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CHAPTER 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Relevance of work
Ethylene is one of the most important and largest volume petrochemicals in the world
today. It is used extensively as a chemical building block for the petrochemical industry.
The importance of ethylene results from the double bond in its molecular structure that
makes it reactive. Ethylene can be converted industrially into a variety of intermediate and
end products [41]. The major use of ethylene is conversion to low and high-density
polyethylene. Other significant uses of ethylene include chlorination to ethylene dichloride,
used in the manufacture of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC), oxidation to the ethylene oxide,
an intermediate in the manufacture of polyester fibres and films, and the conversion to ethyl
benzene, an intermediate in the manufacture of polystyrene [23].
Ethylene has become an important industrial intermediate and various technologies have
been utilized in ethylene production. Recently, ethylene has taken the place of acetylene in
virtually all large-scale chemical synthesis. However, acetylene itself is a by-product of
modern ethylene production [50].
More than 97% of ethylene around the world is produced by pyrolysis of hydrocarbons,
which is the thermal cracking of petrochemicals in the presence of steam. This process can
be described as the heating of a mixture of steam and hydrocarbon to the necessary
cracking temperature depending on the hydrocarbon used. This mixture is then fed to a
fired reactor or furnace and heated. As a result, the original saturated hydrocarbon cracks
into smaller unsaturated molecules. This process is extremely endothermic, and the product

must be cooled back to the original feed temperature upon leaving the reactor in order to
minimize secondary reactions. [2]
Chemical companies have a variety of options for feedstock as well as processes to produce
ethylene. Economics and environmental issues are the dominant factors considered in the
choice of feedstock and processes of ethylene production.
The focus in this report will be on the steam pyrolysis of hydrocarbons mainly ethane.
There are several reasons for this choice which include the cost of production, availability
of raw materials and the viability of process.

1.2 Objectives
The main objective of this project is to develop a simplified plant design for the production
of ethylene and acetylene which includes a thermal cracking section, quenching section, gas
compression/separation, ethylene purification, and an integrated refrigeration section.
The design is aimed at estimating the production of ethylene and acetylene using ethane as
a feedstock and also to determine the yield of ethylene and acetylene using the steam
pyrolysis process. The design is also aimed at determining the feasibility of the steam
pyrolysis process on an industrial scale.

CHAPTER 2

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Chemistry of ethylene and acetylene
2.1.1 Ethylene
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a gaseous organic compound with the formula C2H4. It
is the simplest alkene (older name: olefin from its oil-forming property). Ethylene has four
hydrogen atoms bound to a pair of carbon atoms that are connected by a double bond and
hence is classified as an unsaturated hydrocarbon. All six atoms that comprise ethylene are
coplanar. The H-C-H angle is 119, close to the 120 for ideal sp hybridized carbon. The
molecule is also relatively rigid: rotation about the C-C bond is a high energy process that
requires breaking the -bond. The -bond in the ethylene molecule is responsible for its
useful reactivity. [12]
Ethylene has a boiling point temperature of -103.7C, a melting point temperature of 169.2C, and a flash point temperature of -136.1C. Physical properties of ethylene include:

It is colourless

It is flammable

It has a slightly sweet smell at normal condition, that is ambient temperature and
one atmosphere

2.1.2 Acetylene
Acetylene (IUPAC name: ethyne) with the chemical symbol C2H2 is a hydrocarbon
consisting of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms. As an alkyne, acetylene
is unsaturated because its two carbon atoms are bonded together in a triple bond. The
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carbon-carbon triple bond places all four atoms in the same straight line, with CCH bond
angles of 180. [16]
Acetylene is an extremely reactive hydrocarbon. It is moderately soluble in water or alcohol
and markedly soluble in acetone. Acetylene has a melting point temperature of -81.5C and
a boiling point temperature of -84C. Physical properties include:

It is a combustible gas

It has a distinctive odour

Acetylene is colourless

Once the gas is compressed, liquefied, mixed or heated with air, it becomes very explosive.

2.1.3 Uses of ethylene and acetylene


The major use of ethylene is conversion to low and high-density polyethylenes, which are
used in such applications such as construction, communications, packaging, and
manufacturing of industrial and domestic products.
Other significant uses of ethylene include chlorination to ethylene dichloride, used in the
manufacture of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC), oxidation to the ethylene oxide, an
intermediate in the manufacture of polyester fibers and films, and the conversion to
ethylbenzene, an intermediate in the manufacture of polystyrene [16]. In addition, ethylene
is also a major raw material to produce plastics, textiles, paper, solvents, dyes, food
additives, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. [12]
Acetylene is used for the production of oxy-acetylene flame. The temperature of the flame
is above 3000oC. It is employed for cutting and welding of metals. Another common use of
acetylene is as a raw material for the production of various organic chemicals including
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1,4-butanediol, which is widely used in the preparation of polyurethane and polyester


plastics. Acetylene is also used for artificial ripening of fruits.

2.2 Chemistry of the Ethylene Process


Ethylene, because of its double bond, is a highly reactive compound, which is converted to
multi-intermediates and end-products on a large scale industrially. The thermal cracking
process is the most interesting process to produce ethylene commercially. In general the
starting raw material for ethylene production by thermal cracking can be any kind of
hydrocarbon. In reality, the choice of starting material is narrowed by economical
considerations. [26]
As the molecular weight of the feedstock increases, the product complexity increases.
Because many reactions occur during thermal cracking, it is complicated to determine the
rate of the cracking and predict the distribution of the products. Yet, investigations have
confirmed that the primary reaction, which splits the original hydrocarbon, is unimolecular
and that conversion rates follow the first order kinetics for a wide range of molecular
weight and up to high conversion of the original reactant, if there is no distinct equilibrium
barrier [17].

2.3 Market survey


2.3.1 Global market
In the past ten years, ethylene demand and price have fluctuated based upon the economical
growth in the United Stated and the rest of the industrial world. [7]
Although many economic uncertainties surround the petrochemical industry, ethylene
production and consumption should grow because of continuing replacement of natural and
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inorganic materials with organic synthetics and the further development of radically new
synthesis materials [26].
Our target market is producers of polyethylene products, PVC, and the likes. Some of the
current global market prices of ethylene are as follows: $900/tonne in Asia, 970/tonne and
840/tonne in Europe. [9]

2.3.2 Local market


A research on the local market for ethylene did not produce significant values. However
there are industries in Ghana which can use ethylene and acetylene as raw materials or
intermediates. Our target market is the food industries, plastics industries, paints, ripening
of fruits, packaging, and for use in welding. Examples of such industries are Qualiplast,
Duraplast, Interplast, Blue Skies Ghana, and Ezzy Paints.

2.4 Feedstock
A variety of feedstock can be used in a steam pyrolysis process. The feedstock for an
ethylene plant could be methane, ethane, propane and heavier paraffin. With the
development of cracking technology, it can also be cracked from crude oil fractions:
naphtha, kerosene and gas oil. Sometimes, raffinates from aromatics extraction facilities
can also be used as feedstock. The choice of feedstock is a compromise of availability,
price and yield. In selecting a process for ethylene production, the most important factor is
the hydrocarbon feedstock. Although this is controlled by conditions like quantity, quality,
and economics, studies have shown that as the molecular weight of the feed hydrocarbon
increases, ethylene yield decreases.

2.4.1 Methane (CH4)

Methane is the first member of the alkane series and is the main component of natural gas.
It is also a by-product in all gas streams from processing crude oils. It is a colourless,
odourless gas that is lighter than air. Methane is mainly used as a clean fuel gas. It is also
an important source for carbon black. Methane may be liquefied under very high pressures
and low temperatures. Liquefaction of natural gas (methane), allows its transportation to
long distances through cryogenic tankers. [17]. Methane, though an important and abundant
fuel, has not been an attractive raw material for ethylene production, because it is thermally
stable and has no carbon-carbon bonds. The carbon-hydrogen bond requires more energy to
break than the carbon-carbon bond. The C-H bond energy is 93.3 Kcal, whereas C-C
energy bond is 71.0 Kcal [6]. The net reaction for methane dehydrogenation is
2CH4

C2H4 + 2H2 (1)

2.4.2. Ethane (CH3-CH3)


It is the second member of the alkanes and is mainly recovered from natural gas liquids.
Ethane, like methane, is a colourless gas that is insoluble in water. After methane, ethane
has the second highest composition in natural gas. Ethane is separated most efficiently from
methane by liquefying it at cryogenic temperatures. Various refrigeration strategies exist,
but the most economical process presently in wide use employs turbo-expansion, and can
recover over 90% of the ethane in natural gas. [24] The principal use of ethane is in
chemical industry, mainly, in the production of ethylene by steam cracking. Ethane is
favoured for ethylene production because the steam cracking of ethane is fairly selective for
ethylene. Ethane may be cracked alone or as a mixture with propane. [2]
The net dehydrogenation reaction of ethane is
C2H6

C2H4 + H2 (2)
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2.4.3 Propane C3H8


Propane is normally a gas, but it is compressible to a liquid that is transportable.
It is derived from other petroleum products during oil or natural gas processing. Propane,
also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), can be a mixture of propane with small
amounts of propylene, butane and butylenes. Propane is a by-product of natural gas and
petroleum refining. Propane is used as a feedstock for ethylene production. The production
of ethylene from propane is similar to the process of ethylene production from ethane. [2]
In the dehydrogenation of propane four initial reaction steps are conceivable when
producing ethylene and propylene; however, according to Sherwood [24, 25] and Martin
[19] the first two reactions are primary. The reactions are
C3H8

C2H4 + CH4 . (3)

C3H8

C2H6 + H2 ... (4)

2C3H8

C2H8 + 2CH4 . (5)

2C3H8

C2H6 + C3H6 + CH4 .. (6)

2.4.4 Naphtha
Naphtha, an important feedstock for ethylene production, is a collective of liquid
hydrocarbon intermediate oil refining products. It is a mixture of hydrocarbons in the
boiling point range of 30-200 C. For the naphtha cracker process, typical feedstock are
light naphthas (boiling range of 30-90 C), full range naphthas (30-200 C), and special cuts
(C6-C8 raffinates) [29]. Naphtha is obtained in petroleum refineries as one of the
intermediate products from the distillation of crude oil. The processing of light naphtha to
ethylene is similar to the ethane and propane processes.

2.4.5 Kerosene
This is a distillate fraction heavier than naphtha, and is normally a product from distilling
crude oils under atmospheric pressures. It may also be obtained as a product from thermal
and catalytic cracking or hydrocracking units. Kerosene is usually a clear colourless liquid
which does not stop flowing except at very low temperature (normally below -30C).
However, kerosene containing high olefin and nitrogen contents may develop some colour
(pale yellow) after being produced. Currently, kerosene is mainly used to produce jet fuels,
after it is treated to adjust its burning quality and freezing point. Before the widespread use
of electricity, kerosene was extensively used to fuel lamps, and is still used for this purpose
in remote areas. It is also used as a fuel for heating purposes. [17]

2.4.6 Gas oil


Gas oil is a heavier petroleum fraction than kerosene. It can be obtained from the
atmospheric distillation of crude oils (atmospheric gas oil, AGO), from vacuum distillation
of topped crudes (vacuum gas oil, VGO), or from cracking and hydrocracking units.
Atmospheric gas oil has a relatively lower density and sulphur content than vacuum gas oil
produced from the same crude. The aromatic content of gas oils varies appreciably,
depending mainly on the crude type and the process to which it has been subjected. A
major use of gas oil is as a fuel for diesel engines. Another important use is as a feedstock
to cracking and hydrocracking units. Gases produced from these units are suitable sources
for light olefins and LPG. [17]

2.4.7 Natural Gas


As a feedstock, natural gas yields ethylene from its ethane or propane content and forms the
basis of a massive chemical industry. Large reserves exist in many regions of the world.
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Much of the natural gas appears in regions that are remote from markets or pipe lines, and it
is called stranded gas, which is a natural gas field that has been discovered, but remains
unusable for either physical or economic reasons. Most of this gas is flared, re-circulated
back into oil reservoirs, or not produced. In addition, natural gas has a major disadvantage
in transportation. Because of the low density of natural gas, pipeline construction is very
expensive. [2]

2.4.8 Choice of feedstock


The choice of feed stock is an important economic decision as it influences other costs as
well. For the reasons following, the choice of feedstock for our steam pyrolysis is ethane.
Subject to availability, ethane is the best feedstock, as it has higher yield and selectivity of
ethylene than heavier feed stocks and its processing is relatively simple, involving lower
capital costs. Another reason for choosing ethane as feedstock is, ethylene plants based on
light hydrocarbons are much simpler and cheaper to build and operate than plants designed
to use heavy feedstock. The plant has to employ much greater control over the composition
of the final product once the heavier feedstocks are cracked and more variety of
components comes. The choice for a particular feedstock, together with processing
conditions (heat, pressure, steam dilution rate) will determine the yield of ethylene,
propylene and other co-products in steam cracking. Manufacturing plants fed with ethane
and propane can be constructed at much lower investment costs than naphtha crackers.
Table 2.1 shows how product yield varies with feedstock type. If ethane is used as
feedstock, almost no propylene, butadiene and aromatics are formed as by-products.
Our key suppliers of ethane would include Texas Gas Service, Alliance Pipeline, BP
Amoco Co., Chevron Texaco, Duke Energy Co., and Shell Oil.
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Table 2.1 Approximate material balance of pyrolysis with different feed stock
Products,% mass

Gaseous feed

Liquid feed

Ethane

Propane butanes naphtha

gas-oil

H2 and methane

13.0

28.0

24.0

26.0

23.0

Ethylene

80.0

45.0

37.0

30.0

25.0

Propylene

1.1

14.0

16.4

14.1

14.4

Butadiene

1.4

2.0

2.0

4.5

5.0

Butene mixture

1.6

1.0

6.4

8.0

6.0

C5+

1.6

9.0

12.6

18.5

32.0

Ratio propylene/ethylene

0.003

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.6

58.3

99.0

98.3

96.7

Propylene content into C3 86.7


fraction

2.5 General Processes for Ethylene Production


Commercially ethylene is obtained by (1) thermal cracking of hydrocarbons such as ethane,
propane, butane, naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, crude oil, etc, (2) autothermic cracking (partial
oxidation) of the above hydrocarbons, (3) recovery from refinery off-gas, (4) recovery from
coke-oven gas, and (5) catalytic dehydration of ethyl alcohol or ethyl ether. Occasionally,
raffinates from aromatics extraction facilities are used as a supplementary raw material. Of
the five methods above, small quantities of ethylene are recovered from coke oven gas and
gases produced from crude oil directly [5] but this route to ethylene has for a variety of
technical and economic reasons, so far not gained commercial significance.

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The first step in ethylene production is thermal cracking of the hydrocarbon feedstock.
Thermal cracking of natural gas liquids (NGL) or crude oil fractions in the presence of
steam is still the dominant method for the production of ethylene. This thermal
decomposition results from adding heat to the feed to break its chemical bonds. The steam
does not enter directly into the reaction, but it enhances the product selectivity and reduces
coking in the furnace coils. The product of this thermal cracking process is a mixture of
hydrocarbons, which extends from hydrogen and methane to gasoline and gas oil [28].
Most current ethylene processes are basically similar to each other. Ethylene plants use
similar separation units.
In the following sections, each step of ethylene production will be discussed.

2.5.1 Thermal Cracking Section


The first section of ethylene production process is thermal cracking. Thermal cracking is
the heart of an ethylene plant. This section produces all the products of the plant, while
other sections serve to separate and purify the products. Additionally, this section has the
greatest effect upon the economics of the process. Various types of pyrolysis reactors have
been proposed and commercialized for the thermal cracker. These pyrolysis reactors
include (1) direct heating (2) indirect heating (3) autothermic cracking and others.
The direct heating process using fired tubular heater is the most common cracker in an
ethylene plant. In this process a variety of the hydrocarbon feedstock can be used ranging
from ethane to gas oil. Steam is added to the hydrocarbon feed for several reasons: (1)
reduce the partial pressure of hydrocarbon, (2) lower the residence time of the hydrocarbon,
and (3) decrease the rate of coke formation within the tubes by reaction of steam with
carbon to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

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Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons by indirect heating include the pebble bed reactors, the
fluidized bed reactors, and regenerative furnace. Even though construction costs seem to be
more expensive and the operation to be more complex, ethylene yield by indirect heating is
higher than that obtained in the fired tubular heaters. One of the advantages of the indirect
heating reactors is that crude oil and heavy fuel oil can be used as feedstock because the
coke by-product can be removed continuously or intermittently in the process [6].
The pyrolysis gas leaving the cracker usually has a temperature in the range of 375C to
500C in the case of naphtha pyrolysis and typically from 500C to 600C in the case of
gas oil pyrolysis. The outlet temperature depends upon the amount of the carbon deposits in
the transfer line exchanger [26]. Quenching of the conversion product or rapid temperature
reduction is important to prevent the decrease of ethylene yields caused by secondary
reactions. This is carried out either by transfer line exchangers or by injecting water and oil.

2.5.2 Gas Compression and Treatment Section


In addition to the thermal cracking section, the sections for removal of acid gases, drying of
the cracked gases, removal of acetylenic compounds, and purification of ethylene are also
very important, because an efficient ethylene plant is the result of the integration of these
process sections and because, in respect to cost, the thermal cracking section is only about
20-30% of the whole plant. In addition, the goal is to produce ethylene with high purity
above 99.9%.
Most ethylene processes call for compression of the pyrolysis gas leaving the quench tower.
Consequently, the cooled cracked gas leaving the water tower is compressed in four to five
stages. Plants based upon gaseous feedstock generally employ four stages, while many
naphtha-and gas oil-based plants employ five stages of pyrolysis gas compression. Between
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compression stages, the cracked gas is usually cooled in water-cooled exchangers. Water
and hydrocarbons condensed between stages are separated from the pyrolysis gas in interstage separators.
Hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide are removed from pyrolysis gas between the third
stage and fourth stage of the compression system. This location is optimum because the
actual gas volume has been reduced significantly in the first three stages of compression
while acidic components are still present in the gas stream [26]. Acid gas produced in
thermal cracking must be removed before the first major fractionation step. In removing
acid gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, non-regenerative caustic washing
followed by water washing is employed in the most of the existing plants and proves to be
most economic. The pyrolysis gas leaving the caustic scrubber contains less than 1 ppm of
acid gases and hence assures that the final products of the plant will meet specification in
this respect.
Compressed cracked gas usually is dried to reduce the moisture content to 1 ppm or less
and avoid problems with freezing and hydrate formation in downstream low temperature
equipment. In drying the cracked gases, alumina, silica gel, and molecular sieves are used
commercially. Among them, molecular sieves seem to have an economic advantage over
conventional desiccants because of their higher desiccant activities and lower regeneration
temperatures [17]. Recovery of acetylene and removal of acetylenic materials from the
process gas is very important in manufacturing polymer-grade ethylene.

2.5.3 Recovery and Purification Section


After the cracked gases have been quenched, compressed, freed of the acid gases, and
dried, they generally contain hydrogen and light hydrocarbons in the C1-C6 range.
Depending upon the cracking method employed, carbon monoxide and nitrogen also may
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be present. Low temperature straight fractionation, absorption, and selective adsorption are
three different methods to recover and purify ethylene. The aim of this section is to separate
ethylene and acetylene from hydrogen and methane fractions, ethane and propane fractions,
and heavier hydrocarbons. Commercial separation processes operate at four ranges of
pressure: 450-600 psia, 100-150 psia, 70-90 psia, and 30-40 psia. The most popular is the
450-600 psia because it offers an attractive combination of purity, recovery, efficiency, and
investment for large ethylene plants. [41]
In ethylene purification section, demethanized process streams are introduced to the deethanizer in most cases. The de-ethanizer is a simple tower refrigerated by propane or
propylene to make reflux. The net overhead from the de-ethanizer flows to an ethyleneethane separator. This is the second most costly separation step in an ethylene plant because
the volatility is low and a large amount of reflux is required.

2.5.4 The Refrigeration Section


The separation of pyrolysis gas through condensation and fractionation at cryogenic
temperatures requires external refrigeration and is an important part of the ethylene system.
An ethylene refrigerator has two or three stages for a total of between five and seven stages
for the entire refrigeration cascade. Reflux ratios in the columns are selected carefully to
avoid large refrigeration consumption [47].

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CHAPTER 3

3.0 PROCESS SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION


The different processes in ethylene production include steam pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis,
recovery from fluid catalytic cracking off gas, autothermic and fluidized-bed cracking, and
membrane reactor.

3.1 Steam pyrolysis


The most commonly used process is steam pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The feedstock,
mixed with dilution steam, enters the cracking section and is pyrolysised by heat into small
components. The pyrolysis gas enters the quench section and is cooled there to some
controlled temperature. Water enters the water quench tower, a part of quench section,
cooling down the high temperature pyrolysis gas and becoming steam. That steam, called
dilution steam, mixes with the feedstock before entering the pyrolysis section to decrease
the partial pressure of the cracked gases and slow coke formation. Finally, the pyrolysis
gas goes into the separation section to be separated into a variety of desired final products.
[33]
Steam

Feedstock

CRACKING
SECTION

Pyrolysis
gas

QUENCH
SECTION

Water

Figure 3.1 A simplified ethylene plant diagram sheet. [33]

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SEPARATION
SECTION

Final
product

3.2 Catalytic pyrolysis


A catalytic pyrolysis process for production of ethylene from heavy hydrocarbons,
comprises

heavy hydrocarbons that are contacted with a pillared inter layered clay

molecular sieve or other high silica zeolite containing catalysts in a riser or down flow
transfer line reactor in the presence of steam. It is catalytically pyrolysed at a temperature
of 650 C to 750 C and a pressure of 0.15 to 0.4 MPa for a contact time of 0.2 to 5
seconds. The weight ratio of catalyst to feedstock ranges from 15:1 to 40:1 and the weight
ratio of steam to feedstock is about 0.3:1 to 1:1.
Catalytic pyrolysis combines catalytic cracking and steam pyrolysis and has the advantages
of both catalytic cracking and steam pyrolysis. It can raise the yields of light olefins,
expand the flexibility of products distribution, and simultaneously lower reaction
temperature and decrease energy consumption for the whole system; so it has broad
application prospect. The raw material is usually crude oil.
Considering that the feed that is used in catalytic pyrolysis is crude oil, this process is not
exactly feasible in Ghana for the production of ethylene and acetylene. This is due to the
shortage in supply of Ghanas crude oil. Furthermore, the crude oil which is imported
mainly from Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea is chiefly refined to produced petroleum,
diesel, kerosene, etc. which is highly useful on the market. Furthermore, this process
requires the use of catalysts in large quantities, and which would require frequent plant shut
down in case of short catalyst life.

3.3 Autothermic and fluidized bed cracking


Most of the autothermic cracking processes produce acetylene as a main product and
ethylene as a by-product. Most of these processes operate at atmospheric pressure, and
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hydrocarbon feedstock, air, or oxygen and fuels are preheated to about 593C to reduce the
oxygen consumption and increase the yield. The process of ethylene production by
autothermic cracking is based upon the thermal cracking of crude oil using fluidized beds.
[2]
Fluidized bed reactors are relatively new tools in the chemical engineering field developed
for the oil and petrochemical industries. Here catalysts are used to reduce petroleum to
simpler compounds through cracking. Today fluidized bed reactors are still used to produce
gasoline and other fuels, along with many other chemicals. Many industrially produced
polymers are made using FBR technology, such as rubber, vinyl chloride, polyethylene,
and styrene. A major advantage of this process is the ability to operate the reactor in a
continuous state. However because of the expansion of the materials in the reactor, a larger
vessel is often required, which increases the cost of production. Again, the fluid-like
behaviour of fine solid particles within the bed eventually results in the wear and tear of the
reactor vessel. This requires expensive maintenance which adds to the cost of production.

3.4 Membrane reactor


Membrane reactors may be used in either batch or continuous mode, and allow the easy
separation of the enzyme from the product. Due to the ease with which membrane reactor
systems may be established, they are often used for production on a small scale (g to kg),
especially where a multi-enzyme pathway or co-enzyme regeneration is needed.
Membrane reactors combine reaction with separation to increase conversion. One of the
products of a given reaction is removed from the reactor through the membrane, forcing the
equilibrium of the reaction "to the right" (according to Le Chatelier's Principle), so that
more of that product is produced. Membrane reactors are most commonly used when a
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reaction involves some form of catalyst. [8] There are two main types of these membrane
reactors (1) the inert membrane reactor and (2) the catalytic membrane reactor.
The inert membrane reactor allows catalyst pellets to flow with the reactants on the feed
side (usually the inside of the membrane). In this kind of membrane reactor, the membrane
does not participate in the reaction directly; it simply acts as a barrier to the reactants and
some products. [14]
Catalytic Ceramic Membrane is a system for the dehydrogenation of ethane to produce
ethylene and hydrogen through the use of a catalytic ceramic membrane having selective
permeability, thus permitting the separation of hydrogen from the reaction zone which
causes further dehydrogenation of ethane. The catalytic ceramic membrane tube is enclosed
within an alloy tube of suitable composition to permit heating to the temperature range of
300 to 650 C. The reactor is connected to a recovery system which permits separation of
pure ethylene and unconverted ethane. A steady stream of H2O or argon continuously
sweeps away the H2 coming out through the selective membrane, thereby further
facilitating the conversion process. [14]
The membrane reactors major advantage is its combination of reaction and separation to
produce a good amount of conversion and yield. However, the membranes (ceramic and
metallic) are poor in mechanical strength and need to be replaced at regular intervals.
Another major disadvantage is the cost of the membranes and its low resistance to harsh
environments. Also, the membrane reactors are usually used for production on small scale
(g to kg). [11] Considering the amount of ethylene and acetylene we want to produce,
which runs into thousands of tonnes, this process is not recommended.

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3.5 Fluidized catalytic cracking


Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) is an important process in oil refineries. It upgrades
heavy hydrocarbons to lighter more valuable products by cracking, and is the major
producer of gasoline in refineries. FCC Units present challenging multivariable control
problems.
The heavy molecule cracking process occurs in a riser tubular reactor, at high temperatures,
building up fuel gas, LPG, cracked naphtha (gasoline), light cycle oil, decanted oil, and
coke. The coke deposits on the spent catalyst surface, causing its deactivation. The catalytic
activity is re-established by coke combustion in a fluidized bed reactor, dominated
regenerator. The system riser-regenerator is called the converter. Steam lifts the heated
regenerated catalyst to be combined with the oil in the riser so that the oil-catalyst mixture
rises in an ascending dispersed stream to the separator. The control valve manipulates the
quantity of hot regenerated catalyst from the standpipe to the "riser" in order to maintain a
predetermined outlet riser temperature. On the top of the separator, the catalyst particles are
separated from vapour products by cyclones. The stream transfers the reaction products
overhead to the products recovery section. The standpipe transfers spent catalyst
continuously from the separator to the regenerator by a control valve.

3.6 Choice of Process


Based on the comparisons above, steam pyrolysis shall be used in this project. Steam
pyrolysis is one of the most important processes of petrochemistry. The main advantage of
this process compared with other processes is that it is quite flexible in terms of feed stock.
In addition steam pyrolysis is the best economical solution to produce ethylene and
acetylene, because other methods are more expensive.
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3.7 Process description (steam pyrolysis)


The fresh feed of ethane is combined with the recycled ethane from the ethylene column
and charged to the pyrolysis furnace. Dilution steam is added to ethane before it enters the
cracking furnace, to reduce the partial pressure of ethane and lower the residence time of
ethane in the high temperature zone, which decrease the rate of coke formation within the
tubes. The mixture of ethane and steam is preheated in the convection section of the
furnace, and the ethane cracks in vertical tubes within a residence time of 0.1 to 0.5 s. The
cracked gas leaves the furnace at 800 C and 8.0107kPa and is quickly cooled to 340 C in
the transfer line exchangers to preserve gas composition. It generates 370C steam at a
pressure of 16690kPa. The gas is then further quenched in quench towers by direct contact
with water where the gases leave as overhead to the compressor and the quench water is
separated and recycled.
The cracked gases are then compressed in four stages. Acid gases such as carbon dioxide,
are removed after the third stage of compression. The effluent gas leaves the compression
section at 42C and 3500kPa from which it is dried and cooled in a series of heat
exchangers. It is then passed to a de-methanizer where methane and hydrogen is separated
as overhead. The net bottom stream of the demethanizer is charged to the de-ethanizer.
The overhead vapour from the de-ethanizer is partially condensed by heat exchange and
propylene refrigerant. The bottom stream leaving the de-ethanizer contains C3+
hydrocarbons (mostly propane) that are stored in C3+ storage tanks. The net overhead from
the de-ethanizer is the ethylene-ethane stream with traces of acetylene. This stream is then
fed to the C2splitter to separate ethylene and acetylene from ethane. The ethane leaves as
bottoms product and is recycled back to the furnace. The overhead vapour (ethyleneacetylene mixture) is forwarded to an acetylene absorber where acetone is used as the
21

extracting solvent. The gas is then finally sent to the ethylene column where high purity
polymer grade ethylene is recovered as product. The bottoms product containing mainly
acetylene is sent to the acetylene stripper where acetylene is recovered by further
separation.

3.8 Capacity
Our plant is likely to have a capacity of 100,000 tonnes per year of ethylene and about 550
tonnes per year of acetylene. This is because we are operating in a continuous process. Our
main product is ethylene. Acetylene is only a by-product, which is recovered in our quest to
produce 99.95% polymer-grade ethylene to meet market demands. The percentage yield for
acetylene is about 0.2% when using ethane.

22

CHAPTER 4

4.0 MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES


The general material balance equation is
( Material out) = ( Material in ) + ( Material generation ) (Material consumption )( Material accumulation)
Assumptions:
1. Steady state, no accumulation
2. All masses are calculated on hourly basis
The quantity of ethylene produced per annum = 13888.89kg = 100000tonnes
Plant attainment is 300 days to allow for downtime for maintenances.
The calculations that resulted in the charts shown in this chapter are represented in the
appendix A

23

4.1 SUMMARY OF MATERIAL BALANCES


4.1.1 FURNACE
Flue gases

Fresh ethane
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Ethane
29189.55
29189.55
TOTAL
Temperature: 70C

Component

mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
CO2
44
O2
9.6
N2
242.2
H2O(v)
36
331.85
TOTAL
Temperature: 250C

Mass,
%
100
100

Mass,
%
13.3
2.9
73
10.8
100

Material Steam 1
Component

mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
H2O
5259.6
5259.6
TOTAL
Temperature: 180 C

mass,
%

Pyrolysis furnace
Material stream 2

100
100

Component

mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Ethane
10216.35
Propane
2643.5992
H2O
5201.3132
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Acetylene
82.2172
Ethylene
14166.656
CO2
139.1368
34530.00
TOTAL
Temperature: 840.8 C
Pressure : 107kPa

Fuel/air
Component

mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1544
Air
25890.0922
27390.5322
TOTAL
Temperature: 25 C
Pressure: 101.325kPa

Mass,
%
5.48
94.52
100

24

mass (%)

3.08
29.59
7.66
15.06
2.95
0.24
41.03
0.40
100.00

4.1.2 TRANSFER LINE EXCHANGER


Material stream 2
Component

mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Ethane
10216.35
Propane
2643.5992
H2O
5201.3132
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Acetylene
82.2172
Ethylene
14166.656
CO2
139.1368
34530.00
TOTAL
Temperature: 840.8 C
Pressure : 101kPa

mass (%)
Cooling water 1
3.08
29.59
7.66
15.06
2.95
0.24
41.03
0.40
100.00

Component

Mass
flowrate
(Kg/hr)
H2O
10620
10620
TOTAL
Temperature: 25C
Pressure: 4177 kPa

Mass %

100
100

Transfer-line exchanger

Material stream 3

Steam at 500 C
Component

Mass
flowrate
(Kg/hr)
H2O
10620
10620
TOTAL
Temperature: 500C
Pressure: 16690 kPa

Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Ethane
10216.35
Propane
2643.5992
H2O
5201.3132
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Acetylene
82.2172
Ethylene
14166.656
CO2
139.1368
34530.00
TOTAL
Temperature: 350 C
Pressure : 150kPa

Mass %

100
100

25

mass
(%)
3.08
29.59
7.66
15.06
2.95
0.24
41.03
0.40
100.00

4.1.3 QUENCH TOWER


Material stream 3
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Ethane
10216.35
Propane
2643.5992
H2O
5201.3132
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Acetylene
82.2172
Ethylene
14166.656
CO2
139.1368
34530.00
TOTAL
Temperature: 350 C
Pressure : 150 kPa

mass
(%)

Cooling water 2
Component Mass
flowrate
(Kg/hr)
H2O
26864.82
26864.82
TOTAL
Temperature: 30C
Pressure: 4177 kPa

3.08
29.59
7.66
15.06
2.95
0.24
41.03
0.40
100.00

Mass %

1.0
1.0

Quench tower

Material stream 4
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Ethane
10216.35
Propane
2643.5992
H2O
5.25402
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Acetylene
82.2172
Ethylene
14166.656
CO2
139.1368
29333.940
TOTAL
8
Temperature: 34 C
Pressure : 1930 kPa

Water out
mass
fraction
(%)
3.62
34.83
9.01
0.02
3.47
0.28
48.29
0.47
100

Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
H2O
141737.094
141737.094
TOTAL
Temperature: 80 C
Pressure : 6987 kPa

26

mass
fraction
100
100

4.1.4 CAUSTIC TOWER


Material stream 5
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Ethane
10216.35
Propane
2643.5992
H2O
5.25402
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Acetylene
82.2172
Ethylene
14166.656
CO2
139.1368
29333.9408
TOTAL
Temperature: 35 C
Pressure : 3500 kPa

mass
fraction
(%)
3.62
34.83
9.01
0.02
3.47
0.28
48.29
0.47
100

Caustic solution
Component Mass
flowrate
(Kg/hr)
NaOH(aq)
45068.4
45068.4
TOTAL
Temperature: 30C
Pressure: 101.325 kPa

Mass
fraction
100
100

Caustic tower

Material stream 6
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Ethane
10216.35
Propane
2643.5992
H2O
5.25402
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Acetylene
82.2172
Ethylene
14166.656
CO2
trace
29194.70971
TOTAL
Temperature: 38 C
Pressure : 3500 kPa

Spent caustic solution


Compon
ent

Mass
flowrate
(Kg/hr)
Na2CO3 9631.954
H2O
38520.498
TOTAL 48152.452
Temperature: 40C
Pressure: 101.325 kPa

Mass %

20
80
100

27

Mass, %

3.64
34.99
9.06
0.02
3.49
0.28
48.52
0.00
100

4.1.5 SPRAY TOWER


Material stream 7
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Ethane
10216.35
Propane
2643.5992
H2O
5.25402
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Acetylene
82.2172
Ethylene
14166.656
CO2
trace
29194.70971
TOTAL
Temperature: 40 C
Pressure : 3500 kPa

mass
(%)
3.64
34.99
9.06
0.02
3.49
0.28
48.52
0.00
100

Cooling water 3
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
H2O
87.9234
87.9234
TOTAL
Temperature: 21.5 C
Pressure : 101 kPa

mass %

100
100

Spray tower

Material stream 8

Water out
Component

mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
H2O
87.9234
87.9234
TOTAL
Temperature: 80 C
Pressure : 101kPa

Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Ethane
10216.35
Propane
2643.5992
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Acetylene
82.2172
Ethylene
14166.656
CO2
trace
29194.70971
TOTAL
Temperature: 40C
Pressure : 3500 kPa

mass %

100
100

28

mass
(%)
3.64
34.99
9.06
3.49
0.28
48.52
0.00
100

4.1.6 DEMETHANIZER
Material stream 9
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Ethane
10216.35
Propane
2643.5992
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Acetylene
82.2172
Ethylene
14166.656
28910.6902
TOTAL
Temperature: -120.0 C
Pressure : 2000 kPa

mass %
Material stream 10
Component

mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
1062.4992
Hydrogen
1018.2284
Ethylene
141.29108
2267.6624
TOTAL
Temperature: -127 C
Pressure : 3200 kPa

3.97
34.28
9.06
3.60
0.27
49.00
100

Demethanizer

Material stream 11
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
11.448
Ethane
9909.4343
Propane
2621.0494
Acetylene
76.7424
Ethylene
14024.7251
26643.4
TOTAL
Temperature: 6.05 C
Pressure : 2600 kPa

29

mass %

0.04
37.20
9.84
0.29
52.63
100

mass
%
48
46
6
100

4.1.7 DE-ETHANIZER
Material stream 11
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
11.448
Ethane
9909.4343
Propane
2621.0494
Acetylene
76.7424
Ethylene
14024.7251
26643.4
TOTAL
Temperature: 6.05 C
Pressure : 3006 kPa

mass %

Material stream 12

0.04
37.20
9.84
0.29
52.63
100

Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
5.048
Ethane
9909.435
Acetylene
76.7416
Ethylene
13954.6
23945.82
TOTAL
Temperature: -34.95 C
Pressure : 3000 kPa

De-ethanizer

Propane product
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Ethylene
110.31
Propane
2623.79
2734.1
TOTAL
Temperature: 40.00 C
Pressure : 3000 kPa

30

mass %

0.04
0.96
100

mass
%
0.02
41.4
0.32
58.28
100

4.1.8 C2 SPLITTER
Material stream 12
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
5.048
Ethane
9909.435
Acetylene
76.7416
Ethylene
13954.6
23945.82
TOTAL
Temperature: -34.95 C
Pressure : 3080 kPa

Mass %

Material stream 13

0.02
41.4
0.32
58.28
100

Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Ethylene
13919.217
Acetylene
76.7416
13995.96
TOTAL
Temperature: -10.7 C
Pressure : 3200 kPa

C2 splitter

Material stream 14
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Methane
10.6528
Ethane
9909.435
Ethylene
35.385
9955.47
TOTAL
Temperature: -7.901 C
Pressure : 2000kPa

31

mass %

99.53
0.11
0.36
100

mass %

0.55
99.45
100

4.1.9 ACETYLENE ABSORBER


Material stream 14
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Ethylene
13919.217
Acetylene
76.7416
13995.96
TOTAL
Temperature: -10 C
Pressure : 3200 kPa

Material stream 17
mass %

Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Acetone
127.201
127.201
TOTAL
Temperature: 35 C
Pressure: 101.325 kPa

99.45
0.54
100

Acetylene absorber

Material stream 16
Material stream 15
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Acetylene
1.5977
Ethylene
13900
13901.535
TOTAL
Temperature: 20 C
Pressure: 1722.44kPa

mass %

0.011
99.98
100

Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Acetylene
75.2066
Acetone
127.201
202.4076
TOTAL
Temperature: 30 C
Pressure : 1000 kPa

32

mass %

37.16
62.84
100

mass %

100
100

4.1.10 ACETYLENE STRIPPER


Material stream 16
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Acetylene
75.2066
Acetone
127.201
202.4076
TOTAL
Temperature: 25.00 C
Pressure : 2138 kPa

mass %

37.16
62.84
100

Acetylene stripper

Material stream 18

Material stream 17
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Acetone
127.201
Acetylene
127.201
TOTAL
Temperature: 31.30 C
Pressure: 40.09 kPa

Component mass
mass %
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Acetylene
79.8872 100
Acetone
79.8872 100
TOTAL
Temperature: 34.09 C
Pressure : 6000 kPa

mass %

100
100

33

4.1.11 ETHYLENE COLUMN


Material stream 15
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Acetylene
1.5977
Ethylene
13900
13901.535
TOTAL
Temperature: 20 C

mass %

0.011
99.98
100

Ethylene Column

Material stream 20
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Ethylene
13888.89
Acetylene
0.0135
13888.9
TOTAL
Temperature: -10 C
Pressure: 2500 kPa

mass %

99.9
0.1
100

Material stream 19
Component mass
flowrate
(kg/hr)
Acetylene
1.5842
Ethylene
11.1
12.68
TOTAL
Temperature: -30 C
Pressure : 2500 kPa

34

mass %

12.49
87.51
100

4.2 ENERGY BALANCES


4.2.1 FURNACE
Fresh ethane (stream 1)
Component

Enthalpy
(kJ)
Ethane
2445111.3
2445111.3
TOTAL
Temperature: 70 C

Pyrolysis furnace

Component
Steam (stream 2)

Methane
Ethane
Propane
H2O
Hydrogen
Acetylene
Ethylene
CO2
TOTAL

Component

enthalpy
(kJ)
H2O
1551719.1
1551719
TOTAL
Temperature: 180 C

35

Enthalpy
(kJ)
3101484.4
26843935.6
6885500.9
8968631.9
11856702.8
154495.7
31518168.1
140909.5
89469828.9

4.2.2 QUENCH TOWER


Component Enthaply
(kJ)
Methane
-196337745.9
Ethane
82223346.4
Propane
6876775.4
H2O
1589144.4
Hydrogen
221078167.1
Acetylene
13753328.5
Ethylene
9533474.4
CO2
75212.34
138791702.6
TOTAL

Cooling water (stream 9)


Component Enthalpy
H2O
187605993
187605993
TOTAL
Temperature: 30C
Pressure: 4.177 kPa

Quench tower

Componen
t
Methane
Ethane
Propane
H2O
Hydrogen
Acetylene
Ethylene
CO2
TOTAL

Enthalpy
(kJ)
-44726466.4
82218800.9
6877143
6977.6
22107265.9
654218
96107084
4167.8
138791702.6

Material stream 8
Component Enthalpy
H2O
18176207.5
18176207.5
TOTAL
Temperature: 80 C
Pressure : 6987 kPa

36

4.2.3 CAUSTIC TOWER


Component
Methane
Ethane
Propane
H2O
Hydrogen
Acetylene
Ethylene
CO2
TOTAL

Enthalpy
(kJ)
-44726466.4
82218800.9
6877143
6977.6
22107265.9
654218
96107084
4167.8
138791702.6

Caustic soda
Component

NaOH
159261400
159261400
TOTAL
Temperature: 30C
Pressure: 4.177 kPa

Caustic tower

Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Methane
-350957.8
Ethane
-6953247.8
Propane
96371.2
H2O
711.3
Hydrogen
20846495.5
Acetylene
-66039.6
Ethylene
597934.1
CO2
5414.2
13578747
TOTAL

Enthalpy (kJ)

Spent caustic solution


Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Na2CO3(aq) 166306735.6
166306735.6
TOTAL
Temperature: 40C

37

4.2.4 DEMETHANIZER
Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Methane
-1058204.1
Ethane
5382174.6
Propane
-863333.2
Hydrogen
-6524474.9
Acetylene
-5711589.7
Ethylene
8242969.9
TOTAL

Demethanizer

Component
Methane
Hydrogen
TOTAL

Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Ethane
-704981.6
Methane
420434.0
Propane
-130952.4
Acetylene
-7726.2
Ethylene
8086124.9
7662898.7
TOTAL

Enthalpy
(kJ)
1094052.6
-1009895.2
84157.4

38

4.2.5 DE-ETHANIZER
Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Methane
4650.7
Ethane
-706674.8
Propane
-131409.9
Acetylene
-6957.5
Ethylene
-1145519.4
-1985910.9
TOTAL

De-ethanizer

Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Methane
10154.4
Ethane
-1980235.4
Acetylene
-19722.6
Ethylene
-3058549.5
-5048353.1
TOTAL

Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Propane
110680.1
Ethylene
5306.8
115986.9
TOTAL

39

4.2.6 C2 SPLITTER
Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Methane
-4909.6
Ethane
-2026150.9
Acetylene
36772.2
Ethylene
-2986782.9
-4981071.2
TOTAL

C2 splitter

Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Acetylene
30135.8
Ethylene
-2318046.8
-2287911
TOTAL

Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Methane
-2323.5
Ethane
3174817.8
3172494.3
TOTAL

40

4.2.7 ETHYLENE COLUMN


Component Enthalpy
(kJ)
Acetylene
-36.7686
Ethylene
-317733.97
-317770.7386
TOTAL

Ethylene column

Component

Enthalpy
(kJ)

Component Enthalpy (kJ)

Ethylene
Acetylene
TOTAL

-430.4059
-155.096
-585.5019

Acetylene

-76.4246

Ethylene
TOTAL

-2836982.474
-2837058.903

41

CHAPTER 5

5.0 EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS


Specifications for all processing equipment based on the operating conditions and flow
rates of the input and output streams among others form a major part in plant design.
The major considerations under equipment specification are:
1. Identification of the equipment
2. Function of the equipment
3. Basic design data
4. Material of construction
Information and data used are from Stanley M. Walas (1999), R K Sinnott (1999), Perry
and Green (1999). [49, 43]

5.1 Equipment list


5.1.1 Pyrolysis furnace
Duty: To crack the ethane feedstock into smaller hydrocarbons under carefully controlled
temperature to yield the optimum amount of ethylene and acetylene.
Type or description: cylindrical
Height: 15.16m
Operating temperature: 1200C
Heat duty: 23476.165KW
Material of construction: Stainless steel (SS 310) and Refractory brick

42

5.1.2 Heat exchanger


Duty: Immediately quenches the cracked gases to a lower temperature to stop further
undesired reactions and coke formation
Type or description: Transfer-line exchanger
Temperature: 700C
Quantity: 1
Material of construction: stainless steel

5.1.3 Quench tower


Duty: to further cool cracked gas and condense water vapour present by direct contact with
water
Type or description: packed tower
Operating temperature: 350C to 34C
Pressure: 150kPa
Height: 18m
Material of construction: austenitic stainless steel type 304

5.1.4 Gas compressor


Duty: increases the pressure of the gas to liquefy it for the distillation and separation
processes.
Type: centrifugal compressor
Output pressure: 3500kPa
43

Number: 4-stage
Material of construction: Carbon steel

5.1.5 Caustic tower


Duty: To remove the acid gases CO2, from the ethylene gas stream
Type: packed tower
Operating temperature: 35C
Height of tower: 6.846m
Tower diameter: 1.9155m
Vessel volume: 19.729m3
Material of construction: carbon steel

5.1.6 Spray tower


Duty: To dry the gas stream of water (vapour) before cooling it for distillation.
Type: spray tower
Operating temperature: 42C
Material of construction: carbon steel

5.1.7 Chilling train.


Duty: the gas is cooled and in turn is liquefied for distillation
Type: series of heat exchangers
Number: 3
Operating temperature: -120C
44

Material of construction: stainless steel

5.1.8 De-methanizer
Duty: To separate and remove methane and hydrogen from the ethylene gas stream
Temperature: 120C
Pressure: 30bar
Height: 15m
Diameter: 1.4m
Material of construction: carbon steel

5.1.9 De-ethanizer
Duty: To separate the C2s and C3s
Temperature: 6C
Pressure: 32bar
Height: 25 m
Diameter: 1.5 m
Number: 1
Material of construction: carbon steel

5.1.10 C2-splitter
Duty: To separate or split the C2 into ethylene and acetylene as overhead and ethane as
bottom stream to be recycled back to the furnace.
45

Type: continuous type tray column


Operating temperature: -24.95C
Feed pressure: 30bar
Height: 14m
Diameter: 1.7 m
Material of construction: carbon steel

5.1.11 Ethylene Column


Duty: To recover and obtain our final ethylene product.
Type: tray tower
Temperature: 20C
Height: 78.2 m
Diameter: 3.6 m
Material of construction: stainless steel

5.1.12 Acetylene Absorber


Duty: To separate the ethylene as overhead into the ethylene still and acetylene as bottoms
to the acetylene stripper.
Type: packed tower
Temperature: 21C
Height: 19.09m
46

Diameter: 3.248m
Material of construction: stainless steel

5.1.13 Acetylene Stripper


Duty: To strip the acetylene from the extracting solvent used in the acetylene absorption
column.
Type: packed tower
Temperature: 20C
Material of construction: carbon steel

5.2 SPECIFICATION OF STORAGE TANKS


Tanks are typically filled to 80% of capacity to function safely. [43]
See appendix C for detailed calculations

5.2.1 Ethane storage tank


Duty: To temporarily store the ethane feedstock before cracking.
Type or description: cylindrical vertical tank on concrete support.
Capacity: 7,427,160.362gal (US)
Internal diameter of ethane storage tank =
Length of ethane storage tank = 50.1667 in = 1.274m
Thickness of tank = 25mm
Material of construction: Carbon steel
47

5.2.2 Propane storage tank


Duty: To store propane produced from the cracking process temporarily.
Description: Vertical cylindrical tank with flat base and conical roof [43]
Capacity: 3,537,431gal (US) per week
Internal diameter =
Length = 42.376in = 1.076m
Thickness of tank = 28.18mm
Material of construction: carbon steel

5.2.3 Acetylene storage tank


Duty: To temporarily store acetylene produced
Type or description: cylindrical vertical tanks with flat base on concrete foundation.
Capacity: 3,374,331.513 gal (US) per week
Internal diameter =
Length = 42.05 in =1.068 m
Thickness of tank = 25mm
Material of construction: carbon steel

5.2.4 Ethylene storage tank


Duty: To store our polymer-grade ethylene produced for 7 days.
Type or description: flat bottomed vertical cylindrical tank on concrete foundation.
Capacity: 6,361,192.115 gal (US) per week
48

Internal diameter =
Length = 48in = 1.22m
Thickness of tank = 25mm
Material of construction: Carbon steel

5.3 PIPE SPECIFICATION


The most common means of transporting fluid is the pipeline. Every pipe is a long,
cylindrical, completely enclosed conduit used to transport gas, liquid, or both from one
point to another. Sizing of pipes for fluid flow in a given plant does not only depend on the
fluids physical properties, but also to some extent, on the sound economic factors. In most
engineering practices under this heading, the criterion used is the optimum diameter which
is the diameter of the pipe that gives the least total cost for annual pumping charges. The
design parameters considered are:
1)

The nominal size

2)

Schedule number

3)

Material of construction

4)

Wall thickness

Approximately, Schedule number

1000
S

Where P = Internal pressure, psig.


S = Allowable working stress in psi.
The optimum diameter is first of all estimated based on the fluid density, capacity and
viscosity depending on the nature of the fluid.

49

According to Sinnott, the optimum diameter of a stainless steel pipe is given as:
d,optimum = 230G 0.52-0.37
where, G = Mass flow rate in kg/s and = density in kg/m3

5.3.1 SAMPLE CALCULATION FOR PIPE SPECIFICATION


Pipe Location: from acetylene absorber to acetylene stripper
Mass flow rate = 13574.7079 kg/hr =3.85 Kg/s
Density of gas = 1.73 kgm-3
The optimum pipe diameter for turbulent flow using stainless steel pipe is given as:
dopt = 260G0.52-0.37 .. (1) [43]
Where: G = mass flow rate of feed
= density of slurry
It implies, dopt = 260(3.77075)0.52(1.73) -0.37
= 428mm, 16.85 in
From the above calculation, a 428mm (16.85in) pipe diameter can be used.

Reynolds number, Re

4G
(2) [43]
d

Where G is mass flow rate.

Re

43.77075
0.0010.428
50

Re = 11217
Re is greater than 4000 and hence flow is turbulent.
From Wallas (1990) Table A5
For optimum pipe diameter of 16.85 in
Nominal size = 16 in
Pipe schedule number = 30s
Outer diameter (do) = 16.00 in
Inner diameter (di) = 15.25 in

2
2 2
2
D 0.423 m 0.1405m
4
4

The normal fluid velocity is given by:


. (3) [44]
3.77075
u
8.2686

0.471ms1

Also Maximum design fluid velocity is assumed to be given by the correlation;


Maximum design fluid umax 1.2 u .. (4) [44]
2

umax 1.22 0.471 0.67824ms1

51

5.3.1.1 Line Equivalent length


The pressure loss through the bends and check valves can be included in the line pressureloss calculations as an equivalent length of pipe. Assuming all the bends to be 90 elbows
of standard radius, and the isolation valves as plug-type valves.
Elbow equivalent length = 30D....................................... (9) [44]
= 30 x 0.428 m
= 12.84 m
Plug-valve equivalent length = 18D................................ (10) [44]
= 18 x0.428 m
= 7.704 m
Entry losses (at maximum design velocity) are calculated from the equation:

Entry loss =

2
0.6782
umax
0.4 KPa
1.73
2
2

52

Table 5.1 Summary of pipe line specifications for our ethylene plant

Locatio Optim
n
um
diamet
er
(mm)
From
Furnace
to TLE 655.53
From
TLE to
quench
tower
423.24
From
quench 733.00
tower
to
compre
ssor
From
compre 467.6
ssor to
caustic
tower
From
737.96
caustic
tower
to dryer
From
729.29
dryer to
cooler
From
cooler
721.28
to demethani
zer
From
de696.56
methani
zer to
deethaniz
er
From
deethaniz
er to C2
splitter 659

Nomi
nal
Size(i
n)

Sched
ule
Numb
er

25.83

Nor
mal
fluid
veloc
ity
(m/s)

Maxim
um
design
fluid
velocit
y (m/s)

Material
of
Construct
ion

Outer
diamete
r
(in)

Inner
diamet
er
(in)

Crosssectio
nal
area(i
n2)

20

Stainless
steel

24

23.25

0.3375

2.297

3.3082

16.66

40

Stainless
steel

16.00

15.25

0.2277

2.713

3.906

28.87

20

29

28.80

0.422

1.464

2.108

18.00

17.25

0.252

2.452

3.53

29.20

28.70

0.425

1.453

2.094

28.70

28.40

0.421

1.434

2.077

28.40

28.20

0.418

1.413

27.45

27.00

0.403

1.353

1.95

26

25.50

0.3806

1.43

1.206

Stainless
steel
18.40

40
Stainless
steel

29.05

20
Stainless
steel

28.65

20
Stainless
steel

2.035
28.40

20
Stainless
steel

27.42

30

Stainless
steel

25.95

30

Stainless
steel
53

From
C2
splitter
to
acetyle
ne
absorbe
r
From
acetyle
ne
absorbe
r
to
acetyle
ne
stripper
From
acetyle
ne
absorbe
r
to
ethylen
e still
From
ethylen
e still to
storage
tank

495.15

19.5

30

19.5
0

19.25

0.193

1.89

2.73

16.6
0

16.00

0.1405

0.471

0.678

19.3
0

19.00

0.190

0.64

0.920

17.7
0

17.00

0.0152

4.00

5.76

Stainless
steel

428

16.85

30

Stainless
steel
491

19.33

30

Stainless
steel
44.95

17.70

30

Stainless
steel

5.4 PUMP SELECTION


Centrifugal pumps will be used throughout the process. These pumps are characterised by
their specific speed which is a dimensionless variable. Different types of pumps have
different efficiency envelopes according to their specific speed. Pump selection is made
based on the flow rate and the head required, together with other process considerations,
such as corrosion or the presence of solids in the fluid. The pressure developed by a
centrifugal pumps depend on:
Fluid density
Diameter of the pump impeller
The rotational speed of the impeller
54

Volumetric flow rate through the pump

5.4.1 PUMP SPECIFICATION


Sample Calculation
Location: Between acetylene absorber and ethylene still
Volumetric flow rate = 836.934 m3s-1
From the above pipe specification,
Optimum pipe diameter = 16.66in
Nominal size = 16 in
Pipe schedule number = 30s
Outer diameter (do) = 16 in
Inner diameter (di) = 15.25 in
Velocity of fluid in the pipe = 0.678ms-1
Reynolds number of fluid = 11350
5.4.1.1 Power requirement
Total pump head, H H dc H sc
P
V2 P
V2
H dc Z dc dc sc Z sc sc
2 g g
2g
g
P P
V 2 V 2
Therefore, H dc sc Z dc sc
2g
g

55

Where Pdc = Discharge pressure, 405 KPa


Psc = Suction pressure, 40 KPa

The suction velocity, Vsc

0.0097688
2.873ms1
0.0034

The discharge velocity, Vdc

0.0001084
3.284ms1
0.000033

P
V2
The total discharge head, H dc dc Z dc dc
2g
g
Pdc
Vdc2

The total suction head, H dc


Z dc

g
2
g

But the Total pump head, H H dc H sc


P
V2 P
V2
H dc Z dc dc sc Z sc sc
2 g g
2g
g

P P
V 2 V 2
Therefore, H dc sc Z dc sc
2g
g

Where, Z Z dc Z sc 2m
that is the height difference at the centre line of the pump between the suction and
discharge pipe. [44]
Pdc Psc 365KPa

Vdc Vsc 0.411ms1

56

= 790kg/m3; g = 9.81m/s2

Hence, H

365000
0.411
2
49.11m
790 9.81
2 9.81

Useful power, Puseful gQH


Q = 0.0097688; H = 49.11m ; = 790kg/m3;
g = 9.81m/s2
Hence, Puseful 790 9.81 0.00977 49.11 3718.433W
The value of specific speed represents the ratio of the pump flow rate to the head at the
speed corresponding to the maximum efficiency point. It depends primarily on the design
of the pump and impeller. The specific speed can be used to avoid cavitations or to select
the most economical pump for a given system layout.
The value of specific speed can be calculated from the relation;

Ns

N Q
H

3
4

.. (11)

Where N is in rpm (1750rev/min), Q in gpm (586.2gpm), and H in feet (15.41ft).

Ns

1750 586.2
161.122

3
4

936.903

Specific speeds for centrifugal pumps usually lie the range 900-15000 but values above
12000rpm are considered impractical .Since the calculated value lies within the range it
suggest that the calculated value is correct.
57

5.4.1.2 Net positive suction head


NPSH is the absolute pressure at the pump inlet expressed in feet of liquid, plus velocity
head, minus the vapour pressure of the fluid at pumping temperature, and corrected to the
elevation of the pump centreline in the case of horizontal pumps or to the entrance to the
first-stage impeller for vertical. Thus if NPSH is zero or less, the liquid can vaporise. The
NPSH increases as the pump capacity increases. Hence it is important to consider the range
of flow requirement during the pump selection time.

Net positive suction head

Pi Pvap

(12)

Where Pi = absolute static pressure at the pump inlet, N/m2


Pvap = Vapour pressure, N/m2 = 0.1233 x 105 Pa (Rogers and Mayhew)
Pi Patm gH s (13)

Patm = atmospheric pressure, N/m2


= density of pulp
Hs = Suction head

Inserting values into equation (12), it implies,

Net positive suction head

279272.589 12330
34.444m
790 9.81

58

Table 5.2 Summary of pump specification


Pump location

Qty Power

From TLE to Quench 1

Net

positive Specific

Efficiency

requirement

suction

head speed

(w)

(m)

(r/min)

1637

21

293

65

1142.82

15.095

192

60

3718.433

34.44

862

72

Tower
For pumping caustic 1
solution

into

the

caustic tower
For pumping acetone 1
into

the

acetylene

absorber

59

CHAPTER 6

6.0 DESIGN OF A FURNACE


6.1 Problem statement
To design a cracking furnace to crack ethane feedstock to yield ethylene and acetylene as
products. Furnace to operate at thermal efficiency of 85 %.

Stack
Stack damper
Stea
m

Ethane feed
Convection section
sesection
Cracked gas

Radiant section

Fuel
Air

Figure 6.1 A schematic diagram of a typical industrial furnace

6.2 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN


60

6.2.1 SCOPE OF DESIGN

Design constraints

Total energy absorbed

Total Energy absorbed

Heat flux across the cracking coils

Heat transfer coefficient across tube

Pressure drop across tubes

Stack height

Fuel and air requirement

6.2.2 Design constraints


Furnace geometry cylindrical
Tube diameter OD = 0.168275 m (6.625 in.)
Center-to-center spacing =0.3048 m (12 in.)
Tube thickness =0.00762 m (0.3 in.)
Diameter of the radiant section = 5 m
Number of tubes in the radiant section = 30
Number of tubes in the convective section = 16
Tube length = 10.7 m

61

Height of the radiant section = 11.5 m


Methane use as fuel
Excess air 10%
A single row tube alignment

6.2.3 Total energy absorbed

C2H6

6.2.3.1 Reactions in the furnace:


C2H4 + H2

Reaction 1

2C2H6

C3H8 + CH4

Reaction 2

C3H8

C2H2 + CH4 + H2

Reaction 3

C + 2H2O

CO2 + 2H2

Reaction 4

Since there are a series of reaction in the furnace the four

62

Reference: CO2, C2H2, C2H4, C3H8, CH4, H2O, C2H6, H2 at 25 oC 1 atm


63

Table 6.1 Enthalpy table

Substance

Nin 10

Nout

Hin KJ/mol

103
Hin KJ/mol

mol/hr
CO2

3.555

H3

C2H2

3.199

H4

C2H4

505.869

H5

C3H8

60.79

H6

CH4

66.477

H7

H2O

291.896

H1

291.265

H8

C2H6

972.985

H2

340.564

H9

H2

509.068

H10

Estimation of the enthalpy of the inlet stream

64

Total heat absorbed = Heat for preheating the feed + Heat absorbed for cracking of feed

Assume a furnace efficiency of 85 %

Duty of the furnace is 20.862 MW

6.2.4 Energy absorbed


Assume 70 % of the total heat absorbed in used for the cracking of Feed stock the
remaining is used for preheating of the feed stock.

6.2.5 Heat flux in the radiant coils


65

6.2

[2]
Where: N

tube

is number of tubes, Do is Outer diameter of tubes, L

tube

is the length of the

tube

6.2.6 Heat lost to the surroundings


The heat lost to the surroundings is in the range of 0.02 to 0.03 as a fraction of the total
released heat [Wallas, 1948].Since Q lost is an allowance and for this design we can set it to
be equal to 0.02.

6.2.7 Heat lost is the stack gas

6.2.8 TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN THE FURNACE


6.2.8.1 Temperature of the process fluid leaving the convective section
The stream entering the radiation section has absorbed 30 % of the total heat absorbed.
Qabsorbed in the convective tubes = Hout Hin

66

Where Qabsorbed in the convective tubes = heat absorbed in the convection section (MJ/hr)
Hout = Enthalpy of the stream entering the radiant section (KJ/mol)
Hin= Enthalpy of the feedstock (KJ/mol)
Qabsorbed in the convective tubes

103+0.688105 +0.76041012 2)
T = 312 C
6.2.8.2 Temperature of flue gas entering the convective section
By rule of thumb the temperature of the flue gas entering the convective section should be
150 C above the process temperature. This mean the temperature of the gas is 990.8 C.
6.2.8.3 Temperature of flue gas entering the stack section
(Waals 1990,pg. 214)
Where Ts temperature of flue gas leaving the convection section oF
a = 0.22048 - 0.35027z + 0.92344z2, b = 0.016086 + 0.29393z - 048139z2
Where z = fraction excess air =0.1
Therefore substitute into the equation above: a= 0.1946874, b=0.0406653

Now solving for Ts,


67

6.2.9 STACK DESIGN

Where:
P = the suction available from a natural draft system, Pa
C = 0.0342
a = atmospheric pressure in Pa, h = height of the stack (m).,Ti=inlet temperature in K
To =ambient temperature in K (25 oC)
Setting the P = the suction available from a natural draft system to 400 Pa which is in the
acceptable range [2]

=80.04 m
=80.04 m

6.2.10 PROCESS SIDE HEAT TRANSFER


6.2.10.1 Process-side heat transfer
.. .. 6.14 [2]
Neglecting the viscosity correction factor
68

Where Nu = Nusselt number =


Pr =Prandtl number =

, Re

=Reynolds number =

, hi= inside coefficient (W/m2 oC), di= tube inside diameter (m),

ut = fluid velocity(m/s), kf = fluid thermal conductivity(W/moC), Gt = mass velocity, mass


flow per unit area(kg/m2s), = fluid viscosity at the bulk fluid temperature (Ns/m2),
w= fluid viscosity at the tube wall temperature (Ns/m2),
Cp = fluid specific heat, heat capacity, J/kgoC.

6.2.10.1.1 In the convection tubes

=
6.2.10.1.2 For the radiative tubes

69

6.2.11 PRESSURE DROP

... 6.15 [2]

Where P = tube-side pressure drop, KPa,


Np= number of tube-side passes, Ut = tube-side velocity, m/s, L = length of one tube, m
jf = Friction factor

6.2.11.1 Pressure drop in the radiative tubes:


At Reynolds number of 5.872
, jf = 2 10-3 [2], w = 0.123810-3, Np=30, L=11m

= 26.152 KPa
6.2.11.2 Pressure drop in the Convective tubes:
At Reynolds number of 2.446
, jf = 1.7 10-3 [2], w=1.69810-3, Np=3, L=11m

=5.743KPa

6.2.12 FUEL CONSUMPTION AND REQUIRED AIR FLOW RATE


6.2.12.1 Fuel consumption
Using methane as the fuel
Q released=W fuel

LHVfuel

( Mullinger et al.2008)
70

Where Q released= total heat released MJ / hr


W fuel = Fuel flow rate (Kg/hr), LHVfuel= Low heating value of fuel (CH4) (MJ/Kg)
LHVfuel=50.055 MJ/Kg (21520 Btu/Ibm)

(Waals 1990,pg. 216 )

6.2.12.2 The flow rate of air to be required:


CH4 + 2(O2 + 3.76N2)
CO2 + 2H2O + 7.52N2

71

Table 6.2 chemical engineering design summary of pyrolysis furnace


DESIGN PARAMETERS VALUES

UNITS

Heat Duty

20.862

MW

Temperature in/out

70/840.8

Pressure drop

5.737

KPa

Fuel consumption rate

0.417

Kg/s

Air required flow rate

7.192

Kg Air /s

Excess air required

10

Feedstock flow rate

3.858

Kg/s

Steam required

1.461

Kg/s

Outlet process flow rate

9.588

Kg/s

Operating pressure

107

KPa

72

6.3 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN


6.3.1 Design Pressure
For vessels under internal pressure, the design pressure is normally 5 to 10 percent above
the normal operating pressure (Sinnott, 2005).The internal pressure in the furnace is related
to the hydrostatic head, atmospheric pressure and the pressure drop by:
Design Pressure (Pi) =hydrostatic pressure + atmospheric pressure = gh + (101325 - P),
Pa
Where = density of the flue gas =3.896 Kg/m3
g = acceleration due to gravity=9.81m/s2
h = height of furnace =15.16 m
P= negligible
H conv. =the height of the convective section = 3.66 m
H rad. = the height of the radiative section = 11.5 m
Design Pressure (Pi) = (3.8969.81 (3.66+11.5) + (101325)
= 101.904 KPa
10 % of the design pressure =1.1101.904
=112.095 KPa

73

6.3.2 Minimum Thickness of Cylindrical shell


For a cylindrical shell, the minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure is given
as:

Where Pi is the internal pressure = 112.095 N/m2


Di is the internal diameter = 6 m
F is design stress,
Typical design stress for stainless steel at 3500C is 100000 N/m2 (Sinnott, 2005).

Allowing for a corrosion allowance of 0.002m, the minimum thickness is 0.005365m.

6.3.3 Design Temperature


The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the
maximum working temperature of the material (Sinnott, 2005). The design temperature is
4000C (523.15K)

6.3.4 Materials of Construction


Stainless steels are the most frequently used corrosion resistant materials in the chemical
industry. Type 304 stainless steel (the so called 18/8 stainless steel) is the most generally
used stainless steel. If the equipment is being deigned to operate at high temperatures,
materials that retain their strength must be selected. The stainless steels are superior in this

74

respect to plain carbon steel. Stainless steel is to be used for this design (Coulson et al,
Volume 6).

6.3.5 STRESS ANALYSIS


The main sources of loads to consider are:
The internal Pressure
The total longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to internal pressure are given as:

Longitudinal stress,

Circumferential stress,

Pi Di
2t

Pi Di
4t

112.095 6.0
62681.267 KPa
2 0.005365

112.092 6.0
31340.634 KPa
4 0.005365

3.6 DEAD WEIGHT OF THE FURNACE


6.3.6.1 Weight of the refractory

The density of high alumina refractory bricks is given as 2579kg/m3 (Rotary kiln transport
phenomena and transport processes)

Where,

75

R= external radius of refractory shell, r = internal radius of refractory shell

6.3.6.2 Weight of steel shell

Density of steel is given as 8027Kg/m3.

Where,
R= external radius of steel shell, r = internal radius of steel shell

6.3.6.3 Weight of the content in tube


Total weight of the fluid in the tubes

6.3.6.3.1 Volume of convection section

Mass of content:
76

6.3.6.3.2 Volume of radiant section

6.3.6.4 Total dead weight

6.3.6.5 Choice of support


The support will be so strong enough to with stand the weight exerted by the furnace
Table 6.3 Summary of mechanical engineering design for pyrolysis furnace
PARAMETER

VALUE

Design Temperature

400 oC

Design Pressure

112.095 KPa

Minimum thickness of shell

0.005365 m

Longitudinal stress

62681.267 KPa

Circumferencial stress

31340.634 KPa

Total force exerted on the surpport

1827.722 kN

77

CHAPTER 7

7.0 DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER


7.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
To design a heat exchanger to cool cracked gases at a flow rate of
to cooled gases at

using cooling water at

7.2 PARAMETERS TO CALCULATE


1) Heat transfer area
2) Bundle diameter
3) Bundle clearance
4) Heat transfer coefficient
5) Overall heat transfer coefficient
6) Tube side and Shell side fouling resistances
7) Pressure drops

7.2.1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS


The fundamental heat transfer equation is given by,

78

to

and
.

The log mean temperature difference,

for countercurrent flow is given by:

Where equations (5) and (6) are the dimensionless temperature ratios of the correction
factor.

79

7.2.2 Exchanger type and dimensions:

The graph of FT against S at various R values on page 9 of Perrys Chemical Engineers,


Section 11, 8th Edition gives a corresponding
Hence the chosen Heat Exchanger is 2-4 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers.

7.2.3 Heat Load

80

Overall Heat Balance gives,

7.2.4 Overall coefficient:

7.2.5 Heat transfer area:

81

7.2.6 Layout and tube size:


Using a split-ring floating head exchanger. Neither fluid is corrosive, so plain carbon steel
can be used for the shell and tubes.
From the tubing characteristics as given in Perrys, I chose the following dimensions of the
tube.
1-inch Outer Diameter (O.D) tubes with 1.25-inch Triangular Pitch, 16 BWG

Length of tube = 6m (standard length)

7.2.7 Number of tubes

82

7.2.8 Bundle and shell diameter

For a split ring floating head exchanger,

7.2.9 Tube-side heat transfer coefficient calculations:

83

The Reynolds (Re) and Prandtls number (Pr) of the cracked gas at the tube side is given
by,

84

Hence the Nusselt Number (Nu) is thus calculated as,

7.2.10 Shell-side heat transfer coefficient calculations:

85

Choose a baffle spacing (Lb) of 100 mm.

The shell side linear velocity is appreciable since it falls in the standard range 0.3 1.0 m/s.
Equivalent Diameter (De) of the triangular pitch is given by,

86

The Reynolds (Re) and Prandtls number (Pr) of the cooling water at the shell side is given
by,

87

7.2.11 Overall coefficient:


Using carbon-steel for the tube and shell side because neither fluid is corrosive and the
temperature is very high.
Thermal Conductivity of carbon-steel (KW) = 55
Taking the fouling coefficients of cracked gas = 0.00030
Taking the fouling coefficients of water = 0.00090
The overall coefficient is the reciprocal of the overall resistance to heat transfer, which is
the sum of several individual resistances.

The other parameter above were defined previously, hence

88

Since the calculated U =

is above the assumed value of

Hence the design with the above parameters is accepted.

7.2.12 Tube Side Pressure Drop Calculations:


The total pressure drop at tube side is given by the equation,

Where Np = number of tube passes


L Length of tube

For

(friction factor at tube side)

The total tube side pressure drop is less than 70 kPa, hence within specification.

7.2.13 Shell Side Pressure Drop Calculations:


The shell side pressure drop is also related by the equation,

89

Where De = equivalent diameter of shell


Lb = baffle spacing

As this pressure drop on the shell side is less than 70 kPa, the design is acceptable from the
pressure drop point of view.

7.2.14 SUMMARY OF PROCESS DESIGN FOR HEAT EXCHANGER

Heat transfer area


Tube side coefficient
Shell side coefficient
90

Overall transfer coefficient, assumed


Overall transfer coefficient, required

7.3 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER


7.3.1Parameters to determine
1) Shell and tube thickness
2) Shell and tube nozzle thickness design
3) Head thickness design
4) Estimation of bolt loads
5) Flange thickness design
6) Channel and channel cover
7) Gasket width
8) Axial stress in shell
Shell side Calculations:

91

Nozzles
Assume that inlet and outlet nozzles = 100 mm

92

Head
Take Torispherical heads for both ends and the following parameters are determined
bellow.

Therefore we take head thickness as that of the shell thickness = 7.0 mm


Transverse baffles

93

Tie rods and Spacers

Flange Design
Flange is ring type with plain face.

Determination of Gasket width

94

Estimation of Bolt Loads


Under atmospheric conditions, the bolt load due to gasket reaction is given by,

Load due to design pressure is also given by,

95

Calculation of Minimum bolting area

Calculation of Optimum Bolt size

Flange Thickness

96

97

Hence the thickness of flange

Tube Side Calculations:

Therefore a tube thickness of 6.0 mm was used, including corrosion allowance.


Tube Sheet thickness
The tube sheet is held between shell flange and the channel. Hence thickness of tube sheet
is given by,

98

Channel and Channel Cover

Gasket size

Gasket material: jacketed asbestos

99

Under atmospheric conditions, the bolt load due to gasket reaction is given by,

After the internal pressure is applied, the gasket which is compressed earlier, is released to
some extent and the bolt load is given by,

100

Using the larger of the above areas, determine the size of bolts,

Thickness of Nozzle
Assume that inlet and outlet nozzles = 100 mm

101

Flange Thickness

102

SUPPORT FOR SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

103

Depth of Head, H = 250 mm

104

Longitudinal Bending Moments

The bending moment at the supports is given by,

The bending moment at the center of the span is given by,

105

Stress in Shell at Saddle

Stress in the shell at mid-span


The stress at the mid span is f3, which is either tensile or compressive depending on the
position of the fiber. The resultant tensile stresses (including the axial stress due to internal
pressure) should not exceed the permissible stress, and the resultant compressive stress
should not exceed the permissible compressive stress. (Sinnot, 2003)

106

Axial stress in shell due to internal pressure

The combined stresses

are within the allowable limits.

The Shell-and-tube heat exchanger with the above specification is designed.

107

CHAPTER 8

8.0 DESIGN OF A QUENCH TOWER


8.1 Problem statement:

Design of a quench tower to condense the steam coming out of the furnace in a packed
tower

8.1.1 Chemical engineering design

8.1.1.1 Scope of the design:


The superficial gas velocity

The diameter of the column

The dry-gas-pressure drop

The liquid holdup in the column

The actual pressure drop when the bed is irrigated

The overall gas-phase transfer units

The height of the gas-phase transfer unit

The height of the liquid-phase transfer unit

The overall height of a gas-phase transfer unit

The packed height

Residence time

Data: The packing used is 50mm metal pall ring random packing
Cp = is a packing constant, 0.763, a = specific surface area of packing, 112.6 m2/m3,
= packing void fraction, 0.951, FP = packing factor, 27m2/m3,
Ch = is a characteristic of the particular type and size of packing, 0.784
108

Temperature =34C
Flowrate =7589.283 kmol/hr
Gas out
1. -- Column
shell
2. -- Inlets
and
outlets for
gas and
liquids
3. -- Packing
material

2
Liquid
in
Flowrate =1492.490 kmol/hr
Temperature
=30C
3

2
Gas in
Temperature
=350C
Flowrate
=1777.473 kmol/hr
Liquid out
Temperature =80C

Flowrate =7874.283
kmol/hr

Figure 8.1 A schematic diagram of a quench tower

109

8.2 Superficial gas velocity calculation


The molecular weight of the gas can be calculated as
MG = 0.037416 + 0.284628 +1.810-320 +0.191630 +210-444 +0.16418
+0.033844 + 0.28642
MG =19.3864g/mol
Hence the molecular weight of the gas is 19.3864g/mol
The gas mass flow rate of the gas can be calculated as

V' = 9.571890 Kg/s


Hence the mass flow rate of the gas is 9.571890 Kg/s
The density of the gas mixture is calculated as

Hence the density of the gas mixture is 0.570832Kg/m3


The volumetric flow of the gas can be calculated as

110


Where, L = liquid mass flow rate, 39.3714Kg/s
G = gas density, 0.570832Kg/m3
V' = gas mass flow rate, 9.571890 Kg/s
L = liquid density, 1000Kg/m3 (Sinnot, 1999)
QG = is the volumetric flow rate of the gas,m3/s

The ratio of the liquid mass flow rate to the gas mass flow rate is given by

Flooding data for quench columns with countercurrent flow of gas and liquid can be
correlated in terms of the flow parameter(X) given by

Flooding curve in quench tower can be accurately described by the polynomial regression

111

Where, FP = packing factor, 27m2/m3 (Wiley and Jaime, 1987)

= liquid viscosity, 0.001Pa-s (Sinnot, 2005)

8.2.1 Calculation of the superficial gas velocity at flooding


The superficial gas velocity can be calculated as

Where, VGF = the superficial gas velocity at flooding, m/s

The superficial gas velocity at flooding is 4.8257m/s

112

8.2.2 Calculation of pressure drop at flooding


The pressure drop at flooding is strongly dependent on the packing factor for both random
and structured packings and it is given by the empirical expression:

Where, Pflood has units of Pa per meter of packed height

8.2.3 Superficial gas velocity calculation


For a given fluid flow rates and properties, and a given packing material, superficial gas
velocity can be calculated from the expression given by:

Where,VG = superficial gas velocity, m/s


f = a fraction of flooding and is usually 0.7 for quench towers (Wiley and
Jaime,1987)

Hence the superficial gas velocity VG = 3.37799m/s


The diameter of the column can be calculated from

113

D =2.49865m 2.5m
Hence the diameter of the column is 2.5m
The area of the column can be calculated as:

The wall factor can be important for columns with an inadequate ratio of effective particle
diameter to inside column diameter, and is given by:

Where, = packing void fraction, 0.951 (Wiley and Jaime,1987)


Kw = wall factor
The effective particle diameter, dp, is given by

Where, dp = the effective particle diameter, m


a = specific surface area of packing, 112.6 m2/m3 (Wiley and Jaime,1987)

114

KW = 0.9805309
The Reynolds number of the gas can be calculated as

Where,

= kinematic viscosity of the gas mixture, 310-5Pa.s

The Reynolds number of the gas ReG = 2756.6837


The dry-packing resistance coefficient (a modified friction factor),

, is given by the

empirical expression:

Where, = the dry-packing resistance coefficient (a modified friction factor)


Cp = is a (packing constants) characteristic of the particular type and size of packing,
0.763. (Wiley and Jaime,1987)

115

The dry-packing resistance coefficient

= 0.7464431

8.2.4 Calculation of dry-gas-pressure drop


The dry-gas-pressure drop can be calculated from the dimensionally consistent correlating
equation given by:

Where, Z= packing height, m


PO = the dry-gas-pressure drop, Pa

The liquid mass velocity can be calculated as

Where, GX = liquid mass velocity, Kg/m2.s


116

=7.931453316Kg/m2.s
The Reynolds number of the liquid can be calculated as:

Hence the Reynolds number of the liquid ReL = 70.439195


The Froude number of the liquid can be calculated as

Where, FRl = Froude number of the liquid


g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81m/s2 (Wiley and Jaime,1987)

= 7.2206272810-4

Where, Ch = is a (packing constants) characteristic of the particular type and size of


packing, 0.784. (Wiley and Jaime,1987)
117

ah = hydraulic, or effective, specific area of packing, m2/m3

8.3 Calculation of specific liquid holdup


The specific liquid holdup (i.e. volume of liquid holdup/volume of packed bed) in the
preloading

region

can

be

calculated

from

the

dimensionless

expression:

Where, hL, = specific liquid holdup, m3 holdup/m3 packed bed


VL = superficial liquid velocity, m/s

hL= 0.047606969
Hence the liquid holdup in the column is 0.047606969

8.3.1 Calculation of pressure drop when the bed is irrigated


When the packed bed is irrigated, the liquid holdup causes the pressure drop to increase.
The Correct pressure drop for liquid holdup is calculated with the equation

Where, p = Actual pressure drop when the bed is irrigated, Pa


118

The actual pressure drop when the bed is irrigated is therefore

8.3.2 The residence time can be evaluated as:

8.3.3 Calculation of the number of overall gas-phase transfer units


The number of overall gas-phase transfer units is given by:

Where, NOG = the number of overall gas-phase transfer units


m= is the slope of the equilibrium line
Gm/Lm= the slope of the operating line.
y1 and y2 = the mol fractions of the solute in the gas at the bottom and top of the
column, respectively.
119

For the case of quench tower use in condensing of the steam the value of
0.8 for purpose of design (Colburn, 1939)
Therefore the number of overall gas-phase transfer units is calculated as

NOG = 10.156
Hence the overall gas-phase transfer units is 10.156

8.4 Calculation of the height of gas and liquid film transfer units
The height of the gas and liquid film transfer units is given as:

Where, HG = height of a gas-phase transfer unit, m


HL = height of a liquid-phase transfer unit, m
(Sc)v = gas Schmidt number
(Sc)L = liquid Schmidt number
Dc = column diameter, m,
Z* = column height factor, m
K3 = percentage flooding correction factor
120

is taken as

= HG factor
= HL factor
= liquid mass flow-rate per unit area column cross-sectional area, kg/m2s,
f1 = liquid viscosity correction factor
f2 = liquid density correction factor
f3 = surface tension correction factor
The liquid Schmidt number can be calculated as:

Hence the liquid Schmidt number is 588


The gas Schmidt number can also be calculated as:

Hence the gas Schmidt number is 3.624

121

The liquid mass flow-rate per unit area column cross-sectional area is given by:

Therefore the mass flow-rate per unit area column cross-sectional area is 8.020676 Kg/m2s
For 70%flooding,

= 8.020675846 and liquid temperature of 30C ,the values of the

various parameters are given as


K3= 0.85,

= 80,

Z* =8m, f1=f2=f3=1

(Sinnot,2005)

The height of a gas-phase transfer unit is evaluated as

Therefore the height of a gas-phase transfer unit is 0.852m


Also, the height of a liquid-phase transfer unit is evaluated as

Hence the height of a liquid-phase transfer unit is 0.726m

8.4.1Calculation of the overall height of a gas-phase transfer unit


The overall height of a gas-phase transfer unit is given by:

122

HOG = 0.852 +0.80.726 = 1.4328m


Hence the overall height of a gas-phase transfer unit is 1.4328m

8.5 Calculation of the packed height


Therefore the packed height is calculated as

Z = 10.1561.4238 = 13.897m
Hence the packed height Z =14m
Table 8.1 Summary of chemical engineering design for quench tower
Parameter

value

The superficial gas velocity, m/s

4.8257

The diameter of the column, m

2.5

The dry-gas-pressure drop, Pa/m

325

The liquid holdup in the column

0.0476

The actual pressure drop when the bed is irrigated, Pa/m

499

The overall gas-phase transfer units

10.156

The height of the gas-phase transfer unit, m

0.852

The height of the liquid-phase transfer unit, m

0.726

The overall height of a gas-phase transfer unit, m

1.4238

The packed height, m

14

Residence time, seconds(s)

28

123

8.6 Mechanical Engineering Design of a Quench Tower


8.6.1 Column Design Specifications
Total column height 18 m
Internal diameter 2.5 m
Operating pressure 1.5 bar
Operating temperatures 350C-34C
Material of construction is stainless steel type 304
Design stress 125 MPa
Density of the stainless steel, s = 8030 kg/m3
Vessel fully radiographed (joint factor 1)
The design pressure (P) is chosen to be 10% above the operating pressure, (Sinnot, 2005)
= 1.10x 1.5 bar
= 1.65bar
Minimum thickness (ts,) of the shell cylinder required for pressure loading:

Where, ts = Minimum thickness of the shell cylinder required for pressure loading, mm
P = the design pressure, bar
Di = Internal diameter of the column, m
124

C = corrosion allowance, mm
J = weld joint factor

ts = 28mm
Hence Minimum thickness (ts,) of the shell cylinder required for pressure loading is taken
as 28mm
The minimum thickness of ellipsoidal heads is given as

Therefore, 28mm plating is chosen for the column heads (for uniformity).

8.6.2 Calculations of Other Stresses


8.6.3 Dead weight stress
Volume = column shell + column heads

Where, Di = internal diameter of the column, m


HT = Total height of the column, m
ts = column thickness, m
125

Volume = 4.047075055 + 0.107992247 = 4.16m3


Density of shell material = 8030kg/m3 (Perry, 1997)
Mass of shell material = volume density
Mass of shell material = 4.168030
Mass of shell material (mS) = 33404.8kg

Mass of water in the column = 4216.83 Kg


Mass of insulation
Mineral wool density = 130Kg/m3

Where, HT =Total column height, m


tins = insulation mineral wool thickness, mm
Va = Approximate volume of insulation, m3
Va = 2 18 75 10-3
Va = 8.48m3
The approximate volume is 8.48m3
126

Mass of insulation = density volume


Mass of insulation =1308.48
Mass of insulation (mins) =1102.4Kg
To allow for fittings the mass of insulation is multiply by two
Therefore the mass of insulation = 21102.4
Mass of insulation = 2204.8 Kg
Mass of packing
Metal pall ring 50mm density =353Kg/m3
Mass of packing =density Area of column packed height
Mass of packing =353 4.909 14
Mass of packing =19060.63Kg
Total mass = mass of shell + mass of the Internals to the column+ mass of water in the
column+ mass of insulation
Total mass = 33404.8 + 19060.63 + 2204.8+4216.83
Total mass = 74014.4kg
Total weight of the column and contents (wT) =74014.49.81
Total weight of the column and contents (wT) = 726kN

8.7 Dead Weight stress


127


DO = Di+2ts
DO = 2.5 + 2(0.028)
DO = 2.556m
Where, DO = Mean diameter, mm
m = total mass of the column and contents, Kg
g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81m/s2

Weight stress = 3MPa


Axial stress

Axial stress = 27MPa

8.7.1 Hoop stress


Hoop stress = 2Axial stress
Hoop stress = 227
Hoop stress = 54MPa
128

8.7.2 The bending stress is given as:

Wind loading
Wind velocity (max) V, = 160 km/h (Sinnott, 2005)
Wind velocity which correspond to Dynamic wind-pressure loading of 1280Pa (Sinnott,
2005)
Bending moment (Mx) at bottom tangent line

Where, Mx = Bending moment at bottom tangent line, Nm


FW =Wind loading, N/m
HT = the total height of the column, m

Where, tins =insulation mineral wool thickness, mm


Wp = Dynamic wind-pressure loading, Pa
FW = (2.5+2(28+75)10-3)1280
FW = 3527.68N/m

129

Bending moment at bottom tangent line Mx = 571484.16Nm

Where, DO =Mean diameter, including insulation, mm

Moment of inertial (I) = 0.178m4

Bending stress = 4MPa

8.8 Analysis of stress


8.8.1Upwind
Total stress =Bending stress +Axial stress Radial stress
Total stress = 4MPa +27MPa 3MPa
Total stress = 28MPa

8.8.2 Downwind
Total stress = bending stress +Hoop stress Radial stress
Total stress = 4MPa+54MPa 3MPa
Total stress = 55MPa
Therefore the maximum stress is 55MPa

130

The maximum stress is more than 43% below the design stress of 125 MPa, and therefore
the shell design is considered acceptable.

8.8.3 Design of skirt support for the quench tower


The resultant stresses in the skirt will be:

Where,

bS

= bending stress in the skirt

WS

= The dead weight stress in the skirt

Bending moment at base of skirt (Ms)

Where, FW =Wind loading, N/m


Hs= height of skirt and column, m
MS = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base of the skirt (due to wind, seismic
and eccentric loads), Nm
W = total weight of the vessel and contents, N
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base, m
131

ts = skirt thickness, m
Bending moment at base of skirt,

Ms = 778.365kNm

8.8.4 Bending stress in the skirt,

bS=

5.6N/mm2

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of water.

Where, Di = internal diameter of column, m


HT = the total height of the column, m
Density of water, Kg/m3
= Acceleration due to gravity, m/s2

Approximate weight = 867kN


Weight of vessel and its content = mg
Weight of vessel and its content = 74014.49.81
132

Weight of vessel and its content (W) = 726kN


Total weight = (867+726) kN
Total weight =1593kN

8.9The dead weight stress in the skirt is given by:

Where,

WS

= The dead weight stress in the skirt, N/mm2

W = total weight of the vessel and contents, N


Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base, mm
ts = skirt thickness, mm

WS(operating)

WS(test)

= 3.26N/mm2

= 3.90N/mm2

Maximum compressive stress = (5.6+3.9)N/mm2 = 9.5 N/mm2


Maximum tensile stress = (5.6 - 3.26) N/mm2 = 2.34 N/mm2
Base ring and anchor bolt design
133

Assume approximate pitch circle bolt diameter, say, 2.2 m


Circumference of bolt circle = 2200

Closest multiple of 4 = 12 bolts


The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the bolt area
required is given by:

Where, Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm2,


Nb = number of bolts,
fb= maximum allowable bolt stress, N/mm2; typical design value 125N/mm2
Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm,
W = weight of the vessel, N,
Da =assumed bolt circle diameter, m.

Ab= 466.8mm2
Using M30 bolts (BS 4190:1967) root area = 561 mm2
Ab =561mm2
134

The bolt root diameter (Db) is given by:

Db = 27mm
The bolt root diameter is therefore 27mm.
The base ring must be sufficiently wide to distribute the load to the foundation. The total
compressive load on the base ring is given by:

Fb = 362kN/m
Where, Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, Newtons per linear metre,
DS = skirt diameter, 2m.
The minimum width of the base ring is given by:

Where, Lb = base ring width, mm

135

fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation and is


taken as 5 N/mm2

Actual width required = Lr + ts +50mm


Actual width required = 76 + 30 +50mm
Actual width required = 156mm
Where, Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring,mm
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation required is given by:

The minimum thickness is given by:

Where,

= base ring thickness, mm,


= actual bearing pressure on base. N/mm2,
= allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm2.
136

Round off to 20mm


The minimum base ring thickness is

= 20mm.

Table 8.2 Summary of mechanical design of the quench tower


Parameter

Value

Thickness of the shell, mm

28

Dead weight stress , MPa

Axial stress, MPa

27

Hoop stress, MPa

54

Bending stress, MPa

Total Upwind Stress, MPa

28

Total Downwind Stress, MPa

55

Table 8.3 Summary of mechanical design of the skirt support for the quench tower
Parameter

Value

Skirt thickness, mm

30

Bending stress in the skirt, N/mm2

5.60

The dead weight stress in the skirt, N/mm2

3.27

Maximum tensile stress, N/mm2

2.34

Maximum compressive stress, N/mm2

9.50

137

Table 8.4 Summary of mechanical design for base ring and anchor bolt
Parameter

Value

Base ring width, mm

156

Bolt diameter, mm

27

Compressive force on base ring, N/m

362000

Base ring thickness, mm

20

138

CHAPTER 9

9.0 DESIGN OF A CAUSTIC TOWER


9.1 Problem Statement
To design a caustic tower to absorb CO2 from an ethylene gas stream entering at feed
conditions of 35C and 3500kPa.
Illustration of problem statement

L2 = 2233.073 kmol/hr
X2 = 0.0

G2 = 1481.664kmol/hr
y2 = 3ppm

G1 = 1488.71549 Kmol/hr
y1 = 0.0021

L1 = 2236.195 Kmol/hr
X1 = 0.0014

9.2 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN OF ABSORBER


Basis:
1 Hour of Operation
Assuming negligible absorption of the other gases and at average temperature of the gas
inside the tower at 35 0C.

139

Table 9.1: Composition of the Incoming Gas:


Component

Amount

in Mole

kmoles

fraction

Methane

66.4062

0.0446

Ethane

340.545

0.2287

Propane

60.0818

0.0404

H2O

0.29189

0.0002

Hydrogen

509.1142

0.3420

Acetylene

3.1622

0.0021

Ethylene

505.952

0.3399

CO2

3.1622

0.0021

TOTAL

1488.71549

1.0000

9.2.1 Heat of Reaction


The chemical reaction across the tower is
CO2 (g) + 2NaOH (aq) Na2CO3(s) + H2O (l)
This is a fast second order reaction.
Hr = |r|Hf(products) - |r|Hf(reactants)
HfCO2 (g) = -393.5 kJ/mol

HfNaOH (aq) = -469.6 kJ/mol

HfNaCO3(s) = -1130.77 kJ/mol

HfH2O (l) = -285.8 kJ/mol


Hr = (-1130.77-285.8)-(-393.5-2469.6) = -83.87 kJ/mol (exothermic)

140

9.2.2 Calculating liquid flow rate


G1= 1488.71549kmol/hr = 0.4135kmol/s
Y1=

0.0021044,

y1 = 0.0021

Y is the mole ratio

y2 = 3ppm

Y2 =

Gs=0.4135 (1-0.0021) = 0.4126kmol/s,

where Gs is the flow rate of the inert gas

X2 = 0
pCO2 = 7350917.175 Pa, where pCO2 is the partial pressure of CO2 at 31C
Pt = 3500000pa, where Pt is the total pressure of the gas
Y*=

2.1

Y* = 2.1x, Henrys law

Min Ls =
For 1.5 times the minimum, Ls= 1.50.4129 = 0.619 kmol/s

X1=

0.0014

141

L2

2231.52Kmol/hr

G2

1481.664kmol/hr

x2

0.0

y2

3ppm

L1

2228.4Kmol/hr

G1

1488.71549 Kmol/hr

x1

0.0014

y1

0.0021

G = total flow rate of gas entering/exiting the tower


y = mole fraction of CO2 in entering/exiting gas stream
L = total flow rate of liquid leaving/entering the tower
x = mole fraction of CO2/NaCO3 in entering/exit liquid stream

9.2.3 Calculating for the mass velocity of the gas and the liquid
Average molecular weight of the gas = [1666.4062 + 30340.545 + 4460.0818 +
180.29189 + 2509.1142 + 263.1622 + 28505.952 + 443.1622]/1488.71549
MwG= 19.704 Kg/Kmoles
Now considering 20wt% of NaOH solution
Finding the mole fraction of NaOH(XNaOH) in this solution using the relation

X NaOH
X NaOH

Wi M W i
Wi M W i 1 Wi)

M W H2 0

0.20 / 40
0.20 40 0.80 18

X NaOH 0.1011

X H2O 0.8989

Hence calculating for the average molecular weight of the solvent

142

M W SOLUTION X NaOH M NaOH X H 2O M H 2O

M W SOLUTION 0.1011 40 0.8989 18


M W SOLUTION 20.2242 Kg/kmol
Mass flow rate (L1) of liquid at the bottom of the column

L1 L1 M W so ln 2228.4kmol / hr 20.2242kg / kmol


L1 45067.60728Kg / hr
L1 12.519 Kg / s
Calculating for mass flow rate (G1) of inlet gas at the bottom of the column
G1 = 1488.7154919.704 = 29333.65001 kg/hr
G1 = 8.148 Kg/s

9.2.4 Physical Properties of gas and liquid


Gas density g= [3500

19.704] / [8314 x 308.15] = 26.92 kg/m3

Liquid density L = 1213.5 kg/m3


Liquid viscosity L = 0.00317kg/m.s
Volumetric flow rate of gas= 0.298m3/s

9.2.5 Type and size of packing


As a rough guide, packing sizes of 25 mm or larger are ordinarily used for gas rates of 0.25
m3/s, and 50 mm or larger for gas rates of 1 .0m3/s or more.
(Principles and Modern Applications of Mass Transfer Operations, 2nd Edition, Page 222)
Packing type: 38mm ceramic Raschig rings
143

Bulk density of packing = 689kg/m3


Surface area of packing per unit volume, a = 128m2/m3
Packing factor,FP =310/m

FLV

L1 g
1
G l

0.5

Hence substituting the values of the parameters in the equation


FLV

12.519 26.92

8.148 1213.5

0.5

0.229

From the generalized pressure drop correlation given in Richardson and Coulson, pg 603
K4 = 2.1

=
= 2.137 Kg/ m2s
Then, the cross section area required,

Diameter, d =
144

D=

2.203m

Column diameter = 2.203m

9.2.6 Pressure drop and percent loading


For gas flow rate of Gy = 7693.063kg/m2h = 1575.66 lb/ft2h
P = 1.0 inches water/ft packing when dry (McCabe and smith, pg 570)
P =25.4mm
K4 = 0.723
Then,

% loading =

= 58.7%

9.2.7 Wetting rate


A useful measure of the effectiveness of wetting of the available area is the wetting rate LW
defined as:

volumetric liquid rate per unit cross - sectional area of column


Packing surface area per unit volume of column
Volumetric

LW

liquid

rate

per

unit

12.519kg/s
1213.5kg/m 128m 2 /m 3 3.813m 2
3

L W 2.11 10 -5 m 3 /m 2 s
145

cross-sectional

area

Absorption and stripping tower by Morris and Jackson, recommends wetting rate of
2.010-5m3/m2s and above for packing size between 25mm and 75mm.

9.2.8 Liquid hold up


Hw = 0.143
L* = liquid mass flow rate per unit area of column = 3.283kg/m2s
Hw = 0.143
Hw = 0.182 m3 of liquid/m3 of column

9.2.9 Residence time


=Hw v/V (liquid hold up volume of packing/ liquid volumetric flow rate)
= (0.182

18.528)/ 0.0103

Residence time = 326.87s = 5.4min

9.2.10 Packed Tower height


The equation for column height can be written as follows:
ZT =
ZT = HoyNoy
Hoy =

in terms of partial pressure driving force

GM = 390.43mol/m2h (molar flow rate per cross sectional area)


Gy = 7693.063kg/m2h = 1575.66 lb/ft2h
146

KGa = 1.4 mol/ft3h.atm = 4.87910-4mol/m3hPa


(Unit operations of chemical engineering, McCabe and Smith, seventh edition, pg603)

Hoy =
Hoy = 0.229m

Noy =
Where a= top of column, b= bottom of column
x a= 0

xb = 0.0014

ya = 310-6

yb = 0.0021

y* = 2.1x
yb* = 2.10.0014 = 0.00294
ya* = 0
y = yb-ya = 0.0021-310-6 = 0.00297
At the bottom of the column, yb-yb* = 0.0021-0.00294 = -0.00084
At the top, ya-ya* = ya = 0.000003
Noy =

= 1.49610-4

Noy = 19.852
ZT = 0.22919.852 = 4.546m
Height of packing = 4.546m

147

Table 9.2: Free spaces in Packed Tower


Location

Distance
Purpose

Tower top above distributor

90cm Demister pads to remove liquid droplets from


the clean flue gas

Distributor

50cm Space for distribution

Between beds and top distributor and bed40cm Prevent excessive carryover of liquid
Between top of inlet gas nozzle and
50cm Prevent excessive carryover of liquid
bottom support plate
Source: (Rase, 1977)
Total height of free spaces in column = 230cm = 2.3m
Table 9.3: Summary of Chemical Engineering Design
Parameter

Value

Column diameter

2.203m

Height of packed bed

4.546m

Height of column

6.846m

Overall mass transfer coefficient

4.87910-4mol/m3hPa

Wetting rate

2.1110-5 m3 /m 2s

Liquid hold up

0.182 m3/m3

% Loading

58.7%

Residence time

5.4min

Choice of packing

Raschig rings (ceramic)

Packing size

38mm

Type of installation

Random
148

9.3 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF ABSORPTION COLUMN


Inner Diameter of tower, Di = 2.203 m
Height of the packing required = 4.546m
Skirt height = 2m
Density of material column = 7700 Kg/m3
Wind pressure, Pw = 130 Kg/m2

Material: Carbon Steel


Permissible tensile stress (f) = 950kg/cm2

9.3.1 Thickness of Shell:


Thickness of shell, ts = [p D / (2f J p)] + c
Where,
Inner Diameter of vessel, Di = 2203 mm
Working Pressure = 3500103 N/m2
Design Pressure, p = 3850103 N/m2= 3.850 N/mm2
Permissible Stress = 135N/mm2
Joint Efficiency (J) = 0.85
Corrosion allowance = 2mm
Hence,
ts= (3.852203)/[(21350.85-3.85]+2
ts= 37.47mm
So outer diameter of shell Do = 2.203 m + (20.03747m) = 2.278 m
149

9.3.2 Weight of Packed Tower


Thickness of tower = 37.47mm = 0.03747m
Overall height of tower h = 4.546m+2.30m = 6.846m
Diameter = 2.203m
Outer diameter of the shell (Do) = 2.278m
Implies radius, r = 1.139m
Volume of material of construction 2rht ht 2
= 2 1.1396.8460.03747+ 6.8460.037472
= 1.866m
Density of carbon steel = 7700Kg/m
Therefore mass of carbon steel = 77001.866
= 14368.2Kg
Weight of the tower is therefore = 14368.2 9.81 = 140952N

9.3.3 Weight of Packing


Packing volume = Ah
Height of packed bed = 4.546m
Area =

= 4.076 m2

Volume = 4.076m24.546 m = 18.528m3

150

Bulk density of packing = 689 Kg/m


Mass of packing = 68918.528 = 12765.739Kg
Thus total dead weight = 12765.739 + 14368.2
= 27133.939 Kg
Vessel volume = 6.846m4.076m2 = 27.904m

9.3.4 Skirt Thickness


The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead-weight loads and bending
moments imposed on it by the vessel.
The resultant stress in the skirt will be

s (Tensile) = bs ws
s (Comprehensive) = bs ws
Where

bs = bending stress in the skirt

bs

4Ms
( Ds ts )tsDs

ws = dead weight stress in the skirt

ws

W
(Ds ts)ts

151

Where
Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base of the skirt
W = total weight of the vessel and contents
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base
ts = skirt thickness
Dynamic wind pressure = 1280 N/m2
Mean diameter = 2.203 + 2(0.0543) = 2.3116m
Loading per linear mater (Fw) = 1280N/m22.278m
= 2915.84 N/m

9.3.5 Bending moment, Ms

Fw h 2 2915.84 (6.846) 2
Ms

= 68329.38051Nm
2
2
Ds = 2.278m = 2278mm
Weight of vessel, W= 27133.939kg 9.81ms-2 = 266183.9416N
The maximum dead weight load on the skirt would occur when the drum is full of the
solvent NaOH.

Approximate weight = (

x 2.2782 x 6.846) x 1213.5 x 9.81

= 332156.6897N

152

Therefore total weight, W = 266183.941 + 332156.689 = 598340.63N


= 598.341kN
ts = 35mm

bs

4Ms
4(598340.63) x 103

(Ds ts)tsDs (2278 35) (2278 35)


= 3.855 N/mm2

ws

W
598340.63

(Ds ts)ts (2278 35)35


= 2.1952 N/mm2

s (tensile) = bs - ws
= 3.855 2.1952 = 1.6598 N/mm2

s (comprehensive) = bs + ws
3.855+2.1952 = 6.0502N/mm2

9.3.6 Criteria for design


The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind and deadweight loading the following design criteria are not exceeded (Sinnott Vol 6, page 846):

s
s

153

fs = maximum allowable design stress for the skirt material, normally taken at ambient
temperature, 20oC
J = weld joint factor

= base angle of a conical skirt, normally 80o to 90o

E = Youngs modulus, for steel at ambient temperature, E = 200000N/mm2


Considering the design criteria

s (tensile) fs J sin

1.6598 0.85 135 sin 90


1.6598 114.75

s (compressive) > 0.125E(ts / Ds) sin

6.0502 0.125 x 200000 x (20 / 457) sin 90


6.0502 1094.09
Both criteria are satisfied, and thus skirt support thickness is 35mm (Sinnott, vol. 6 Pg 848850)

9.3.7 Primary Stresses


1. Longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to pressure (internal and external)
given by

PDi
2t
PDi
L
4t

154

Where

= circumferential stresses

L=

longitudinal stresses

P is the design pressure in the absorber


Di = is the internal diameter of the absorber
t = thickness of the vessel

3.850 2203
113.18 N / mm2
2 37.47
3.850 2203
L
56.59 N / mm2
4 37.47

2. Direct stress due to the weight of the vessel, its contents and any attachments.

W
266183.9416

1.009 N / mm2
( Di t )t (2203 37.47)37.47

9.3.8 Base ring and Anchor Bolts:


Approximate pitch circle diameter = 1.5m
Circumference of bolt circle = 1500

Number of bolts required, at recommended bolt spacing =

1500
7.8 8
600

Scheiman gives the following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor
bolts:
1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm (1 in.) diameter should not be used.
2. Minimum number of bolts 8.
3. Use multiples of 4 bolts.
155

4. Bolt pitch should not be less than 600 mm (2 ft).


(Sinnot, volume 6, pg 848)
Table 9.4: Summary of Mechanical Engineering Design
Parameter

Value

Equipment(shell) thickness

37.47mm

Weight of tower

140952N

Weight of packing

125231.9N

Vessel volume

27.904m3

Skirt thickness

20mm

Longitudinal stress

56.59N/mm2

Circumferential stress

113.18N/mm2

Direct stress

1.009N/mm2

No. Of bolts

Bending moment

68329.38Nm

Type support

Straight skirt

156

CHAPTER 10

10.0 DESIGN OF SPRAY TOWER


10.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
In the production of ethylene and acetylene, the removal of water is very crucial. This is
because, water that accumulate during the process will turn into its solid form (ice) when
the separation process of the gas mixture into individual required components is being
done. The aim of the design is to remove almost all the amount of water in the gas mixture
using a spray tower at a lower operating cost.

10.2 JUSTIFICATION
The mixture of gases ready to undergo separation into their individual has water in it. The
exposure of the gas mixture to water sprayed at Tdp over a period of time will allow all the
water to be collected downstream. In this way about 96% of the water is sure to be
removed. By this process, the gas mixture is ready to be separated into individual gases.

10.3 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A SPRAY TOWER

Outlet air(Gas mixture)

Water cooler
Inlet air(Gas mixture)

157

10.4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN


Mass flowrate of inlet gas= Gin
Mass flowrate of outlet gas= Gout
Mass flowrate of inlet water(sprayed water)= Lin
Mass flowrate of outlet water(condensed water)=Lout
Lin
Gout

Gin
Lout
Gin = 29438.1762
Therefore the amount of water entering the spray tower = 87.9234 kg/hr
Therefore to find the flowrate of the exit gas stream = 29241.1306kg/hr
But water of 2ppm is the least that can be allowed in the mixture without effect on the
result.
2ppm which is 0.0002% of the total amount present;

Taking an ideal system,


Lin = Lout
158

..(tosun, 2007)

10.4.1The diameter of the spray tower column


.. (tosun, 2007)

Where D is the diameter of the tower


Ga is the mass flowrate of the inlet gas
is thedensity
V is the velocity of the gas particles
Assuming ideal gas situation:

But P, pressure is 3500kPa, T = 313K


Average molecular weight of the gas, M = [1666.4062 + 30340.545 + 4460.0818 +
180.29189 + 2509.1142 + 263.1622 + 28505.952 + 443.1622]/1488.71549
MwG= 19.704 Kg/Kmoles
Get tight in the main door close to the housing of it

159

l=

8.90 10-4Pa.s or 10-3Ns/m

The velocity of the gas is assumed to be the same as the mass velocity since the gas mixture
is in vapour form(perry cha 6 pg 6-7)
V = 1485.36kmol every hour

D = 3.878m

10.4.2Terminal velocity of water droplets


An assumption is made;

that all the water droplets are spherical in shape,

that the droplet is rigid,

and applying the force balance between buoyancy and drag forces.

..( Zheng L.1997)

But;

160

d = 0.09551 m

Ut = 0.005283 m/s

10.4.3 The tower height


H = vtt.(tosun, 2007)
Where H is the height of the tower,
vt is the terminal velocity of the water particles
t is the time for the unsteady state energy balance around the condensed water

10.4.4The cooling time


10.4.4.1 Cooling period
Lin = Lout
(tosun, 2007)
is the heat capacity of the water.

a = 1.82964 10 b = 4.72118 10-1 c = -1.33678 10-3


Cpl = 1.82964 10+(4.72118 10-1
6

313)+(-1.33678 10-3 3132)+(1.31424 10-

3133)

Cpl = 18.2964+147.7730-130.9630+40.3002
161

d = 1.31424 10-6

Cpl = 75.4066J/mol.K

is the mean temperature Ta(in) Ta(out)/2


Tdp is dew point
It is assumed that the pressure of the inlet water is at atmospheric pressure
The actual vapour pressure of water (p) at 40 C is 0.0728atm (7376.46Pa)

Where dv represent volumetric humidity


Therefore dv = 0.051069kg.m-3
..T G Anthony & P R Clarke(2006)

Therefore

Where ps is saturation vapour pressure


And f is enhancement factor is f
f = 1+A+P[B+C(T+D+EP)2].(Buck A. 1981)
f = 1+(4.8 10-4)+35000[(3.47 10-6)+5.9 10-10(313+0-(0 35000)2]
f = 1.1284

Therefore

ps = 2556.89 Pa

162

to find the dew point; the temperature at which the water in the gas mixture begins to
condense.
(tosun, 2007)

tdp = 21.4922=21.5 C
thus a temperature below this will condense the water in the mixture.
(40-21.5) C = 24.5 C/2=9.25 C 12.5
12C is assumed to be the temperature(modeling in transport)
therefore

..(tosun, 2007)

t1 = 1880.5445s = 31.34 min


10.4.4.1Height of tower
H = terminal velocitytime for cooling
H = Utt
H = 0.0052831880.5447
H = 9.935m

163

The overall mass transfer coefficient is Kg

= 5.1878 10-5m3/m2s

10.4.6 The number of nozzles required


Assume a water flow of 50gal/min (3.2 L/s) per nozzle; this is a typical flow rate for usual
cooling-tower nozzles. Then, the number of nozzles required equals 10,000 gal/(min)/(50
gal/min per nozzle) = 200 nozzles. If six nozzles are used in each spray group in a series of
crossed arms, with each arm containing one or more nozzles, then 200 nozzles divided by 6
nozzles per spray group means that 33 1/3 spray groups will be needed. Since a partial
spray group is seldom used, 34 spray groups would be chosen.
(handbook of chem. Eng cal)

where = surface tension, mJ/m2 (dyne/cm),


Pch = Sugden's parachor,
pL = liquid density, kg/m3,
pv density of the saturated vapour, kg/m3,
M molecular mass.
, pi, pv evaluated at the system temperature
164

Pch ( Sugden's parachor) = (H1) + (OH1)+ (O1)


= (17.11)+(11.31)+(20.01)
= 48.4

= 49.20mJ/m2
10.6.1.1 Summary of chemical engineering design
Table 10.1 Chemical engineering design of spray tower
Parameter

Value

Column diameter

3.878m

Column height

9.94m

Terminal velocity

0.005283m/s

Dew point

21.5 C

Water temperature(inlet)

12 C

Residence time

31.34minutes

Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient

5.1878 10-54mol/m3hPa

Number of spray groups

34

Number of nozzles per spray

200 nozzles

10.6 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN


Inner Diameter of tower, Di = 3.878m
Skirt height = 2m
Density of material column = 7700 Kg/m3
165

Wind pressure, Pw = 130 Kg/m2


Material: Carbon Steel
Permissible tensile stress (f) = 950kg/cm2
10.6.1 Thickness Of Shell:
Thickness of shell, ts = [p D / (2f J p)] + c
Where,
Inner Diameter of vessel, Di = 3878 mm
Working Pressure = 3500103 N/m2
Design Pressure, p = 3850103 N/m2= 3.850 N/mm2
Permissible Stress = 135N/mm2
Joint Efficiency (J) = 0.85
Corrosion allowance = 2mm
Hence,
ts= (3.853878)/[(21350.85-3.85]+2
ts= 68.17mm
So outer diameter of shell Do = 3.878 m + (20.06617m) = 4.0103 m

10.6.2 Weight of Spray Tower


Thickness of tower = 69.17mm = 0.06917m
Diameter = 3.878m
Outer diameter of the shell (Do) = 4.0103m
Implies radius, r = 2.0052m

166

Volume of material of construction 2rht ht 2


= 2 2.00529.940.06917+ 9.940.069172
= 8.8119 m
Density of carbon steel = 7700Kg/m
Therefore mass of carbon steel = 77008.8119
= 67851.63 Kg
Weight of the tower is therefore = 67851.63 9.81 = 665624N
Area =

= 6.0915 m2

Vessel volume = 6.09159.94 = 60.549m2

10.6.3 Skirt Thickness


The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead-weight loads and bending
moments imposed on it by the vessel.
The resultant stress in the skirt will be

s (Tensile) = bs ws
s (Comprehensive) = bs ws
Where

bs = bending stress in the skirt

167

bs

4Ms
( Ds ts )tsDs

ws = dead weight stress in the skirt


ws

W
(Ds ts)ts

Where
Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base of the skirt
W = total weight of the vessel and contents
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base
ts = skirt thickness
Dynamic wind pressure = 1280 N/m2
Mean diameter = 3.878 + 2(0.0543) = 3.9866m
Loading per linear mater (Fw) = 1280N/m22.278m
= 2915.84 N/m
The weight of the spray nozzles is approximated to be 500kg
Thus total dead weight = 67851.63+500
= 68351.63kg

10.6.4 Bending moment, Ms


Ds = 4.0103m = 4010.3mm
168

Weight of vessel, W= 68351.63kg 9.81ms-2 = 669845.97N

Approximate weight = (

x 4.01032 x 9.94) x 1000 x 9.81

= 1230427.61N
Therefore total weight, W = 669845.97+ 1230427.61= 1900273.31N
= 1900.27kN
ts = 66mm

4Ms
4(1900273.31) x 10 3
bs

(Ds ts)tsDs (4010.3 66) (4010.3 66)


= 3.242N/mm2

ws

W
1900273.31

(Ds ts)ts (4010.3 66)66


= 2.148 N/mm2

s (tensile) = bs - ws
=3.242 2.148= 1.094 N/mm2

s (comprehensive) = bs + ws
3.242+2.148 = 5.390/mm2

10.6.5 Criteria for design


The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind and deadweight loading the following design criteria are not exceeded (Sinnott Vol 6, page 846):
169

s
fs = maximum allowable design stress for the skirt material, normally taken at ambient
temperature, 20oC
J = weld joint factor

= base angle of a conical skirt, normally 80o to 90o

E = Youngs modulus, for steel at ambient temperature, E = 200000N/mm2

10.6.6 Base ring and Anchor Bolts


Approximate pitch circle diameter = 1.5m
Circumference of bolt circle = 1500

Number of bolts required, at recommended bolt spacing =

1500
7.8 8 (closest
600

multiple of 4 to answer calculated)


Scheiman gives the following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor
bolts:
1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm (1 in.) diameter should not be used.
2. Minimum number of bolts 8.
3. Use multiples of 4 bolts.
4. Bolt pitch should not be less than 600 mm (2 ft).
(Sinnot, volume 6, pg 848)
170

Direct stress due to the weight of the vessel, its contents and any attachments.

W
665624

0.762 N / mm 2
( Di t )t (4010.3 68.17)68.17

Table 10.2 Mechanical Engineering Design


Parameter

Value

Equipment(shell) thickness

68.17mm

Weight of tower

665624N

Vessel volume

60.549m3

Direct stress

0.762

No. Of bolts

Bending moment

98854.38Nm

Type support

Straight skirt

171

CHAPTER 11

11.0 DESIGN OF A DE-METHANIZER


11.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
This section of the project is aimed at designing a demethanizer which would serve the
purpose of separating methane and hydrogen constituents from the condensed cracked gas
stream.

11.2 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN


Determining the number of stages required for the desired degree of separation and the
location of the feed tray is merely the first steps in producing an overall column design.
Other things that need to be considered are tray spacings; column diameter; internal
configurations; heating and cooling duties.

Condenser

Splitter

Distillate, D
D = 577.7694 kmol/hr

Feed, F
F = 1448.2614 kmol/hr

V
L
Re-boiler

172

Bottoms product, B
B = 870.4920 kmol/hr

Fig 2 Diagram of problem statement

In the figure 2 above:


F = Flow rate of the feed stream, B = Flow rate of the bottoms product stream
D = Flow rate of the distillate stream, L = Flow returned as reflux
L = Flow of liquid at the bottom, V = Flow rate of vapour at the top
V = Flow rate of vapour from re-boiler into column

Table 11.1 Feed stream (F) specifications for demethanizer


Component

Mole fraction

Hydrogen, H2

0.350

Methane, CH4

0.046

Ethane, C2H6

0.222

Acetylene, C2H2

0.002

Ethylene, C2H4

0.340

Propane, C3H8

0.040

Flow rate = 1488.094 kmol/hr


Temperature = -120oC
Pressure = 2000kPa

Table 11.2: Bottoms stream (B) specifications for demethanizer


Component

Mole fraction

Ethane, C2H6

0.3693

173

Acetylene, C2H2

0.0033

Ethylene, C2H4

0.5600

Propane, C3H8

0.0666

Methane, CH4

0.0008

Flow rate = 894.434 kmol/hr


Temperature = 6.05oC
Pressure = 3600kPa

Table 11.3: Distillate stream (D) specifications for demethanizer


Component

Mole fraction

Hydrogen, H2

0.8773

Methane, CH4

0.1142

Ethylene, C2H4

0.0085

Flow rate = 593.660 kmol/hr


Temperature = -127oC
Pressure = 3200kPa

11.2.1 Key Components


Ethylene, C2H2 and Methane, CH4 are considered as the key components. The light key
component shall be methane, CH4 and the heavy key component shall be ethylene, C2H2.

Hence: Ethylene, C2H2 Heavy key (HK)


Methane, CH4 Light key (LK)
174

11.2.2 Minimum number of stages


Assuming constant relative volatility, the minimum number of stages is thus estimated by
the FENSKE equation:

N min

x D , LK x B , HK
ln
x B , LK x D , HK

ln LK , HK

Nnim = Minimum number of stages


XB, LK = mole fraction of the light key component in the bottoms product
XD, LK = mole fraction of the light key component in the distillate
XB, HK = mole fraction of the heavy key component in the bottoms product
XD, HK = mole fraction of the heavy key component in the distillate
LK,

HK

= relative volatility of the light key component with respect to the heavy key

component
From the stream composition tables above,
XB, LK = 0.0008

XD, LK = 0.114

XB, HK = 0.56

XD, HK = 0.0085

Table 11.4: Determining LK, HK


Temp.

Vap. Pressure, methane (Pmeth)

Vap. Pressure, ethylene (Pethyl)

Pmeth/ Pethyl

175 K

1573.072 Pa

813.309 Pa

1.93

200 K

2018.18 Pa

1096.51 Pa

1.84

230 K

2555.48 Pa

1434.98 Pa

1.78

253 K

2969.00 Pa

1696.86 Pa

1.75

175

Realize that, LK , HK

Therefore,

Pmrthane
and
Pethylene

N min

Average LK , HK

1.93 1.84 1.78 1.75


1.83
4

0.56
0.114
ln

ln 9388.2353
0.0008 0.0085

1
1
ln LK , HK
ln 1.83

N min 15.14 1 14.14 14

Hence, the minimum number of theoretical stages is 14.

11.2.3 Minimum reflux ratio


The Underwoods first equation is used to determine the minimum reflux ratio. It is given
by

Rm 1

x
V
i , HK D ,i
D
i i , HK

Where:
i, HK is the relative volatility of a component i, with respect to the heavy key component at
feed conditions
xd, I is the mole fraction of a component i, in the distillate
Rm is the minimum reflux ratio

is the root of the equation

i xi , f

1 q

176

Table 11.5: Determining

Component Xi,f

i, HK

i, HK Xi,f

Try = 1.75

Try = 2.2

Try = 2.21

Methane

0.046

2.37

0.11

0.18

0.65

0.68

Ethane

0.222

1.33

0.30

-0.71

-0.345

-0.34

Propane

0.040

0.18

0.0072

-0.0046

-0.0036

-0.0036

Hydrogen

0.350

345.86

121.05

0.35

0.35

0.35

Acetylene

0.002

0.40

0.0008

-0.0006

-0.00044

-0.00044

Ethylene

0.340

1.00

0.340

-0.45

-0.283

-0.28

= -0.64

= 0.367

= 0.406

Since = 0.407 is close enough to 0.4, = 2.21


Table 11.6: Determining Rm
Component

XD,i

i,HK

S = i,HK -

T = i,HK XD,i T/S

Methane

0.1142

2.37

0.16

0.27

1.68

Ethane

1.33

-0.88

Propane

0.18

-2.03

Hydrogen

0.8773

345.86

343.65

303.423

0.88

Acetylene

0.40

-1.81

Ethylene

0.0085

1.00

-1.21

0.0085

-0.007

177

Rm 1

i , HK x D,i
V

1.68 0.88 0.007 2.55 Rm 2.55 1 1.55


D
i i , HK

Optimum reflux ratio (R) is given by R 1.5 1.55 2.33

For R = 2.19,

R
2.33

0.70
R 1 2.33 1.00

Erbar-Maddox correlation (Erbar and Maddox, 1961) is given by:


From the Erbar-Maddox plot, N min 0.62
N

and hence

N min
R
f

N
R 1

14
22.6 23
0.62

The minimum reflux ratio is 1.46; the actual reflux ratio is 2.33; the minimum number of
theoretical stages is 14, and the actual number of theoretical stages is therefore 23.

11.2.4 Number of Real Stages


Using a column efficiency of 60 per cent and taking the reboiler as equivalent to one stage,
the number of real stages is given as Number of real stages

23 - 1
37
0.6

Note that the number of plates is same as the number of real stages.

11.2.5 Location of feed plate


KIRKBRIDES equation is used for the estimation of the number of plates above and
below the feed plate and hence to locate the feed stage. The equation is given by:
N R xF , HK

N S xF , LK

xB , LK

x
D , HK

2
B

0.206

Where:
B = molar flow rate of bottom product, D = molar flow rate of top product
178

XF, HK = mole fraction of the heavy key component in the feed


XF, LK = mole fraction of the light key component in the feed
XB, LK = mole fraction of the light key component in the bottoms product
XD, LK = mole fraction of the light key component in the distillate product
NR = number of theoretical stages in the rectifying section
NS = number of theoretical stages in the stripping section

Therefore,

N R x F , HK

N S x F , LK

x B , LK

x
D , HK

2
B

0.206

0.34 0.0008 2 894.434


0.046 0.0085 593.660

NR
0.206
7.39130.0088581.50664
0.62
NS

Solving N R 0.62 N S

N S 14.20 14

and N R N S 23 simultaneously gives:

N R 8.80 9

The number of plates in the rectifying section =

14.20
23.67 24
0.6

The number of plates in the stripping section =

8.80 1
13
0.6

Hence, feed enters the column at the 24th tray from the top.

11.3 Vapour/liquid desities & Vapour/liquid Flowrates


Vapour and liquid flow rates at the top of the column
179

0.206

Material balance around the splitter as in figure 2 gives: V L D


Where
V = Vapour flow rates at the top of the column, L = Liquid flow rates at the top of the
column
D = Distillate flow rate

Again, R

L
D

Solving equations (6) and (7) simultaneously yields:

V
R 1
D

Where R = reflux ratio


Having found that R = 2.19 and D = 593.660 kmol/hr;

V 593.6602.19 1 1893.78kmol / hr

L V D 1893.78 593.660 1300.12kmol / hr


Therefore vapour and liquid rates at the top of the column are 1893.78kmol/hr and
1300.12kmol/hr respectively.

11.3.1 Vapour and liquid density at the top


At top of the column conditions (30bar and 175 K), the following are attained:

vap 2.06kg / m 3

liq 221.67kg / m 3

Vapour and liquid flow rates at the bottom of the column

180

The contribution of the feed stream to the internal flow of liquid is described by the
equation below:
L = L + qF

V = V (1 q) F

Where:
L = liquid flow rate at the bottom of the column
V = vapour flow rate at the bottom of the column

L' 1300.12 (0.6)1488.094 2192.98kmol / hr


V ' 1893.78 (1 0.6)1488.094 1298.54kmol / hr

11.3.2 Vapour and liquid density at the bottom


At bottom of the column conditions (30bar and 253 K)

vap 1.43kg / m 3

liq 433.20kg / m 3

Condenser and re-boiler heat duties


Assumptions:

kinetic and potential energy terms are negligible

work terms are negligible

Balances around the Condenser


Condenser mass balance is
V=L+D
Condenser energy balance is
181

V hV + QC = DhD + L hL
Where: hV = enthalpy of vapour at the top of column = 4694.491 KJ/kgmol
V = vapour flow rate = 1893.78 kgmol/hr
QC = condenser duty
D = flow rate of distillate = 593.660 kgmol/hr
hD = enthalpy of distillate = 7662.846 kJ/kgmol
L = flow rate of liquid at the top of the column = 1300.12 kgmol/hr
hL = enthalpy of liqiud at the top of the column = -517480.041 kJ/kgmol

Qc 593.6607662.846 1300.12 517480.041 1893.784694.491 677127MJ / hr


QR = V hV + B hB L hL
Where:
QR = reboiler heat duty

hL = enthalpy of liquid at bottom = -5488.954 kJ/kgmol

hV = the enthalpy of vapour at bottom = -5488.954 kJ/kgmol


hB = enthalpy of bottom product = 1446.39 kJ/kgmol
L = flow rate of liquid at the bottom of the column = 2192.98 kgmol/hr
V= flow rate of vapour at the bottom = 1298.54 kgmol/hr
B = flow of bottoms = 894.434 kmol/hr

QR 1298.54 5488.954 894.4341446.39 2192.98 5488.954 6203MJ / hr


182

11.4 Determination of liquid-vapour flow factor, FLV at the bottom and top
The liquid-vapour flow factor, FLV is given by:

FLV

Lw
Vw

V
L

(R.K Sinnot, 1986)

Where:
Lw = liquid flow-rate

FLV , bottom

FLV , top

Vw = vapour flow-rate

2192.98 1.43
0.097 0.10
1298.54 433.20

1300.12 2.06
0.06618 0.07
1893.78 221.67

Therefore, the liquid-vapour flow factor at the bottom and top are 0.10 and 0.07
respectively.

11.5 Determination of flooding velocity at the top and bottom


The flooding velocity can be estimated from the correlation given by Fair (1961):

uf =

K1 ( L V ) 0.5

V 0.5

Where:
uf = is the flooding vapour velocity in m/s or maximum permissible velocity based on the
net column cross-sectional area
K1 = empirical constant

V = vapour density

183

L = liquid density
From fig. 11.27 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986), and using a plate spacing of 0.5m at bottom and top
and their respective flow factors:
K1= 8 x 10-2 ..bottom
K1 = 8.5 x 10-2 .top
11.5.1 Surface tensions:
Bottom surface tension = 0.045 N/m

Top surface tension

= 0.022 N/m

At these surface tensions, the K1 values are correlated as follows:


0.045
K1 = 0.08
0.02

0.2

0.022
K1 = 0.085
0.02

0.094 ..bottom

0.2

0.094 .top

Hence,

Bottom uf =

Top

0.094(433.20 1.43) 0.5


1.63m / s
1.430.5

0.094(221.67 2.06) 0.5


0.99m / s
uf =
2.06 0.5

The flooding condition fixes the upper limit of the vapour velocity. A high vapour velocity
is needed for high plate efficiencies, and the velocity will normally be between 70 to 90 per
cent of that which will cause flooding. For design, a value of 80 to 85 per cent should be
used. (R.K. Sinnot, 1986)
184

Hence design for 85 per cent flooding at maximum flow rate (uf) will be:
Bottom uf = 1.63 x 0.85 = 1.39 m/s
Top uf

= 0.99 x 0.85 = 0.84 m/s

Maximum volumetric flow rate

The maximum volumetric flow rate can be calculated from the correlation,

..(10)

Where V = vapour flow rate, kg/s

V = vapour density, kg/m3


= maximum volumetric vapour flow rate

Bottom

Top

1298.54 20.80
5.25m 3 / s
1.43 3600

1893.78 3.82
0.98m 3 / s
2.06 3600

Net Area Required


The net area required can be estimated from the equation:
A = / uf
Where:

A = net area

= maximum volumetric flow rate

uf = maximum flooding flow rate

Bottom A

5.25
3.78m 2
1.39

Top A
185

0.98
1.2m 2
0.84

11.5.2 Column Cross-sectional Area


Downcomer area is taken as 12 per cent of total and hence, column cross-sectioned area is
calculated as follows:
3.78
4.3m 2
0.88

Bottom =

1.2
1.4m 2
0.88

Top =

11.5.3 Column diameter


The column diameter is determined by:

A 4

Bottom

Where A = column cross-sectional area

4.3 4

2.34m

Top

1.4 4

1.34m

Liquid flow pattern


Maximum volumetric liquid rate: L =

LB
L

Where:

LB = liquid rate, kg/s

Bottom L

2192.98 20.80
2.9 10 2 m 3 / s
3600 433.20

Top

L= liquid density

1300.12 3.82
6.22 10 3 m 3 / s
3600 221.67

The plate diameter is within the range of Figure 11.28 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986) and it is clear
from the flow pattern that a single pass plate can be used for both the top and the bottom.
186

11.6 Height of column, H


For safe operations

0.1m is added to the top tray

0.3m is taken as the spacing between the draw off tray and the bottom of the
product. (Coulson et al, 1983)

Hence, height of column = (number of plates x plate spacing) + 0.4 m = (37 x 0.5) + 0.4 =
19 m
Table 11.7 Summary of Property Values Used
Parameter

Enriching Section

Stripping Section

Liquid flow rate, kmol/hr

1300.12

2192.98

1893.78

1298.54

Liquid density, kg/m3

221.67

433.20

Vapour density, kg/m3

2.06

1.43

Surface tension, N/m

0.022

0.045

Liquid-Vapour flow factor

0.07

0.10

Flooding Velocity, m/s

0.84

1.39

Maximum volumetric rate, m3/s

0.98

5.25

Vapour flow rate, kmol/hr

187

Table 11.8: Summary of Demethanizer Design Specifications


Parameter

Enriching Section

Stripping Section

Temperature, oC

-98

-20

3000

3000

Number of trays

24

13

Column diameter, m

1.34

2.34

Parameter

Overall Column Value

Optimum reflux ratio, R

2.33

Location of feed tray

24th tray from the top

Height, m

19

Condenser Heat Duty, QC, (MJ/h)

-677127

Reboiler Heat Duty, QR, (MJ/h)

-6203

Pressure, kPa

11.6.1 Weir height


. For columns operating above atmospheric pressure, the weir heights will normally be
between 40-90mm; 40-50mm is recommended, (R.K. Sinnot, 1986).
Since the column is operated at about 30 atm, weir height (hw) of 50mm is used.
Tray area
Downcomer area Ad 0.12 Ac 0.12 1.4 0.2m 2 , at 12 per cent
Net area, An Ac Ad 1.4 0.2 1.2m 2
Active area, Aa Ac 2 Ad 1.4 20.2 1.0m 2
Hole area, Ah 0.1Aa 0.1m 2
188

11.6.2 Weir Length


From Fig.11.31 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986),

Ad
0.17
100%
100% 12% corresponds to
Ac
1.4

lw
0.76
Dc
Where lw is the weir length
Weir length = D C 0.76 1.34 0.76 1.02m
Take:

Hole diameter = 3 mm

Plate thickness = 3 mm

11.6.3 Check Weeping


The hole area must be chosen so that at the lowest operating rate the vapour flow velocity is
still and well above the weep point.
Maximum liquid rate = Liquid density, kg/m3 x Maximum volumetric liquid rate, m3/s

Maximum liquid rate = 221.67 6.22 10 3 1.38kg / s


Minimum liquid rate, at 70 per cent turn-down = 0.7 1.38 0.97kg / s

Weir crest is given by: hw

L
750 w
Llw

2/3

For maximum weir crest, maximum liquid rate is used:

hw

1.38

750
221.67 1.02

2/3

25mm liquid

For minimum weir crest, minimum liquid rate is used:


189

0.97

hw 750
221.67 1.02

2/3

At minimum rate, hw + h

19mm liquid

= 50 + 19 = 69 mm

From the weep-point correlation Eduljee (1959), Fig. 11.30 (R K Sinnot), K2 = 30.4
Minimum vapour velocity through the holes at weep point is given by:

u h min

K 2 0.9025.4 d h 30.4 0.9025.4 3 6.3 6m / s


v 0.5

2.06 0.5

Actual minimum vapour velocity =

minimum vapour rate 0.7 0.98

6.86 7m / s
Ah
0.1

This implies that the minimum operating rate is well above the weep point, and hence no
weeping occurs.

11.7 Plate pressure drop


Dry plate drop: Maximum vapour velocity through holes: u h

0.98
9.8 10m / s
0.1

The pressure drop through the dry plate can be estimated using expressions derived for flow
2

through orifices given as:

u
hd 51 h V
CO L

Where the orifice coefficient CO is a function of the plate thickness, hole diameter and the
hole to perforated area ratio.
From discharge coefficient (CO) plot, fig 11.34 (R.K Sinnot, 1986), Liebson et al, (1957),
for plate thickness/hole diameter =1 and Ah/Ap Ah /Aa = 0.1, CO = 0.84.

190

10 2.06
Hence hd can be estimated as: hd 51
67mm liquid
0.84 221.67

Residual head
Methods have been proposed for estimating the residual head as a function of liquid surface
tension, froth density, and froth height. However as this correction term is small the use of
an elaborate method for estimation is not justified and the simple equation proposed by
Hunt et al (1957) can be used. (R.K.Sinnot 1986)

hr

12.5 10 3

12.5 10 3
56mm liquid
221.67

11.7.1 Total plate pressure drop, ht

ht hd hw hw hr 67 50 19 56 192mm liquid
Downcomer liquid back-up
Downcomer pressure loss; assume the height of apron, hap = hw 10 = 40mm
Then area under apron, Aap = lw x hap = 1.02 x 0.04 = 0.041 m2
As this is less than Ad = 0.17 m2, the head loss in the downcomer, hdc can be estimated
using the equation given by Cicalese et at, (1947)
L
hdc 166 wd
L Am

Where: Lwd = Liquid flow rate in the downcomer, kg/s


Am = either the downcomer area Ad or the clearance area under the downcomer Aap;
whichever is smaller, m2
191

1.38

hdc 166
3.83 4mm
221.67 0.041

Back-up in Downcomer
In terms of clear liquid the downcomer back-up, hb, is given by:
hb hw how ht hdc ...................................................................................(21)

hb hw hw ht hdc 50 19 192 4 265mm 0.27m

0.22

1
plate spacing weir height and hence the tray spacing is acceptable.
2

11.7.2 Check residence time


A time of at least 3 seconds is recommended.

Downcomer residence time is given by: t r

Ad hb L
0.17 0.27 221.67
tr
7.4s
Lwd
1.38

The residence time, tr = 7.4s is well above 3 seconds and hence indicative of a satisfactory
result.

11.7.3 Check Entrainment


As a rough guide the upper limit of

can be taken as 0.1; below this figure the effect on

efficiency will be small.


The percentage flooding is given by:

Percentage flooding

u v actual velocity based on net area


uf
192

uv

maximum volumetric flow 0.98

0.82m / s
net area
1.2

Percentage flooding =

0.82
0.83 83%
0.99

FLV = 0.07

From Fig. 11.29 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986), fractional entrainment,

= 0.04 which is less than the

upper limit of 0.1, hence satisfactory.


Perforated Area
Using the cartridge-type construction, assume: 50 mm unperforated strip round plate edge;
50 mm wide calming zones. From Fig. 11.32 (Sinnot, 1986) and at

lw
0.76 ,
Dc

99 0

Where c = angle subtended by chord


Angle subtended at plate edge by unperforated strip = 180 99 810
Mean length, unperforated edge strips = 1.34 50 10 3

81
1.82m
180

Area of unperforated edge strips = 50 10 3 1.82 0.091m 2


Mean length of calming zone, approximate = weir length + width of unperforated strip
= 1.02 + 50 x 10-3 = 1.07 m
Area of calming zones = 2 (1.07 x 50 x 10-3) = 0.107 m2
Total area for perforations, Ap = 1.0 (0.107 + 0.091) = 0.802 m2

193

Hole Pitch
The hole pitch (distance between the hole centres) lp should not be less than 2.0 hole
diameters, and the normal range will be 2.5 to 4.0 diameters. Square and equilateral
triangular patterns are used; triangular is used in this design.

d
A
For an equilateral triangular pitch: h 0.9 h
Ap
l p

3
0.9 32 0.802
0.1
8.06mm
Where lp denotes the hole pitch
0.9 l p
0.1
0.802
l p

lp = 8.06 mm is in the range 2.5 4.0 hole diameter and hence a satisfactory result.

Area of one hole =

dh2
4

3 10 3

7.06858 10 6 m 2 Number of holes =

hole area
0.1

14147.113 14148
area of one hole 7.06858 10 6

11.8 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN


Design pressure
From the chemical design analysis, the design pressure is taken as 10% of the operating
pressure.

10
3000 300kPa
100

Hence, the design pressure = 3000 kPa + 300 kPa = 3300 kPa

194

Design temperature
The strength of the materials decreases with temperature. The maximum operational
temperature used was -20oC (253 K). For design purposes, a tolerance of about 20oC is
allowed. The maximum operational temperature could therefore be pegged at 0oC (273 K).
For carbon and low alloy steel, a minimum allowance of 2.0mm should be used. (R.K.
Sinnot). Where more corrosion is expected a minimum of 4mm is allowed.
Wall thickness
If Di is internal diameter; e the minimum thickness required; f the design stress and Pi the
internal pressure, then:

Pi Di
2 f Pi

Design stress (f) for carbon steel at the design temperature is 135 N/mm2 = 135000 kPa
(Table 13.2, Sinnot, 1993)
At bottom of the column, minimum thickness required is:

3000 2.34
0.026 26mm
2135000 3000

At top of the column, minimum thickness required is:

3000 1.34
0.015 15mm
2135000 3000

Adding corrosion allowance: Bottom = 26 mm + 2 mm = 28 mm plate


Top = 15 mm + 2 mm = 17 mm plate

195

11.8.2 Thickness of Head


Using a standard ellipsoidal head at the top,

Pi Di
3000 1.34

0.015 15mm
2 Jf 0.2 Pi 2 1 135000 0.2 3000

At the bottom, e

3000 2.34
0.026 26mm
2 1 135000 0.2 3000

Adding corrosion allowance: Bottom = 26 mm + 2 mm = 28 mm plate


Top = 15 mm + 2 mm = 17 mm plate
Conical Section
With Dc as the diameter of the cone at a point and as half the cone apex angle which from
geometry is found to be 8.7o;
Thickness at top of the knuckle,

ek

Pi Dc
1
30001.34
1

0.0152 15.2mm
2 fJ Pi cos 2135000 3000 cos 8.7

At the bottom,

ek

30002.34
1

0.0263 26.3mm
2135000 3000 cos 8.7

Adding the corrosion allowance: Bottom = 26.3 mm + 2 mm = 28.3 mm


Top = 15.2 mm + 2 mm = 17.2 mm
Length of thicker section
The length of the thicker section Lk depends on the cone angle and is given by:
196

Lk

Di
2.34

0.77m
4 cos
4 cos 8.7

Weight of shell
According to Sinnot, 1993, the approximate weight of the column, Wv is given by:

Wv 240Cv Dm H c 0.8Dm t
Where:
Wv = Total weight of column excluding internal fittings such as plates
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and plate support ring or
equivalent fittings and it is equal to 1.15 for distillation columns. (R.K sinnot, 1993)
Hc = height of cylindrical section
t = wall thickness
Dm = mean diameter of column = t + diameter of column

Since the column diameter at the top is different from that at the bottom, the total weight of
the column is determined as below:
Total weight of shell = weight of bottom + weight of top

weight of top 240Cv Dm H c 0.8Dm t 240 1.15 1.35712.1 0.81.357 0.017 84kN
weight of bottom 240 1.15 2.3686.9 0.82.368 0.028 161kN

Total weight of column = 161kN 84kN 245kN


197

Weight of Plate
Since the plate diameter at top is different from that the bottom, the weight of the plates is
determined as shown below:
Weight of plates = weight of plates at the top + weight of plates at the bottom
Weight of plates at the top = 1.2 kN x 1.4 x 24= 40.32 kN
Weight of plates at the bottom = 1.2 kN x 4.3 x 13= 67.08 kN
Total weight of plates = 40.32 + 67.08 = 107.4 kN
Weight of insulation
Mineral wool is used for the insulation because it is relatively cheap and also widely used
for insulating distillation columns (Nelson, 1963).
Density of mineral wool = 130kg/m3 (Nelson, 1993)
Thickness of insulation = 75mm (Nelson, 1993)
Approximate volume of insulation

1.34 12.1 75 10 3 2.34 6.9 75 10 3 7.6m3


Weight of insulation = 7.6 x 130 x 9.81 = 9692 N
The weight of insulation is doubled to allow for attachment of fittings and moisture
absorption. (Nelson, 1963)
Therefore weight of insulation together with fittings is taken as: 2 x 9692 = 19384 N
Total weight = weight of shell + weight of plates + insulation weight
= 245 + 107.4 + 19.38 = 371.78 kN

198

Wind Loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2
Mean diameter, including insulation (using average diameter and average thickness)
Mean diameter = 1.84 + 2(23 + 75) x 10-3 = 2.04 m
Loading (per linear metre) Fw = 1280 x 2.04 = 2611 N/m

Bending moment at bottom M x

2611
19 2 471285.5 Nm
2

Analysis of Stresses
Pressure stresses

The longitudinal stress is given by: h

Where: h = longitudinal stress

PDi
2t

P = Design pressure = 3000 kPa

Di = internal diameter (avg.) of column = 1.84 m


t = wall thickness (avg.) = 23 mm = 0.023 m

PDi 3000 1.84

120000kPa 120 N / mm2


2t
2 0.023

The circumference stress is also calculated from the relation:

PDi 3000 1.84

60000kPa 60 N / mm 2
4t
4 0.023

Dead weight stress

199

The stress due to the weight of the vessel and the attachments are referred to as the dead
weight stress and is calculated as follows:

W
, where W is the total weight of the column
Di t t

371.78
2761.8kN / m 2.77 N / mm 2
1.84 0.0230.023

Bending Stress
As a result of bending moments on the column, the column would definitely be subjected to
bending stress. The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on the location
and it is given by:

M
Iv

Di

Where: M = total bending moment at the plane being considered


Iv = second moment of the area of the vessel about the plane of bending and it is given by:

Iv

D
64

Di

Do =1.84 + 2 x 0.023 = 1.886 m = 1886 mm

Iv

1.886
64

1.84 4 0.0584m 4 5.84 1010 mm 4

471285500 1840

23 7.6 N / mm 2
10
5.84 10 2

The longitudinal stress is: z L w b ,


200

is compressive and therefore negative.

z (upwind) 60 2.77 7.6 64.83N / mm2

z (downwind) 60 2.77 7.6 49.63N / mm2


As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be

z,

and

h.

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the down-wind side.
Thus 120 49.63 = 70.37 N/mm2.
The value is well below the allowable design stress of 115 N/mm2 and hence satisfactory.
Elastic Stability
The critical buckling stress

t
Do

c 2 10 4

c is

given by:

23
2
2 10 4
244 N / mm
1886

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure.
Thus maximum compressive stress = 2.77 + 7.6 = 10.37 N/mm2 and this value is well
above the critical and hence acceptable.
Column Supports
The supports must be designed to carry the weight of the vessel and contents, and any
superimposed loads such as wind loads. Supports should also be designed to allow easy
access to the vessel and fittings for inspection and maintenance. The height of the skirt is
usually between 2-3m. For this design a height of 2m is used.
In this design, a straight cylindrical skirt (s = 90o) is adopted. The material of construction
shall be carbon steel.
201

Skirt thickness
The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead-weight loads and bending
moments imposed on it by the vessel; it will not be under the vessel pressure.
The resultant stresses in the skirt will be: s (tensile) bs ws

s (compressive) bs ws

Where

bs

ws

= bending stress in the skirt =

4M s
Ds t s t s Ds

= dead weight stress in the skirt =

W
Ds t s t s Ds

Where:
Ms = maximum bending moments evaluated at the base of the base of the skirt
W = total weight of the vessel and its contents
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt at the base
ts = skirt thickness
The maximum dead weight load on the skirt would occur when the column is full of the
feed in liquid form at top and bottom conditions.

Approximate weight = 1.34 2 12.1 221.67 9.81 2.34 2 6.9 433.20 9.81
4
4

Approximate weight = 163211.20 N = 163.21 kN

202

Total weight = weight of column + approximate weight of content =371.78+163.2 =535 kN

Wind loading = 2.61 kN

212
575.50kNm
Using a skirt height of 2 m, bending moment at the base of skirt, 2.61
2
As a first trial, take skirt thickness to be 20 mm

ws (test)

163.21 10 3
1.40 N / mm 2
1840 2020

ws (operating)

371.78 10 3
3.18 N / mm 2
1840 2020

Maximum s (compressive) 10.7 1.4 9.3N / mm2


Maximum s (tensile) 10.7 - 3.18 7.52 N / mm2
Take the joint factor, J as 1.0

Criteria for design:


f s J sin

135 1 sin 90 135N / mm2

f s J sin

2
135N / mm2 is greater than the maximum stress (tensile) = 7.52 N/mm

t
0.125E s
Ds

20
2
sin 0.125 200000
sin 90 271.8 N / mm
1840

203

t
0.125E s
Ds

sin 271.8 N / mm 2 and is greater than the maximum stress (compressive)

Both criteria are satisfied, adding 2 mm for corrosion gives a skirt thickness of 22 mm.
Base ring and anchor bolts
The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the bolt area
required is given by:

Ab

4M s

W
N b f b Db

Where:
Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread
Nb = number of bolts
Fb = maximum allowable bolt stress also equal to the design stress
Ms = bending moments at the base
Db = bolt circle diameter

Mean diameter of column including insulation = 1.84 + 2(0.023 + 0.075) = 2.04 m


Circumference of bolt diameter = 2040
According to Scheiman (1963), bolt spacing should not be less than 600mm and the total
number of bolts should be in multiples of 4.

Number of bolts required at minimum bolt spacing =

2040
11
600

Per the specifications, the number of bolts at minimum spacing = 12


Assume bolt diameter = 3.2m
204

Number of bolts = 12

Bolt spacing =

Ab

2040
534mm
12

1 4M s
1 4 575.5 10 3

W
371.78 752mm 2
N b f b Db
2.04

12 125

Bolt root diameter

4 752

31mm

The total compressive load, Fb on the base ring per unit length is given by:

Fb

4 575.5 10 3 371.78 10 3

281 10 3 N / m
2

1
.
84
1.84

Take the bearing pressure as 5 N/mm2


The minimum width of the base ring, Lb is given by:

Lb

Fb
1
281 10 3
3
56.2mm
f c 10
5 10 3

205

Table 11.10: Summary of Mechanical Design for demethanizer


Parameter

Value

Weight of shell, kN

245

Weight of plates, kN

107.4

Weight of insulating material, kN

19.38

Total weight, kN

371.78

Critical buckling stress, N/mm2

244

Maximum stress (compressive), N/mm2

10.37

Resultant longitudinal stress (upwind), N/mm2

64.83

Resultant longitudinal stress (downwind), N/mm2

49.63

Circumferential stress, N/mm2

60

Dead weight stress, N/mm2

2.77

Skirt height, m

Skirt thickness, mm

22

Number of bolts

12

Bolt area, mm2

752

Bolt root diameter, mm

31

206

CHAPTER 12

12.0 DESIGN OF DEETHANIZER


12.1 Problem statement
Design a distillation column (de-ethanizer) to separate C2s from C3s with propane and
ethylene as the main bottom product at a rate of 62.0737 kmol/hr at 40C and ethane,
methane, acetylene and ethylene as distillate at a rate of 832.3602kmol/hr at -34.95 C
operating at 3000kPa.

12.1.1 Material balance


The material balance over the distillation unit has been prepared on the basis given in
chapter 4; thus in sub-section 4.9.

12.1.2 Calculation of vapour pressure and relative volatility


The relative volatility is taken as the geometric mean of the values at the column top and
bottom temperatures.

, ....................................................................................................................................1

where,
PA = vapour pressure of heavier key component (propane).
PB = vapour pressure of lighter key component (ethylene).
= Relative volatility.

207

Table 12.1 Vapour pressure and relative volatility of propane and ethylene
Temperature (K)

Vapour Pressure of Vapour Pressure of Relative volatility


C3H8 (Pa)

C2H4(Pa)

248.05

2.2608106

3.7808106

1.6723

313

3.3714106

7.2785106

2.1592

Average relative volatility =

12.1.3 q-line calculation


,..............................................................................................................................2
HV is the enthalpy of feed at dew point.
HL is the enthalpy of feed at boiling point.
HV is the enthalpy of feed at entering conditions.

12.1.4 Number of ideal plates


Assuming constant relative volatility, the number of ideal plates at total reflux can be
estimated by the FENSKE equation:

Where:
Nmin = Minimum number of ideal plates
208

xB = mole fraction of bottom product


LK and HK denote lighter component and heavy component respectively
xD = mole fraction of distillate
= relative volatility of the two component

Nmin =

Nmin =
Therefore the minimum number of stages, Nmin = 21

12.1.5 Minimum and optimum reflux ratio analysis

,..4

where , = the relative volatility of component i with respect to some reference component,
usually the heavy key,
Rm = the minimum reflux ratio,
xD = concentration of component i in the tops at minimum reflux
and is the root of the equation:

, .5

xF = the concentration of component i in the feed, and q depends on the condition of the
feed.
209

But,

-1 = 1.75597

Most columns are designed to operate between 1.2 and 1.5 times the minimum reflux ratio
because this is approximately the region of minimum operating cost.

The Erbar-Maddox correlation which gives the ratio of number of stages required to the
number at total reflux, as a function of the reflux ratio, with the minimum reflux ratio as a
parameter was used here. Estimates of the number of stages at total reflux and the minimum
reflux ratio gives

Hence the number of plates is therefore 36.


For plate/tray efficiency, Eo = 0.59100 = 59%
210

12.1.6 Feed stage location


By the feed stage location is given by;

, ...............................................................................................5

Where;
NR = number of stages above the feed, including any partial condenser,
NS = number of stages below the feed, including the reboiler,
B = molar flow bottom product,
D = molar flow top (distillate) product,
XF, MK =concentration of the heavy key in the feed,
XF, LK = concentration of the light key in the feed,
XD, HK = concentration of the heavy key in the top product,
XB, LK = concentration of the light key if in the bottom product.
2
N R 0.0666 0.04035 62.0737

N S 0.56 0.0000072 832.3602

0.206

= 4.552196 .........................................................................................................................6

........................................................................................................................7
Solving equation A and B simultaneously,
NR = 6.484 = 7 and NS = 29

211

Therefore the number of plates below the feed is 29. Hence the feed plate is at the 28th
plate from the top.

12.1.7 Height of tower, H

The height of tower is given is given by,

, 8

Where;
N = Number of trays
Ts = tray spacing ( 0.6 m is specified)
Kd = safety factor = 1.3
H = (36-1) 0.61.3 = 27.3 = 27m.

12.1.8 Vapour and liquid rates at the top of the column


Material balance around the first tray of the column and the condenser gives:
.9
Where V and L are vapour and liquid rates at the top of the column
D = Distillate or top product
Now

Where:
212

R = reflux ratio

=2.1072+1=3.1072, but D = 857.2043kmol

V = 3.1072857.2043 =2663.5052kmol/hr

Also

/hr

Therefore vapour and liquid rate at the top of the column are 2663.5052kmol/hr and
1806.3892kmol/hr respectively.

12.1.9 Vapour and liquid rates at the bottom of the column


Assume a constant molal overflow at the bottom of the column, the total material balance
gives:
LB = VB +B.11
Where:
LB = liquid rate at the bottom of the column
VB = vapour rate at the bottom of the column
B = bottom product
F= feed rate
But
LB = L + F..12
LB = 1806.3892 + 894.434 = 2700.8232kmol/hr

213

VB = 2700.8232 - 62.07372 = 2638.7495kmol/hr


Therefore liquid and vapour rate at the bottom of the column are 2700.8232kmol/hr and
2638.7495kmol/hr respectively.

12.1.10 Balances around entire column


Steady state energy balance around the entire column:
FhF + QC + QR = DhD + BhB..13
Assumptions:

kinetic and potential energy terms are negligible

work terms are negligible

12.1.11 Balances Around the Condenser


Condenser mass balance is
V = L + D, .14
Condenser energy balance is
V HV + QC = DHD + LHL... 15
Where:
HV = enthalpy of vapour at the top of column = -5468.588kJ/kgmol
V = vapour flow rate = 2663.5052kmol/hr
QC = condenser duty
D = flow rate of distillate = 832.3602kgmol/hr
214

HD = enthalpy of distillate = -2.405

kJ/kgmol

L = flow rate of liquid at the top of the column = 1806.3892kgmol/hr


HL = enthalpy of liquid at the top of the column = -5468.588kJ/kgmol
QC =DHD + LHL - VHV, 16
QC = [1806.3892(-5468.588)]+[ 1806.3892(-2.405

] - [-5468.588 (2663.5052)]

QC = -195.4954138MJ/hr
From equation (16), QR = DHD + BHB - FHF - QC
Where:
QR = reboiler heat duty
HF = the enthalpy of feed = -6458kJ/kgmol
HD = enthalpy of distillate = -2.405

kJ/kgmol

HB = enthalpy of bottom product = -6458kJ/kgmol


D = flow rate of distillate =832.3602kmol/hr
QC = condenser heat duty = - 617.4183MJ/hr
F = feed flow rate = 894.434kmol/hr
B = flow rate of bottoms = 62.0737kmol/hr
QR =[832.3602(-2.405

)] +[62.0737( - 6458)] - [832.3602( - 6458)] -195495413.8]

QR = 688.1685452MJ/hr
215

12.1.12 Determination of vapour and liquid density at the top and bottom
From calculations the vapour and liquid density of the column are as shown below
Table 12.2: Vapour and liquid density at the top and bottom
Property
Vapour

Top

Bottom

density

(V, 434.2564

450.9902

Density

(L, 460.0943

482.8811

Kg/m3)
Liquid
Kg/m3)

12.1.13 Determination of liquid-vapour flow factor, FLV


The liquid-vapour flow factor FLV is given by:

Where
Lw = liquid mass flow-rate, kg/s,
Vw = vapour mass flow-rate, kg/s.

FLV at the bottom =

= 0.98913

FLV at the top = 0.6782

Therefore, the liquid-vapour factor at the bottom and top are 0.98913 and 0.6566
respectively.
216

12.1.14 Determination of flooding velocity


The flooding velocity can be estimated from the correlation given by [2]:

,....18

Where:
uf = is the flooding vapour velocity in m/s or maximum permissible velocity based on
bubbling of active area,
K1 = empirical constant,

V = vapour density
L = liquid density
Using a plate spacing of 0.6m [1] and the flow factors at the top and bottom; thus
for FLV = 0.98913, K1= 0.035 (bottom) and
for FLV =0.6566, K1 = 0.046 (top)
Corrections for surface tensions:
Bottom surface tension = 0.1333N/m
Top surface tension

= 0.000801N/m

Therefore:

Bottom, K1 =

= 0.0541

217

Top,

K1 = 0.048

0.0252

Hence,

Bottom uf =

Top

= 0.0144m/s

uf =

The flooding condition fixes the upper limit of the vapour velocity. A high vapour velocity
is needed for high plate efficiencies, and the velocity will normally be between 70 to 90 per
cent of that which will cause flooding. For design, a value of 80 to 85 per cent should be
used. [1]
Hence design for 85 per cent flooding at maximum flow rate (uf) will be:
Bottom uf = 0.0144
Top

0.85 = 0.01224m/s

uf =0.00615 0.85 = 0.00523m/s

12.1.15 Maximum volumetric flow rate


The maximum volumetric flow rate can be calculated from the correlation,

..19

Where V = vapour rate, kg/s

V = vapour density
= maximum volumetric vapour flow rate
Top;
218

Bottom;

12.1.16 Area required


The net area required can be estimated from the equation:

...20

Where:
AC = column area
= maximum volumetric flow rate
uf = maximum flooding flow rate
Top;

Bottom;

12.1.17 Determination of column diameter, dc

Column diameter:

21

Where:
AC = column area

Top;

219

Bottom ;

12.1.18 Liquid flow pattern


Maximum volumetric liquid rate,

..22

Where:
LB = liquid rate at the bottom of the column, kg/s
L=

liquid density

Summary of chemical engineering design


Table 12.3: Column Design Specifications

Feed Temperature (0C)

6.005

Feed Pressure (kPa)

3006

Top Pressure (kPa)

3000

Bottom Pressure (kPa)

3000

Reflux Ratio(R)

2.1072

Minimum Reflux Ratio(Rmin)

1.7560

R/Rmin

1.2

Feed Stage

28
220

Minimum number of trays(Nmin)

21

Number of Actual Trays (N)

36

Tray Efficiency

59%

Height of column(m)

27

Condenser Heat Duty, QC, (MJ/h)

-195.4954138

Reboiler Heat Duty, QR, (MJ/h)

688.1685452

Column diameter, m

top

2.8265

Bottom

3.4584

12.2 Column internal selection, operation and design

The sieve tray is chosen for the purpose of this design because of its efficiency, wide
operating range, and ease of maintenance and cost factors.

12.2.1 Wier height


For columns operating above atmospheric pressure, the weir height will normally be
between 40-90mm; 40-50mm is recommended. Therefore a weir height of 50mm is chosen;
hw = 50mm.

12.2.2 Tray area


The weir height fixes the area of the down comer (Ad).

Net area = Column cross sectional area Downcomer area.


221

An = Ac Ad, 23
For the top, An = 6.2745

0.075 = 6.1995m2

For the bottom, An = 9.9393 0.075 = 9.8643m2

Using

, is read from Fig.11.31 [2].

Where;
lw = length of weir
Dc = column diameter

Thus for the top, lw = 2.8265

0.805 = 2.2753m

For the bottom, lw = 3.4584 0.805 = 2.7842m

12.2.3 Hole Diameter (dh)


A preferable hole diameter = 5mm. [2]

12.2.4 Tray thickness (tT)


A preferable tray thickness = 3mm

12.2.5 Active area


, ...24
Thus for the top, Aa = 6.2745 2(0.075) =6.1245m2
For the bottom, Aa = 9.9393

2(0.075) = 9.7893m2
222

12.2.6 Hole area


, ..25
For the top AH =
For the bottom,

12.2.8 Maximum liquid rate


At the top = 14.4697kg/s
minimum liquid rate at 70% turn down =
At the bottom = 21.3354kg/s
minimum liquid rate at 70% turn down

12.2.9 Weir crest (mmLiquid), how

,26

where:
Lw = liquid flow rate, kg/s
Lw = weir lenght weir crest, mm liquid

12.2.10 Maximum how


For the top

For the bottom

= 43.1960mm liquid.

= 56.71893mm liquid.

223

12.2.11 Minimum how


Top,

=34.0546 mm liquid.

Bottom,

= 41.1666mm liquid.

Minimum rate =
Top, 50 + 39.0546 =89.0546 mm liquid.
Bottom, 50 + 39.1332 =58.1332 mm liquid.
The weep-point correlation,
K2 of the top is 30.8 and that of the bottom is 30.9 [1]

, .............................................................................................................27

minimum vapour velocity through the holes at weep point

vapour density
hole diameter

For the top,

=0.5970m/s

For the bottom,

= 0.6018m/s

Actual minimum vapour velocity =

For the top, =

= 24.3853m/s

224

Bottom, =

= 22.7953m/s

This means minimum operating rate will be well above weep point.

12.2.12 Plate pressure drop


The total pressure drop is taken as the sum of the pressure drop calculated for the flow of
vapour through the dry plate (i.e. the dry plate drop, hd); the head of the clear liquid on the
plate (i.e.

); and a term to account for other, minor, sources of pressure loss, the

so called residual loss (hr).


,28

ht =

12.2.13 Head loss through dry hole


hd = head loss across the dry hole

, ........................................................................................................29

where uh =gas velocity through hole area


k1, k2 are constants
For sieve plates

k1 = 0 and

Cv = 0.7419
k2 = 50.8 / 0.74192 = 92.77
For the top, uh = 0.1254m/s

225

Thus

mm liquid

For the bottom, uh =0.0502m/s


Hence

12.2.14 Residual Head


The simple equation proposed by Hunt [1] is used.

, .30

For the top, hr =

mm liquid

Bottom, hr =

mm liquid

Hence ht =117.6008mm liquid for the top and 84.2379mm liquid for the bottom

12.3 Downcomer design


12.3.1 Head loss over downcomer apron

, ..................................................................................................................31

Take clearance, C = 0.5


liquid flow rate in downcomer kg/s

For the top,

Bottom,

12.3.2 Downcomer liquid back-up


226

In terms of clear liquid the downcomer back-up, hb, is given by:


, 32

+
For the top,

89.0546+177.6008+9.8335=276.4889mm liquid

Similarly the bottom is also 164.4842mm liquid.


Since these values are less than the tray spacing of 0.6m there will be no flooding in the
enriching section and stripping sections (bottom and top).

12.3.3 Residence time


Downcomer residence time is given by:

, ............................................................33

is the residence time


is clear liquid back up
For the top tr

0 075 460 0943 0 2765


13 6275

= 0.7001sec

Similarly that of the bottom is 0.18525sec.

12.3.4 Determination of entrainment


In operation some liquid droplets will be entrained and carried up the column by the vapour
flow, and this will reduce the actual, operating, efficiency. The dry-plate efficiency can be
corrected for the effects of entrainment using the equation proposed by Colbura (1936)[1]:

12.3.5 Estimation of perforated area

227

At

lw
Dc

0 805 for the top the and bottom

91 thus angle subtended at plate edge by

unperforated strip = 180 91 = 89

12.3.6 Calculation of the Number of Holes


Area of one hole = 1.963 x 10-5m2

Number of holes

0.0148
753.95 754
1.963 105

Table 12.4 Plate Specifications


Active area, Ac Top

6.1245m2

Length of weir, lw

Bottom 9.7893m2

Top

2.2753m

Bottom 2.7842m

Weir height

50mm

Downcomer area, Ad

0.075m2

Plate thickness

3mm

Hole area, Ah

0.61245m2

Plate pressure drop Top

117.6 mm liquid

Top

Hole diameter,

Bottom 0.97893m2
Net area, (An)

Top

6.1995m2

5mm

dh

Bottom 84.2379 mm liquid


Number of holes

754

Downcomer area

0.07m2

Bottom 9.8643m2
Plate spacing

0.6m

Plate material

carbon steel Downcomer material

228

carbon steel

12.4 Mechanical Design


12.4.1 Maximum Design Pressure
Vessels subject to external pressure should be designed to resist the maximum differential
pressure that is likely to occur during operation. From the chemical design analysis, the
design pressure is taken as 10% of atmospheric pressure.
10

3000kPa

100

300kPa. Hence the design pressure is 300 + 3000 = 3300kPa

12.4.2 Design temperature


The strength of materials decreases with temperature. The maximum operational
temperature was -34.95 C for the top and 40 C for the bottom. For design purposes, a
tolerance is allowed. Hence the maximum operational temperature could therefore be
pegged at -45 C for the top and 85 C for bottom. [2]

12.4.3 Material for construction


The material selected must be compatible with the process conditions. [1] Carbon steel is
therefore used for the construction.

12.4.4 Design loads


A structure must be designed to resist gross plastic deformation and collapse under all the
conditions of loading. The loads to which a process vessel will be subject in service are
listed below.
The major loads include:

Design pressure: including any significant static head of liquid.

Maximum weight of the vessel and content under operating conditions.


229

Maximum weight of the vessel and contents under hydraulic test conditions.

Wind loads

12.4.5 Weight Loads


The approximate weight of the column, Wv is given by:
Wv

240Cv Dm Hc

0 8 Dm t ,.......................................................................................34

Where:
W v = Total weight of column or shell; N
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and plate support ring or
equivalent fittings and it is equal to 1.15 for distillation columns. [1]
Hc = Column height = 27m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81N/m2
t = wall thickness, mm = 5mm
Dm = mean diameter of column = t + Hc = 0.005 + 2.8265 = 2.827m for the top and
3.4589m for the bottom
Wv

240

1 15

2 827

27

2 827 0 005

21077 83286N for the top and 34763 44462N for the bottom. Therefore total weight of
column =21077.8386 + 34763.444462 = 55.8412831MN.

12.4.6 Weight of plates

Plate area = 4

0 62

0 28m2

230

The total weight of a plate are found by multiplying the plate area by 1.2kN/m
weight of plate = 1.2 0.28 = 0.34kN

Therefore for 36 plates;


Total weight of plates = 36340 = 12.240kN

12.4.7 Weight of insulation


Mineral wool is used for the insulation because it is relatively cheap and also widely used
for distillation columns.
Density of mineral wool = 130kg/m3
Thickness of insulation = 75mm
3
Approximate volume of insulation = 0.6 14 0.075 1.98m

Weight of insulation = 1.98 130 9.81 2.525kN


The weight of insulation is doubled to allow for attachment of fittings and moisture
absorption.[1]
Therefore weight of insulation together with fittings is taken as 2 2525 = 5.050kN
Sum of Weights = weight of shell + weight of plates + insulation weight
= 21.077 + 12.24 + 5.050
= 38.367kN for the top and 52.053kN for the bottom, hence total weight = 90.420kN

12.4.8 Wind loading


Wind pressure for smooth cylindrical columns is estimated from the relation;
231

Pw = 0.05Uw 2,...35
Pw = wind pressure, N/m2
Uw = wind speed, km/h.
Average Uw = 150km/h [6]. To allow for tolerance, a value of 160km/h will be used.
Pw

0 05

1602

1280N/m2

The load per unit length of the column, Fw, is given by


Fw = Pw Deff, ..36
Deff = 2.8265 + 2(0.075 + 0.005) = 2.9865mfor the top and 3.6184m for bottom.
Fw

1280

2 9865

3822 72N m for the top and 4426.753N/m for the bottom. Hence

load per unit length of the whole column is 8249.473N/m.


Since the column would be free standing and mounted on skirt supports it would act as a
cantilever under wind loading.
Now for a uniform loaded cantilever, the bending moment at any plane is given by:

Mx

Wx2
2

, .37

W = load per unit length

x = column height

Mx

3822 72 272
2

=1393381.44Nm for the top and 1613551.469Nm for the bottom

12.4.9 Wall thickness


232

To ensure that column is sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight, a minimum wall
thickness is allowed. For column with diameter between 3-3.5m a minimum thickness of
12mm is required.[2] Since the column diameter is approximately between 3 and 3.5, wall
thickness of 12mm is used.

12.5 Design stress


12.5.1 Primary stress
The longitudinal stress is given by:
PDi

2t

, ..38

Where:
h=

longitudinal stress, N/m2

P = Design pressure, N/m = 3300kPa

Di= internal diameter of column = 2.8265m for the top and 3.4584m for the bottom.
t = wall thickness = 0.005m
3300 2 8265
h

2 0 005

932745kN m2 for the top and 1141272kN/m2 for the bottom.

The circumference stress is also calculated from the relation:

PDi
4t

, ...39

3300 2 8265
L

4 0 005

466372 5kN/m2 for the top and 570636kN/m2 bottoms.

The stress due to the weight of the vessel and the attachments are referred to as the direct
stress,

is calculated as:
233

W
w

, 40

Di t t

w is weight of the column

21077 8386
w

2 8265 0 005 0 005

474680.1kN/m2 for the top, similarly

that of the bottom is 639636.4kN/m2. Hence total stress is 639636.4 + 474680.1 =


1114316.534kN/m2
As a result of bending moments on the column, the column would definitely be subjected to
bending stress. The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on the location
and it is given by:
M Di

Iv

t ,.41

where:
M is the total bending moment at the plane being considered
Iv is the second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending moment
Iv

64

Do 4

Di 4 , .42

Do = 2.8265 + (20.005) = 2.8365m for the top and 3.4684 for the bottoms.
Iv = 0.0446m for the top and 0.0816m for the bottoms
b

44308592.54N/m2 for the top and 34291923.5 N/m2 for bottoms

The resultant longitudinal stress,


For compressive stress,
Therefore,

upwind

negative

3108434536 N m2
234

b .....................43

downwind

2072721518N m2

As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be

and

k.

The greatest

difference between the principal stresses will be on the down-wind side and this should be
below the maximum allowable of 141.92 N/mm2.
Therefore the metal can withstand the stresses imposed on it during operation since the
stresses are well below the maximum allowable stress.

12.5.2 Column support


The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight of the
vessel, the design temperature and pressure, the vessel location and arrangement and the
internal and external fittings and attachments.

12.5.3 Choice of support


The most suitable support for the column is the skirt support since the bending moment is
significant.

12.5 .4 Skirt support design


The height of the skirt is usually between 2-3 m. For this design a height of 2.5 m is used.
The skirt thickness must be sufficient enough to withstand the dead weight loads and
bending moments imposed on it by the column.
Thus, the resultant stresses, in the skirt will be:

bs

ws

...44

Where:
bs =

the bending stress in the skirt given by;


235

bs

4Ms
Ds ts ts Ds

.45

Where,
bs =

bending stress,

Ms = bending moment at the base


Ds = inside diameter of skirt (assumed to be that of column = 3.4584m)
ts = skirt thickness: as first trial, take skirt thickness to be 15 mm.[1],
Approximate weight

Therefore the total weight

1 52

28

1081 736

525074 2508

Bending moment at base of skirt

wx2
2

9 81

481038 2

525074 2508 N
1006112 451 N

.................................................................................46

Where, w = wind loading = 2131 2 N/m


x = distance measured from the free end = height of cylinder + height of skirt below apex
of cone (try 1.5 m) = 28 + 1.5 = 29.5 m.

Therfore the bending moment

bs

29 52

2131 2

4Ms

4 927338 4 103

Ds ts ts Ds

1500 15 15 1500

927338 4 Nm

34 64 N mm2

Also
W
ws

Ds ts ts

Where,

ws

......................................................................................................

dead weight stress in skirt.


236

47

W = Total weight of contents in column =90.420 kN


Ds = inside diameter of skirt = 3.4584m,
ts = skirt thickness, 15 mm.
1006112 451
ws

1500 15 15

14 09 N mm2

Maximum compressive stress =

bs

Maximum tensile stress =

ws

bs

34 64

ws

34 64

14 09

14 09

48 73 N mm2

20 55 N mm2

12.5.5 Criteria test for design


t

Maximum allowable compressive stress = 0 125E Ds sin ...................................................48


s

Where, Ds = inside diameter of skirt =3.4584m


ts = skirt thickness, 15 mm
= base angle of conical skirt = 90o
E = Young modulus of skirt material = 190000 N/m2

maximum

0 125

190000

0 015
sin90
3 4584

103 01N m2

This is far higher than the calculated design stress. The criterion is therefore satisfied.
Maximum tensile stress = fsJsin [1].
Where fs = maximum allowable design stress for skirt material = 103.01 N m2
J = weld joint factor = 0.85 [1]

237

= base angle of skirt = 90o


maximum tensile strength

103 01

0 85

sin90

87 559N m2

Both criteria are satisfied. Thus the design is satisfactory.


2mm is added to the skirt thickness to cater for possible corrosion. Design skirt thickness is
therefore taken as 17 mm.

12.5.6 Base ring and anchor bolt


The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt base ring.
The moments produced by wind and other lateral loads will tend to overturn the column;
however this will be opposed by the couple set up by the weight of the column and the
tensile load in the anchor bolts.
The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the bolt area
required is given by:
Ab

4Ms

Nb fb

Db

W .. 49

Where:
Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread
Nb = number of bolts
fb = maximum allowable bolt stress = 125 N/m2
Ms = bending moment at the base = 1613551 469 Nm
Db = bolt circle diameter = 2.2 m
238

W = weight of column =90.420 kN


Bolt spacing should not be less than 600 mm and the total number of bolts should be in
multiples of 4.[1]

Number of bolts required at minimum bolt spacing

2200
600

11 519

Closest multiple of 4 = 12 bolts


1

Ab

12

4
125

4 453 3

Bolt root diameter =

Bolt spacing =

1613551 469
22

2 2 103
12

9042

1895 54m2

49 127mm

575 95

576 mm

The total compressive load, Fb on the base ring per unit length is given by:
4

Fb

1613551 469

15

90420
15

973363 35 N m

The minimum width of the base ring, Lb is given by:


Fb
fc

Lb

1195507 822

103

103

194 673m

12.5.7 Actual width


LR
100

Lf

ts
15

50 mm
50

165 mm

Actual pressure on the concrete foundation,


239

fc

Fb
LR

1195507 822
165

10

7 25 N mm2

The minimum thickness of base ring is found by the ring as a cantilever beam and it is
given by:

tb

Lr

tb

3fc
fr

.50

150

7 25
140

59 mm

Table 12.5 Mechanical Engineering Design Specification


240

Weight of
shell, Wv

Resultant
longitudinal
stress
(upwind),

Design
temperatur
e

3108434536N/
m2

Resultant
longitudinal
stress
(downwind),

2072721518N/
m2

Weight of 12.241kN
plates

Circumferenti
al stress

1037008.5kN/m

Skirt
height

2.5m

Direct stress

1114316.53kN

Number of
bolts

12

Load per unit


length of the
column, Fw

8249.473Nm

Total weight
column

55.841283MN

-45C(top)
85C(botto
m)

Wind
pressure

1280Pa

Bolt area

1895.54mm

Bolt spacing

576mm

Total
compressiv
e load, Fb

125N/m2

Minimum
width of base
ring, Lb

194.673m

Bolt
diameter

49.127mm

Actual
pressure,

Minimum
thickness
of
base
ring, tb

59mm

Design
pressure

241

3000kPa

3300kPa

CHAPTER 13

13.0 DESIGN OF C2 SPLITTER


13.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
To design C2- splitter which will separate ethylene, acetylene and other hydrocarbon
exiting the de-ethanizer.

13.2 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS


SETUP
By aid of a diagram, a distillation column can be illustrated as shown below:

D=500.0665Kmol/hr
x(C2H6) =0.3970
x(CH4)=0.0008

x(C2H4) =0.994

x(C2H2)=0.0035

x(C2H2)=0.006

x(C2H4)=0.5987

T=262.3K
P=3200kPa

F=832.3662Kmol/h
T=238.05K

B=332.24407kmol/hr

P=3080027kPa

x(C2H6)=0.9942
x(C2H4)=0.0038
x(CH4)=0.002
T=265.099K
P=2000kPa

Figure 13.1 flow compositions entering and exiting the column.


242

Relative volatility()
To determine the relative volatility between the two substances,a formula is employed from
(R.K. Sinott,1986) to determine their vapour pressures.The relative volatility is taken as the
geometric mean of the values at the top column and the bottom temperature.
=PBo/PAo
where PBo = vapour pressure of the light key
PAo= vapour pressure of the heavy key
Using the formula,
expC1+(C2/T)+C3x ln(T)+ C4x TC5,(1)
PBo (C2H4) = 31.44
PAo (C2H6) =25.28
Therefore , = 31.262/25.28=1.24
Using the McCabe Thiele theory,
y= x/1+(-1)x..(2)
Choosing sample values for x between 0.1 to 1.0(values are used to construct the
equilibrium curve and operating lines)

Table 13.1 sample values for construction of the equilibrium curve


243

0.1

0.12

0.6

0.65

0.2

0.23

0.7

0.74

0.3

0.36

0.8

0.83

0.4

0.45

0.9

0.91

0.5

0.56

1.0

1.00

Figure 3 shows the Equilibrium curve relation between Ethylene and Ethane

244

For the McCabe Thiele theory, only one component is being considered (predominantly
the lighter component) throughout the entire section.
By the aid of figure 1 above,
For ethylene compositionXD in top stream,
=0.994 1.00
For ethylene composition,XB in bottom stream,
=0.0038 0.004
For the construction of the equilibrium curve, the compositions are :
XF=0.6 XB=0.003 XD=1.00
For construction of the q line,
q=(HV HF)/ .(3)
where :
CP=heat capacity
HV=enthalpy of vapour flow
HF=enthalpy of feed
=latent heat of vapourisation of ethylene
HV=mvCpT

but m=Mn=28x1.0=28kg(M(ethylene)=28)

Hv=28x0.994x87.461x262.3=638494.47

245

HF= mFCpT

Cp=82.04

HF= 28x0.5987x82.04x238.05=327386.771
q=(638494.47-327386.771)/2182578.473=0.15 0.2
For minimum reflux(Rm)
Rm/Rm+1=(XD-yI)/(XD-xI)
= 1-0.92/1-0.9
0.8=Rm-0.8Rm
0.80=0.2Rm
Rm=0.8/0.2=4.0

13.2.1Actual number of Reflux(Ractual)


Ractual=1.5Rm
=1.5x4
=6.00
Reflux ratio,RR
R=L/D and RR=Ractual
L(liquid flow rate)=?
D(distillate flow rate)=500.0665Kmol/hr
R=6.00
246

L=RxD=6x500.0665=3000.399Kmol/hr
Also,V=L+D , where V vapour flow rate
V=3000.399+500.0665
=3500.4655Kmol/hr
For Rectification section,
Calculate for :
XD/(R+1)=1/(6+1)=0.14

Minimum number of plates or stages,Nm


From the Fenske equation,
Nm=log(dL/1-dL)X(1-bL/bL)/logL,H.(4)
=(0.99/1-0.99)x(1-0.003/0.003)/log1.24
=4.417/0.093
=48.35 stages

Theoritical number of stages,N


Using Gilliland correlation,
R-Rm/(R+1)=6-4/6+1=0.286
247

From correlation,
N-Nm/N+1=0.35
N-Nm=0.35N+0.35

but Nm=48.35

N-48.35=0.35N+0.35
0.65N=48.7
N=74.92 stages
Feed stage location
By the feed stage location is given by;
2
N R 0.5987 0.0038 332.244

N S 0.3970 0.0001 500.06

0.206

Where;
NR = number of stages above the feed, including any partial condenser,
NS = number of stages below the feed, including the reboiler,
B = molar flow bottom product,
D = molar flow top (distillate) product,
XF, HK =concentration of the heavy key in the feed,
XF, LK = concentration of the light key in the feed,
XD, HK = concentration of the heavy key in the top product,
248

XB, LK = concentration of the light key in the bottom product.


2
N R 0.5987 0.0038 332.244

N S 0.3970 0.0001 500.06

0.206

= 4.47 .................................................................................................................................5

................................................................................................................................6
Solving equation A and B simultaneously,
NR = 63 and NS = 14
Therefore the number of plates below the feed is 14. Hence the feed plate is at the 13th
plate from the top.
Tray Spacing
Chosen as 0.5m using theory from Handbook of Chemical engineering calculations

13.2.2 Height Of Tower,H


H=(N-1)TsKd
Where:
N= number of trays
Ts=tray spacing(0.5m taken from Sinnot,2003)
Kd=safety factor(1.3 taken from Sinnot,2003)

249

H=(75-1)x0.5x1.3
=48.1m

13.2.4 Column Diameter,Dc


Chosen as 3.7m using F-factor method,
From correlation,Fc= 1.58Ib/(ft)(s2)
FREE AREA FOR VAPOUR FLOW
AF=W/(Fcv1/2)..(7)
Where :
AF=Free area (Ft2)
W=vapour mass flow rate(Ib/s)
Fc=F-factor(Ib/(ft)(s2))
v=vapour density(Ib/ft3)
For W
Molar flow rate of ethylene
=498.378Kmol/hr=(30.754/3600)Ibmol/s
But n=m/M,M(ethylene)=28
m=nxM=498.378x28
m=13954.58kg/hr
250

by conversion,W=8.542Ib/s
From theory, v=2.085kg/m3.By conversion,v=1.402Ib/ft3
AF=(8.542Ib/s)/1.58x(1.402)1/2
=4.56ft2
FLOODING VELOCITY(at the top and bottom columns)
Flooding velocity can be estimated from the correlation given by Fair(1961)
Uf=K1(L- v)0.5/ v0.5 ..(8)
where :
Uf=flooding vapour velocity in m/s or maximum permissible velocity based on bibbling of
active area
K1=empirical constant
v=vapour density
L=liquid density
From fig.11.27(R.K. Sinnot,1986)
Using a plate spacing of 0.5m(18in) and the flow factor,FLV from figure 11.27(Coulson and
Richardson.Vol. 6)
FLV=Lw/VW v/ L where
LW=liquid mass flow rate ,kg/s=332.24407kmol/hr=2.58kg/s
Vw=vapour mass flow rate ,kg/s=501.0665kmol/hr=3.89kg/s
251

v=density of vapour(ethylene)
L=density of liquid(ethane)=

13.2.5 Vapour density at top


Mv(ethylene)=0.994(28)+0.006(26)=27.98g/mol
Assume ideal gas law is applicable to vapour
Then PV=nRT=m/MvRT
vMv=(m/V)RT
v=PMv/RT
=101.325x27.98/8.314x262.3
=1.300kg/m3
L=0.994(497.1149)+0.006(2.9516)
=494.14kg/m3
Vapour density at bottom
MV=0.0038(28)+0.9942(30)+0.002(16)
=29.96g/mol
Assuming the ideal gas law is applicable
Then v=PMv/RT=101.325x29.96/8.314x265.099
=1.377kg/m3
252

Liquid density, L=0.994(330.3145)+0.002(0.6658)+0.0038(1.26377)


=328.338kg/m3
DETERMINATION OF LIQUID-VAPOUR FLOW FACTOR,FLV AT THE BOTTOM
AND TOP COLUMNS
The liquid-vapour flow factor FLV given by R.K. Sinnot
FLV=Lw/VW v/ L where
LW=liquid mass flow rate ,kg/s
Vw=vapour mass flow rate ,kg/s
FLV,bottom=0.71.37/328.33=0.04
FLV,top=0.71.3/494.14=0.035
Therefore the liquid-vapour factor at the bottom and top columns are 0.04 and 0.035
respectively.
DETERMINATION OF FLOODING VELOCITY AT THE TOP AND BOTTOM
COLUMNS
The flooding velocity can be estimated from the correlation given by (Fair 1961)
Uf=K1(L-v)0.5/ v0.5(9)
Where Uf=flooding vapour velocity in m/s or maximum permissible velocity based on
bubbling of active area
K1=empirical constant
253

v=vapour density
L=liquid density
From figure 11.27(Sinnot 2003) using a plate spacing of 0.5m(18in) and the flow factors at
the top,
K1=0.06.bottom
K1=0.08top
Correlations for surface tensions ( =0.02N/m multiply K1 by( /0.02)0.23)
Bottom surface tension=128x10-3N/m
Top surface tension=171.28x10-3N/m
Therefore
Bottom K1=(128/20)0.2x10x10-2=0.14
Top K1=(171/20)0.2x9x10-2=0.13
Hence
Bottom,Uf=0.14(328.33-1.37)/1.37
=2.16m/s
Top Uf=0.13(494.14-1.3)/1.3
=2.53m/s
The flooding condition fixes the upper limit of the vapour velocity.A high vapour velocity
is needed for high plate efficiencies, and the velocity will normally be between 70 to 90%
254

of that which will cause flooding.For design, a value of 80 to 85% should be used(R.K.
Sinnot,1986).Hence design for 80% flooding at maximum flow rate(Uf) will be as follows:
Bottom Uf=2.16x0.80
=1.728m/s
Top Uf=2.53x0.80=2.024m/s
Maximum volumetric flow rate
The maximum volumetric flow rate can be calculated from the correlation,

..(10)

Where V = vapour rate, kg/s

V = vapour density
= maximum volumetric vapour flow rate
Base =3.89/1.37=2.84m3/s
Top

=2.58/1.3=1.98m3/s

Area required
The net area required can be estimated from the equation:

AC / f ...(11)
Where:
AC = column area
255

= maximum volumetric flow rate


f = maximum flooding flow rate
Bottom

Ac=2.84/1.728=1.64m2

Top

Ac=1.98/2.024=0.98m2

Determination of column diameter, dc


Column diameter:

4 AC .. (12)

DC

Where:
AC = column area
Top Dc=((4x0.98)/3.142)0.5=1.117m
Bottom Dc=((4x1.64)/3.142)0.5=1.44m
Liquid flow pattern
Maximum volumetric liquid rate,

L =

LB

..(13)

Where:
LB = liquid rate at the bottom of the column, kg/s

L = liquid density
256

L = 2.58/328.338=7.86x10-3m3/s
From Fig. 11.28 (R.K. Sinnot, 2003) the flow pattern is chosen to be cross flow (single
pass) based on the value of L.

13.3 Condenser Heat Duty


Using the Underwood equation
QCOND = V (HV HL)
where QCOND = heat rejected in the condenser

V = vapor flowrate at the top of the column

HV,HL = molar enthalpy of the vapor and liquid at


the top of the column
But HV=mCPdT= 500.06X28X87.46 X262.3=321209152.5
HL=mCPdT= 332.244X28X111.4X265.1=274732537.00
QCOND=500.06(321209152.5-274732537.00) = 2.32x1010
QR =L(HL- HV)
Where QR= Heat given out by the reboiler
L = Liquid flow rate at the bottom of the column
HL, HV = Molar enthalpy of the liquid and the vapour at the bottom of the column
But HL=mCPdT =332.244X28X111.4X265.1=274732537.00

257

HV=mCPdT = 500.06X28X87.46 X262.3=321209152.5


QR =332.24(274732537.00-321209152.5) = -1.5x1010
Table 13.2: Column Design Specifications

QFeed Temperature (0C)

-34.95

Feed Pressure (kPa)

3080027

Top Pressure (kPa)

3200

Bottom Pressure (kPa)

2000

Reflux Ratio(R)

6.00

Minimum Reflux Ratio(Rmin)

4.00

R/Rmin

1.5

Feed Stage

13

Minimum number of trays(Nmin)

48.35

Number of Actual Trays

75.0

Tray Efficiency

78%

Height of column(m)

48.1

Condenser Heat Duty, QC, (MJ/h) 2.34x104


Reboiler Heat Duty, QR, (MJ/h)

-1.5x104

Column diameter, m

Top

1.117

Bottom

1.44

258

Choice of column tray


The sieve tray is chosen for the purpose of this design because of its efficiency, wide
operating range, and ease of maintenance and cost factors. The sieve tray is the simplest
type of cross-flow plate.
Weir height
It is an important factor which determines the volume of the liquid on the plate and is an
important factor in determining the plate efficiency. A high weir will increase the plate
efficiency but at the expense of a higher plate pressure drop. For columns operating above
atmospheric pressure, the weir heights will normally be between 40-90mm; 40-50mm is
recommended, (R.K. Sinnot, 1986).
Since the column is operated above 1 atmosphere, weir height, hw, of 50mm is used.
Tray area
The weir height fixes the area of the down comer (Ad).
Ad 0.12 0.50 0.06m2 , at 12 per cent

Net area, An= Ac Ad = 0.98- 0.06 = 0.92m2

Using

Ad
100 12 , Ad/ Ac x 100 = 6.12
AC

equivalent

lw
0.76 is read from Fig.11.31 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986).
DC

Where lw = length of weir

259

Dc = column diameter
For top column
lw = 0.76 x 1.117 = 0.848m
For bottom column
lw= 0.76x1.44=1.09m
Value of hole diameter, d h and plate thickness are 5mm and 5mm respectively.
Active area, Aa= Ac -2Ad = 0.98 2(0.06) = 0.86m2
Hole area, Ah = 0.1Aa= 0.1x 0.86 = 0.086m2

13.4 Checking weeping


The lower limit of the operating range occurs when liquid leakage through the plate
becomes excessive. This is known as the weep point. The vapour velocity at the weep point
is the operating rate the vapour flow velocity is still and well above the weep point.
14090.52
Maximum liquid rate
3.91kg / s
3600

Minimum liquid rate, at 70 per cent turn-down 0.7 3.91 2.74kg / s


how=750(Lw/(Llw))2/3(14)
where:
Lw= liquid flow rate,kg/s
260

lw =weir length
how=weir crest,mm liquid
Maximum how
For top column=750(3.91/(264.615x0.848))2/3=50.4mm liquid
For bottom column=750(3.91/(264.615x1.09))2/3=42.6mm liquid
Also minimum how
For top column= 750(2.74/(264.615x0.848))2/3=39.76mm liquid
For bottom column=750(2.74/(264.615x1.09))2/3=33.64mm liquid
Hence at minimum rate, hw + how
For top column = 50 + 39.76= 89.76mm
For bottom column=50+33.64=83.64mm
From Fig. 11.30, the weep-point correlation Eduljee (1959), K2 = 30.4
Also;
uh=(K2- 0.9(25.4-dh))/ v0.5.(15)
uh= minimum vapour velocity through the holes at weep point
v=vapour density
dh= hole diameter,mm
uh=(30.4-0.90(25.4-0.0055))/1.6800.5=5.8m/s
261

Actual minimum vapour rate=minimum vapour rate/Ah


= (0.7 x3.91)/0.086=31.83m/s
This means minimum operating rate will be well above weep point.
Perforated area,Ap
The width of each zone is usually made the same; recommended values are: below 1.5 m
diameter, 75 mm; above, 100 mm.(Coulson and Richardson. Vol.6)
Therefore chosen diameter is 1.4m.
Ap=d2/4...........................................................................................................(16)
=3.142x(1.42)/4
=1.5m2
Dry Plate Drop
Maximum vapour velocity through holes:
uh=3.91/0.105=37.2m/s
The pressure drop through the dry plate can be estimated using expressions derived for flow
through orifices given as:
2

u
hd 51 h V . (17)
CO L

Where the orifice coefficient CO is a function of the plate thickness, hole diameter, and the
hole to perforated area ratio.

262

From discharge coefficient (CO) plot, fig 11.34 (R.K Sinnot, 1986), Liebson et al, (1957),
for plate thickness/hole diameter =1 and Ah/Ap Ah /Aa = 0.06 0.1, CO = 0.84. Hence hd
can be estimated as:
=51(37.2/0.84)2x(0.974/264.61)
=368mmliquid
=0.3mliquid
Residual Head
Methods have been proposed for estimating the residual head as a function of liquid surface
tension, froth density, and froth height. However as this correction term is small the use of
an elaborate method for estimation is not justified and the simple equation proposed by
Hunt et al (1957) can be used. (R.K.Sinnot 1986)
hr=12.5x103/L
hr=12.5x103/264.61=47.23mmliquid(18)
Total plate pressure drop, ht
ht hd hw how hr .(19)

For top column=368+(50+39.76)+47.23=504.99mmliquid


ht = 9.81x504.99x10-3x58=287.33Pa
For bottom column=368+(50+33.64)+47.23=498.87mmliquid
ht = 9.81x498.87x10-3x58=283.84Pa
263

Downcomer design
Downcomer pressure loss
Assume the height of apron, hap = hw 10 = 40mm
Then area under apron, Aap = lw x hap
For top column= 0.848 x 0.04 = 0.03m2
For bottom column=1.09x0.04=0.04m2
As these values are less than Ad 0.06m2 , the head loss in the downcomer, hdc can be
estimated using the equation given by Cicalese et at, (1947)

L
hdc 166 wd .................................................................................................(20)
L Am
where:
L wd liquid flow rate in downcomer, kg/s
A m either the downcomer area Ad or the clearance area under the downcomer A ap :
whichever is the smaller, m 2
hdc= 166(3.91/(264.615x0.06))=40.88mm
Downcomer liquid back-up
In terms of clear liquid the downcomer back-up, hb, is given by:
hb hw how ht hdc ...................................................................................(21)

For top column hb=(50+39.76) +287.33+40.88


= 417.97mm
264

= 0.42m.
For bottom column hb=(50+33.64) +283.84+40.88
=408.36mm
=0.41m

13.5 Residence time


Downcomer residence time is given by:

tr

Ad hbc L
.....................................................................................................(22)
Lwd

where:
tr residence time
h bc clear liquid back-up

tr=( 0.06x0.4x264.615)/3.91=1.62s
Determination of entrainment
Entrainment must therefore be reduced to a minimum amount such that it will not exceed
0.1 moles liquid per mole of gas. This can be estimated from the correlation given by Fair
(1961), which gives the fractional entrainment (kg/kg gross flow) as a function of liquidvapour factor FLV, with percentage approach to flooding as a parameter.
The percentage flooding is given by:

Percentage flooding =

un actual velocity based on net area


(23)
uf
265

Actual percentage flooding for design area

un

5.59
3.63m / s un= 3.91/1.54=2.54m/s
1.54

Per cent flooding

3.63
87, FLV 0.05 =2.54/4.24=60 FLV =0.03
4.24

From Fig. 11.28 (R.K. Sinnot, 2003), fractional entrainment =0.06 which is less than
the upper limit of 0.1, hence satisfactory.
Estimation of perforated area

From Fig. 11.32 (R.K. Sinnot, 2003), at

lw
0.76
DC

Where

990

angle subtended by chord

angle subtended at plate edge by unperforated strip = 180 99 = 810


Mean length, unperforated edge strips = (3.7-50X10-3)X81/180=5.16m

Area of unperforated edge strips = 50x10-3x5.16=0.26m2


Area of calming zones= 2(50x10-3)x(2.81-2x50x10-3)=0.271m2
Total area available for perforation AP=1.48-(0.26+0.271)=0.949m2
Ah/Ap=0.148/0.949=0.16

266

From Fig. 11.33 (R.K. Sinnot, 2003),

lp
dh

2.7, satisfatory, within 2.5 to 4.0

Where:
lp = the hole pitch (distance between the hole centers)
lp=dh x2.7=5x2.7=13.5mm
Calculation of the Number of Holes
Area of one hole = 1.963 x 10-5m

Number of holes

0.0148
753.95 754
1.963 105

Table 13.3: Plate Specifications


Plate I.D.

Weir height

1.48m

0.005m

Downcomer area, Ad 0.06m2

Length of weir, lw(top)

0.848m

Length of weir, lw(top)

1.09m

Hole diameter, d h

5mm

Plate thickness

5mm

Net area, (An)

1.112m2

Active area, Ac

0.98m2

Hole area, Ah

0.086m2

Hole pitch, lp

13.5mm

Plate spacing

0.5m

Active holes

754

Turn-down

70% max. rate Plate pressure drop(top)

287.33Pa

Plate pressure drop(bottom) 283.84Pa


Plate material

Mild steel

Downcomer material

267

Mild steel

13.7 Mechanical design of binary distillation column


Design pressure
Vessels subject to external pressure should be designed to resist the maximum differential
pressure that is likely to occur during operation. From the chemical design analysis, the
design pressure is taken as 10% of the operating pressure.

10
101.3 10.13kPa
100

hence Design Pressure =10.13 + 101.3 =111.43 kPa


Design temperature
The strength of materials decreases with temperature. The maximum operational
temperature was 104oC. For design purposes, a tolerance of about 20oC is allowed. The
maximum operational temperature could therefore be pegged at 125oC.
Corrosion allowance
For carbon and low alloy steel, a minimum allowance of 2.0mm should be used. (R.K.
Sinnot). Where more corrosion is expected a minimum of 4mm is allowed.
Weight Loads
According to Sinnot, 1993, the approximate weight of the column, Wv is given by:
W v 240Cv Dm H c 0.8( Dm ) t

(24)

Where:

W v = Total weight of column or shell; N


268

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and plate support ring or
equivalent fittings and it is equal to 1.15 for distillation columns. (R.K sinnot, 1993)
Hc = Column height = 48.1m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81N/m2
t = wall thickness, mm = 5mm
Dm = mean diameter of column = t + diameter of column(top) = 0.005 + 1.117 = 1.122m
= t + diameter of column(bottom)=0.005+1.44=1.445m
Wv(top)=240x1.15x1.122(48.1+(0.8x1.122))x5 = 75.87kN
Wv(bottom)=240x1.15x1.445(48.1+(0.8x1.445))x5=98.22 kN
Weight of plates

Plate area =

0.6 0.28m2
2

The total weight of a plate are found by multiplying the plate area by 1.2kN/m
weight of plate = 1.2 0.28 = 0.34kN

Therefore for 75 plates;


Total weight of plates = 75x0.34=25.5kN

Weight of insulation

269

Mineral wool is used for the insulation because it is relatively cheap and also widely used
for insulating distillation columns. (Nelson, 1963).
Density of mineral wool = 130kg/m3 (Nelson, 1993)
Thickness of insulation = 75mm (Nelson, 1993)
Approximate volume of insulation = = x0.6 x48.1x0.075=6.7m3
Weight of insulation =6.7x130x9.81=8.544kN
The weight of insulation is doubled to allow for attachment of fittings and moisture
absorption. (Nelson, 1963)
Therefore weight of insulation together with fittings is taken as 2x8.54=17.08
Sum of Weights = weight of shell + weight of plates + insulation weight
= 44.13 + 25.5 + 17.08
= 86.71kN
Wind loading
Wind pressure for smooth cylindrical columns is estimated from the relation;
Pw = 0.05Uw 2
Pw = wind pressure, N/m2
Uw = wind speed, km/h.
Average Uw = 150km/h (Meteorological Department, KNUST). To allow for tolerance, a
value of 160km/h will be used.
270

pw 0.05 1602 1280 N / m2

The load per unit length of the column, Fw, is obtained from the wind pressure multiply by
the effective diameter, Deff, (i.e. the outside diameter + an allowance for the thermal
insulation).
Fw = Pw Deff..(25)
Deff = 2.04 + 2(0.075 + 0.005) = 2.2m

Fw 1280 2.2 2816 N / m


Since the column would be free standing and mounted on skirt supports it would act as a
cantilever under wind loading.
Now for a uniform loaded cantilever, the bending moment at any plane is given by:

Mx =

Wx 2
2

(26)

W = load per unit length


x = column height
Mx= (2816x48.12)/2 =3257562.88Nm
Primary stress

The longitudinal stress is given by: h

PDi
(27)
2t

271

Where:

h = longitudinal stress, N/mm2


P = Design pressure, N/mm = 111.43kPa = 1.4bar = 0.14N/mm2

Di = internal diameter of column = 2040mm


t = wall thickness = 5mm

0.14 2040
28.56 N / mm2
25

The circumference stress is also calculated from the relation:

PDi
.............................................................................................( Sinnot , 1993)
4t
2040 0.14
L
14.28 N / mm2
45

The stress due to the weight of the vessel and the attachments are referred to as the direct
stress, w , is calculated as:

W
....................................................................................( Sinnot , 1993)
( Di t )t

W total weight of the column


w

57010
1.77 N / mm 2
(2040 5) 5

As a result of bending moments on the column, the column would definitely be subjected to
bending stress. The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on the location
and it is given by:

272

M Di

t ..............................................................................( Sinnot, 1993)


Iv 2

where:
M = Total bending moment at the plane being considered
I v = The second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending and it is given by:
Iv

( Do4 Di4 )...............................................................................( Sinnot , 1993)


64
Do 2040 (2 5) 2050mm
Iv

64

(20504 20404 ) 1.68 1010 mm 4

275968 103 2040

5 16.84 N / mm 2
10
1.68 10 2

The total longitudinal stress, z L w b


hence, b

According to Sinnot, 1993, wshould be made negative if the stress is compressive.

z (upwind) 14.28 1.77 16.84 29.35 N / mm 2


z (down wind ) 14.28 1.77 16.84 4.33N / mm 2
According to Sinnot, 1993; the greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on
the down-wind side and this should be below the maximum allowable of 115N/mm2.
The greatest difference between principal stresses = 29.35 - (-4.33) = 33.68N/mm2. This far
below the maximum and it is therefore allowable.
Elastic Stability
The critical buckling stress c is given by:
t
Do

2
N / mm ...................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)

5
2
c 2 104
48.78 N / mm
2050

c 2 104

The maximum compressive stress that would occur when the column is not under pressure
would be equal to the dead weight stress plus the bending stress.(Sinnot, 1993).
273

The maximum compressive stress = 5.95 + 19.17 = 25N/mm2. This is far below the critical
and therefore acceptable.
Column Supports
The method used to support a vessel depends on the size, shape and weight of the vessel;
the design temperature and pressure; the vessel location and arrangement and the internal
and external fittings. Horizontal vessels are usually mounted on two saddle supports whilst
tall vertical vessels like distillation columns are mounted on skirt supports. The supports
must be designed to carry the weight of the vessel and contents, and any superimposed
loads such as wind loads. Supports should also be designed to allow easy access to the
vessel and fittings for inspection and maintenance. The height of the skirt is usually
between 2-3m. For this design a height of 2m is used.
Skirt thickness
The skirt thickness must be sufficient enough to withstand the dead weight loads and
bending moments imposed on it by the vessel.
The resultant stresses, in the skirt will be:

s bs ws (28)
Where: bs = the bending stress in the skirt given by

bs

4M s
.............................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)
( Ds ts )ts Ds

ws = the dead weight stress in the skirt given by:


274

ws

W
..........................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)
Ds ts ts

Where:
Ms = maximum bending moments evaluated at the base of the base of the skirt
W = total weight of the vessel and its contents
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt at the base
Ts = skirt thickness
The skirt thickness should be such that under worst combination of wind and dead weight
loading the following design criteria should not be exceeded;

ts
Ds

ws 0.125E

sin s .....................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)

Where:
E = Youngs modulus = 200,000N/mm2
s

= base angle of the conical skirt, normally 80o-90o

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt that would occur when the column is full of
water. (Sinnot, 1993)

Approximate weight = 2.042 14 1000 9.81 448.90kN


4

275

=(/4x2.042x48.1)
Weight of column = 57.01kN
Total weight 57.01 448.90 505.91kN

Wind loading = 2.82kN

(14 2)2
Bending moment at base of skirt=2.82
360.96kN
2

As a first trial, take skirt thickness to be 17mm.

bs

4 360.96 103 103


6.44 N / mm2
2040 17 2040 17

ws (test )

505.91103
4.61N / mm2
2040 17 17

ws ( operating )

The

57.01103
0.51N / mm2
2040 17 17

maximum

stress

(compressive),

is

calculated

as:

bs ws (test ) 6.44 4.61 11.05N / mm2 11N / mm2

Maximum stress (tensile), s = bs ws ( operating ) 6.44 0.51 6.95N / mm2 7 N / mm2


Criteria test for design
17
o
2
Maximum allowable stress 0.125 200, 000
sin 90 186.25 N / m
2040

This is far higher than the calculated design stress. The criterion is therefore satisfied.
276

2mm is added to the skirt thickness to cater for corrosion. Design skirt thickness is
therefore taken as 19mm.
Base ring and anchor bolt
The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the bolt area
required is given by:

Ab

1 4M s
W ........................................................................ Scheiman, 1963

N b f b Db

Where:
A b area of one bolt at the root of the thread, N/mm 2
N b number of bolts
f b maximum allowable bolt stress also equal to the design stress opf 115N/mm 2
M s bending moments at the base, Nm
D b bolt circle diameter, m

Mean diameter of column including insulation = 2.04 2 0.006 0.075 2.20m


Circumference of bolt circle 2200

According to Scheiman (1963), bolt spacing should not be less than 600mm and the total
number of bolts should be in multiples of 4.

Number of bolts required at minimum bolt spacing

Assume bolt diameter = 3.2m


Number of bolts = 12

Bolt spacing =

2.2 103
12

575.96mm 576mm

277

2200
12
600

Ab

1 4 360.96 103
57.01103 399.52mm2 400mm2

12 125
2.2

Bolt root diameter

399.52 4

22.55mm 23mm

The total compressive load, Fb on the base ring per unit length is given by:

4 360.96 103 57.01103


Fb

110kN / m
2
2.04
2.04
The minimum width of the base ring, Lb is given by:

Lb

Fb 1

...................................................................................( Scheiman,1963)
f c 103

Lb

110 103
22mm
5 103

This is the minimum required; actual width Lr ts 50mm (Scheiman, 1963)

Where Lr is the distance from the skirt to outer edge of the ring.
Actual width = 76 + 13+50 = 139mm
Actual pressure on the concrete foundation,

f c'

Fb
...............................................................................................( Scheiman, 1963)
LR

f c'

110 103
0.79 N / mm2
139 103

The minimum thickness of base ring is found by the ring as a cantilever beam and it is
given by:

278

tb Lr

3 f c'
.......................................................................................( Scheiman, 1963)
fr

tb 79

3 0.79
10.28mm 10mm
140

279

Table 13.4: Mechanical Engineering Design Specifications


Weight of shell, Wv

Critical
stress, c

44Kn

buckling 49 N/mm2

29N/mm2

Resultant
longitudinal
(upwind), z

stress

Resultant
-4 N/mm2
longitudinal stress
(downwind), z
14N/mm2

Weight of plates

25.5kN

Circumferential
stress

Skirt height

2m

Bending moment at 361kN


skirt base

Number of bolts

12

Load per unit length 2816N/m


of the column, Fw

Weight of column

57kN

Bending
Mx

Wind pressure,N/m2

1280

Total weight

506kN

Maximum
stress(compressive),
s

11N/mm2

Maximum
stress(tensile), s

7N/mm2

Bolt area

400mm2

Bolt root diameter

23mm

moment, 3257.56kNm

Total compressive 110kN/m


load, Fb

Minimum width of 22mm


base ring, Lb

Actual width of base 22mm


ring

Actual pressure,

Minimum thickness 10mm


of base ring, tb

Total weight
column

280

0.8N/mm2

of 506kN

CHAPTER 14

14.0 DESIGN OF ACETYLENE ABSORBER


14.1 Problem Statement
To design acetylene absorber for the absorption of 80Kg/hr acetylene from a gas phase of
ethylene and acetylene at an average temperature of 210C at 17atm with acetone as an
absorbent which flows counter-currently to the flow of gas.

14.1.1 Scope of design

Components specification

Calculation of liquid flow rate

Calculation of gas flow rate

Equilibrium relationship between the pollutants and solvent

Height of packings

Height of packed tower

Type of packing

Diameter calculation

Support design

14.1.2 CONSTRAINTS

Flooding limits

Loading Limits

Absorption factor

14.20 ASSUMPTIONS

Assuming negligible absorption of other gases by the acetone.


281

Once the process is followed by air stripping, the value of X2 will approach zero

Since we're considering a new design with no serious pressure drop constraint, we'll
choose the more economical random packings.

Incompressible and steady state fluid

No dilution of the inlet stock

No reaction in the column

14.3 Justification
Random packing absorber is chosen over the other types because
It is cheaper in terms of cost of the type of packings used.
It is economical as far as this pilot project is concern.
It is simple to construct.

14.4 ACETYLENE ABSORBER


14.5 PROCESS DESIGN OF AN ACETYLENE ABSORBER
BASIS: 1 HOUR OF OPERATION
INCOMING TEMPERATURE: -100C, 2000KPa
Table 14.1: COMPOSITION OF INCOMING GAS (G):
Component

mass

flowrate mass fraction

(kg/hr)

Amount
kmole/hr

Acetylene

76.7416

0.0059

2.9516

Ethylene

13919.217

0.9941

497.1149

TOTAL

13,995.958

1.0000

500.0665

282

in

OUTGOING TEMPERATURE: 200C, 17atm


Table14.2: COMPOSITION OF OUTGOING GAS:
Component

mass

flowrate mass fraction

Amount

(kg/hr)

in

kmole

Acetylene

1.535

1.18

0.0059

Ethylene

13900.00

0.999882

496.423

TOTAL

13,901.535

1.0000

496.4345

INCOMING TEMPERATURE: 350C.1atm


Table 14.3: COMPOSITION OF INCOMING LIQUID (L):
Component

Mass flowrate (kg/s)

mass fraction

Amount in kmole/s

Acetone

127.201

2.190

Table 14.4: COMPOSITION OF OUTGOING LIQUID (L):17atm


Component

Mass

flowrate mass fraction

Amount in kmole/s

(kg/s)
Acetone

127.20

0.628

2.190

Acetylene

75.2066

0.372

2.8925

Total

202.4076

5.0825

OPERATING TEMPERATURE IN THE COLUMN: 210C,17atm


283

acaaaa

Figure 1.0: Schematic Diagram of Countercurrent Packed Bed Operation

14.5.1Material balance for countercurrent-flow absorber

Where:
Gm = total gas molar flow rate (mole/hr)
y = mole fraction of acetylene in gas stream
Lm = total liquid molar flow rate (mole/hr)
x = mole fraction of the acetone in pure liquid
The flow of gas and liquid does not change in the absorber

284

Rearranging the equation

For pure liquid stream, X2=0


At the minimum, liquid rate Y1 and X1 will be in equilibrium. Applying the Henrys law.

Henrys correlation (Hy) = 0.0082atm.m3/mol at 200C and 17 atm (Ray and Johnson)

Assuming 98% of gas absorption by the liquid, then

285

Gas Flow Rate =

Multiply the slope of the minimum operating line by 1.5 to get the slope of the actual
operating line: (sinott 2005)

14.5.2 ABSORPTION FACTOR (AF)

AF = absorption factor
L2 = molar flow rate of liquid
m = slope of the equilibrium line on a mole fraction basis = Hy
G1 = molar flow rate of gas
= 87%

14.5.3 DIAMETER CALCULATION:

286

Adopting the methodology as given in RICHARDSON AND COULSON, VOLUME 6,


page 587. First we calculate the liquid-vapour flow factor FLV,

From the Plot of entrainment vrs FLV,


K4 at flooding line = 0.64
Thus, the liquid flow rate is given as,
Ls

Kg/s

Density (L) = 790Kg/m3


The value for the absorption factor (AF) for most absorption processes is 0.5-0.95 (treybal,
1980)
Adopting the methodology as given in RICHARDSON AND COULSON, VOLUME 6,
Choosing the following packing, as given in RICHARDSON & COULSON, Pg 608
Material = 3 Pall rings metal
Nominal Size = 76 mm
Bulk Density = 273 Kg/m3
Surface Area = 66 m2/ m3
Packing Factor (Fp) = 52 m-1
Voidage, = 75
Then,
287

= 0.4545 Kg/m2s
Designing for a Pressure Drop of 32 mm acetone per m of packing, we have
K4 = 1.25
Then, Cornells method for determining percentage flooding (sinnot 2005, page 618).
Percentage flooding at selected diameter:

% Flooding =

= 71.55%

And,

Then, the cross section area required,

(Sinnott 2005)

Thus diameter calculated is,

Di =
288

Hence the Diameter which is calculated from this approach is


14.5.4 HEIGHT OF PACKING CALCULATION:

Volumetric Flow rate (

) of the entering gas is given by;

Gas Velocity at the bottom of the tower is given by,

Mass Flow Rate at the top of the tower is given by,

Volumetric Flow rate at the top of the tower is given by,

Gas Velocity at the top of the tower is given by,

289

0.415 m/s

Then Average Gas Velocity is given as,

And, Average Gas Velocity in the Packing,

Liquid Flow (Lf)


Given that,
Surface Area of Packing (SP) = 66 m2/ m3
Liquid Density =

Then, wetting rate

(Kister (1992))

The Methodology adopted for the calculation of Height of the Packing is referred from the
literature by NORMAN W.S (ABSORPTION, DISTILLATION AND COOLING
TOWERS), Pg 214.
The Average Properties of the gas at the temperature are given as follows,
The Density of gas mixture

Viscosity of gas mixture (mix) =


0.9941

290

= 1.000445 10-5 Pa.s


Diffusivity of the gas (DF) =

(sinott 2005)

Schmidt Number (NSC) =

As given in the literature,


The Reynolds number is calculated for the Standard Wetted Wall Column having the
diameter,
dw = 3.2447m

Reynolds Number (Re) =

Cited in the Reference NORMAN W.S (ABSORPTION, DISTILLATION AND


COOLING TOWERS), Pg 212, the co-relation is,

kG

(sinott 2005)

Now,
With (P/PBM) =1(approx), we have,

= 0.5087 lb mole / hr-ft2-atm.


Also given in the table of NORMAN W.S (ABSORPTION, DISTILLATION AND
COOLING TOWERS), Pg 210 & Pg 211
291

Partial Pressure of acetylene in the gas at inlet, P1= 0.0059atm = 597.82Pa


Partial Pressure at the Outlet,
P2 =

=203.257 Pa

Mean Driving Force =

Acetylene absorbed =

Area of Packing =

Area of Packing/ft height = 66

=550.96 m

Height of Packing Required =


Therefore the height of the packing required is 9.2677 m

14.5.5 OVERALL HEIGHT OF COLUMN


H tower = 1.40 H pack + 1.02 D + 2.81 ((Ray and Johnson)
Htower = 1.40(9.2677) + 1.02(

) + 2.81 = 19.09775 m

292

(1.50)

Summary of Chemical Engineering Design


PARAMETER

VALUE

Height of Packings

9.2677m

Column Height

19.0977m

Wetting rate

Choice of packing

3 Pall rings metal

Packing size

76 mm

Type of installation

Random

Absorption factor

87%

Percentage Flooding

71. 55%

Pressure of the Column

1722.525KPa

Diameter of Column

Average Gas Velocity in the Packing


Cross sectional area
0.0082atm.m3/mol

Henrys correlation (Hy)

14.60MECHANICAL DESIGN OF ABSORBER


MATERIAL:
Carbon Steel
Inner Diameter of vessel, Di =

293

Height of the packing required = 6.604m


Skirt height

= 2m

Density of material column (carbon steel) = 7700 Kg/m3


Wind pressure = 90 Kg/m2
Permissible tensile stress (f) = 95N/mm2 for temperature (00C-500C)
Poisson ratio (v) =0.3
Thickness of skirt = 30mm
Youngs modulus (E) = 207GPa

(Sinnott 2005 pg 830)

14.6.1THICKNESS OF SHELL (e):

Thickness of shell (e),

(sinnot 2005, pg 830)

Where,
Inner Diameter of vessel, Di =

Working Pressure (p) = 1.09 x105 N/m2


For design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure. (Sinnott 2005,pg 835)
Design Pressure, p = 1.10 x 17.23x105 N/m2
= 1.89 N/mm2
Permissible Stress (f) = 95N/mm2
Joint Efficiency (J) = 0.5 (Sinnott 2005, table 9.21)
294

Most design codes and standards specify minimum allowance of 3.0 mm. (sinnott2005, pg
826)
Corrosion allowance(c) = 3mm = 0.003m
Hence,

= 11.733mm

For column of diameter 2m-3m, the minimum thickness should be 10mm. (sinnott2005, pg
828)

14.6.2ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS DESIGN OF AN ABSORBER


Most standard ellipsoidal heads are manufactured with a major and minor axis ratio of 2: 1.
For this ratio, the following equation can be used to calculate the minimum thickness
required:

11.756 mm

14.6.3CRITICAL PRESSURE ESTIMATION

21 MPa

295

14.6.4OUT OF ROUNDNESS

Figure 2.0
So outer diameter of shell Do = 3.248 m + 2 x 0.03m = 3.308 m
Ovality (out-of-roundness) of a cylinder is measured by:

%
For vessels under external pressure this should normally exceed 1.5%. (Sinnot 2005, pg
841)

14.6.5PRIMARY STRESSES ON THE CLOUMN

MPa

296

Figure 3: stresses in cylindrical shell

14.6.6 Stresses in a cylindrical shell under combined loading


1.562 MPa

Total weight = Weight of vessel + Weight of Attachments

297

W=

= 188 KN
The bending stresses will be compressive or tensile, depending on location, and are
given by:

The forces due to wind load acting on the lower and upper parts of the vessels are
determined as
Plw = k 1 h1 Do
Puw = k

h2 Do

. (1)
(2)

Data:
Choosing cylindrical skirt support as the support for the absorber
Skirt support is used to support the absorber column.
Material to be used = Structural steel (ISO 800)
1 = density structured steel = 7700 kg /m3
h1=2m

D0=3.308m

k=0.7 for cylindrical surface

Pressure due to the lower part of column (skirt)


Plw= 0.723.3087700 =35,660 Pa
Pressure due to the upper part of column
298

Puw =0.777006.603.308 = 117,678.792 Pa


Bending moment due to wind at the base of the vessel is determined by:

Iv the second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending

Therefore bending stress,

14.6.7 Torsional shear stresses ():


Torsional shear stresses resulting from torque caused by loads offset from the vessel axis.
The torsional shear stress is given by:

14.7 Principal stresses

299

Maximum allowable design stress down-wind side well =

14.7.1 Dynamic wind pressure

Wind velocity (uw) for most engineering design is 160Km/hr.

14.7.2 The loading per unit length of the column

Where

the effective column diameter is: This includes the outside diameter plus an

allowance for the thermal insulation and attachments, such as pipes and ladders.

D0=3.308 m
An allowance of 0.4 m is mostly added for expansion

300

(Sinnott 2005, pg 853)

14.7.3 Earthquake loading

ae = the acceleration of the vessel due to the earthquake,


g = the acceleration due to gravity,
W = total weight of the vessel.
(ae/g) is called the seismic constant Ce,
For most cylindrical vessels, the seismic constant is 0.08

14.7.4 Elastic stability (buckling):


Critical buckling stress:

71.076

14.7.5 Maximum Compressive Stress between bearing plate and foundation

Inner Diameter of the vessel, Di = 3.245 m


Outer Diameter of the vessel, Do = 3.305 m

301

14.7.6 Anchor Bolt,


Wmin=7.86 x 105 N (assumed)

= 596696.65

Ab

1 4Ms
Nb fb Db

Where:
Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread
Nb = number of bolts
fb = maximum allowable bolt stress
Ms = bending moment at the base
Db = bolt circle diameter
W = weight of column
Bolt spacing should not be less than 600 mm and the total number of bolts should be in
multiples of 4.[Sinnott pg860]
302

Number of bolts required at minimum bolt spacing

00
600

Closest multiple of 4 = 24 bolts

Ab

4
125

Bolt root diameter =

Bolt spacing =

1613551 469
22
4

2 2 103

9042

mm

mm

14.8 Pressure exerted on the bolt


Pbolt = (fcmin x A) / N = 31.89 x 105N

303

m2

Summary of Mechanical Engineering Design


PARAMETER

VALUE

Type of Support Used

cylindrical skirt

Minimum Shell thickness

11.733mm

Critical Pressure

21MPa

Weight of Support

188 KN

Inner Diameter of the vessel

3.248m

Outer Diameter of the vessel

3.308m

Maximum Stress on support


Number of Bolts
Material of Construction

Carbon Steel

Elastic stability

71.076

Earthquake loading

15040 N

Torsional shear stress ()

0.37MPa

Bending stress (

2.6 MPa

Ellipsoidal head thickness

11.756 mm

304

CHAPTER 15

15.0 DESIGN OF ETHYLENE COLUMN


15.1 Chemical engineering design of a binary distillation column
Fractional distilling of Acetylene in a mixture with Ethylene using binary distillation
column with ellipsoidal head.
The basis of the design of the distillation column is to produce pure Ethylene of
purity1.0ppm and Acetylene of purity 1.0x10-4 from a feed(F) rate of 13496.41774Kg/Hr.
the mass fraction of Ethylene and Acetylene are 99.99988% and 1.1838 x 10-4%
respectively. The feed entered the column at -10 oC and a pressure of 1atm.

15.1.1 Design of the binary column


Assumptions
Solution in the column is well mixed and homogeneous
Vapour leaving is pure Acetylene vapour at temperature of boiling solution and
operating pressure of the distillation column.
The column is well insulated and adiabatic
All of the heat transfer takes place in the condenser and reboiler

Stagewise analyse for an Hour operaion


Balances on fig.1
Basis: 13496.41774 kg of feed
Overall balance: F = D + B.. (1)
305

Where:
F = feed
D = distillate or top product
B = bottom product.
Component Balance:
FX F DX D BX B ....................................................... 2

XD = mass fraction of distillate


XB = mass fraction of bottom product
XF = mass fraction of feed
Substituting values in equation (2):
For acetylene:13494.41774 (1.18381x0-4) = (0.999999)D + (1.01x0-6)B
Solving simultaneously gives B =13894.83353kg and D = 1.584212kg
Number of ideal plates
Assuming constant relative volatility, the number of ideal plates at total reflux can be
estimated by the FENSKE equation:

N min

ln[ xD (1 xB ) / xB (1 xD )]
1 .. (3)
ln

Where:
Nnim = Minimum number of ideal plates
306

XB = mole fraction of bottom product


XD = mole fraction of distillate
= PA/ PE (relative volatility of the two component)
PA = Partial pressure of Acetylene
PA =2769.6800KPa
PE =Partial pressure of Ethylene
PE =2250KPa
=1.23
Average molecular Weight of mixture = MEXE + MAXA
Where ME = molar mass of Ethylene
XE = mass fraction of Ethylene
MA = molar mass of Acetylene
XA= mass fraction of Acetylene
The average molecular Weight of mixture = 28.05(0.9999988) + 26.06 (1.183810-6) =
28.0499Kg/kmol
Fraction of distillate (Acetylene), XD = 0.999999
Similarly, mole fraction of acetylene at the bottom, XB = 1.010-6
And mole fraction of Acetylene in the feed, XF = 1.183810-4
307

Therefore Nnim =

ln0.9999991 1.0 10^ 6 / 1.0 10^ 61 0.999999


1
ln 1.23

Hence, Nnim = 110


Minimum and optimum reflux ratio
The Underwoods first equation is used to determine the minimum reflux ratio. It is given
by:

Rmin =

1
X / X 1 X D /1 X F (4)
1 D F

Where:
is the relative volatility of the two components
Rmin is the minimum reflux ratio
XD and XF are the mole fraction of methanol in the distillate and feed
respectively.

Rmin

1
0.99999 / 0.11838 10^6 1.231 0.99999 /1 0.11838 10^6 3662
1.23 1
From studies, the optimum reflux ratio to use for lowest cost per year is between the
minimum Rmin and the total reflux. This has been shown for many cases to be at an
operating reflux ratio between 1.2 Rmin and 1.5 Rmin. (Geankopolis, 198.)
Therefore, the optimum reflux ratio, R is chosen as
R = 1.2(Rmin) = 4394
308

Actual number of plates, N


From Gillilands correlation given by:

R Rmin
N N min
f
N 1
R 1

......................................................................................(5)

(Coulson et al, 1983)


Where R is the optimum reflux ratio and N is the number of plates.

R Rm
1.83
R 1
For plate efficiency, Eo = 85%
N=Nmin/0.85
N=129
Location of feed plate
KIRKBRIDES equation is used for the estimation of the number of plates above and
below the feed plate. The equation is given by:

B X
m
log 0.206 log FF
p
D X MF

X FD

(6)
X MD

Where:
B = mass flow rate of bottom product
D = mass flow rate of top product
309

XFF = fraction of Ethylene in feed


XMF = mole fraction of Acetylene in feed XFD = mole fraction of Ethylene in top product
XMD = mole fraction of Acetylene in top product
m = number of theoretical stages above the feed plates
p = number of theoretical stages below the feed plate

13494.83
m
0.99999
1.0 10^ _ 6
log 0.206 log

0.9998

p
1.5977 0.11838 10^ 6 0.99999

m
0.9998
p

m = 0.9998p... (7)
Total number of plates, T = p + m.................................... (8)
Substituting equation (7) into (8) gives:
T = p + 0.9998p

129 = 1.9998p

P= 65
Therefore the number of plates below the feed is 69. Hence the feed plate is at the 11th
plate from the top.

310

15.2 Height of tower, H


For safety considerations,

0.25m is added to the top tray

0.5m is taken as the spacing between the draw off tray and the bottom of the
product. (Coulson et al, 1983)

Tray spacing =600mm=24in


H = (129*0.6)+0.75= 78.15m
Vapour and liquid rates at the top of the column
Material balance around the first tray of the column and the condenser gives:
V = L + D. (9)
Where V and L are vapour and liquid rates at the top of the column
D = Distillate or top product

Now

V
R 1 (Mc Cabe et al, 1986)
D

Where:
R = reflux ratio

V
4394 1 4395 , but D = 1.5842kg /hr
D

V=6962.6147kg/hr

Also

L
R
4394

0.9459 L=6961.0305kg/hr
V R 1 4394 1
311

Therefore vapour and liquid rate at the top of the column are 6962.6147kg/hr and
6961.0305kg/hr respectively.
Vapour and liquid rates at the bottom of the column
Assume a constant molal overflow at the bottom of the column, the total material balance
gives:
LB = VB +B (10)
Where:
LB = liquid rate at the bottom of the column
VB = vapour rate at the bottom of the column
B = bottom product
F= feed rate
But
LB = L + F.. (11)
LB =20457.4482kg/hr
VB=LB-B
VB=6962.6182kg/hr
Therefore liquid and vapour rate at the bottom of the column are 20457.4482kg/hr and
6962.6182kg/hr respectively.
Balances around entire column
312

Steady state energy balance around the entire column:


FhF + QC + QR = DhD + BhB.. (12)
Condenser mass balance is
V=L+D
Condenser energy balance is
V hV + QC = DhD + L hL... .. (13)
Where:
hV = enthalpy of vapour at the top of column =
V = vapour flow rate = 6962.6147kg/hr
QC = condenser duty
D = flow rate of distillate 1.5842kg/hr
hD = enthalpy of distillate = -2086.74kJ
L = flow rate of liquid at the top of the column =6961.0305kg/hr
hL = enthalpy of liqiud at the top of the column = -2086.74kJ

QC 32614MJ / hr
From equation (11), QR = DhD + BhB - FhF - QC
Where:
QR = reboiler heat duty
313

hF = the enthalpy of feed = 102.55kJ


hD = enthalpy of distillate = -2086.74kJ
hB = enthalpy of bottom product = 102.55kJ
D = flow rate of distillate 1.5842kg/hr
QC = condenser heat duty = MJ/hr
F = feed flow rate = 13496.4177kg/hr

QR 29833MJ / hr
Determination of vapour and liquid density at the top
Molecular weight of vapour MV = 0.99999(26.06) + 1.0*10-6(28.05) = 26.06g/mol
Assume the ideal gas law is applicable to vapour,
Then

PV = nRT PV =

M
RT
MV

M
PMV = RT , PMV V RT
V

PM V
RT

Where:
T = Boiling point temperature of Acetylene = 357K

314

P = pressure of column = 5030kPa


MV = molecular vapour = 26.06g/mol
R = gas constant =8.314 Pam3/mol.K

V vapour density
V (5030 x 26.06)/(8.314 x 357) =44.1636kg/ m3

V 0.999999(7.61)+(5.5909)(1.x10-6)=7.61kg/m3
Liquid density = (1.0 x10 -6)(11.03329) +(0.999999 x17.2133)=17.2132kg/ m3
Determination of vapour and liquid density at the bottom
Molecular vapour, MV = 0.999999(28.05) + 1.0 x 10 -6(26.06) = 28.0499g/mol
Assume the ideal gas law is applicable to vapour,

then PV = nRT PV =

M
RT
MV

M
PMV = RT
V

PM V
RT

Where:
T = Boiling point temperature of Ethylene= 377K
P = pressure of column = 5030kPa

315

MV = molecular vapour = 28.0499g/mol


R = gas constant =8.314 Pam3/mol.K

V vapour density
V (5030 x 28. 0499)/(8.314 x 377)=45.0140kg/ m3
Hence the gas mixture is not ideal.

V 0.999999(5.5909) + 7.61(1.0 x 10 -6) =5.59kg/ m3


Liquid density, = 11.0339kg/ m3
Determination of liquid-vapour flow factor, FLV at the bottom and top
The liquid-vapour flow factor, FLV is given by:

FLV

Lw
Vw

V
L

(R.K Sinnot, 1986)

Where:
Lw = liquid mass flow-rate, kg/hr
Vw = vapour mass flow-rate, kg/hr
At bottom;
=2.091
At the top
=0.665
316

Therefore, the liquid-vapour factor at the bottom and top are 2.091 and 0.665 respectively.
Determination of flooding velocity at the top and bottom
The flooding velocity can be estimated from the correlation given by Fair (1961):

uf =

K1 L V

0.5

V 0.5

.. (9)

Where:
uf = is the flooding vapour velocity in m/s or maximum permissible velocity
based on bubbling of active area,
K1 = empirical constant,

V = vapour density
L = liquid density
From fig. 11.27 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986), using a plate spacing of (24inch)
K1= 0.09.bottom
K1 = 0.10.top
Corrections for surface tensions:
Bottom surface tension = 56x10-3N/m
Top surface tension

= 21x10-3N/m

Therefore:
317

0.2

Bottom K1 =

56
2
9 10 0.11
20

Top

21
2
10 10 0.10
20

0.2

K1 =

Hence,
Bottom
uf=0.11((11.033-5.59)/(5.59)^0.5)
uf b= 13.5398 m/s
Top
uft =11.2352 m/s
The flooding condition fixes the upper limit of the vapour velocity. A high vapour velocity
is needed for high plate efficiencies, and the velocity will normally be between 70 to 90 per
cent of that which will cause flooding. For design, a value of 80 to 85 per cent should be
used. (R.K. Sinnot, 1986)
Hence design for 85 per cent flooding at maximum flow rate (f) will be:
Bottom fb 13.5398 x 0.8500=11.5088m/s
Top

ft =11.2352 x 0.8500=9.55m/s

Maximum volumetric flow rate


The maximum volumetric flow rate can be calculated from the correlation,

318

..(10)

Where V = vapour rate, kg/s m3

V = vapour density
= maximum volumetric vapour flow rate
Base = (6962.6182/5.59)
=124.55488 m3 / hr
Top

= (6961.0305/7.61)
=91.7215 m3 / hr

15.3 Area required


The net area required can be estimated from the equation:

AC / f ...(11)
Where:
AC = column area
= maximum volumetric flow rate
f = maximum flooding flow rate
Bottom

319

AC (124.5548/11.5088)=10.8225m2
Top

AC (91.7215/9.55)
=9.5120m2

15.3.1 Determination of column diameter, dc


Column diameter:

DC

4 AC .. (12)

Where:
AC = column area
Top
=(4 x9,51220/3.124)^0.5
=3.4801m =3.5m
Bottom
=(4 x 10.8225/3.142)^0.5
3.7120m
=3.7m
For the design

320

Dc =3.6m
Liquid flow pattern
Maximum volumetric liquid rate,

L =

LB

..(13)

Where:
LB = liquid rate at the bottom of the column, kg/s

L = liquid density
L =(20457.4482/11.033)
=1854.2054 m3 /hr
=0.5151m3s-1

15.4 Summary of chemical engineering design

321

Table 15.1: Column Design Specifications

Feed Temperature (0C)

-30

Feed Pressure (kPa)

1atm

Top Pressure (kPa)

0.999atm

Bottom Pressure (kPa)

1.001atm

Reflux Ratio(R)

4394

Minimum Reflux Ratio(Rmin)

3662

R/Rmin

1.2

Feed Stage

65

Minimum number of trays(Nmin)

110

Number of Actual Trays

129

Tray Efficiency

85%

Height of column(m)

78.2m

Condenser Heat Duty, QC, (MJ/h) -32614


Reboiler Heat Duty, QR, (MJ/h)

29833

Ethylene purity

99.9999%

Column diameter, m

3.6

322

15.5 Choice of column tray


The sieve tray is chosen for the purpose of this design because of its efficiency, wide
operating range, and ease of maintenance and cost factors. The sieve tray is the simplest
type of cross-flow plate.
Weir height
For columns operating above atmospheric pressure, the weir heights will normally be
between 40-90mm; 40-50mm is recommended, (R.K. Sinnot, 1986).
Since the column is operated at 1 atmosphere, weir height, hw, of 0.050m is used.
Tray area
The weir height fixes the area of the down comer (Ad).
Ad =10.1672 x 0-05=0.5084m2

at 12 per cent

Net area, AN = AC-Ad =10.1672-0.5084


AN =9.6588m2

Using

Ad
l
100 12 , equivalent w 0.76 is read from Fig.11.31 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986).
AC
DC

Where lw = length of weir


Dc = column diameter
lw =0.76 x 3.6m =2.7720m
Value of hole diameter, d h and plate thickness are 0.05m and 5mm respectively.

323

dh

=0.05m

Active area, Aa = AC -2Ad =9.1504m2


Hole area, Ah =0.1Aa
Ah=0.91504m2
Checking weeping
The hole area must be chosen so that at the lowest operating rate the vapour flow velocity is
still and well above the weep point.
Maximum liquid rate L = 1854.2054m3/hr
Minimum liquid rate =70% of L (minimum liquid rate at 70% turn down)
=1297.9438m3/hr
=1.3535m3s-1
How =750(LW/ L lw) 2/3
Where;
LW =liquid flow rate, kg/hr
Lw =weir length,m
how =weir crest, mm
Maximum how
LW=1.9336kg/s
324

How =750(1.9336/(17.2132 x 2.772))2/3


=88.48mm
Minimum how = 750(1.3535/17.2132 x 2.772)2/3
=69mm
Hence at minimum rate,hw + how =120mm
From Fig. 11.30, the weep-point correlation Eduljee (1959), K2 = 31.4
Also;

= minimum vapour velocity through the holes at weep point

V = vapour density
dh

= hole diameter.mm
=(31.4-0.90(25.4 -0.05)/(5.59) 0.5)

=8.63m/s

Actual minimum vapour velocity =

minimum vapour rate


(16)
Ah

=18ms-1
This means minimum operating rate will be well above weep point.

325

Dry Plate Drop


Maximum vapour velocity through holes:

=38m/s
The pressure drop through the dry plate can be estimated using expressions derived for flow
through orifices given as:
2

u
hd 51 h V . (17)
CO L

Where the orifice coefficient CO is a function of the plate thickness, hole diameter, and the
hole to perforated area ratio.
From discharge coefficient (CO) plot, fig 11.34 (R.K Sinnot, 1986), Liebson et al, (1957),
for plate thickness/hole diameter =1 and Ah/Ap Ah /Aa = 0.1, CO = 0.84. Hence hd can be
estimated as:
2

37.8 0.74
= 51
69.5mm liquid
0.84 1100

Residual Head

hr
hr

12.5 103

L
12.5 103
11.4mm liquid...........................................................................(18)
1100

326

Total plate pressure drop, ht


ht hd hw how hr .(19)

= 69.5 50 15 11.4 145.9mm liquid


ht 9.81145.9 103 23 32.92 Pa

Downcomer design
Downcomer pressure loss
Assume the height of apron, hap = hw 10 = 40mm
Then area under apron, Aap = lw x hap = 1.22 x 0.04 = 0.049m2
As this is less than Ad =0.5084m2 the head loss in the downcomer, hdc can be estimated
using the equation given by Cicalese et at, (1947)

L
hdc 166 wd .................................................................................................(20)
L Am
where:
L wd liquid flow rate in downcomer, kg/s
A m either the downcomer area Ad or the clearance area under the downcomer A ap :
whichever is the smaller, m 2
3.91

hdc 166
12.0mm
1100 0.049

Downcomer liquid back-up


In terms of clear liquid the downcomer back-up, hb, is given by:
327

hb hw how ht hdc ...................................................................................(21)

hb 50 15 145.9 12
222.9mm

= 0.22m
Residence time
Downcomer residence time is given by:

tr

Ad hbc L
.....................................................................................................(22)
Lwd

where:
tr residence time
h bc clear liquid back-up

tr

0.06 0.22 1100


3.7 s
3.91

Determination of entrainment
The percentage flooding is given by:

Percentage flooding =

un actual velocity based on net area


(23)
uf

Actual percentage flooding for design area

un

5.59
3.63m / s
1.54

328

Per cent flooding

3.63
87, FLV 0.05
4.24

From Fig. 11.28 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986), fractional entrainment 0.08 which is less than the
upper limit of 0.1, hence satisfactory.
Estimation of perforated area

From Fig. 11.32 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986), at

lw
0.76
DC

Where

990

angle subtended by chord

angle subtended at plate edge by unperforated strip = 180 99 = 810


Mean length, unperforated edge strips = 2.04 50 103

81
2.81m
180

Area of unperforated edge strips = 50 103 2.81 0.141m2


Area of calming zones 2 50 103 1.22 2 50 103 0.117m2
Total area available for perforation AP 1.48 0.141 0.117 1.222m2

Ah 0.148

0.121
Ap 1.222

From Fig. 11.33 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986),

lp
dh

2.7, satisfatory, within 2.5 to 4.0

Where:
329

lp = the hole pitch (distance between the hole centers)


l p d h 2.8 5 2.7 13.5mm

Calculation of the Number of Holes


Area of one hole = 1.963 x 10-3m2
Number of holes =AC/ Area of a hole
=48989
Table 15.2: Plate Specifications
Plate I.D.

3.6m

Length of weir, lw

2.772m

Weir height

0.5m

Hole diameter, d h

50mm

Downcomer area, Ad

0.5084m2

Plate thickness

5mm

Net area, (An)

9.6588m2

Active area, Ac

10.1672m2

Hole area, Ah

0.00196m2

Hole pitch, lp

13.5mm

Plate spacing

0.6m

Active holes

48989

Turn-down

70% max. rate

Plate pressure drop

146mm
liquid=32.92Pa

Plate material

Mild steel

Downcomer material Mild steel

330

15.6 Mechanical design of binary distillation column


15.6.1 Design pressure
Vessels subject to external pressure should be designed to resist the maximum differential
pressure that is likely to occur during operation. From the chemical design analysis, the
design pressure is taken as 10% of the operating pressure.

10
101.3 10.13kPa
100

hence Design Pressure =10.13 + 101.3 =111.43 kPa


15.6.2 Design temperature
The strength of materials decreases with temperature. The maximum operational
temperature was 45oC. For design purposes, a tolerance of about 20oC is allowed. The
maximum operational temperature could therefore be pegged at 55oC.
15.7 Material for construction
A material suitable for the fabrication must be selected. The material selected must be
compatible with the process conditions. Carbon and alloy steel are generally good for use
as constructional material for pressure vessels. (Sinnot,1993). Stainless steel is therefore
used for the construction.
Corrosion allowance
Corrosion or Scaling in equipments such as this is inevitable. An additional thickness
(corrosion allowance) is therefore added to the constructional material to allow for material
lost by scaling or corrosion. The allowance is based on experience with the material of
construction under previous service conditions similar to that intended for the design.
331

For carbon and low alloy steel, a minimum allowance of 2.0mm should be used. (R.K.
Sinnot). Where more corrosion is expected a minimum of 4mm is allowed.
Design load
The column must be designed to overcome gross plastic deformation and collapse under all
conditions of loading. Two main categories of loads are identified. The major loads
include:
Design pressure: including any significant static head of liquid.
Maximum weight of the vessel and content under operating conditions.
Maximum weight of the vessel and contents under hydraulic test conditions.
Wind loads
Weight Loads

The major sources of dead weight are:

the column itself

the column fittings : manways, nozzles

the internal fittings: plates and insulation

external fittings: ladders

weight of the in the column

According to Sinnot, 1993, the approximate weight of the column, Wv is given by:
W v 240Cv Dm H c 0.8( Dm ) t

Where:

W v = Total weight of column or shell; N


332

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and plate support ring or
equivalent fittings and it is equal to 1.15 for distillation columns. (R.K sinnot, 1993)
Hc = Column height = 78.2m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81N/m2
t = wall thickness, mm = 5mm
Dm = mean diameter of column = t + diameter of column = 0.005 + 3.6 = 3.605m
WV =240 X 1.15 X 3.605[78.2 +(0.8 X 3.605)] X 5 =403.3847kN
Weight of plates
Plate Area = d2/4
=10.1788m2
The total weight of a plate are found by multiplying the plate area by 1.2kN/m
Weight of a plate =1.2kN/m x 10.1788m2
=12.2146N
Therefore for 129 plates;
Total weight of plates =129 X 12.2146 =157.56782kN

Weight of insulation

333

Mineral wool is used for the insulation because it is relatively cheap and also widely used
for insulating distillation columns. (Nelson, 1963).
Density of mineral wool = 130kg/m3 (Nelson, 1993)
Thickness of insulation = 75mm (Nelson, 1993)
Approximate volume of insulation =3.142 X 3.6 X 78.2 X 0.075
=66.34m3
Weight of insulation =66.3400 x 130 x 9.81 =84.60364kN
The weight of insulation is doubled to allow for attachment of fittings and moisture
absorption. (Nelson, 1963)
Therefore weight of insulation together with fittings is taken as 2 X 84.6036 =169.2073kN
Sum of Weights = weight of shell + weight of plates + insulation weight
= 403.3847 +157.5682 + 169.2073
= 730.1602kN
Wind loading
Column loading is a very important factor which must be considered since the column
would be sited in an open. Usually, columns are free standing and mounted on skirt
support. The column under these conditions under wind loading acts as a cantilever beam.
Wind pressure for smooth cylindrical columns is estimated from the relation;
Pw = 0.05Uw 2
334

Pw = wind pressure, N/m2


Uw = wind speed, km/h.
Average Uw of Takoradi = 150km/h (Meteorological Department, Takoradi). To allow for
tolerance, a value of 160km/h will be used.
pw 0.05 1602 1280 N / m2

The load per unit length of the column, Fw, is obtained from the wind pressure multiply by
the effective diameter, Deff, (i.e. the outside diameter + an allowance for the thermal
insulation).
Fw = Pw Deff
Deff = 3.6 + 2(0.075 + 0.005) = 3.76m
FW = PW Deff
1280 x 3.76 = 4812.8N/m
Since the column would be free standing and mounted on skirt supports it would act as a
cantilever under wind loading.
Now for a uniform loaded cantilever, the bending moment at any plane is given by:

Mx =

Wx 2
2

W = load per unit length

x = column height

335

Wx =Fx
Mx =(4812.8 )2 /2 =11581521.92Nm
Wall thickness
To ensure that column is sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight, a minimum wall
thickness is allowed. For column with diameter between 0.5-2m a minimum thickness of
10mm is required. (R.K. Sinnot, 1993) Since the column diameter is 3.6m, wall thickness
of 10mm is used.
Design stress
It is necessary to decide a value for the maximum allowable stress that can be acceptable in
the material of construction.
It is determined by applying a suitable design stress factor (factor of safety) to the
maximum stress that the material is could be expected to withstand failure under standard
test conditions. The design stress factor allows for any uncertainty in the in the design
methods, the loading, the quality of the materials and the workmanship.
For materials not subject to high temperatures, the design stress is based on the yield stress
(proof stress) or the tensile strength of the material at design temperature.
Primary stress

The longitudinal stress is given by: h

PDi
2t

h = longitudinal stress, N/mm2


336

P = Design pressure, N/mm = 111.43kPa = 1.4bar = 0.14N/mm2

Di = internal diameter of column = 3600mm


t = wall thickness = 5mm

h = (0.14 x 3600)/(2 x 5) =50.4N/mm


The circumference stress is also calculated from the relation:
(Sinnot 1993)
=(0.14 x 3600) /(20) =25.2Nmm-2
The stress due to the weight of the vessel and the attachments are referred to as the direct
Stress

is calculated as;
(sinnot,1993)

W=Total weight of the column


(t)=residence time
Di =column diameter

As a result of bending moments on the column, the column would definitely be subjected to
bending stress. The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on the location
and it is given by:
337

IV = Seccond moment of area of te vessel obout the plan of bending and is given as

DO =3600 +(2 X 5) =3610mm


IV =9.1991 X 1010
227.2466N/mm2
The total longitudinal stress;

= -12.8924+ 25.2 +227.2466


=239.5542N/mm2

= -12.8924 +25.2000- 227.2466

338

= -214.939N/mm2
According to Sinnot, 1993; the greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on
the down-wind side and this should be below the maximum allowable of 11581N/mm2.
The greatest difference between principal stresses =239.5542-(-214.939)= 454.4932N/mm2.
This far below the maximum and it is therefore allowable.
Elastic Stability
The critical buckling stress c is given by:

The maximum compressive stress = 5.95 + 19.17 = 25N/mm2. This is far below the critical
and therefore acceptable.

15.8Column Supports
Horizontal vessels are usually mounted on two saddle supports whilst tall vertical vessels
like distillation columns are mounted on skirt supports. The supports must be designed to
carry the weight of the vessel and contents, and any superimposed loads such as wind
loads. Supports should also be designed to allow easy access to the vessel and fittings for
inspection and maintenance. The height of the skirt is usually between 2-3m. For this
design a height of 2m is used.

339

Skirt thickness
The resultant stresses, in the skirt will be:

s bs ws
Where: bs = the bending stress in the skirt given by

bs

4M s
.............................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)
( Ds ts )ts Ds

ws = the dead weight stress in the skirt given by:

ws

W
..........................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)
Ds ts ts

Ms = maximum bending moments evaluated at the base of the base of the skirt
W = total weight of the vessel and its contents
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt at the base
Ts = skirt thickness
The skirt thickness should be such that under worst combination of wind and dead weight
loading the following design criteria should not be exceeded;

ts
sin s .....................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)
Ds

ws 0.125E

340

E = Youngs modulus = 200,000N/mm2


s

= base angle of the conical skirt, normally 80o-90o

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt that would occur when the column is full of
water. (Sinnot, 1993)
Approximate weight =7808.5544kN
Weight of column = 730.160kN
Total weight =8538.7146kN
Wind loading = 48.128kN

As a first trial, take skirt thickness to be 17mm.

The maximum stress (compressive), s is calculated as: s

341

=934.4826.N/mm2
Maximum stress (tensile), s = 44.2023 +3.7798 =47.9821N/mm2

Criteria test for design


Maximumallowablestress

This is far higher than the calculated design stress. The criterion is therefore satisfied.
2mm is added to the skirt thickness to cater for corrosion. Design skirt thickness is
therefore taken as 19mm.

Base ring and anchor bolt

Where
Ab=Area of the Bolt at the root of the thread,mm2
Nb =number of Bolts
Fb=maximum allowable bolt stress also equal to the design stress of 11581.521N/m
Db =bolt circle diameter,m
Ms =bending moment at the base,Nm
342

The diameter of the column including insulation =3.675ms


Circumference of bolt =3675
According to Scheim (1963), bolt spacing should not be less than 600mm and the total
number of bolts should be in multiples of 4.
Number of bolt =3675/600=20

Assume bolt diameter = 32mm

Bolt root diameter

The total compressive load, Fb on the base ring per unit length is given by:

The minimum width of the base ring, Lb is given by:

Lb =79766.569/5x 103 =16mm


343

This is the minimum required; actual width Lr ts 50mm (Scheiman, 1963)

Where Lr is the distance from the skirt to outer edge of the ring.
Actual width = 76 + 13+50 = 139mm
Actual pressure on the concrete foundation,

The minimum thickness of base ring is found by the ring as a cantilever beam and it is
given by:

tb Lr

3 f c'
.......................................................................................( Scheiman, 1963)
fr

344

Table 15.3: Mechanical Engineering Design Specifications


Weight of shell, Wv

403.4000kN

Resultant
longitudinal 240N/mm2
stress (upwind), z

Critical buckling stress, 28N/mm2

Resultant
longitudinal -13 N/mm2
stress (downwind), z

Weight of plates

8kN

Circumferential stress

Skirt height

2m

Bending moment at skirt 891kN


base

Number of bolts

20

Load per unit length of the 4813N/m


column, Fw

Weight of column

703kN

Bending moment, Mx

154780.6kNm

Wind pressure,N/m2

1280

Total weight

731kN

Maximum
stress(compressive), s

934.4826N/mm2 Maximum
s

Bolt area

724mm2

23N/mm2

stress(tensile), 48N/mm2

Bolt root diameter

30.4mm

Total compressive load, 79766kN/m


Fb

Minimum width of base 16mm


ring, Lb

Actual width of base ring

Actual pressure,

0.8N/mm2

Total weight of column

731kN

Minimum thickness
base ring, tb

22mm

of 9mm

345

CHAPTER 16

16.0 PLANT LOCATION AND SITING OF THE PLANT


The location of the plant is a very important factor to consider when designing a chemical
industrial plant. It does not only affect the profitability of the project but can give way for
future expansion. The plant should therefore be located where minimum cost of production,
as well as distribution could be obtained. Also, an environmental impact analysis needs to
be performed to determine the expected effect of the plant and its by-products on the
surrounding areas.

16.1 CHOICE OF LOCATION


The yard stick for choosing an appropriate location for the plant was an analysis of
industrial areas in Ghana such as Kumasi, Takoradi and the Tema heavy industrial area,
which was chosen for the following reasons: close to the shore (in case of import and
export), constant power supply in the industrial area, and proximity of some raw materials
(from TOR). However, this site had to be dropped because of lack of available land in the
Tema industrial area for lease by Tema Development Corporation (TDC). [source: TDC
personnel]
After detailed analysis of the various locations appropriate for the siting of the ethylene
plant, cape three points, close to the jubilee oil field, Western Region was chosen.
16.2 FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR SELECTION OF AREA
The following are some of the important considerations when selecting the plant site:
1. Proximity to the raw materials supply.
2. Location, with respect to the marketing area.
346

3. Availability of utilities: water, fuel, power, etc.


4. Availability of labour.
5. Transport facilities.
6. Availability of suitable land.
7. Environmental impact and waste disposal.
8. Local community considerations.
16.2.1 Proximity of Raw Material
The raw material for our ethylene production is ethane gas. There will be proximity of the
raw materials from the off-gases from the oil drilling at the jubilee oil grounds and hence
the decision to site the plant in the western region since it will provide a cheaper means of
transporting the raw materials. Also, in case of import it would be easier to transport to the
plant site via the harbour.
16.2.2 Marketing Area
The major market for the ethylene produced is the foreign market. The export is the
primary focus for production and hence the product would be exported out of the country.
This is one of the reasons why our plant will be situated in the western region closer to the
sea port to facilitate the transport of our product to the foreign market via shipping. The
local market is also targeted and can be served. Our target market is the food industries,
plastics industries, paints, packaging, and for use in welding. Examples of such industries
are Qualiplast, Duraplast, Interplast, Blue Skies Ghana, and Ezzy Paints.
16.2.3 Transport Facilities
The transport of materials and products to and from the plant is a major factor in the plant
location. If practicable, a site should be selected that is close to at least two major forms of
347

transport: road, rail, waterway (canal or river), or a sea port. The towns proximity to the
port serves as a good means of easily transporting the raw materials and products by sea.
The western region also has good road networks for transport of materials, products and
equipments to and from the site. Rail transport is also available in the region.
16.2.4 Availability of Suitable land
Sufficient suitable land must be available for the proposed plant and for future expansion.
The land should ideally be leveled, well drained and have suitable load-bearing
characteristics. The western region has a vast array of land and its gentleness in level or
topography becomes an added advantage. There is also good drainage system.
16.2.5 Availability of labour
Labour will be needed for construction of the plant and its operation. There must be an
adequate pool of labour available locally, and labour suitable for training to operate the
plant. Unemployment among the youth in most developing areas in Ghana is high, thus
labour especially unskilled labour will not be a problem in our chosen plant site. Skilled
labour can also be brought in for special purposes.
16.2.6 Availability of utilities
Ethylene plants require large quantities of water for quenching, washing, and for the
production of steam as well as other non-production related purposes such as drinking and
sanitary purposes among others. Power and steam requirements are high, as in most
industrial plants, and fuel is ordinarily required to supply these utilities. In view of this,
power and fuel can be combined as one major factor in the choice of a plant site. Takoradi
has a reliable water supply from the Ghana Water Company and electricity supply from the
348

Electricity Company of Ghana since there exist a power line network connecting Takoradi
to the national hydroelectric source of energy (Akosombo). Thus uninterrupted electricity is
assured.
16.2.7 Environmental Impact and Waste Disposal
Many legal restrictions have been placed on the methods for disposing of waste materials
from the process industries. The disposal of toxic and harmful effluents will be covered by
local regulations, and the appropriate authorities must be consulted during the initial site
survey to determine the standards that must be met. All industrial processes produce waste
products and full consideration must be given to the difficulties and cost of their disposal.
The site selected for a plant should have adequate capacity and facilities for correct waste
disposal. The location of our plant meets all the specifications and conditions afore
mentioned.
Even though the area has minimal restrictions on pollution, it should not be assumed that
this condition will continue to exist. In choosing our plant site, the permissible tolerance
levels for various methods of waste disposal have been considered carefully, and attention
will be given to potential requirements for additional waste-treatment facilities.
16.2.8 Local community consideration
The proposed plant must fit in with and be acceptable to the local community. Full
consideration must be given to the safe location of the plant so that it does not impose a
significant additional risk to the community. The local community must be able to provide
adequate facilities for the plant personnel such as schools, banks, housing, and recreational
and cultural facilities. Our chosen plant location is favoured by this factor.

349

16.1 PLANT LAYOUT


1. Size requirements
50 acres of land including transportation and tanks.
2. Ghanaians with Disabilities Act compliance
All our structures will be built (stairs, ramps, parking lots, etc.) to comply fully with this
act.

350

CHAPTER 17
17.0 SAFETY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
Any organization has a legal and moral obligation to safeguard the health and welfare of its
employees and the general public. Safety is also good business; the good management
practices needed to ensure safe operation will also ensure efficient operation.
All manufacturing processes are to some extent hazardous, but in chemical processes there
are additional, special hazards associated with the chemicals used and the process
conditions. The designer must be aware of these hazards, and ensure, through the
application of sound engineering practice, that the risks are reduced to acceptable levels.
[43]
Plant engineers must ensure the quality of the environment both inside and outside the
facility as well as the safety and health of the employees and the reliability of its systems
and equipment. And they are expected to do all of this in a cost-effective manner.
17.1 PLANT SAFETY
Fire, toxic chemicals, mechanical equipments and electrical faults are the major health and
safety hazards usually encountered in the process industries. To avert these, the following
measures will be taken;
1. All electrical wires are to be insulated with PVC while the use of fuses and earth
leakage breakers would be employed to break off power automatically in times of
overload.
2. Periodic and regular maintenance or checks will be made on mechanical equipment
and electrical installation.
351

3. The use of safety equipment such as gloves and helmets by workers is to be


employed wherever needed in the plant.
4. Where the equipment produces a lot of heat, for example the furnace, adequate
ventilation will be provided to prevent long-term damage to the workers. Also
workers will be adequately clothed to shield them from the heat.
5. Personnel working in the plant will be trained on plant hazards and how to control
and avoid them.
6. Proper working clothes, tools and equipments will be provided and management
will ensure that it becomes a prerequisite before any work is under taken.
7. Fire hydrants, extinguishers and alarms will be provided at vantage points due to the
inflammable nature of materials being handled(lube oil, liquefied propane)

17.1.1 Equipment Safety


Guards or metal cases will be provided for machines with external moving parts. All
underground tanks will be covered. All ladders in the factory will be provided with safety
guards. The pipe will be laid such that it will allow easy access to any part of the plant.
17.1.2 Personnel safety
With the exception of the administrative staff, all the workers will be provided with work
clothing (overall). Operators will be provided with rubber (Wellington) boots and heavily
solid boots for supervisors and those of higher ranks. There will be specific days every
quarter of the year when workers will be lectured on the importance of safety. Also, there
will be an award scheme established for the most safety conscious worker.

352

17.1.3 Product Safety


In order to ensure that, the product is free from impurities, the workers at the storage and
transportation units will be required to observe strict handling practices.
17.1.4 Work Conditions and Welfare
The plant will be well illuminated. Basic amenities like washing and drying rooms will be
provided. A cafeteria will be built for the workers. The workers will also enjoy some
medical services.
17.2 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
The main hazards of concern in the ethylene industry are the storage of the produced gases
and handling operations. The hazards also include emissions of flue gases from the furnace.
This can be curbed by the application of capture collection systems of the gases and any
particulate matter. Acetone is also an extremely flammable liquid and extreme precaution
will be taken to avoid any spillage or leakage.
17.3 POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL
The effect of all forms of pollutions namely air, water and environmental pollution to man
and his environment cannot be over-emphasized. Thus all possible measures are taken to
minimize if not eliminate any form of pollution. The waste products include spent caustic,
oily waters, and gas emissions. As much as possible, workers should avoid contacts with
these waste products and all workers who come into contact with them should be provided
with suitable protective clothing.
17.3.1 Liquid emissions
353

Spent caustic is derived from scrubbing ethylene gas and typically contains a range of
various components namely NaOH, Na2CO3 and some soluble oil. In addition to soluble
components, insoluble polymers resulting from the condensation of olefins during
scrubbing are present in the liquor. Spent caustic is intensely malodorous, toxic, and highly
alkaline. It contains high chemical oxygen demand (COD), some total organic carbon
(TOC), and high total dissolved solids (TDS). These insoluble polymers have a lower
specific gravity than the spent caustic and can be removed from the spent caustic stream by
gravity separation and decanting from a quiescent tank or separator. (Wet Air Oxidation of
Ethylene Plant Spent Caustic, Ellis et al). A spent caustic oxidation unit, which is a wet air
oxidation (WAO) system, will therefore be built to treat the wastewater by oxidizing a
majority of the COD. This allows the oxidized spent caustic to be further treated by
conventional biological treatment prior to discharge.
17.3.2 Gas emissions
Gaseous and particulate emissions to air that are produced primarily come from the flue
gases from the furnace during the steam cracking of the hydrocarbon feedstock. Typical
gases include carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2). The temperature of the furnace is
regulated so that NOx emission is reduced to the barest minimum. Methane (CH4) is burnt
completely to avoid CH4 emission.
17.4 NOISE POLLUTION
Excessive noise is a hazard to health and safety. Long exposure to high noise levels can
cause permanent damage to hearing. At lower levels, noise is a distraction and causes
fatigue. Permanent damage to hearing can be caused at sound levels above about 90 dB
(A), and it is normal practice to provide ear protection in areas where the level is above 80
354

dB(A).(sinnott).Noise from the plant will result from the operations and movement of
equipment such as the quench tower, absorbers, strippers, and the furnace.
17.4.1 NOISE POLLUTION CONTROL
The plant will be sited well away from residential areas to prevent the unavoidable noise
levels generated by some of the process units. Ear plugs will be worn by all employees
operating any of the heavy equipments to prevent the harmful effect of noise on the human
ear. Sound absorbing materials will be used in constructing all plant buildings for
equipments that cause a lot of noise, thus minimizing significantly the noise levels in the
plant.

355

CHAPTER 18
18.0 INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL
In the chemical processing industry, controllers play a crucial role in keeping the plants
running by controlling process variables.
A typical control system consist of

Sensor

Transmitter

controller

The primary objective of any control system in the operation of the plant is to monitor and
stabilize process parameters. The objectives in installing control devices and other
instrument in the plant are;
1. It keeps the process variables within safe operating mode.
2. To ensure that effluents are within acceptable limits as prescribed by environmental
regulations.
3. To attain the production rate and product quality in terms of product specification.
4. To minimize operational cost as much as possible
5. Dangerous situations are detected as they develop and alarms and automatic
shut-down systems are provided.
18.1 INSTRUMENTATION
A central control computerized panel will be located in the plant and it will be responsible
for indication, recording, and regulation of process variable and indication of a signal when
a process variable exceeds its set point.
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The following process variables will be measured and monitored by the control systems.
1. Temperature
2. Pressure
3. Flow
4. Level
5. Concentration
These variables play vital roles in their respective places and recording continuously will
enable personnel to control them within limit.
18.2 Process Variable Control System
18.2.1 Flow meters
Flow rate is checked by the help of a valve and flow meters. Overflowing is undesirable in
any chemical plant hence the control valve and flow meters are to ensure that the set flow
of material moves from one equipment to another. The flow meters in this case acts as the
measuring device which measures the errors in the flow. Error signal is sent through the
transmitter to a controller. An actuating signal from the controller then causes a variance in
the orifice of the valve. The flow meters will therefore be used to indicate the volume of
liquid pumped from the different units. It will also be used to control their flow rates as is
required in the process. The flow control system will thus operate by closing and operating
valves to check overflowing and emptying of holding vessels.
18.2.2 Temperature control system.
Temperature control is quite essential in process design for some equipment such as the
furnace, heat exchanger, stripper and distillation column temperatures. The reason is that
357

any deviation from the required temperatures will result in the production of undesirable
by-products or products that do not meet specifications.
18.2.3 Pressure Control system
Excessive pressure can lead to explosion and destruction of equipment and it is usually
necessary for equipments handling vapour or gas. The pressure control system will
maintain operating pressures within required limits so that any excessive pressure that
builds up will be relayed to pressure releasing valves to open in order to let out excessive
pressure. This will specifically be employed to check the pressure of the compressor,
different absorbers, stripper, and the various distillation columns in order to obtain good
products.
18.2.4 Level control system
This will be used to monitor the settling tank, flash drum, stripper, vacuum distillation
column and storage tanks to prevent entrainment in the case of columns.

358

CHAPTER 19
19.0 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Ideal for every investment, the chemical engineering process must be economically viable.
To access the profitability of a project, an estimate of the required investment and cost of
production must be made. An acceptable plant design must present a process that is capable
of operating under conditions which will yield a profit.
Basis of economic analysis:
Start of construction: January, 2012
Completion of construction: December, 2014
Commencement of processing: January, 2015
Plant operation: 3 shifts per day
Process: continuous
Plant life: 19 years
Plant production rate: 100,000 tons per annum
Working period: 300 days
Production capacity: 333 tonnes per day
Selling price of ethylene: $0.53/Kg
Exchange rate of dollar: GH1.5
19.1 Project cost estimation
Once the process plant has designed and approved for construction then the chemical
engineer has to estimate the amount of capital required for the construction, operation of
the plant and sale of products.

359

19.1.1 Fixed capital investment


This is the capital needed to purchase and install the manufacturing facilities and it includes
the design, engineering, construction and supervision, all items of equipments and their
installation, all piping, instrumentation and control systems, buildings and structures, and
site preparation.
19.1.2 Working Capital
This is the additional investment (capital) needed over and above the fixed capital
investment to start the plant, and operate it to the point when income is earned. It includes
start-up, raw materials and supplies carried in stock, finished and semi-finished products,
cash kept on hand for monthly payment of expenses such as salaries and wages, accounts
payable and taxes payable. It is estimated that working capital is approximately 5% of the
fixed capital investment.
19.1.3 Total capital investment
The total capital investment is the sum of the fixed capital investment and the working
capital. Some sources of total capital investment for a process plant are loans (banks, rich
relatives, etc), operating companys reserves, bond market (treasury bills), and stock
exchange (for companies listed on the stock exchange. All sources of capital have to be
paid back with interest therefore interest rates must be compared before settling for any
source of funding.
19.2 ESTIMATION OF DIRECT FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT
The method usually used to update historical cost data makes use of published cost indices
according to the equation below:

360

Cost in year A = Cost in year B x

Cost index in year A

.. (Eqn 19.1)

Cost index in year B

The latest Marshall and Swift cost index available is for the year 2010.
Table 19.1 Cost Index
Year

2006

Chemical cost index 1302.3

2007

2008

2009

2010

1373.3

1449.3

1468.6

1457.4

Table 19.2 Cost of equipments


Total Equipment cost
Unit

Unit

Cost Gross

Equipment

Quantity Cost($)2007

($)2010

($)2010

Cracking furnace

4,400,000.000

4,669,453.142

4,669,453.142

exchanger

120,000.000

127,348.722

127,348.722

Storage tank

90,000.000

95,511.542

382,046.166

Quench tower

130,000.000

137,961.116

137,961.116

Caustic tower

160,000.000

169,798.296

169,798.296

Reboiler

90,000.000

95,511.542

382,046.166

Condenser

84,000.000

89,144.105

356,576.422

Compressor

120,000.000

127,348.722

509,394.888

cooler

100,000.000

106,123.935

212,247.870

Dryer

105,000.000

111,430.132

111,430.132

Trasfer

line

361

cost

Demethanizer

110,000.000

116,736.329

116,736.329

Ethylene column

150,000.000

159,185.903

159,185.903

Deethanizer

110,000.000

116,736.329

116,736.329

C2- splitter

95,000.000

100,817.738

100,817.738

centrifugal pump

10,000.000

10,612.394

31,837.181

Asorber

90,000.000

95,511.542

95,511.542

Truck

70,000.000

74,286.755

74,286.755

Pick up

30,000.000

31,837.181

31,837.181

Bus

60,000.000

63,674.361

191,023.083

stripper

95,000.000

100,817.738

100,817.738

PCE

6,584,990.170

Spear parts (15% 0f PCE)

987,748.525

Total Equipment cost

7,572,738.695

19.2.1 Purchased equipment installation cost


The installation of the equipment includes cost of labour, platforms, insulation,
formulation, construction expenses and other factors directly related to the erection of
purchased equipment such as painting). This component is estimated to be 35% of the
purchased equipment cost.[43]
19.2.2 Instrumentation and control cost
This component is estimated to be 15% of the purchased equipment cost. Instrument cost,
installation-labour cost and expenses of auxiliary equipment and materials constitute the
major portion of the capital investment required for instrumentation.[43]
362

19.2.3 Piping cost


This includes cost for valves, fittings, pipe, support and other items involved in the
complete erection of all piping used directly in the process. It also includes process piping
for raw materials, products, steam, water, and chemicals. The piping cost is estimated to be
45% of purchased equipment cost.[43]
19.2.4 Cost of electrical systems
This includes the cost of the power wiring, lighting, instrument and control wiring,
installation labour, etc. This component is estimated to be 10% of the purchased cost.
19.2.5 Cost of building structures
This involves cost for the erection of all buildings connected with the plant (labour,
materials and supplies), including cost for plumbing, heating, lighting, ventilation, and
similar building services. This component is estimated to be 47% of the purchased
equipment cost.
19.2.6 Cost of site development and improvement
Costs for fencing, roads, side walks, rail road sidings, landscaping and similar items
constitute the portion of the capital investment included in yard improvements. Yard
improvement cost for chemical plant is estimated to be 5% of the purchased equipment
cost.
19.2.7 Service facility and utility cost
This involves the utilities for supplying steam, water, power and fuel in the plant. This also
includes the cost involved in waste disposal, fire protection, and miscellaneous service
363

items such as shop, first aid and cafeteria equipment among others. This component is
estimated to be 30% of the purchased equipment cost.
19.2.8 Cost of land
The plant will be sited in the western region. As a rough average, land cost for industrial
plants amounts to 6% of purchased equipment cost.
19.3 ESTIMATION OF INDIRECT FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT
19.3.1 Engineering and supervision cost
This cost consist of the cost for construction design and engineering, drafting, purchasing
accounting, construction and cost engineering, travel, reproductions, communications and
home office expenses including overhead. This component is estimated as 25% of the total
direct costs of the process plant.
19.3.2Construction expenses
This cost component involves the cost for construction or field expenses. It involves
temporal construction and operation, construction tools and rentals, construction payroll,
taxes, insurance and other overheads. This component is estimated as 10% of the total
direct cost.
19.3.3 Contractors fee
The contractors fee can be taken as 5% of the total direct cost.
19.3.4 Contingency fees

364

A contingency fee is included in the total capital investment in recognition of the fact that,
experience show that, there will be unexpected events and changes that will inevitably
increase the cost of the project. These events may include strikes, price changes, small
design changes, storms, floods etc. this component is estimated as 10% of the total direct
cost.
Table 19.3 Total capital investment
1

Total Purchased Equipment cost

7,572,738.695

Purchased Equipment Installation

0.400

Instrumentation and Controls

0.200

Piping

0.700

Electrical equipment and materials

0.100

Utilities

0.500

Storages

0.150

Buildings (including services)

0.150

Site Development

0.050
3.250 24,611,400.759

Total Direct Costs (I)

Indirect fixed capital investment Costs


10

Design and Engineering

0.300

11

Contractors Fee

0.050

12

Contingency

0.100
1.450 35,686,531.101

Total Indirect Costs (I)


Fixed Capital Investment (FCI), D + I

60,297,931.860

Working Capital (WC)

18,089,379.558
365

78,387,311.418

Total Capital Investment (TCI)

19.4 ESTIMATION OF TOTAL PRODUCT COST


This involves the estimation of cost for operating the plant and selling the products. Total
product cost is broken down into two broad categories:
Total product cost = manufacturing cost + general expenses
Manufacturing cost = direct production cost + fixed charges + plant overhead cost
General expenses = administrative expenses + distribution and marketing expenses
The fixed charges are costs that do not vary with production rate. These are mainly
depreciation, taxes, insurance and rent.
Plant overheads consists of medical bills, packaging, payroll overhead, control laboratories,
general plant maintenance, storage facilities, etc.
19.5 ESTIMATION OF TOTAL OPERATING LABOUR COST
Table 19.4 Operating labour cost
Operating Labour cost
Direct labour cost
Staff

Number

Annual

Salary

per Total Annual Salary, $

head, $
Plant manager

35,000

35,000

Production manager

20,000

20,000

366

Chemical Engineer

15,000

45,000

Mechanical Engineer

15,000

30,000

Supervisors

13,500

67,500

Electrical Engineer

15,000

30,000

Occupational

health

and 2

20,000
10,000

safety specialists
Quality Controller

10,000

30,000

Chemist

13,000

39,000

9,000

216,000

Total Direct Labour Cost (DLC)

532,500

equipment 24

Chemical
operators

Indirect Labour Costs (ILC)


Personnel

Number

Annual

Salary/Head, Total Annual Salary,

($)

($)

Managing Director

30,000

30,000

Personnel Manager

20,000

20,000

Human Resources

18,500

37,000

Sales Manager

18,000

18,000

Accountant

18,000

18,000

Accounts Clerk

10,000

10,000

Store Keeper

9,000

9,000

Secretary

4,000

12,000

Receptionist

3,200

3,200

367

Drivers

3,000

15,000

Cleaners

1,600

4,800

Security men

1,600

4,800
181,800

Total (ILC)

714,300

Operating Labour (DLC + ILC)

Social Security contributions(5.5% of total operation labour 39,287


coct)
753,587

Operating Labour (DLC + ILC)

753,587

TOTAL LABOUR COST

19.5.1 Operating labour


Operating labour may be divided into skilled and unskilled labour.
19.5.2 Determination of Raw material
In the chemical industry, one of the major costs in production operation is for the raw
materials involved in the process. The amount of the raw material which must be supplied
per unit of time can be determined from process material balances.

368

Table 19.5 Raw material cost


RAW MATERIAL COST
Raw

Annual Quantity kg

Unit Cost,$

Annual Cost ($)

Ethane

11,470,625.000

0.864

9,910,620.000

Methane

566,347.860

4.000

2,265,391.440

Acetone

13,646,835.400

1.000

13,646,835.400

NaOH

645,681.220

0.870

561,742.662

Material

26,384,589.502

Total

19.5.3Maintenance and repairs


If a plant is to be kept in efficient operating condition, a considerable amount of expenses is
necessary for maintenance and repairs. Since the annual cost for the plant is high, this
component is estimated as 6% of the fixed capital investment.
19.5.4Operating supplies
This includes the cost of items such as lubricants, test chemicals, charts etc, required to
keep the plant functioning efficiently. It is assumed to be 15% of maintenance and repairs.
19.5.5 Laboratory Charges
This involves cost of laboratory tests for control operation and product quality control. It is
taken as 20% of operating labour.
19.5.6 Patents & Royalties
This is taken to be 4% of total product cost.

369

19.6 DETERMINATION OF FIXED CHARGES


Certain expenses are always present in an industrial plant whether or not the manufacturing
process is in operation. Costs that are invariant with the amount of production are
designated fixed charges. These include cost for depreciation, local property taxes,
insurance and rent. Expenses of this type are a direct function of the fixed capital
investment
19.6.1 Annual depreciation charge
Several methods may be used for determining the rate of depreciation, but for engineering
projects, a straight line method is assumed. In applying this method, a useful life period and
salvage value at the end of the useful plant life is assumed. The difference between the
initial cost and the salvage value divided by the total years of useful life gives the annual
cost due to depreciation (peters et al). From the above, the formula below is deduced

AD

C f S1
S

AD = annual depreciation charge = $3,040,327.647


Cf = fixed capital investment
S = plant useful life
S1 = salvage value
The plant life will be 16years (Peters et al) on a foreign land).
Assumption
Salvage value is 10% of the fixed capital investment (peters et al)
370

19.6.2 Insurance
The insurance cost paid on the plant and general site is estimated as 1% of the fixed capital
investment (peters et al).
19.6.3 Local taxes and royalties
Local taxes are estimated as 1% of the fixed capital investment (Peter et al, 1990).

TOTAL PRODUCTION COST


Cost, ($)

Description
Manufacturing Costs
Direct Production Costs
Variable costs
1

Raw Materials

from flow sheet

26,384,589.52

Miscellaneous

10 per cent of Maintenance and Repairs

361,787.591

materials
3

Power

and 10% of the total equipment cost

757,273.870

Utilities
Fixed costs
4

Operating

from manning estimate

753,586.500

20% of operating labour.

150,717.300

Labour
5

Operating
Supervision

Maintenance and 6% of the fixed capital investment

3,617,875.912

Repairs
7

Laboratory

20% of operating labour.


371

150,717.300

Charges
8

Royalties

1% of the fixed capital investment

602,979.319

Local Taxes

2% of the fixed capital investment

1,205,958.637

10 Insurance

1% of the fixed capital investment

602,979.319

11 Capital Charges

10%of the fixed capital investment

6,029,793.186

12 Total

Plant 50% of the total cost of operating labour, 2,261,089.856

Overhead Costs

supervision and maintenance


42,879,348.29

Total Direct Production Costs (M)

0
General Expenses
15% of the Total Manufacturing Costs

6,431,902.244

13 Distribution and 10% of the Total Manufacturing Costs

4,287,934.829

12 Administrative
expenses

Marketing
14 Research

and 5% of the Total Manufacturing Costs

2,143,967.415

Development
Total General Expenses (G)

12,863,804.47

Total Production Cost, M + G

55,743,152.77

Production cost $ /kg of product

0.463

19.6.4 Plant Overheads


These are costs associated with operating the plant such as the general management, plant
security, medical, canteen, general clerical staff and security. This is 30% of the total cost
of operating labour, supervision and maintenance.
372

19.7 GENERAL EXPENSES (INDIRECT PRODUCTION COST)


General expenses comprise of administrative expenses, distribution and marketing
expenses, and research and development expenses.
19.7.1 Administrative expenses (general overheads)
This includes executive salaries, electrical wages, engineering and legal cost, office
maintenance and communication. It is estimated as 20% of operating labour cost (peters et
al).
19.7.2 Distribution and marketing expenses
Expenses associated with selling the products, sales office and salaries of salesmen,
advertising cost, container cost and shipping expenses. It is estimated as 15% of the total
product cost.
19.7.3 Research and development
In order to remain in a competitive industrial position, research and development (R&D) is
essential. This component is estimated as 3% of the total product cost.

19.8 PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS


Before capital is invested in any project, one must estimate its profitability. Besides, a
manufacturing process must earn more than the cost of capital in order to make it attractive.
Profitability analysis attempts to proof the desirability of taking risk and also serves as a
measure of attractiveness of this project in comparison to the other competing projects. It is
also a qualitative measure of profit with respect to the investment required to generate that
profit. The analysis of profitability will be based on the following standards:
373

a. Break-even point (BEP)


b. Turn over Ratio (TOR)
c. Return on Investment (ROI)
d. Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return (DCFRR)
e. Net Present Value (NPV)
f. Payback Period
19.8.1 Break Even Point (BEP)
Breakeven point is the time of plant life where there is neither net profit nor net loss. It is
the level above which the production rate must exceed in order to make profit. The
breakeven point would vary as the sales and manufacturing cost varies over the years.
Mathematically;

Fixed cost = General expenses + Fixed Charges = $42,879,348.290


Variable cost =$ 27,503,650.96
Total Sales = =$ 62,420,221.360

42,879,348.290
62,420,221.360 27,503,650.96
19.8.2 Turn over ratio
This is a rapid method suitable for order of magnitude estimates. In other words, it could be
the ratio of gross annual sales to the fixed capital investment.
That is,

374

62,420,221.360
0.796
78,387,311.418
19.8.3 Annual Cash Flow
The average selling price for ethylene is $0.53 per kilogram (VAT exclusive). The aim of
our project is to produce high quality product at a lower cost. The tax rate now is at 15%.
19.8.4 Rate of Return (ROR)
Rate of return which is a ratio of annual profit to investment is a simple index of the
performance of the money invested. It does not consider the time value of money and it
does not account for the fact that profit and cost may vary significantly over the life of the
project. [43]
CNCF
100%
LP OI

Where
CNCF is the cumulative net cash flow at the end of project
LP is the life of the project
OI is the original investment

383,808,042.486
100% 30.60%
16 78,387,311.418
19.8.5 Discounted Cash Flow
The net cash flow in each year of the project is brought to its present worth at the start of
the project by discounting it at some chosen compound interest rate.
375

The Net Present worth (NPW) of cash flow in year n =

( NFW )n
(1 r ) n

Where
(NFW) n is the net future worth in year n
r is the discount rate (interest rate) per cent /100 and
n t

Total NPW of project =

NFW

(1 r )
n 1

The discount rate is chosen to reflect the earning power of money. It would be roughly
equivalent to the current interest rate that the money could earn if invested. (Coulson and
Richardson, Volume 6). From the figure 19.2 the discounted rate is 22.12%
19.8.6 Pay-back Time
Payout period is the minimum length of time theoretically necessary to recover the original
capital investment in the form of cash flows to the project based on total income minus all
cost except depreciation. The Figures 19.1a,b below depict that, break even will occur at
the end of the 5.3 rd year.

376

Cummulative cash flow ,$ x 10000000

$50.00

A Graph of Cummulative Annual Cash Flow,$

$40.00

$30.00

$20.00

$10.00

$0.00

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Time, yrs
-$10.00

Figure 19.1 A Graph of Cummulative Annual Cash Flow

377

Discounted cash flow rate of return(DCFRR)


0.450
0.400
0.350

Interest rate

0.300
0.250
0.200
0.150
0.100
0.050
0.000
0.000

0.200

0.400

0.600

0.800
Ratio: PV/TCI

378

1.000

1.200

1.400

1.600

CHAPTER 20
20.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
20.1 DISCUSSION
The prevailing price of the raw materials needed to operate the plant allows for a oneyear break-even point and is an exciting investment prospect. From the economic
analysis, the rate of return is a profitable 30.6% on the invested value. The issue of
fluctuating market prices of some of the process inputs can however alter the
profitability of this project. Challenges as to the constant profitability can be accurately
overcome by continued vigorous research and extensive market surveillance.
Environmental analysis shows that sodium carbonate sludge is one of the predominant
and problematic wastes produced. This is sent to a wet-air oxidation unit or regeneration
unit for regenerating NaOH from the sludge. Noise, thermal and gaseous pollution are
present but minimal.
The major feedstock being used in this project is ethane. This was chosen after
considering its availability, and high yield and selectivity of ethylene. Its processing is
relatively simple, involving lower capital costs. Also ethane is again produced in large
quantities as a by-product from the process and can be reused as a feedstock. This is of
key importance to the project. This is because failure to get your constant supply
(needed quantity) would cripple the project.
Again, cape three points in the western region was considered to be the area where the
project would take place. After considering factors such as availability of needed raw
materials, cost of labour, roadwork, and tax rate among others, it was prudent to
establish the industry at the said place.

379

20.2 CONCLUSION
From the economic analysis, our ethylene plant is economically viable. The ethylene
plant will have an enormous impact on the Ghanaian economy. Among such positive
impacts are the creation of capital for investors, reduction in unemployment, and
provision of foreign exchange for Ghana.It also does not pose very serious threats to the
environment. The steam pyrolysis process using ethane as feedstock to obtain our
product is also very economical since it does not involve the use of catalysts and other
expensive raw materials. Due to the location of the plant, our raw materials can be
easily acquired or imported. The products of the plant also have an already established
market in the country and in the world at large.
The conclusion drawn is that, the establishment of an emerging ethylene-producing
plant that uses steam pyrolysis process is feasible under the current technological and
economic development of Ghana, and would come with a lot of advantages.
20.3 RECOMMENDATION
From the economics, the plant is feasible, and we recommend that this plant design
should be given a favorable consideration. We also recommend that, the issue of safety
and control should be enforced at all levels and times to ensure the safe and smooth
running of the plant, to protect lives and the environment as a whole. It is again
recommended that the possibility of mixing ethane and propane as feedstock is
considered since propane will be produced as a by-product and can be reused.

380

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385

APPENDIX A
CALCULATIONS FOR MATERIAL BALANCES
Molecular weights
Component

Molecular weight

Ethylene

28

Acetylene

26

Water (steam)

18

Methane

16

Hydrogen

Ethane

30

Propane

44

From our stated capacity, ethylene to be recovered at the end of the process is 100 000
tonnes/year.

1x10 8 kg
1yr
1day
x
x
Ethylene to be produced = 100,000TPA = 1 x 10 kg/yr =
1yr
300day 24hr
8

=13888.89kg/hr
Basis: 1hr of operation
Total weight of ethylene produced = 13888.89kg
Assuming 2% of the ethylene is lost during the production and coke was also assume to
be negligible but CO2 formed is assume to be 0.05% of the ethane that reacted

386

Ethylene lost during production =

2
x 13888.89 = 277.778kg
100

Total ethylene to be produced = 13888.89 + 277.778 = 14166.667kg/hr =


505.952kgmol/hr
Assuming ethane conversion to be 65% and out of that 80% conversion for ethylene and
0.5% conversion for acetylene.
Ethane supplied = Ethane reacted + Ethane unreacted
Ethane reacted conversion = ethylene produced

Therefore Ethane reacted =

Acetylene produced =

505.952
= 632.4405 kmol/hr
0.8

0 .5
ethane reacted
100

Therefore acetylene produced =

0 .5
632.4405 = 3.1622 kmol/hr
100

Ethane supplied 0.65 = ethane reacted

Ethane supplied =

632.4405
= 972.985 kmol/hr
0.65

Unreacted Ethane = Ethane supplied Ethane consumed


= 972.985 632.4405 = 340.545 kgmole/hr
Chemical reactions in the furnace
C2H6

C2H4 + H2

............................... (a)

2C2H6

C3H8 + CH4

................................ (b)

C3H8

C2H2 + CH4 + H2 ................................ (c)


387

C + 2H2O

CO2 + 2H2

............................ (d)

Nsout = Nsin + ................................................. (e)


Where Ns = flowrate of the species
= extent of reaction
= stoichiometric coefficient
C2H6 out

C2H6 in - 1 - 22................................. (1)

C2H4 out

1 .......................................................... (2)

H2 out

1 + 3 + 4.............................................. (3)

C3H8 out

2 - 3...................................................... (4)

CH4 out

2 + 3...................................................... (5)

C2H2 out

3........................................................... (6)

CO2 out

4........................................................... (7)

From equation (2), C2H4 out = 1 = 505.952 kgmole/hr


From equation (1), 22 = 972.985 340.545 505.952
2 = 63.244 kgmole/hr
From equation (6), 3 = C2H2 out = 3.1622 kgmole/hr
1 = 505.952 kgmole/hr
2 = 63.244 kgmole/hr
3 = 3.1622 kgmole/hr

388

Hence:
C2H6 out = 340.545 kgmole/hr
C2H4 out = 505.952 kgmole/hr
H2 out = 509.1142 kgmole/hr
C3H8 out = 60.0818 kgmole/hr
CH4 out = 66.4062 kgmole/hr
C2H2 out = 3.1622 kgmole/hr
CO2 out =0.3162 kgmole/hr
Steam to Ethane (supplied) ratio = 0.3: 1
Steam used = 0.3 x Ethane supplied = 0.3 x 972.985 = 291.8955 kgmole/hr
Total output from furnace = 340.545 + 505.952 + 509.1142 + 60.0818 + 66.4062 +
3.1622 + 291.8955+0.3162 = 1777.4731 kgmole/hr
The mole percentages of the individual components leaving the furnace are as follows:

C2H6 =

340.545
x 100% = 19.16%
1777.4731

C2H4 =

505.952
x 100% = 28.46%
1777.4731

H2 =

509.1142
x 100% = 28.64%
1777.4731

C3H8 =

60.0818
x 100% = 3.38%
1777.4731

389

CH4 =

66.4062
x 100% = 3.74%
1777.4731

C2H2 =

3.1622
x 100% = 0.18%
1777.4731

H2O =

291.8955
x 100% = 16.42%
1777.4731

CO2 =

0.3162
100
1777.4731

=0.02 %

390

APPENDIX B
CALCULATIONS FOR ENERGY BALANCE
Reactions in the furnace:
.Reaction 1

C2H6

C2H4 + H2

2C2H6

C3H8 + CH4 ..Reaction 2

C3H8

C2H2 + CH4 + H2 ...Reaction 3

C + 2H2O

CO2 + 2H2 Reaction 4

Since there are a series of reaction in the furnace the four

391

Reference: CO2, C2H2, C2H4, C3H8, CH4, H2O, C2H6, H2 at 25 oC 1 atm

Substance

Nin 103

Nout

Hin KJ/mol

103
Hin KJ/mol

mol/hr
CO2

3.555

H3

C2H2

3.199

H4

C2H4

505.869

H5

C3H8

60.79

H6

CH4

66.477

H7

392

H2O

291.896

H1

291.265

H8

C2H6

972.985

H2

340.564

H9

H2

509.068

H10

Estimation of the enthalpy of the inlet stream

,
mol

CAUSTIC TOWER
Reference: CO2, C2H2, C2H4, C3H8, CH4, H2O, C2H6, H2 at 35oC for gas and 25oC for
NaOH solution 1 atm
393

Substance

Nin 10

Nout

Hin KJ/mol

103
Hin KJ/mol

mol/hr
CO2

3.1622

3.1662

H8

C2H2

3.1622

3.1660

H5

C2H4

505.952

505.952

H6

C3H8

60.0818

60.0818

H3

CH4

66.4064

66.4064

H1

H2O

0.29189

0.29189

H7

C2H6

340.545

340.545

H2

H2

509.1142

509.1142

H4

NaOH

3981.535

H9

3987.1098

H10

Estimation of the enthalpy of the inlet and outlet streams

394

H= 212827.5891
QUENCH TOWER
A balance around water
Reference: H2O, at 25oC 1 atm

Substance

Nout

Nin 103

Hin KJ/mol

103
Hin KJ/mol

mol/hr
H2O

1492.490

H1

7874.283

Estimation of the enthalpy of the inlet and outlet streams

H=323794.543
DEMETHANIZER
Reference: C2H2, C2H4, C3H8, CH4,C2H6, H2 at 25oC 1 atm
Substance

Nin 103

Hin KJ/mol

C2H2

2.9762

H1

C2H4

505.9520

H2

395

H2

C3H8

59.5238

H3

CH4

68.4523

H4

C2H6

330.3569

H5

H2

520.833

H6

Flows

Distillate (D)

Bottoms (B)

Nout 103 mol/hr

Hout KJ/mol

Hout KJ/mol

2.9762

H11

505.9520

H9

59.5238

H10

68.4523

H8

H14

330.3569

H13

520.833

H7

Estimation of the enthalpy of the inlet and outlet streams

,
mol

,
mol

396

H= -11244.9174
C2 SPLITTER
Reference: C2H2, C2H4, CH4, C2H6, at 35oC, 25oC 1 atm
Substance

Nin 103

Hin KJ/mol

C2H2

2.9516

H1

C2H4

498.3786

H2

CH4

0.6658

H3

C2H6

330.3148

H4

397

Flows

Distillate (D)

Bottoms (B)

Nout 103 mol/hr

Hout KJ/mol

Hout KJ/mol

497.1149

H5

2.9516

H6

0.6558

H7

330.3145

H8

Estimation of the enthalpy of the inlet and outlet

398

H=1609.18309
ACETYLENE ABSORBER
A balance around the gas Reference: C2H2, C2H4, 25oC,1 atm

Substance

Nin 10

Nout

Hin KJ/mol

103
Hin KJ/mol

mol/hr
C2H2

3.0725

H1

3.1660

H3

C2H4

481.9578

H2

505.952

H4

Estimation of the enthalpy of the inlet and outlet

399

H=

400

APPENDIX C
CALCULATIONS ON TANK DIMENSIONS
Tank volume 1
The volume of the tank is determined by the volume of fluid stored

Operation storage volume

Volume of acetylene required for a days operations

Where,
= volume of acetylene required for a days operations
= the mass of acetylene for a day = 1896 kg/day (material balance calculations)
= density of acetylene = 1.091 kg/m3 at 21oC and 1 atm (Perry, 1999)

The total storage volume for at most 7 days of supply cut off

Over fill protection


There should always be a small ullage (the air space between the water surface and the
top of the tank) remaining when the contents gauge registers full. Thus equivalent to 5%
of the total contents of the tank (Mobley, 2001).
Volume of the storage tank

Ullage =
m3 = 3,374,331.513 gal (US)
401

TABLE 18.2. Storage Tanks, Underwriter or API Standard, Selected Sizes (wallas, pg
622)
Internal diameter of acetylene storage tank =
Length of acetylene storage tank = 42.05 in =106.807cm =1.068 m
Thickness of tank = 25mm

Tank volume 2
The volume of the tank is determined by the volume of fluid stored

Operation storage volume

Volume of ethylene required for a days operations

Where,
= volume of ethylene required for a days operations
= the mass of ethylene for a day = 333,333.36 kg/day (material balance calculations)
= density of ethylene = 1.115 kg/m3 at 20oC and 1 atm (Perry, 1999)

The total storage volume for at most 7 days of supply cut off

Over fill protection


There should always be a small ullage (the air space between the water surface and the
top of the tank) remaining when the contents gauge registers full. Thus equivalent to 5%
of the total contents of the tank (Mobley, 2001).
Volume of the storage tank
402

Ullage =
= 4,063,274.222 gal (US)
TABLE 18.2. Storage Tanks, Underwriter or API Standard, Selected Sizes (wallas, pg
622)
Internal diameter of ethylene storage tank =
Length of ethylene storage tank = 43.43in =110.3122cm = 1.103m
Thickness of tank = 25mm

Tank volume 3
The volume of the tank is determined by the volume of fluid stored

Operation storage volume

Volume of propane required for a days operations

Where,
= volume of propane required for a days operations
= the mass of propane for a day = 63254.28 kg/day (material balance calculations)
= density of propane = 1.83 kg/m3 at 94oC and 1.0130bar (Perry, 1999)

The total storage volume for at most 7 days of supply cut off

Over fill protection

403

There should always be a small ullage (the air space between the water surface and the
top of the tank) remaining when the contents gauge registers full. Thus equivalent to 5%
of the total contents of the tank (Mobley, 2001).
Volume of the storage tank

Ullage =
= 3,537,431gal (US)
TABLE 18.2. Storage Tanks, Underwriter or API Standard, Selected Sizes (wallas, pg
622)
Internal diameter of propane storage tank =
Length of propane storage tank = 42.376in =107.64cm = 1.076m
Thickness of tank = 28.18mm

Tank volume 4
The volume of the tank is determined by the volume of fluid stored
Operation storage volume

Volume of ethane required for a days operations

Where,
= volume of ethane required for a days operations
= the mass of ethane for a day = 700,549.20 kg/day (material balance calculations)
= density of ethane = 1.282 kg/m3 at 21oC and 1atm (Perry, 1999)

The total storage volume for at most 7 days of supply cut off
404

Over fill protection


There should always be a small ullage (the air space between the water surface and the
top of the tank) remaining when the contents gauge registers full. Thus equivalent to 5%
of the total contents of the tank (Mobley, 2001).
Volume of the storage tank

Ullage =
= 7,427,160.362gal (US)
TABLE 18.2. Storage Tanks, Underwriter or API Standard, Selected Sizes (wallas, pg
622)
Internal diameter of ethane storage tank =
Length of ethane storage tank = 50.1667 in =127.423cm = 1.274m
Thickness of tank = 25mm

405