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# Determine the lattice points per cell

## in the cubic system

Simple cubic:
Lattice points are located only at the corners of the cube
8 corners (1/8) = 1
In BCC unit cells
cells, lattice points are located at the corners and the center of the cube:
8 corner (1/8) + 1 center (1) = 2
I FCC unit
In
it cells,
ll llattice
tti points
i t are llocated
t d att th
the corners and
d faces
f
off the
th cube:
b
8 corners (1/8) + 6 faces (1/2) = 4

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

## Calculate the radius of an atom that

will just fit into a cubic site

2R + 2r= 2R sqrt(3)
r/R = 0.732

R
2R + 2r= 2R sqrt(3)

2R

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

The net energy curve (E) vs. inter-atomic spacing (r) curves are
shown below for three solids A,, B and C.

Which solid do you expect to have the largest elastic modulus? Explain.
CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

Problem
Calculate the change in volume that
occurs when
h BCC iiron iis h
heated
t d and
d
changes to FCC iron. The lattice
parameter
t off BCC iiron iis 2
2.863
863 A and
d off
FCC iron is 3.591 A
Volume of BCC cell = a3 = 2.863 = 23.467
Volume of FCC cell = a3 = 3.591 = 46.307
But the FCC unit cell contains four atoms and the BCC unit cell contains only two
atoms. Two BCC unit cells with a total volume of 46.934 will contain 4 atoms.
g
= ((46.307 -46.934)/46.934
)
= -1.34%
Volume change/atom
Steel contracts on heating!!
CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

Problem
Calculate the radius of the largest
g
interstitial
void (Rvoid in the figure below) in the BCC
iron lattice. The atomic radius of the iron
atom in this lattice is 0.124 nm, and the
g
interstitial voids occur at the ((, ,
largest
0).

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

## II) A steel rod of original cross section Ao

and gage length Lo is loaded with a
a) the true and engineering strains. Which
gg
one is bigger?
True strain
b) the true and engineering stresses.
stresses
Which one is bigger?
Engineering
E i
i stress
t
CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

## Question: Is it possible to have a copper-nickel alloy that, at equilibrium,

consists of an phase of composition 37 wt% Ni-63 wt% Cu, and also a
liquid phase of composition 20 wt% Ni
Ni-80
80 wt% Cu? If so, what will be the
approximate temperature of the alloy? If this is not possible, explain why.
(15 points)

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

It is not possible to have a Cu-Ni
Cu Ni alloy
alloy, which at equilibrium
equilibrium, consists of a liquid
phase of composition 20 wt% Ni-80 wt% Cu and an phase of composition
37 wt% Ni-63 wt% Cu.
A single tie line does not exist within the + L region that intersects the
phase boundaries at the given compositions. At 20 wt% Ni, the L-( + L) phase
boundary is at about 1200C, whereas at 37 wt% Ni the (L + )- phase

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

Using this diagram, briefly explain how spreading salt on ice that is at a
temperature below 0C (32F) can cause the ice to melt.

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

## Spreading salt on ice will lower the melting temperature

temperature, since the
liquidus line decreases from 0C (at 100% H20) to the eutectic
temperature at about -21C (23 wt% NaCl). Thus, ice at a
temperature
te
pe atu e be
below
o 0
0C
C (a
(and
d abo
above
e -21C)
C) can
o a
liquid phase by the addition of salt.

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

## Question An alloy of 30 wt % Pb and 70 wt % Sn is slowly cooled from 250C to 27C

(a) Is this alloy hypoeutectic or hypereutectic? (3points)
((b)) What is the composition
p
of the first solid to form? ((6 p
points))
(c) What are the amounts and composition of each phase that is present at 183 C + T (9
points)
(d) What is the amount and composition of each phase that is present at 183 C - T (9
p
points)
)

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro

Problem

CE 60
Instructor: Paulo Monteiro