
Research Project 260, 1978) Section A3 Simulation and Tests of Motion Due to Fault
Currentsgives equations which may be used to determine conductor swing and the
mechanical forces due to fault currents.

By taking these criteria and the degree of reliability required into account, a suitable
compromise on structure design, conductor configuration and economics can be achieved