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design of an eEthylene is one of the most important and largest volume petrochemicals in the world today. It is used extensively as a chemical building block for the petrochemical industry. The importance of ethylene results from the double bond in its molecular structure that makes it reactive. Ethylene can be converted industrially into a variety of intermediate and end products [41]. The major use of ethylene is conversion to low and high-density polyethylene. Other significant uses of ethylene include chlorination to ethylene dichloride, used in the manufacture of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC), oxidation to the ethylene oxide, an intermediate in the manufacture of polyester fibres and films, and the conversion to ethyl benzene, an intermediate in the manufacture of polystyrene [23].
Ethylene has become an important industrial intermediate and various technologies have been utilized in ethylene production. Recently, ethylene has taken the place of acetylene in virtually all large-scale chemical synthesis. However, acetylene itself is a by-product of modern ethylene production [50].
More than 97% of ethylene around the world is produced by pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, which is the thermal cracking of petrochemicals in the presence of steam. This process can be described as the heating of a mixture of steam and hydrocarbon to the necessary cracking temperature depending on the hydrocarbon used. This mixture is then fed to a fired reactor or furnace and heated. As a result, the original saturated hydrocarbon “cracks” into smaller unsaturated molecules. This process is extremely endothermic, and the product
2
must be cooled back to the original feed temperature upon leaving the reactor in order to minimize secondary reactions. [2]
Chemical companies have a variety of options for feedstock as well as processes to produce ethylene. Economics and environmental issues are the dominant factors considered in the choice of feedstock and processes of ethylene production.
The focus in this report will be on the steam pyrolysis of hydrocarbons mainly ethane. There are several reasons for this choice which include the cost of production, availability of raw materials and the viability of process.

design of an eEthylene is one of the most important and largest volume petrochemicals in the world today. It is used extensively as a chemical building block for the petrochemical industry. The importance of ethylene results from the double bond in its molecular structure that makes it reactive. Ethylene can be converted industrially into a variety of intermediate and end products [41]. The major use of ethylene is conversion to low and high-density polyethylene. Other significant uses of ethylene include chlorination to ethylene dichloride, used in the manufacture of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC), oxidation to the ethylene oxide, an intermediate in the manufacture of polyester fibres and films, and the conversion to ethyl benzene, an intermediate in the manufacture of polystyrene [23].
Ethylene has become an important industrial intermediate and various technologies have been utilized in ethylene production. Recently, ethylene has taken the place of acetylene in virtually all large-scale chemical synthesis. However, acetylene itself is a by-product of modern ethylene production [50].
More than 97% of ethylene around the world is produced by pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, which is the thermal cracking of petrochemicals in the presence of steam. This process can be described as the heating of a mixture of steam and hydrocarbon to the necessary cracking temperature depending on the hydrocarbon used. This mixture is then fed to a fired reactor or furnace and heated. As a result, the original saturated hydrocarbon “cracks” into smaller unsaturated molecules. This process is extremely endothermic, and the product
2
must be cooled back to the original feed temperature upon leaving the reactor in order to minimize secondary reactions. [2]
Chemical companies have a variety of options for feedstock as well as processes to produce ethylene. Economics and environmental issues are the dominant factors considered in the choice of feedstock and processes of ethylene production.
The focus in this report will be on the steam pyrolysis of hydrocarbons mainly ethane. There are several reasons for this choice which include the cost of production, availability of raw materials and the viability of process.

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Relevance of work

Ethylene is one of the most important and largest volume petrochemicals in the world

today. It is used extensively as a chemical building block for the petrochemical industry.

The importance of ethylene results from the double bond in its molecular structure that

makes it reactive. Ethylene can be converted industrially into a variety of intermediate and

end products [41]. The major use of ethylene is conversion to low and high-density

polyethylene. Other significant uses of ethylene include chlorination to ethylene dichloride,

used in the manufacture of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC), oxidation to the ethylene oxide,

an intermediate in the manufacture of polyester fibres and films, and the conversion to ethyl

benzene, an intermediate in the manufacture of polystyrene [23].

Ethylene has become an important industrial intermediate and various technologies have

been utilized in ethylene production. Recently, ethylene has taken the place of acetylene in

virtually all large-scale chemical synthesis. However, acetylene itself is a by-product of

modern ethylene production [50].

More than 97% of ethylene around the world is produced by pyrolysis of hydrocarbons,

which is the thermal cracking of petrochemicals in the presence of steam. This process can

be described as the heating of a mixture of steam and hydrocarbon to the necessary

cracking temperature depending on the hydrocarbon used. This mixture is then fed to a

fired reactor or furnace and heated. As a result, the original saturated hydrocarbon cracks

into smaller unsaturated molecules. This process is extremely endothermic, and the product

must be cooled back to the original feed temperature upon leaving the reactor in order to

minimize secondary reactions. [2]

Chemical companies have a variety of options for feedstock as well as processes to produce

ethylene. Economics and environmental issues are the dominant factors considered in the

choice of feedstock and processes of ethylene production.

The focus in this report will be on the steam pyrolysis of hydrocarbons mainly ethane.

There are several reasons for this choice which include the cost of production, availability

of raw materials and the viability of process.

1.2 Objectives

The main objective of this project is to develop a simplified plant design for the production

of ethylene and acetylene which includes a thermal cracking section, quenching section, gas

compression/separation, ethylene purification, and an integrated refrigeration section.

The design is aimed at estimating the production of ethylene and acetylene using ethane as

a feedstock and also to determine the yield of ethylene and acetylene using the steam

pyrolysis process. The design is also aimed at determining the feasibility of the steam

pyrolysis process on an industrial scale.

CHAPTER 2

2.1 Chemistry of ethylene and acetylene

2.1.1 Ethylene

Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a gaseous organic compound with the formula C2H4. It

is the simplest alkene (older name: olefin from its oil-forming property). Ethylene has four

hydrogen atoms bound to a pair of carbon atoms that are connected by a double bond and

hence is classified as an unsaturated hydrocarbon. All six atoms that comprise ethylene are

coplanar. The H-C-H angle is 119, close to the 120 for ideal sp hybridized carbon. The

molecule is also relatively rigid: rotation about the C-C bond is a high energy process that

requires breaking the -bond. The -bond in the ethylene molecule is responsible for its

useful reactivity. [12]

Ethylene has a boiling point temperature of -103.7C, a melting point temperature of 169.2C, and a flash point temperature of -136.1C. Physical properties of ethylene include:

It is colourless

It is flammable

It has a slightly sweet smell at normal condition, that is ambient temperature and

one atmosphere

2.1.2 Acetylene

Acetylene (IUPAC name: ethyne) with the chemical symbol C2H2 is a hydrocarbon

consisting of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms. As an alkyne, acetylene

is unsaturated because its two carbon atoms are bonded together in a triple bond. The

3

carbon-carbon triple bond places all four atoms in the same straight line, with CCH bond

angles of 180. [16]

Acetylene is an extremely reactive hydrocarbon. It is moderately soluble in water or alcohol

and markedly soluble in acetone. Acetylene has a melting point temperature of -81.5C and

a boiling point temperature of -84C. Physical properties include:

It is a combustible gas

Acetylene is colourless

Once the gas is compressed, liquefied, mixed or heated with air, it becomes very explosive.

The major use of ethylene is conversion to low and high-density polyethylenes, which are

used in such applications such as construction, communications, packaging, and

manufacturing of industrial and domestic products.

Other significant uses of ethylene include chlorination to ethylene dichloride, used in the

manufacture of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC), oxidation to the ethylene oxide, an

intermediate in the manufacture of polyester fibers and films, and the conversion to

ethylbenzene, an intermediate in the manufacture of polystyrene [16]. In addition, ethylene

is also a major raw material to produce plastics, textiles, paper, solvents, dyes, food

additives, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. [12]

Acetylene is used for the production of oxy-acetylene flame. The temperature of the flame

is above 3000oC. It is employed for cutting and welding of metals. Another common use of

acetylene is as a raw material for the production of various organic chemicals including

4

plastics. Acetylene is also used for artificial ripening of fruits.

Ethylene, because of its double bond, is a highly reactive compound, which is converted to

multi-intermediates and end-products on a large scale industrially. The thermal cracking

process is the most interesting process to produce ethylene commercially. In general the

starting raw material for ethylene production by thermal cracking can be any kind of

hydrocarbon. In reality, the choice of starting material is narrowed by economical

considerations. [26]

As the molecular weight of the feedstock increases, the product complexity increases.

Because many reactions occur during thermal cracking, it is complicated to determine the

rate of the cracking and predict the distribution of the products. Yet, investigations have

confirmed that the primary reaction, which splits the original hydrocarbon, is unimolecular

and that conversion rates follow the first order kinetics for a wide range of molecular

weight and up to high conversion of the original reactant, if there is no distinct equilibrium

barrier [17].

2.3.1 Global market

In the past ten years, ethylene demand and price have fluctuated based upon the economical

growth in the United Stated and the rest of the industrial world. [7]

Although many economic uncertainties surround the petrochemical industry, ethylene

production and consumption should grow because of continuing replacement of natural and

5

inorganic materials with organic synthetics and the further development of radically new

synthesis materials [26].

Our target market is producers of polyethylene products, PVC, and the likes. Some of the

current global market prices of ethylene are as follows: $900/tonne in Asia, 970/tonne and

840/tonne in Europe. [9]

A research on the local market for ethylene did not produce significant values. However

there are industries in Ghana which can use ethylene and acetylene as raw materials or

intermediates. Our target market is the food industries, plastics industries, paints, ripening

of fruits, packaging, and for use in welding. Examples of such industries are Qualiplast,

Duraplast, Interplast, Blue Skies Ghana, and Ezzy Paints.

2.4 Feedstock

A variety of feedstock can be used in a steam pyrolysis process. The feedstock for an

ethylene plant could be methane, ethane, propane and heavier paraffin. With the

development of cracking technology, it can also be cracked from crude oil fractions:

naphtha, kerosene and gas oil. Sometimes, raffinates from aromatics extraction facilities

can also be used as feedstock. The choice of feedstock is a compromise of availability,

price and yield. In selecting a process for ethylene production, the most important factor is

the hydrocarbon feedstock. Although this is controlled by conditions like quantity, quality,

and economics, studies have shown that as the molecular weight of the feed hydrocarbon

increases, ethylene yield decreases.

Methane is the first member of the alkane series and is the main component of natural gas.

It is also a by-product in all gas streams from processing crude oils. It is a colourless,

odourless gas that is lighter than air. Methane is mainly used as a clean fuel gas. It is also

an important source for carbon black. Methane may be liquefied under very high pressures

and low temperatures. Liquefaction of natural gas (methane), allows its transportation to

long distances through cryogenic tankers. [17]. Methane, though an important and abundant

fuel, has not been an attractive raw material for ethylene production, because it is thermally

stable and has no carbon-carbon bonds. The carbon-hydrogen bond requires more energy to

break than the carbon-carbon bond. The C-H bond energy is 93.3 Kcal, whereas C-C

energy bond is 71.0 Kcal [6]. The net reaction for methane dehydrogenation is

2CH4

It is the second member of the alkanes and is mainly recovered from natural gas liquids.

Ethane, like methane, is a colourless gas that is insoluble in water. After methane, ethane

has the second highest composition in natural gas. Ethane is separated most efficiently from

methane by liquefying it at cryogenic temperatures. Various refrigeration strategies exist,

but the most economical process presently in wide use employs turbo-expansion, and can

recover over 90% of the ethane in natural gas. [24] The principal use of ethane is in

chemical industry, mainly, in the production of ethylene by steam cracking. Ethane is

favoured for ethylene production because the steam cracking of ethane is fairly selective for

ethylene. Ethane may be cracked alone or as a mixture with propane. [2]

The net dehydrogenation reaction of ethane is

C2H6

C2H4 + H2 (2)

7

Propane is normally a gas, but it is compressible to a liquid that is transportable.

It is derived from other petroleum products during oil or natural gas processing. Propane,

also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), can be a mixture of propane with small

amounts of propylene, butane and butylenes. Propane is a by-product of natural gas and

petroleum refining. Propane is used as a feedstock for ethylene production. The production

of ethylene from propane is similar to the process of ethylene production from ethane. [2]

In the dehydrogenation of propane four initial reaction steps are conceivable when

producing ethylene and propylene; however, according to Sherwood [24, 25] and Martin

[19] the first two reactions are primary. The reactions are

C3H8

C3H8

2C3H8

2C3H8

2.4.4 Naphtha

Naphtha, an important feedstock for ethylene production, is a collective of liquid

hydrocarbon intermediate oil refining products. It is a mixture of hydrocarbons in the

boiling point range of 30-200 C. For the naphtha cracker process, typical feedstock are

light naphthas (boiling range of 30-90 C), full range naphthas (30-200 C), and special cuts

(C6-C8 raffinates) [29]. Naphtha is obtained in petroleum refineries as one of the

intermediate products from the distillation of crude oil. The processing of light naphtha to

ethylene is similar to the ethane and propane processes.

2.4.5 Kerosene

This is a distillate fraction heavier than naphtha, and is normally a product from distilling

crude oils under atmospheric pressures. It may also be obtained as a product from thermal

and catalytic cracking or hydrocracking units. Kerosene is usually a clear colourless liquid

which does not stop flowing except at very low temperature (normally below -30C).

However, kerosene containing high olefin and nitrogen contents may develop some colour

(pale yellow) after being produced. Currently, kerosene is mainly used to produce jet fuels,

after it is treated to adjust its burning quality and freezing point. Before the widespread use

of electricity, kerosene was extensively used to fuel lamps, and is still used for this purpose

in remote areas. It is also used as a fuel for heating purposes. [17]

Gas oil is a heavier petroleum fraction than kerosene. It can be obtained from the

atmospheric distillation of crude oils (atmospheric gas oil, AGO), from vacuum distillation

of topped crudes (vacuum gas oil, VGO), or from cracking and hydrocracking units.

Atmospheric gas oil has a relatively lower density and sulphur content than vacuum gas oil

produced from the same crude. The aromatic content of gas oils varies appreciably,

depending mainly on the crude type and the process to which it has been subjected. A

major use of gas oil is as a fuel for diesel engines. Another important use is as a feedstock

to cracking and hydrocracking units. Gases produced from these units are suitable sources

for light olefins and LPG. [17]

As a feedstock, natural gas yields ethylene from its ethane or propane content and forms the

basis of a massive chemical industry. Large reserves exist in many regions of the world.

9

Much of the natural gas appears in regions that are remote from markets or pipe lines, and it

is called stranded gas, which is a natural gas field that has been discovered, but remains

unusable for either physical or economic reasons. Most of this gas is flared, re-circulated

back into oil reservoirs, or not produced. In addition, natural gas has a major disadvantage

in transportation. Because of the low density of natural gas, pipeline construction is very

expensive. [2]

The choice of feed stock is an important economic decision as it influences other costs as

well. For the reasons following, the choice of feedstock for our steam pyrolysis is ethane.

Subject to availability, ethane is the best feedstock, as it has higher yield and selectivity of

ethylene than heavier feed stocks and its processing is relatively simple, involving lower

capital costs. Another reason for choosing ethane as feedstock is, ethylene plants based on

light hydrocarbons are much simpler and cheaper to build and operate than plants designed

to use heavy feedstock. The plant has to employ much greater control over the composition

of the final product once the heavier feedstocks are cracked and more variety of

components comes. The choice for a particular feedstock, together with processing

conditions (heat, pressure, steam dilution rate) will determine the yield of ethylene,

propylene and other co-products in steam cracking. Manufacturing plants fed with ethane

and propane can be constructed at much lower investment costs than naphtha crackers.

Table 2.1 shows how product yield varies with feedstock type. If ethane is used as

feedstock, almost no propylene, butadiene and aromatics are formed as by-products.

Our key suppliers of ethane would include Texas Gas Service, Alliance Pipeline, BP

Amoco Co., Chevron Texaco, Duke Energy Co., and Shell Oil.

10

Table 2.1 Approximate material balance of pyrolysis with different feed stock

Products,% mass

Gaseous feed

Liquid feed

Ethane

gas-oil

H2 and methane

13.0

28.0

24.0

26.0

23.0

Ethylene

80.0

45.0

37.0

30.0

25.0

Propylene

1.1

14.0

16.4

14.1

14.4

Butadiene

1.4

2.0

2.0

4.5

5.0

Butene mixture

1.6

1.0

6.4

8.0

6.0

C5+

1.6

9.0

12.6

18.5

32.0

Ratio propylene/ethylene

0.003

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.6

58.3

99.0

98.3

96.7

fraction

Commercially ethylene is obtained by (1) thermal cracking of hydrocarbons such as ethane,

propane, butane, naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, crude oil, etc, (2) autothermic cracking (partial

oxidation) of the above hydrocarbons, (3) recovery from refinery off-gas, (4) recovery from

coke-oven gas, and (5) catalytic dehydration of ethyl alcohol or ethyl ether. Occasionally,

raffinates from aromatics extraction facilities are used as a supplementary raw material. Of

the five methods above, small quantities of ethylene are recovered from coke oven gas and

gases produced from crude oil directly [5] but this route to ethylene has for a variety of

technical and economic reasons, so far not gained commercial significance.

11

The first step in ethylene production is thermal cracking of the hydrocarbon feedstock.

Thermal cracking of natural gas liquids (NGL) or crude oil fractions in the presence of

steam is still the dominant method for the production of ethylene. This thermal

decomposition results from adding heat to the feed to break its chemical bonds. The steam

does not enter directly into the reaction, but it enhances the product selectivity and reduces

coking in the furnace coils. The product of this thermal cracking process is a mixture of

hydrocarbons, which extends from hydrogen and methane to gasoline and gas oil [28].

Most current ethylene processes are basically similar to each other. Ethylene plants use

similar separation units.

In the following sections, each step of ethylene production will be discussed.

The first section of ethylene production process is thermal cracking. Thermal cracking is

the heart of an ethylene plant. This section produces all the products of the plant, while

other sections serve to separate and purify the products. Additionally, this section has the

greatest effect upon the economics of the process. Various types of pyrolysis reactors have

been proposed and commercialized for the thermal cracker. These pyrolysis reactors

include (1) direct heating (2) indirect heating (3) autothermic cracking and others.

The direct heating process using fired tubular heater is the most common cracker in an

ethylene plant. In this process a variety of the hydrocarbon feedstock can be used ranging

from ethane to gas oil. Steam is added to the hydrocarbon feed for several reasons: (1)

reduce the partial pressure of hydrocarbon, (2) lower the residence time of the hydrocarbon,

and (3) decrease the rate of coke formation within the tubes by reaction of steam with

carbon to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

12

Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons by indirect heating include the pebble bed reactors, the

fluidized bed reactors, and regenerative furnace. Even though construction costs seem to be

more expensive and the operation to be more complex, ethylene yield by indirect heating is

higher than that obtained in the fired tubular heaters. One of the advantages of the indirect

heating reactors is that crude oil and heavy fuel oil can be used as feedstock because the

coke by-product can be removed continuously or intermittently in the process [6].

The pyrolysis gas leaving the cracker usually has a temperature in the range of 375C to

500C in the case of naphtha pyrolysis and typically from 500C to 600C in the case of

gas oil pyrolysis. The outlet temperature depends upon the amount of the carbon deposits in

the transfer line exchanger [26]. Quenching of the conversion product or rapid temperature

reduction is important to prevent the decrease of ethylene yields caused by secondary

reactions. This is carried out either by transfer line exchangers or by injecting water and oil.

In addition to the thermal cracking section, the sections for removal of acid gases, drying of

the cracked gases, removal of acetylenic compounds, and purification of ethylene are also

very important, because an efficient ethylene plant is the result of the integration of these

process sections and because, in respect to cost, the thermal cracking section is only about

20-30% of the whole plant. In addition, the goal is to produce ethylene with high purity

above 99.9%.

Most ethylene processes call for compression of the pyrolysis gas leaving the quench tower.

Consequently, the cooled cracked gas leaving the water tower is compressed in four to five

stages. Plants based upon gaseous feedstock generally employ four stages, while many

naphtha-and gas oil-based plants employ five stages of pyrolysis gas compression. Between

13

compression stages, the cracked gas is usually cooled in water-cooled exchangers. Water

and hydrocarbons condensed between stages are separated from the pyrolysis gas in interstage separators.

Hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide are removed from pyrolysis gas between the third

stage and fourth stage of the compression system. This location is optimum because the

actual gas volume has been reduced significantly in the first three stages of compression

while acidic components are still present in the gas stream [26]. Acid gas produced in

thermal cracking must be removed before the first major fractionation step. In removing

acid gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, non-regenerative caustic washing

followed by water washing is employed in the most of the existing plants and proves to be

most economic. The pyrolysis gas leaving the caustic scrubber contains less than 1 ppm of

acid gases and hence assures that the final products of the plant will meet specification in

this respect.

Compressed cracked gas usually is dried to reduce the moisture content to 1 ppm or less

and avoid problems with freezing and hydrate formation in downstream low temperature

equipment. In drying the cracked gases, alumina, silica gel, and molecular sieves are used

commercially. Among them, molecular sieves seem to have an economic advantage over

conventional desiccants because of their higher desiccant activities and lower regeneration

temperatures [17]. Recovery of acetylene and removal of acetylenic materials from the

process gas is very important in manufacturing polymer-grade ethylene.

After the cracked gases have been quenched, compressed, freed of the acid gases, and

dried, they generally contain hydrogen and light hydrocarbons in the C1-C6 range.

Depending upon the cracking method employed, carbon monoxide and nitrogen also may

14

be present. Low temperature straight fractionation, absorption, and selective adsorption are

three different methods to recover and purify ethylene. The aim of this section is to separate

ethylene and acetylene from hydrogen and methane fractions, ethane and propane fractions,

and heavier hydrocarbons. Commercial separation processes operate at four ranges of

pressure: 450-600 psia, 100-150 psia, 70-90 psia, and 30-40 psia. The most popular is the

450-600 psia because it offers an attractive combination of purity, recovery, efficiency, and

investment for large ethylene plants. [41]

In ethylene purification section, demethanized process streams are introduced to the deethanizer in most cases. The de-ethanizer is a simple tower refrigerated by propane or

propylene to make reflux. The net overhead from the de-ethanizer flows to an ethyleneethane separator. This is the second most costly separation step in an ethylene plant because

the volatility is low and a large amount of reflux is required.

The separation of pyrolysis gas through condensation and fractionation at cryogenic

temperatures requires external refrigeration and is an important part of the ethylene system.

An ethylene refrigerator has two or three stages for a total of between five and seven stages

for the entire refrigeration cascade. Reflux ratios in the columns are selected carefully to

avoid large refrigeration consumption [47].

15

CHAPTER 3

The different processes in ethylene production include steam pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis,

recovery from fluid catalytic cracking off gas, autothermic and fluidized-bed cracking, and

membrane reactor.

The most commonly used process is steam pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The feedstock,

mixed with dilution steam, enters the cracking section and is pyrolysised by heat into small

components. The pyrolysis gas enters the quench section and is cooled there to some

controlled temperature. Water enters the water quench tower, a part of quench section,

cooling down the high temperature pyrolysis gas and becoming steam. That steam, called

dilution steam, mixes with the feedstock before entering the pyrolysis section to decrease

the partial pressure of the cracked gases and slow coke formation. Finally, the pyrolysis

gas goes into the separation section to be separated into a variety of desired final products.

[33]

Steam

Feedstock

CRACKING

SECTION

Pyrolysis

gas

QUENCH

SECTION

Water

16

SEPARATION

SECTION

Final

product

A catalytic pyrolysis process for production of ethylene from heavy hydrocarbons,

comprises

heavy hydrocarbons that are contacted with a pillared inter layered clay

molecular sieve or other high silica zeolite containing catalysts in a riser or down flow

transfer line reactor in the presence of steam. It is catalytically pyrolysed at a temperature

of 650 C to 750 C and a pressure of 0.15 to 0.4 MPa for a contact time of 0.2 to 5

seconds. The weight ratio of catalyst to feedstock ranges from 15:1 to 40:1 and the weight

ratio of steam to feedstock is about 0.3:1 to 1:1.

Catalytic pyrolysis combines catalytic cracking and steam pyrolysis and has the advantages

of both catalytic cracking and steam pyrolysis. It can raise the yields of light olefins,

expand the flexibility of products distribution, and simultaneously lower reaction

temperature and decrease energy consumption for the whole system; so it has broad

application prospect. The raw material is usually crude oil.

Considering that the feed that is used in catalytic pyrolysis is crude oil, this process is not

exactly feasible in Ghana for the production of ethylene and acetylene. This is due to the

shortage in supply of Ghanas crude oil. Furthermore, the crude oil which is imported

mainly from Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea is chiefly refined to produced petroleum,

diesel, kerosene, etc. which is highly useful on the market. Furthermore, this process

requires the use of catalysts in large quantities, and which would require frequent plant shut

down in case of short catalyst life.

Most of the autothermic cracking processes produce acetylene as a main product and

ethylene as a by-product. Most of these processes operate at atmospheric pressure, and

17

hydrocarbon feedstock, air, or oxygen and fuels are preheated to about 593C to reduce the

oxygen consumption and increase the yield. The process of ethylene production by

autothermic cracking is based upon the thermal cracking of crude oil using fluidized beds.

[2]

Fluidized bed reactors are relatively new tools in the chemical engineering field developed

for the oil and petrochemical industries. Here catalysts are used to reduce petroleum to

simpler compounds through cracking. Today fluidized bed reactors are still used to produce

gasoline and other fuels, along with many other chemicals. Many industrially produced

polymers are made using FBR technology, such as rubber, vinyl chloride, polyethylene,

and styrene. A major advantage of this process is the ability to operate the reactor in a

continuous state. However because of the expansion of the materials in the reactor, a larger

vessel is often required, which increases the cost of production. Again, the fluid-like

behaviour of fine solid particles within the bed eventually results in the wear and tear of the

reactor vessel. This requires expensive maintenance which adds to the cost of production.

Membrane reactors may be used in either batch or continuous mode, and allow the easy

separation of the enzyme from the product. Due to the ease with which membrane reactor

systems may be established, they are often used for production on a small scale (g to kg),

especially where a multi-enzyme pathway or co-enzyme regeneration is needed.

Membrane reactors combine reaction with separation to increase conversion. One of the

products of a given reaction is removed from the reactor through the membrane, forcing the

equilibrium of the reaction "to the right" (according to Le Chatelier's Principle), so that

more of that product is produced. Membrane reactors are most commonly used when a

18

reaction involves some form of catalyst. [8] There are two main types of these membrane

reactors (1) the inert membrane reactor and (2) the catalytic membrane reactor.

The inert membrane reactor allows catalyst pellets to flow with the reactants on the feed

side (usually the inside of the membrane). In this kind of membrane reactor, the membrane

does not participate in the reaction directly; it simply acts as a barrier to the reactants and

some products. [14]

Catalytic Ceramic Membrane is a system for the dehydrogenation of ethane to produce

ethylene and hydrogen through the use of a catalytic ceramic membrane having selective

permeability, thus permitting the separation of hydrogen from the reaction zone which

causes further dehydrogenation of ethane. The catalytic ceramic membrane tube is enclosed

within an alloy tube of suitable composition to permit heating to the temperature range of

300 to 650 C. The reactor is connected to a recovery system which permits separation of

pure ethylene and unconverted ethane. A steady stream of H2O or argon continuously

sweeps away the H2 coming out through the selective membrane, thereby further

facilitating the conversion process. [14]

The membrane reactors major advantage is its combination of reaction and separation to

produce a good amount of conversion and yield. However, the membranes (ceramic and

metallic) are poor in mechanical strength and need to be replaced at regular intervals.

Another major disadvantage is the cost of the membranes and its low resistance to harsh

environments. Also, the membrane reactors are usually used for production on small scale

(g to kg). [11] Considering the amount of ethylene and acetylene we want to produce,

which runs into thousands of tonnes, this process is not recommended.

19

Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) is an important process in oil refineries. It upgrades

heavy hydrocarbons to lighter more valuable products by cracking, and is the major

producer of gasoline in refineries. FCC Units present challenging multivariable control

problems.

The heavy molecule cracking process occurs in a riser tubular reactor, at high temperatures,

building up fuel gas, LPG, cracked naphtha (gasoline), light cycle oil, decanted oil, and

coke. The coke deposits on the spent catalyst surface, causing its deactivation. The catalytic

activity is re-established by coke combustion in a fluidized bed reactor, dominated

regenerator. The system riser-regenerator is called the converter. Steam lifts the heated

regenerated catalyst to be combined with the oil in the riser so that the oil-catalyst mixture

rises in an ascending dispersed stream to the separator. The control valve manipulates the

quantity of hot regenerated catalyst from the standpipe to the "riser" in order to maintain a

predetermined outlet riser temperature. On the top of the separator, the catalyst particles are

separated from vapour products by cyclones. The stream transfers the reaction products

overhead to the products recovery section. The standpipe transfers spent catalyst

continuously from the separator to the regenerator by a control valve.

Based on the comparisons above, steam pyrolysis shall be used in this project. Steam

pyrolysis is one of the most important processes of petrochemistry. The main advantage of

this process compared with other processes is that it is quite flexible in terms of feed stock.

In addition steam pyrolysis is the best economical solution to produce ethylene and

acetylene, because other methods are more expensive.

20

The fresh feed of ethane is combined with the recycled ethane from the ethylene column

and charged to the pyrolysis furnace. Dilution steam is added to ethane before it enters the

cracking furnace, to reduce the partial pressure of ethane and lower the residence time of

ethane in the high temperature zone, which decrease the rate of coke formation within the

tubes. The mixture of ethane and steam is preheated in the convection section of the

furnace, and the ethane cracks in vertical tubes within a residence time of 0.1 to 0.5 s. The

cracked gas leaves the furnace at 800 C and 8.0107kPa and is quickly cooled to 340 C in

the transfer line exchangers to preserve gas composition. It generates 370C steam at a

pressure of 16690kPa. The gas is then further quenched in quench towers by direct contact

with water where the gases leave as overhead to the compressor and the quench water is

separated and recycled.

The cracked gases are then compressed in four stages. Acid gases such as carbon dioxide,

are removed after the third stage of compression. The effluent gas leaves the compression

section at 42C and 3500kPa from which it is dried and cooled in a series of heat

exchangers. It is then passed to a de-methanizer where methane and hydrogen is separated

as overhead. The net bottom stream of the demethanizer is charged to the de-ethanizer.

The overhead vapour from the de-ethanizer is partially condensed by heat exchange and

propylene refrigerant. The bottom stream leaving the de-ethanizer contains C3+

hydrocarbons (mostly propane) that are stored in C3+ storage tanks. The net overhead from

the de-ethanizer is the ethylene-ethane stream with traces of acetylene. This stream is then

fed to the C2splitter to separate ethylene and acetylene from ethane. The ethane leaves as

bottoms product and is recycled back to the furnace. The overhead vapour (ethyleneacetylene mixture) is forwarded to an acetylene absorber where acetone is used as the

21

extracting solvent. The gas is then finally sent to the ethylene column where high purity

polymer grade ethylene is recovered as product. The bottoms product containing mainly

acetylene is sent to the acetylene stripper where acetylene is recovered by further

separation.

3.8 Capacity

Our plant is likely to have a capacity of 100,000 tonnes per year of ethylene and about 550

tonnes per year of acetylene. This is because we are operating in a continuous process. Our

main product is ethylene. Acetylene is only a by-product, which is recovered in our quest to

produce 99.95% polymer-grade ethylene to meet market demands. The percentage yield for

acetylene is about 0.2% when using ethane.

22

CHAPTER 4

The general material balance equation is

( Material out) = ( Material in ) + ( Material generation ) (Material consumption )( Material accumulation)

Assumptions:

1. Steady state, no accumulation

2. All masses are calculated on hourly basis

The quantity of ethylene produced per annum = 13888.89kg = 100000tonnes

Plant attainment is 300 days to allow for downtime for maintenances.

The calculations that resulted in the charts shown in this chapter are represented in the

appendix A

23

4.1.1 FURNACE

Flue gases

Fresh ethane

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Ethane

29189.55

29189.55

TOTAL

Temperature: 70C

Component

mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

CO2

44

O2

9.6

N2

242.2

H2O(v)

36

331.85

TOTAL

Temperature: 250C

Mass,

%

100

100

Mass,

%

13.3

2.9

73

10.8

100

Material Steam 1

Component

mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

H2O

5259.6

5259.6

TOTAL

Temperature: 180 C

mass,

%

Pyrolysis furnace

Material stream 2

100

100

Component

mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Ethane

10216.35

Propane

2643.5992

H2O

5201.3132

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Acetylene

82.2172

Ethylene

14166.656

CO2

139.1368

34530.00

TOTAL

Temperature: 840.8 C

Pressure : 107kPa

Fuel/air

Component

mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1544

Air

25890.0922

27390.5322

TOTAL

Temperature: 25 C

Pressure: 101.325kPa

Mass,

%

5.48

94.52

100

24

mass (%)

3.08

29.59

7.66

15.06

2.95

0.24

41.03

0.40

100.00

Material stream 2

Component

mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Ethane

10216.35

Propane

2643.5992

H2O

5201.3132

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Acetylene

82.2172

Ethylene

14166.656

CO2

139.1368

34530.00

TOTAL

Temperature: 840.8 C

Pressure : 101kPa

mass (%)

Cooling water 1

3.08

29.59

7.66

15.06

2.95

0.24

41.03

0.40

100.00

Component

Mass

flowrate

(Kg/hr)

H2O

10620

10620

TOTAL

Temperature: 25C

Pressure: 4177 kPa

Mass %

100

100

Transfer-line exchanger

Material stream 3

Steam at 500 C

Component

Mass

flowrate

(Kg/hr)

H2O

10620

10620

TOTAL

Temperature: 500C

Pressure: 16690 kPa

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Ethane

10216.35

Propane

2643.5992

H2O

5201.3132

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Acetylene

82.2172

Ethylene

14166.656

CO2

139.1368

34530.00

TOTAL

Temperature: 350 C

Pressure : 150kPa

Mass %

100

100

25

mass

(%)

3.08

29.59

7.66

15.06

2.95

0.24

41.03

0.40

100.00

Material stream 3

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Ethane

10216.35

Propane

2643.5992

H2O

5201.3132

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Acetylene

82.2172

Ethylene

14166.656

CO2

139.1368

34530.00

TOTAL

Temperature: 350 C

Pressure : 150 kPa

mass

(%)

Cooling water 2

Component Mass

flowrate

(Kg/hr)

H2O

26864.82

26864.82

TOTAL

Temperature: 30C

Pressure: 4177 kPa

3.08

29.59

7.66

15.06

2.95

0.24

41.03

0.40

100.00

Mass %

1.0

1.0

Quench tower

Material stream 4

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Ethane

10216.35

Propane

2643.5992

H2O

5.25402

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Acetylene

82.2172

Ethylene

14166.656

CO2

139.1368

29333.940

TOTAL

8

Temperature: 34 C

Pressure : 1930 kPa

Water out

mass

fraction

(%)

3.62

34.83

9.01

0.02

3.47

0.28

48.29

0.47

100

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

H2O

141737.094

141737.094

TOTAL

Temperature: 80 C

Pressure : 6987 kPa

26

mass

fraction

100

100

Material stream 5

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Ethane

10216.35

Propane

2643.5992

H2O

5.25402

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Acetylene

82.2172

Ethylene

14166.656

CO2

139.1368

29333.9408

TOTAL

Temperature: 35 C

Pressure : 3500 kPa

mass

fraction

(%)

3.62

34.83

9.01

0.02

3.47

0.28

48.29

0.47

100

Caustic solution

Component Mass

flowrate

(Kg/hr)

NaOH(aq)

45068.4

45068.4

TOTAL

Temperature: 30C

Pressure: 101.325 kPa

Mass

fraction

100

100

Caustic tower

Material stream 6

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Ethane

10216.35

Propane

2643.5992

H2O

5.25402

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Acetylene

82.2172

Ethylene

14166.656

CO2

trace

29194.70971

TOTAL

Temperature: 38 C

Pressure : 3500 kPa

Compon

ent

Mass

flowrate

(Kg/hr)

Na2CO3 9631.954

H2O

38520.498

TOTAL 48152.452

Temperature: 40C

Pressure: 101.325 kPa

Mass %

20

80

100

27

Mass, %

3.64

34.99

9.06

0.02

3.49

0.28

48.52

0.00

100

Material stream 7

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Ethane

10216.35

Propane

2643.5992

H2O

5.25402

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Acetylene

82.2172

Ethylene

14166.656

CO2

trace

29194.70971

TOTAL

Temperature: 40 C

Pressure : 3500 kPa

mass

(%)

3.64

34.99

9.06

0.02

3.49

0.28

48.52

0.00

100

Cooling water 3

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

H2O

87.9234

87.9234

TOTAL

Temperature: 21.5 C

Pressure : 101 kPa

mass %

100

100

Spray tower

Material stream 8

Water out

Component

mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

H2O

87.9234

87.9234

TOTAL

Temperature: 80 C

Pressure : 101kPa

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Ethane

10216.35

Propane

2643.5992

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Acetylene

82.2172

Ethylene

14166.656

CO2

trace

29194.70971

TOTAL

Temperature: 40C

Pressure : 3500 kPa

mass %

100

100

28

mass

(%)

3.64

34.99

9.06

3.49

0.28

48.52

0.00

100

4.1.6 DEMETHANIZER

Material stream 9

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Ethane

10216.35

Propane

2643.5992

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Acetylene

82.2172

Ethylene

14166.656

28910.6902

TOTAL

Temperature: -120.0 C

Pressure : 2000 kPa

mass %

Material stream 10

Component

mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

1062.4992

Hydrogen

1018.2284

Ethylene

141.29108

2267.6624

TOTAL

Temperature: -127 C

Pressure : 3200 kPa

3.97

34.28

9.06

3.60

0.27

49.00

100

Demethanizer

Material stream 11

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

11.448

Ethane

9909.4343

Propane

2621.0494

Acetylene

76.7424

Ethylene

14024.7251

26643.4

TOTAL

Temperature: 6.05 C

Pressure : 2600 kPa

29

mass %

0.04

37.20

9.84

0.29

52.63

100

mass

%

48

46

6

100

4.1.7 DE-ETHANIZER

Material stream 11

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

11.448

Ethane

9909.4343

Propane

2621.0494

Acetylene

76.7424

Ethylene

14024.7251

26643.4

TOTAL

Temperature: 6.05 C

Pressure : 3006 kPa

mass %

Material stream 12

0.04

37.20

9.84

0.29

52.63

100

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

5.048

Ethane

9909.435

Acetylene

76.7416

Ethylene

13954.6

23945.82

TOTAL

Temperature: -34.95 C

Pressure : 3000 kPa

De-ethanizer

Propane product

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Ethylene

110.31

Propane

2623.79

2734.1

TOTAL

Temperature: 40.00 C

Pressure : 3000 kPa

30

mass %

0.04

0.96

100

mass

%

0.02

41.4

0.32

58.28

100

4.1.8 C2 SPLITTER

Material stream 12

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

5.048

Ethane

9909.435

Acetylene

76.7416

Ethylene

13954.6

23945.82

TOTAL

Temperature: -34.95 C

Pressure : 3080 kPa

Mass %

Material stream 13

0.02

41.4

0.32

58.28

100

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Ethylene

13919.217

Acetylene

76.7416

13995.96

TOTAL

Temperature: -10.7 C

Pressure : 3200 kPa

C2 splitter

Material stream 14

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Methane

10.6528

Ethane

9909.435

Ethylene

35.385

9955.47

TOTAL

Temperature: -7.901 C

Pressure : 2000kPa

31

mass %

99.53

0.11

0.36

100

mass %

0.55

99.45

100

Material stream 14

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Ethylene

13919.217

Acetylene

76.7416

13995.96

TOTAL

Temperature: -10 C

Pressure : 3200 kPa

Material stream 17

mass %

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Acetone

127.201

127.201

TOTAL

Temperature: 35 C

Pressure: 101.325 kPa

99.45

0.54

100

Acetylene absorber

Material stream 16

Material stream 15

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Acetylene

1.5977

Ethylene

13900

13901.535

TOTAL

Temperature: 20 C

Pressure: 1722.44kPa

mass %

0.011

99.98

100

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Acetylene

75.2066

Acetone

127.201

202.4076

TOTAL

Temperature: 30 C

Pressure : 1000 kPa

32

mass %

37.16

62.84

100

mass %

100

100

Material stream 16

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Acetylene

75.2066

Acetone

127.201

202.4076

TOTAL

Temperature: 25.00 C

Pressure : 2138 kPa

mass %

37.16

62.84

100

Acetylene stripper

Material stream 18

Material stream 17

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Acetone

127.201

Acetylene

127.201

TOTAL

Temperature: 31.30 C

Pressure: 40.09 kPa

Component mass

mass %

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Acetylene

79.8872 100

Acetone

79.8872 100

TOTAL

Temperature: 34.09 C

Pressure : 6000 kPa

mass %

100

100

33

Material stream 15

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Acetylene

1.5977

Ethylene

13900

13901.535

TOTAL

Temperature: 20 C

mass %

0.011

99.98

100

Ethylene Column

Material stream 20

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Ethylene

13888.89

Acetylene

0.0135

13888.9

TOTAL

Temperature: -10 C

Pressure: 2500 kPa

mass %

99.9

0.1

100

Material stream 19

Component mass

flowrate

(kg/hr)

Acetylene

1.5842

Ethylene

11.1

12.68

TOTAL

Temperature: -30 C

Pressure : 2500 kPa

34

mass %

12.49

87.51

100

4.2.1 FURNACE

Fresh ethane (stream 1)

Component

Enthalpy

(kJ)

Ethane

2445111.3

2445111.3

TOTAL

Temperature: 70 C

Pyrolysis furnace

Component

Steam (stream 2)

Methane

Ethane

Propane

H2O

Hydrogen

Acetylene

Ethylene

CO2

TOTAL

Component

enthalpy

(kJ)

H2O

1551719.1

1551719

TOTAL

Temperature: 180 C

35

Enthalpy

(kJ)

3101484.4

26843935.6

6885500.9

8968631.9

11856702.8

154495.7

31518168.1

140909.5

89469828.9

Component Enthaply

(kJ)

Methane

-196337745.9

Ethane

82223346.4

Propane

6876775.4

H2O

1589144.4

Hydrogen

221078167.1

Acetylene

13753328.5

Ethylene

9533474.4

CO2

75212.34

138791702.6

TOTAL

Component Enthalpy

H2O

187605993

187605993

TOTAL

Temperature: 30C

Pressure: 4.177 kPa

Quench tower

Componen

t

Methane

Ethane

Propane

H2O

Hydrogen

Acetylene

Ethylene

CO2

TOTAL

Enthalpy

(kJ)

-44726466.4

82218800.9

6877143

6977.6

22107265.9

654218

96107084

4167.8

138791702.6

Material stream 8

Component Enthalpy

H2O

18176207.5

18176207.5

TOTAL

Temperature: 80 C

Pressure : 6987 kPa

36

Component

Methane

Ethane

Propane

H2O

Hydrogen

Acetylene

Ethylene

CO2

TOTAL

Enthalpy

(kJ)

-44726466.4

82218800.9

6877143

6977.6

22107265.9

654218

96107084

4167.8

138791702.6

Caustic soda

Component

NaOH

159261400

159261400

TOTAL

Temperature: 30C

Pressure: 4.177 kPa

Caustic tower

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Methane

-350957.8

Ethane

-6953247.8

Propane

96371.2

H2O

711.3

Hydrogen

20846495.5

Acetylene

-66039.6

Ethylene

597934.1

CO2

5414.2

13578747

TOTAL

Enthalpy (kJ)

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Na2CO3(aq) 166306735.6

166306735.6

TOTAL

Temperature: 40C

37

4.2.4 DEMETHANIZER

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Methane

-1058204.1

Ethane

5382174.6

Propane

-863333.2

Hydrogen

-6524474.9

Acetylene

-5711589.7

Ethylene

8242969.9

TOTAL

Demethanizer

Component

Methane

Hydrogen

TOTAL

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Ethane

-704981.6

Methane

420434.0

Propane

-130952.4

Acetylene

-7726.2

Ethylene

8086124.9

7662898.7

TOTAL

Enthalpy

(kJ)

1094052.6

-1009895.2

84157.4

38

4.2.5 DE-ETHANIZER

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Methane

4650.7

Ethane

-706674.8

Propane

-131409.9

Acetylene

-6957.5

Ethylene

-1145519.4

-1985910.9

TOTAL

De-ethanizer

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Methane

10154.4

Ethane

-1980235.4

Acetylene

-19722.6

Ethylene

-3058549.5

-5048353.1

TOTAL

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Propane

110680.1

Ethylene

5306.8

115986.9

TOTAL

39

4.2.6 C2 SPLITTER

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Methane

-4909.6

Ethane

-2026150.9

Acetylene

36772.2

Ethylene

-2986782.9

-4981071.2

TOTAL

C2 splitter

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Acetylene

30135.8

Ethylene

-2318046.8

-2287911

TOTAL

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Methane

-2323.5

Ethane

3174817.8

3172494.3

TOTAL

40

Component Enthalpy

(kJ)

Acetylene

-36.7686

Ethylene

-317733.97

-317770.7386

TOTAL

Ethylene column

Component

Enthalpy

(kJ)

Ethylene

Acetylene

TOTAL

-430.4059

-155.096

-585.5019

Acetylene

-76.4246

Ethylene

TOTAL

-2836982.474

-2837058.903

41

CHAPTER 5

Specifications for all processing equipment based on the operating conditions and flow

rates of the input and output streams among others form a major part in plant design.

The major considerations under equipment specification are:

1. Identification of the equipment

2. Function of the equipment

3. Basic design data

4. Material of construction

Information and data used are from Stanley M. Walas (1999), R K Sinnott (1999), Perry

and Green (1999). [49, 43]

5.1.1 Pyrolysis furnace

Duty: To crack the ethane feedstock into smaller hydrocarbons under carefully controlled

temperature to yield the optimum amount of ethylene and acetylene.

Type or description: cylindrical

Height: 15.16m

Operating temperature: 1200C

Heat duty: 23476.165KW

Material of construction: Stainless steel (SS 310) and Refractory brick

42

Duty: Immediately quenches the cracked gases to a lower temperature to stop further

undesired reactions and coke formation

Type or description: Transfer-line exchanger

Temperature: 700C

Quantity: 1

Material of construction: stainless steel

Duty: to further cool cracked gas and condense water vapour present by direct contact with

water

Type or description: packed tower

Operating temperature: 350C to 34C

Pressure: 150kPa

Height: 18m

Material of construction: austenitic stainless steel type 304

Duty: increases the pressure of the gas to liquefy it for the distillation and separation

processes.

Type: centrifugal compressor

Output pressure: 3500kPa

43

Number: 4-stage

Material of construction: Carbon steel

Duty: To remove the acid gases CO2, from the ethylene gas stream

Type: packed tower

Operating temperature: 35C

Height of tower: 6.846m

Tower diameter: 1.9155m

Vessel volume: 19.729m3

Material of construction: carbon steel

Duty: To dry the gas stream of water (vapour) before cooling it for distillation.

Type: spray tower

Operating temperature: 42C

Material of construction: carbon steel

Duty: the gas is cooled and in turn is liquefied for distillation

Type: series of heat exchangers

Number: 3

Operating temperature: -120C

44

5.1.8 De-methanizer

Duty: To separate and remove methane and hydrogen from the ethylene gas stream

Temperature: 120C

Pressure: 30bar

Height: 15m

Diameter: 1.4m

Material of construction: carbon steel

5.1.9 De-ethanizer

Duty: To separate the C2s and C3s

Temperature: 6C

Pressure: 32bar

Height: 25 m

Diameter: 1.5 m

Number: 1

Material of construction: carbon steel

5.1.10 C2-splitter

Duty: To separate or split the C2 into ethylene and acetylene as overhead and ethane as

bottom stream to be recycled back to the furnace.

45

Operating temperature: -24.95C

Feed pressure: 30bar

Height: 14m

Diameter: 1.7 m

Material of construction: carbon steel

Duty: To recover and obtain our final ethylene product.

Type: tray tower

Temperature: 20C

Height: 78.2 m

Diameter: 3.6 m

Material of construction: stainless steel

Duty: To separate the ethylene as overhead into the ethylene still and acetylene as bottoms

to the acetylene stripper.

Type: packed tower

Temperature: 21C

Height: 19.09m

46

Diameter: 3.248m

Material of construction: stainless steel

Duty: To strip the acetylene from the extracting solvent used in the acetylene absorption

column.

Type: packed tower

Temperature: 20C

Material of construction: carbon steel

Tanks are typically filled to 80% of capacity to function safely. [43]

See appendix C for detailed calculations

Duty: To temporarily store the ethane feedstock before cracking.

Type or description: cylindrical vertical tank on concrete support.

Capacity: 7,427,160.362gal (US)

Internal diameter of ethane storage tank =

Length of ethane storage tank = 50.1667 in = 1.274m

Thickness of tank = 25mm

Material of construction: Carbon steel

47

Duty: To store propane produced from the cracking process temporarily.

Description: Vertical cylindrical tank with flat base and conical roof [43]

Capacity: 3,537,431gal (US) per week

Internal diameter =

Length = 42.376in = 1.076m

Thickness of tank = 28.18mm

Material of construction: carbon steel

Duty: To temporarily store acetylene produced

Type or description: cylindrical vertical tanks with flat base on concrete foundation.

Capacity: 3,374,331.513 gal (US) per week

Internal diameter =

Length = 42.05 in =1.068 m

Thickness of tank = 25mm

Material of construction: carbon steel

Duty: To store our polymer-grade ethylene produced for 7 days.

Type or description: flat bottomed vertical cylindrical tank on concrete foundation.

Capacity: 6,361,192.115 gal (US) per week

48

Internal diameter =

Length = 48in = 1.22m

Thickness of tank = 25mm

Material of construction: Carbon steel

The most common means of transporting fluid is the pipeline. Every pipe is a long,

cylindrical, completely enclosed conduit used to transport gas, liquid, or both from one

point to another. Sizing of pipes for fluid flow in a given plant does not only depend on the

fluids physical properties, but also to some extent, on the sound economic factors. In most

engineering practices under this heading, the criterion used is the optimum diameter which

is the diameter of the pipe that gives the least total cost for annual pumping charges. The

design parameters considered are:

1)

2)

Schedule number

3)

Material of construction

4)

Wall thickness

1000

S

S = Allowable working stress in psi.

The optimum diameter is first of all estimated based on the fluid density, capacity and

viscosity depending on the nature of the fluid.

49

According to Sinnott, the optimum diameter of a stainless steel pipe is given as:

d,optimum = 230G 0.52-0.37

where, G = Mass flow rate in kg/s and = density in kg/m3

Pipe Location: from acetylene absorber to acetylene stripper

Mass flow rate = 13574.7079 kg/hr =3.85 Kg/s

Density of gas = 1.73 kgm-3

The optimum pipe diameter for turbulent flow using stainless steel pipe is given as:

dopt = 260G0.52-0.37 .. (1) [43]

Where: G = mass flow rate of feed

= density of slurry

It implies, dopt = 260(3.77075)0.52(1.73) -0.37

= 428mm, 16.85 in

From the above calculation, a 428mm (16.85in) pipe diameter can be used.

Reynolds number, Re

4G

(2) [43]

d

Re

43.77075

0.0010.428

50

Re = 11217

Re is greater than 4000 and hence flow is turbulent.

From Wallas (1990) Table A5

For optimum pipe diameter of 16.85 in

Nominal size = 16 in

Pipe schedule number = 30s

Outer diameter (do) = 16.00 in

Inner diameter (di) = 15.25 in

2

2 2

2

D 0.423 m 0.1405m

4

4

. (3) [44]

3.77075

u

8.2686

0.471ms1

Maximum design fluid umax 1.2 u .. (4) [44]

2

51

The pressure loss through the bends and check valves can be included in the line pressureloss calculations as an equivalent length of pipe. Assuming all the bends to be 90 elbows

of standard radius, and the isolation valves as plug-type valves.

Elbow equivalent length = 30D....................................... (9) [44]

= 30 x 0.428 m

= 12.84 m

Plug-valve equivalent length = 18D................................ (10) [44]

= 18 x0.428 m

= 7.704 m

Entry losses (at maximum design velocity) are calculated from the equation:

Entry loss =

2

0.6782

umax

0.4 KPa

1.73

2

2

52

Table 5.1 Summary of pipe line specifications for our ethylene plant

Locatio Optim

n

um

diamet

er

(mm)

From

Furnace

to TLE 655.53

From

TLE to

quench

tower

423.24

From

quench 733.00

tower

to

compre

ssor

From

compre 467.6

ssor to

caustic

tower

From

737.96

caustic

tower

to dryer

From

729.29

dryer to

cooler

From

cooler

721.28

to demethani

zer

From

de696.56

methani

zer to

deethaniz

er

From

deethaniz

er to C2

splitter 659

Nomi

nal

Size(i

n)

Sched

ule

Numb

er

25.83

Nor

mal

fluid

veloc

ity

(m/s)

Maxim

um

design

fluid

velocit

y (m/s)

Material

of

Construct

ion

Outer

diamete

r

(in)

Inner

diamet

er

(in)

Crosssectio

nal

area(i

n2)

20

Stainless

steel

24

23.25

0.3375

2.297

3.3082

16.66

40

Stainless

steel

16.00

15.25

0.2277

2.713

3.906

28.87

20

29

28.80

0.422

1.464

2.108

18.00

17.25

0.252

2.452

3.53

29.20

28.70

0.425

1.453

2.094

28.70

28.40

0.421

1.434

2.077

28.40

28.20

0.418

1.413

27.45

27.00

0.403

1.353

1.95

26

25.50

0.3806

1.43

1.206

Stainless

steel

18.40

40

Stainless

steel

29.05

20

Stainless

steel

28.65

20

Stainless

steel

2.035

28.40

20

Stainless

steel

27.42

30

Stainless

steel

25.95

30

Stainless

steel

53

From

C2

splitter

to

acetyle

ne

absorbe

r

From

acetyle

ne

absorbe

r

to

acetyle

ne

stripper

From

acetyle

ne

absorbe

r

to

ethylen

e still

From

ethylen

e still to

storage

tank

495.15

19.5

30

19.5

0

19.25

0.193

1.89

2.73

16.6

0

16.00

0.1405

0.471

0.678

19.3

0

19.00

0.190

0.64

0.920

17.7

0

17.00

0.0152

4.00

5.76

Stainless

steel

428

16.85

30

Stainless

steel

491

19.33

30

Stainless

steel

44.95

17.70

30

Stainless

steel

Centrifugal pumps will be used throughout the process. These pumps are characterised by

their specific speed which is a dimensionless variable. Different types of pumps have

different efficiency envelopes according to their specific speed. Pump selection is made

based on the flow rate and the head required, together with other process considerations,

such as corrosion or the presence of solids in the fluid. The pressure developed by a

centrifugal pumps depend on:

Fluid density

Diameter of the pump impeller

The rotational speed of the impeller

54

Sample Calculation

Location: Between acetylene absorber and ethylene still

Volumetric flow rate = 836.934 m3s-1

From the above pipe specification,

Optimum pipe diameter = 16.66in

Nominal size = 16 in

Pipe schedule number = 30s

Outer diameter (do) = 16 in

Inner diameter (di) = 15.25 in

Velocity of fluid in the pipe = 0.678ms-1

Reynolds number of fluid = 11350

5.4.1.1 Power requirement

Total pump head, H H dc H sc

P

V2 P

V2

H dc Z dc dc sc Z sc sc

2 g g

2g

g

P P

V 2 V 2

Therefore, H dc sc Z dc sc

2g

g

55

Psc = Suction pressure, 40 KPa

0.0097688

2.873ms1

0.0034

0.0001084

3.284ms1

0.000033

P

V2

The total discharge head, H dc dc Z dc dc

2g

g

Pdc

Vdc2

Z dc

g

2

g

P

V2 P

V2

H dc Z dc dc sc Z sc sc

2 g g

2g

g

P P

V 2 V 2

Therefore, H dc sc Z dc sc

2g

g

Where, Z Z dc Z sc 2m

that is the height difference at the centre line of the pump between the suction and

discharge pipe. [44]

Pdc Psc 365KPa

56

= 790kg/m3; g = 9.81m/s2

Hence, H

365000

0.411

2

49.11m

790 9.81

2 9.81

Q = 0.0097688; H = 49.11m ; = 790kg/m3;

g = 9.81m/s2

Hence, Puseful 790 9.81 0.00977 49.11 3718.433W

The value of specific speed represents the ratio of the pump flow rate to the head at the

speed corresponding to the maximum efficiency point. It depends primarily on the design

of the pump and impeller. The specific speed can be used to avoid cavitations or to select

the most economical pump for a given system layout.

The value of specific speed can be calculated from the relation;

Ns

N Q

H

3

4

.. (11)

Ns

1750 586.2

161.122

3

4

936.903

Specific speeds for centrifugal pumps usually lie the range 900-15000 but values above

12000rpm are considered impractical .Since the calculated value lies within the range it

suggest that the calculated value is correct.

57

NPSH is the absolute pressure at the pump inlet expressed in feet of liquid, plus velocity

head, minus the vapour pressure of the fluid at pumping temperature, and corrected to the

elevation of the pump centreline in the case of horizontal pumps or to the entrance to the

first-stage impeller for vertical. Thus if NPSH is zero or less, the liquid can vaporise. The

NPSH increases as the pump capacity increases. Hence it is important to consider the range

of flow requirement during the pump selection time.

Pi Pvap

(12)

Pvap = Vapour pressure, N/m2 = 0.1233 x 105 Pa (Rogers and Mayhew)

Pi Patm gH s (13)

= density of pulp

Hs = Suction head

279272.589 12330

34.444m

790 9.81

58

Pump location

Qty Power

Net

positive Specific

Efficiency

requirement

suction

head speed

(w)

(m)

(r/min)

1637

21

293

65

1142.82

15.095

192

60

3718.433

34.44

862

72

Tower

For pumping caustic 1

solution

into

the

caustic tower

For pumping acetone 1

into

the

acetylene

absorber

59

CHAPTER 6

6.1 Problem statement

To design a cracking furnace to crack ethane feedstock to yield ethylene and acetylene as

products. Furnace to operate at thermal efficiency of 85 %.

Stack

Stack damper

Stea

m

Ethane feed

Convection section

sesection

Cracked gas

Radiant section

Fuel

Air

60

Design constraints

Stack height

Furnace geometry cylindrical

Tube diameter OD = 0.168275 m (6.625 in.)

Center-to-center spacing =0.3048 m (12 in.)

Tube thickness =0.00762 m (0.3 in.)

Diameter of the radiant section = 5 m

Number of tubes in the radiant section = 30

Number of tubes in the convective section = 16

Tube length = 10.7 m

61

Methane use as fuel

Excess air 10%

A single row tube alignment

C2H6

C2H4 + H2

Reaction 1

2C2H6

C3H8 + CH4

Reaction 2

C3H8

C2H2 + CH4 + H2

Reaction 3

C + 2H2O

CO2 + 2H2

Reaction 4

62

63

Substance

Nin 10

Nout

Hin KJ/mol

103

Hin KJ/mol

mol/hr

CO2

3.555

H3

C2H2

3.199

H4

C2H4

505.869

H5

C3H8

60.79

H6

CH4

66.477

H7

H2O

291.896

H1

291.265

H8

C2H6

972.985

H2

340.564

H9

H2

509.068

H10

64

Total heat absorbed = Heat for preheating the feed + Heat absorbed for cracking of feed

Assume 70 % of the total heat absorbed in used for the cracking of Feed stock the

remaining is used for preheating of the feed stock.

65

6.2

[2]

Where: N

tube

tube

tube

The heat lost to the surroundings is in the range of 0.02 to 0.03 as a fraction of the total

released heat [Wallas, 1948].Since Q lost is an allowance and for this design we can set it to

be equal to 0.02.

6.2.8.1 Temperature of the process fluid leaving the convective section

The stream entering the radiation section has absorbed 30 % of the total heat absorbed.

Qabsorbed in the convective tubes = Hout Hin

66

Where Qabsorbed in the convective tubes = heat absorbed in the convection section (MJ/hr)

Hout = Enthalpy of the stream entering the radiant section (KJ/mol)

Hin= Enthalpy of the feedstock (KJ/mol)

Qabsorbed in the convective tubes

103+0.688105 +0.76041012 2)

T = 312 C

6.2.8.2 Temperature of flue gas entering the convective section

By rule of thumb the temperature of the flue gas entering the convective section should be

150 C above the process temperature. This mean the temperature of the gas is 990.8 C.

6.2.8.3 Temperature of flue gas entering the stack section

(Waals 1990,pg. 214)

Where Ts temperature of flue gas leaving the convection section oF

a = 0.22048 - 0.35027z + 0.92344z2, b = 0.016086 + 0.29393z - 048139z2

Where z = fraction excess air =0.1

Therefore substitute into the equation above: a= 0.1946874, b=0.0406653

67

Where:

P = the suction available from a natural draft system, Pa

C = 0.0342

a = atmospheric pressure in Pa, h = height of the stack (m).,Ti=inlet temperature in K

To =ambient temperature in K (25 oC)

Setting the P = the suction available from a natural draft system to 400 Pa which is in the

acceptable range [2]

=80.04 m

=80.04 m

6.2.10.1 Process-side heat transfer

.. .. 6.14 [2]

Neglecting the viscosity correction factor

68

Pr =Prandtl number =

, Re

=Reynolds number =

, hi= inside coefficient (W/m2 oC), di= tube inside diameter (m),

flow per unit area(kg/m2s), = fluid viscosity at the bulk fluid temperature (Ns/m2),

w= fluid viscosity at the tube wall temperature (Ns/m2),

Cp = fluid specific heat, heat capacity, J/kgoC.

=

6.2.10.1.2 For the radiative tubes

69

Np= number of tube-side passes, Ut = tube-side velocity, m/s, L = length of one tube, m

jf = Friction factor

At Reynolds number of 5.872

, jf = 2 10-3 [2], w = 0.123810-3, Np=30, L=11m

= 26.152 KPa

6.2.11.2 Pressure drop in the Convective tubes:

At Reynolds number of 2.446

, jf = 1.7 10-3 [2], w=1.69810-3, Np=3, L=11m

=5.743KPa

6.2.12.1 Fuel consumption

Using methane as the fuel

Q released=W fuel

LHVfuel

( Mullinger et al.2008)

70

W fuel = Fuel flow rate (Kg/hr), LHVfuel= Low heating value of fuel (CH4) (MJ/Kg)

LHVfuel=50.055 MJ/Kg (21520 Btu/Ibm)

CH4 + 2(O2 + 3.76N2)

CO2 + 2H2O + 7.52N2

71

DESIGN PARAMETERS VALUES

UNITS

Heat Duty

20.862

MW

Temperature in/out

70/840.8

Pressure drop

5.737

KPa

0.417

Kg/s

7.192

Kg Air /s

10

3.858

Kg/s

Steam required

1.461

Kg/s

9.588

Kg/s

Operating pressure

107

KPa

72

6.3.1 Design Pressure

For vessels under internal pressure, the design pressure is normally 5 to 10 percent above

the normal operating pressure (Sinnott, 2005).The internal pressure in the furnace is related

to the hydrostatic head, atmospheric pressure and the pressure drop by:

Design Pressure (Pi) =hydrostatic pressure + atmospheric pressure = gh + (101325 - P),

Pa

Where = density of the flue gas =3.896 Kg/m3

g = acceleration due to gravity=9.81m/s2

h = height of furnace =15.16 m

P= negligible

H conv. =the height of the convective section = 3.66 m

H rad. = the height of the radiative section = 11.5 m

Design Pressure (Pi) = (3.8969.81 (3.66+11.5) + (101325)

= 101.904 KPa

10 % of the design pressure =1.1101.904

=112.095 KPa

73

For a cylindrical shell, the minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure is given

as:

Di is the internal diameter = 6 m

F is design stress,

Typical design stress for stainless steel at 3500C is 100000 N/m2 (Sinnott, 2005).

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the

maximum working temperature of the material (Sinnott, 2005). The design temperature is

4000C (523.15K)

Stainless steels are the most frequently used corrosion resistant materials in the chemical

industry. Type 304 stainless steel (the so called 18/8 stainless steel) is the most generally

used stainless steel. If the equipment is being deigned to operate at high temperatures,

materials that retain their strength must be selected. The stainless steels are superior in this

74

respect to plain carbon steel. Stainless steel is to be used for this design (Coulson et al,

Volume 6).

The main sources of loads to consider are:

The internal Pressure

The total longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to internal pressure are given as:

Longitudinal stress,

Circumferential stress,

Pi Di

2t

Pi Di

4t

112.095 6.0

62681.267 KPa

2 0.005365

112.092 6.0

31340.634 KPa

4 0.005365

6.3.6.1 Weight of the refractory

The density of high alumina refractory bricks is given as 2579kg/m3 (Rotary kiln transport

phenomena and transport processes)

Where,

75

Where,

R= external radius of steel shell, r = internal radius of steel shell

Total weight of the fluid in the tubes

Mass of content:

76

The support will be so strong enough to with stand the weight exerted by the furnace

Table 6.3 Summary of mechanical engineering design for pyrolysis furnace

PARAMETER

VALUE

Design Temperature

400 oC

Design Pressure

112.095 KPa

0.005365 m

Longitudinal stress

62681.267 KPa

Circumferencial stress

31340.634 KPa

1827.722 kN

77

CHAPTER 7

7.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

To design a heat exchanger to cool cracked gases at a flow rate of

to cooled gases at

1) Heat transfer area

2) Bundle diameter

3) Bundle clearance

4) Heat transfer coefficient

5) Overall heat transfer coefficient

6) Tube side and Shell side fouling resistances

7) Pressure drops

The fundamental heat transfer equation is given by,

78

to

and

.

Where equations (5) and (6) are the dimensionless temperature ratios of the correction

factor.

79

Section 11, 8th Edition gives a corresponding

Hence the chosen Heat Exchanger is 2-4 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers.

80

81

Using a split-ring floating head exchanger. Neither fluid is corrosive, so plain carbon steel

can be used for the shell and tubes.

From the tubing characteristics as given in Perrys, I chose the following dimensions of the

tube.

1-inch Outer Diameter (O.D) tubes with 1.25-inch Triangular Pitch, 16 BWG

82

83

The Reynolds (Re) and Prandtls number (Pr) of the cracked gas at the tube side is given

by,

84

85

The shell side linear velocity is appreciable since it falls in the standard range 0.3 1.0 m/s.

Equivalent Diameter (De) of the triangular pitch is given by,

86

The Reynolds (Re) and Prandtls number (Pr) of the cooling water at the shell side is given

by,

87

Using carbon-steel for the tube and shell side because neither fluid is corrosive and the

temperature is very high.

Thermal Conductivity of carbon-steel (KW) = 55

Taking the fouling coefficients of cracked gas = 0.00030

Taking the fouling coefficients of water = 0.00090

The overall coefficient is the reciprocal of the overall resistance to heat transfer, which is

the sum of several individual resistances.

88

The total pressure drop at tube side is given by the equation,

L Length of tube

For

The total tube side pressure drop is less than 70 kPa, hence within specification.

The shell side pressure drop is also related by the equation,

89

Lb = baffle spacing

As this pressure drop on the shell side is less than 70 kPa, the design is acceptable from the

pressure drop point of view.

Tube side coefficient

Shell side coefficient

90

Overall transfer coefficient, required

7.3.1Parameters to determine

1) Shell and tube thickness

2) Shell and tube nozzle thickness design

3) Head thickness design

4) Estimation of bolt loads

5) Flange thickness design

6) Channel and channel cover

7) Gasket width

8) Axial stress in shell

Shell side Calculations:

91

Nozzles

Assume that inlet and outlet nozzles = 100 mm

92

Head

Take Torispherical heads for both ends and the following parameters are determined

bellow.

Transverse baffles

93

Flange Design

Flange is ring type with plain face.

94

Under atmospheric conditions, the bolt load due to gasket reaction is given by,

95

Flange Thickness

96

97

Tube Sheet thickness

The tube sheet is held between shell flange and the channel. Hence thickness of tube sheet

is given by,

98

Gasket size

99

Under atmospheric conditions, the bolt load due to gasket reaction is given by,

After the internal pressure is applied, the gasket which is compressed earlier, is released to

some extent and the bolt load is given by,

100

Using the larger of the above areas, determine the size of bolts,

Thickness of Nozzle

Assume that inlet and outlet nozzles = 100 mm

101

Flange Thickness

102

103

104

105

The stress at the mid span is f3, which is either tensile or compressive depending on the

position of the fiber. The resultant tensile stresses (including the axial stress due to internal

pressure) should not exceed the permissible stress, and the resultant compressive stress

should not exceed the permissible compressive stress. (Sinnot, 2003)

106

107

CHAPTER 8

8.1 Problem statement:

Design of a quench tower to condense the steam coming out of the furnace in a packed

tower

The superficial gas velocity

Residence time

Data: The packing used is 50mm metal pall ring random packing

Cp = is a packing constant, 0.763, a = specific surface area of packing, 112.6 m2/m3,

= packing void fraction, 0.951, FP = packing factor, 27m2/m3,

Ch = is a characteristic of the particular type and size of packing, 0.784

108

Temperature =34C

Flowrate =7589.283 kmol/hr

Gas out

1. -- Column

shell

2. -- Inlets

and

outlets for

gas and

liquids

3. -- Packing

material

2

Liquid

in

Flowrate =1492.490 kmol/hr

Temperature

=30C

3

2

Gas in

Temperature

=350C

Flowrate

=1777.473 kmol/hr

Liquid out

Temperature =80C

Flowrate =7874.283

kmol/hr

109

The molecular weight of the gas can be calculated as

MG = 0.037416 + 0.284628 +1.810-320 +0.191630 +210-444 +0.16418

+0.033844 + 0.28642

MG =19.3864g/mol

Hence the molecular weight of the gas is 19.3864g/mol

The gas mass flow rate of the gas can be calculated as

Hence the mass flow rate of the gas is 9.571890 Kg/s

The density of the gas mixture is calculated as

The volumetric flow of the gas can be calculated as

110

Where, L = liquid mass flow rate, 39.3714Kg/s

G = gas density, 0.570832Kg/m3

V' = gas mass flow rate, 9.571890 Kg/s

L = liquid density, 1000Kg/m3 (Sinnot, 1999)

QG = is the volumetric flow rate of the gas,m3/s

The ratio of the liquid mass flow rate to the gas mass flow rate is given by

Flooding data for quench columns with countercurrent flow of gas and liquid can be

correlated in terms of the flow parameter(X) given by

Flooding curve in quench tower can be accurately described by the polynomial regression

111

The superficial gas velocity can be calculated as

112

The pressure drop at flooding is strongly dependent on the packing factor for both random

and structured packings and it is given by the empirical expression:

For a given fluid flow rates and properties, and a given packing material, superficial gas

velocity can be calculated from the expression given by:

f = a fraction of flooding and is usually 0.7 for quench towers (Wiley and

Jaime,1987)

The diameter of the column can be calculated from

113

D =2.49865m 2.5m

Hence the diameter of the column is 2.5m

The area of the column can be calculated as:

The wall factor can be important for columns with an inadequate ratio of effective particle

diameter to inside column diameter, and is given by:

Kw = wall factor

The effective particle diameter, dp, is given by

a = specific surface area of packing, 112.6 m2/m3 (Wiley and Jaime,1987)

114

KW = 0.9805309

The Reynolds number of the gas can be calculated as

Where,

The dry-packing resistance coefficient (a modified friction factor),

, is given by the

empirical expression:

Cp = is a (packing constants) characteristic of the particular type and size of packing,

0.763. (Wiley and Jaime,1987)

115

= 0.7464431

The dry-gas-pressure drop can be calculated from the dimensionally consistent correlating

equation given by:

PO = the dry-gas-pressure drop, Pa

116

=7.931453316Kg/m2.s

The Reynolds number of the liquid can be calculated as:

The Froude number of the liquid can be calculated as

g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81m/s2 (Wiley and Jaime,1987)

= 7.2206272810-4

packing, 0.784. (Wiley and Jaime,1987)

117

The specific liquid holdup (i.e. volume of liquid holdup/volume of packed bed) in the

preloading

region

can

be

calculated

from

the

dimensionless

expression:

VL = superficial liquid velocity, m/s

hL= 0.047606969

Hence the liquid holdup in the column is 0.047606969

When the packed bed is irrigated, the liquid holdup causes the pressure drop to increase.

The Correct pressure drop for liquid holdup is calculated with the equation

118

The number of overall gas-phase transfer units is given by:

m= is the slope of the equilibrium line

Gm/Lm= the slope of the operating line.

y1 and y2 = the mol fractions of the solute in the gas at the bottom and top of the

column, respectively.

119

For the case of quench tower use in condensing of the steam the value of

0.8 for purpose of design (Colburn, 1939)

Therefore the number of overall gas-phase transfer units is calculated as

NOG = 10.156

Hence the overall gas-phase transfer units is 10.156

8.4 Calculation of the height of gas and liquid film transfer units

The height of the gas and liquid film transfer units is given as:

HL = height of a liquid-phase transfer unit, m

(Sc)v = gas Schmidt number

(Sc)L = liquid Schmidt number

Dc = column diameter, m,

Z* = column height factor, m

K3 = percentage flooding correction factor

120

is taken as

= HG factor

= HL factor

= liquid mass flow-rate per unit area column cross-sectional area, kg/m2s,

f1 = liquid viscosity correction factor

f2 = liquid density correction factor

f3 = surface tension correction factor

The liquid Schmidt number can be calculated as:

The gas Schmidt number can also be calculated as:

121

The liquid mass flow-rate per unit area column cross-sectional area is given by:

Therefore the mass flow-rate per unit area column cross-sectional area is 8.020676 Kg/m2s

For 70%flooding,

K3= 0.85,

= 80,

Z* =8m, f1=f2=f3=1

(Sinnot,2005)

Also, the height of a liquid-phase transfer unit is evaluated as

The overall height of a gas-phase transfer unit is given by:

122

Hence the overall height of a gas-phase transfer unit is 1.4328m

Therefore the packed height is calculated as

Z = 10.1561.4238 = 13.897m

Hence the packed height Z =14m

Table 8.1 Summary of chemical engineering design for quench tower

Parameter

value

4.8257

2.5

325

0.0476

499

10.156

0.852

0.726

1.4238

14

28

123

8.6.1 Column Design Specifications

Total column height 18 m

Internal diameter 2.5 m

Operating pressure 1.5 bar

Operating temperatures 350C-34C

Material of construction is stainless steel type 304

Design stress 125 MPa

Density of the stainless steel, s = 8030 kg/m3

Vessel fully radiographed (joint factor 1)

The design pressure (P) is chosen to be 10% above the operating pressure, (Sinnot, 2005)

= 1.10x 1.5 bar

= 1.65bar

Minimum thickness (ts,) of the shell cylinder required for pressure loading:

Where, ts = Minimum thickness of the shell cylinder required for pressure loading, mm

P = the design pressure, bar

Di = Internal diameter of the column, m

124

C = corrosion allowance, mm

J = weld joint factor

ts = 28mm

Hence Minimum thickness (ts,) of the shell cylinder required for pressure loading is taken

as 28mm

The minimum thickness of ellipsoidal heads is given as

Therefore, 28mm plating is chosen for the column heads (for uniformity).

8.6.3 Dead weight stress

Volume = column shell + column heads

HT = Total height of the column, m

ts = column thickness, m

125

Density of shell material = 8030kg/m3 (Perry, 1997)

Mass of shell material = volume density

Mass of shell material = 4.168030

Mass of shell material (mS) = 33404.8kg

Mass of insulation

Mineral wool density = 130Kg/m3

tins = insulation mineral wool thickness, mm

Va = Approximate volume of insulation, m3

Va = 2 18 75 10-3

Va = 8.48m3

The approximate volume is 8.48m3

126

Mass of insulation =1308.48

Mass of insulation (mins) =1102.4Kg

To allow for fittings the mass of insulation is multiply by two

Therefore the mass of insulation = 21102.4

Mass of insulation = 2204.8 Kg

Mass of packing

Metal pall ring 50mm density =353Kg/m3

Mass of packing =density Area of column packed height

Mass of packing =353 4.909 14

Mass of packing =19060.63Kg

Total mass = mass of shell + mass of the Internals to the column+ mass of water in the

column+ mass of insulation

Total mass = 33404.8 + 19060.63 + 2204.8+4216.83

Total mass = 74014.4kg

Total weight of the column and contents (wT) =74014.49.81

Total weight of the column and contents (wT) = 726kN

127

DO = Di+2ts

DO = 2.5 + 2(0.028)

DO = 2.556m

Where, DO = Mean diameter, mm

m = total mass of the column and contents, Kg

g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81m/s2

Axial stress

Hoop stress = 2Axial stress

Hoop stress = 227

Hoop stress = 54MPa

128

Wind loading

Wind velocity (max) V, = 160 km/h (Sinnott, 2005)

Wind velocity which correspond to Dynamic wind-pressure loading of 1280Pa (Sinnott,

2005)

Bending moment (Mx) at bottom tangent line

FW =Wind loading, N/m

HT = the total height of the column, m

Wp = Dynamic wind-pressure loading, Pa

FW = (2.5+2(28+75)10-3)1280

FW = 3527.68N/m

129

8.8.1Upwind

Total stress =Bending stress +Axial stress Radial stress

Total stress = 4MPa +27MPa 3MPa

Total stress = 28MPa

8.8.2 Downwind

Total stress = bending stress +Hoop stress Radial stress

Total stress = 4MPa+54MPa 3MPa

Total stress = 55MPa

Therefore the maximum stress is 55MPa

130

The maximum stress is more than 43% below the design stress of 125 MPa, and therefore

the shell design is considered acceptable.

The resultant stresses in the skirt will be:

Where,

bS

WS

Hs= height of skirt and column, m

MS = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base of the skirt (due to wind, seismic

and eccentric loads), Nm

W = total weight of the vessel and contents, N

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base, m

131

ts = skirt thickness, m

Bending moment at base of skirt,

Ms = 778.365kNm

bS=

5.6N/mm2

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of water.

HT = the total height of the column, m

Density of water, Kg/m3

= Acceleration due to gravity, m/s2

Weight of vessel and its content = mg

Weight of vessel and its content = 74014.49.81

132

Total weight = (867+726) kN

Total weight =1593kN

Where,

WS

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base, mm

ts = skirt thickness, mm

WS(operating)

WS(test)

= 3.26N/mm2

= 3.90N/mm2

Maximum tensile stress = (5.6 - 3.26) N/mm2 = 2.34 N/mm2

Base ring and anchor bolt design

133

Circumference of bolt circle = 2200

The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the bolt area

required is given by:

Nb = number of bolts,

fb= maximum allowable bolt stress, N/mm2; typical design value 125N/mm2

Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm,

W = weight of the vessel, N,

Da =assumed bolt circle diameter, m.

Ab= 466.8mm2

Using M30 bolts (BS 4190:1967) root area = 561 mm2

Ab =561mm2

134

Db = 27mm

The bolt root diameter is therefore 27mm.

The base ring must be sufficiently wide to distribute the load to the foundation. The total

compressive load on the base ring is given by:

Fb = 362kN/m

Where, Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, Newtons per linear metre,

DS = skirt diameter, 2m.

The minimum width of the base ring is given by:

135

taken as 5 N/mm2

Actual width required = 76 + 30 +50mm

Actual width required = 156mm

Where, Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring,mm

Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation required is given by:

Where,

= actual bearing pressure on base. N/mm2,

= allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm2.

136

The minimum base ring thickness is

= 20mm.

Parameter

Value

28

27

54

28

55

Table 8.3 Summary of mechanical design of the skirt support for the quench tower

Parameter

Value

Skirt thickness, mm

30

5.60

3.27

2.34

9.50

137

Table 8.4 Summary of mechanical design for base ring and anchor bolt

Parameter

Value

156

Bolt diameter, mm

27

362000

20

138

CHAPTER 9

9.1 Problem Statement

To design a caustic tower to absorb CO2 from an ethylene gas stream entering at feed

conditions of 35C and 3500kPa.

Illustration of problem statement

L2 = 2233.073 kmol/hr

X2 = 0.0

G2 = 1481.664kmol/hr

y2 = 3ppm

G1 = 1488.71549 Kmol/hr

y1 = 0.0021

L1 = 2236.195 Kmol/hr

X1 = 0.0014

Basis:

1 Hour of Operation

Assuming negligible absorption of the other gases and at average temperature of the gas

inside the tower at 35 0C.

139

Component

Amount

in Mole

kmoles

fraction

Methane

66.4062

0.0446

Ethane

340.545

0.2287

Propane

60.0818

0.0404

H2O

0.29189

0.0002

Hydrogen

509.1142

0.3420

Acetylene

3.1622

0.0021

Ethylene

505.952

0.3399

CO2

3.1622

0.0021

TOTAL

1488.71549

1.0000

The chemical reaction across the tower is

CO2 (g) + 2NaOH (aq) Na2CO3(s) + H2O (l)

This is a fast second order reaction.

Hr = |r|Hf(products) - |r|Hf(reactants)

HfCO2 (g) = -393.5 kJ/mol

Hr = (-1130.77-285.8)-(-393.5-2469.6) = -83.87 kJ/mol (exothermic)

140

G1= 1488.71549kmol/hr = 0.4135kmol/s

Y1=

0.0021044,

y1 = 0.0021

y2 = 3ppm

Y2 =

X2 = 0

pCO2 = 7350917.175 Pa, where pCO2 is the partial pressure of CO2 at 31C

Pt = 3500000pa, where Pt is the total pressure of the gas

Y*=

2.1

Min Ls =

For 1.5 times the minimum, Ls= 1.50.4129 = 0.619 kmol/s

X1=

0.0014

141

L2

2231.52Kmol/hr

G2

1481.664kmol/hr

x2

0.0

y2

3ppm

L1

2228.4Kmol/hr

G1

1488.71549 Kmol/hr

x1

0.0014

y1

0.0021

y = mole fraction of CO2 in entering/exiting gas stream

L = total flow rate of liquid leaving/entering the tower

x = mole fraction of CO2/NaCO3 in entering/exit liquid stream

9.2.3 Calculating for the mass velocity of the gas and the liquid

Average molecular weight of the gas = [1666.4062 + 30340.545 + 4460.0818 +

180.29189 + 2509.1142 + 263.1622 + 28505.952 + 443.1622]/1488.71549

MwG= 19.704 Kg/Kmoles

Now considering 20wt% of NaOH solution

Finding the mole fraction of NaOH(XNaOH) in this solution using the relation

X NaOH

X NaOH

Wi M W i

Wi M W i 1 Wi)

M W H2 0

0.20 / 40

0.20 40 0.80 18

X NaOH 0.1011

X H2O 0.8989

142

M W SOLUTION 20.2242 Kg/kmol

Mass flow rate (L1) of liquid at the bottom of the column

L1 45067.60728Kg / hr

L1 12.519 Kg / s

Calculating for mass flow rate (G1) of inlet gas at the bottom of the column

G1 = 1488.7154919.704 = 29333.65001 kg/hr

G1 = 8.148 Kg/s

Gas density g= [3500

Liquid viscosity L = 0.00317kg/m.s

Volumetric flow rate of gas= 0.298m3/s

As a rough guide, packing sizes of 25 mm or larger are ordinarily used for gas rates of 0.25

m3/s, and 50 mm or larger for gas rates of 1 .0m3/s or more.

(Principles and Modern Applications of Mass Transfer Operations, 2nd Edition, Page 222)

Packing type: 38mm ceramic Raschig rings

143

Surface area of packing per unit volume, a = 128m2/m3

Packing factor,FP =310/m

FLV

L1 g

1

G l

0.5

FLV

12.519 26.92

8.148 1213.5

0.5

0.229

From the generalized pressure drop correlation given in Richardson and Coulson, pg 603

K4 = 2.1

=

= 2.137 Kg/ m2s

Then, the cross section area required,

Diameter, d =

144

D=

2.203m

For gas flow rate of Gy = 7693.063kg/m2h = 1575.66 lb/ft2h

P = 1.0 inches water/ft packing when dry (McCabe and smith, pg 570)

P =25.4mm

K4 = 0.723

Then,

% loading =

= 58.7%

A useful measure of the effectiveness of wetting of the available area is the wetting rate LW

defined as:

Packing surface area per unit volume of column

Volumetric

LW

liquid

rate

per

unit

12.519kg/s

1213.5kg/m 128m 2 /m 3 3.813m 2

3

L W 2.11 10 -5 m 3 /m 2 s

145

cross-sectional

area

Absorption and stripping tower by Morris and Jackson, recommends wetting rate of

2.010-5m3/m2s and above for packing size between 25mm and 75mm.

Hw = 0.143

L* = liquid mass flow rate per unit area of column = 3.283kg/m2s

Hw = 0.143

Hw = 0.182 m3 of liquid/m3 of column

=Hw v/V (liquid hold up volume of packing/ liquid volumetric flow rate)

= (0.182

18.528)/ 0.0103

The equation for column height can be written as follows:

ZT =

ZT = HoyNoy

Hoy =

Gy = 7693.063kg/m2h = 1575.66 lb/ft2h

146

(Unit operations of chemical engineering, McCabe and Smith, seventh edition, pg603)

Hoy =

Hoy = 0.229m

Noy =

Where a= top of column, b= bottom of column

x a= 0

xb = 0.0014

ya = 310-6

yb = 0.0021

y* = 2.1x

yb* = 2.10.0014 = 0.00294

ya* = 0

y = yb-ya = 0.0021-310-6 = 0.00297

At the bottom of the column, yb-yb* = 0.0021-0.00294 = -0.00084

At the top, ya-ya* = ya = 0.000003

Noy =

= 1.49610-4

Noy = 19.852

ZT = 0.22919.852 = 4.546m

Height of packing = 4.546m

147

Location

Distance

Purpose

the clean flue gas

Distributor

Between beds and top distributor and bed40cm Prevent excessive carryover of liquid

Between top of inlet gas nozzle and

50cm Prevent excessive carryover of liquid

bottom support plate

Source: (Rase, 1977)

Total height of free spaces in column = 230cm = 2.3m

Table 9.3: Summary of Chemical Engineering Design

Parameter

Value

Column diameter

2.203m

4.546m

Height of column

6.846m

4.87910-4mol/m3hPa

Wetting rate

2.1110-5 m3 /m 2s

Liquid hold up

0.182 m3/m3

% Loading

58.7%

Residence time

5.4min

Choice of packing

Packing size

38mm

Type of installation

Random

148

Inner Diameter of tower, Di = 2.203 m

Height of the packing required = 4.546m

Skirt height = 2m

Density of material column = 7700 Kg/m3

Wind pressure, Pw = 130 Kg/m2

Permissible tensile stress (f) = 950kg/cm2

Thickness of shell, ts = [p D / (2f J p)] + c

Where,

Inner Diameter of vessel, Di = 2203 mm

Working Pressure = 3500103 N/m2

Design Pressure, p = 3850103 N/m2= 3.850 N/mm2

Permissible Stress = 135N/mm2

Joint Efficiency (J) = 0.85

Corrosion allowance = 2mm

Hence,

ts= (3.852203)/[(21350.85-3.85]+2

ts= 37.47mm

So outer diameter of shell Do = 2.203 m + (20.03747m) = 2.278 m

149

Thickness of tower = 37.47mm = 0.03747m

Overall height of tower h = 4.546m+2.30m = 6.846m

Diameter = 2.203m

Outer diameter of the shell (Do) = 2.278m

Implies radius, r = 1.139m

Volume of material of construction 2rht ht 2

= 2 1.1396.8460.03747+ 6.8460.037472

= 1.866m

Density of carbon steel = 7700Kg/m

Therefore mass of carbon steel = 77001.866

= 14368.2Kg

Weight of the tower is therefore = 14368.2 9.81 = 140952N

Packing volume = Ah

Height of packed bed = 4.546m

Area =

= 4.076 m2

150

Mass of packing = 68918.528 = 12765.739Kg

Thus total dead weight = 12765.739 + 14368.2

= 27133.939 Kg

Vessel volume = 6.846m4.076m2 = 27.904m

The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead-weight loads and bending

moments imposed on it by the vessel.

The resultant stress in the skirt will be

s (Tensile) = bs ws

s (Comprehensive) = bs ws

Where

bs

4Ms

( Ds ts )tsDs

ws

W

(Ds ts)ts

151

Where

Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base of the skirt

W = total weight of the vessel and contents

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base

ts = skirt thickness

Dynamic wind pressure = 1280 N/m2

Mean diameter = 2.203 + 2(0.0543) = 2.3116m

Loading per linear mater (Fw) = 1280N/m22.278m

= 2915.84 N/m

Fw h 2 2915.84 (6.846) 2

Ms

= 68329.38051Nm

2

2

Ds = 2.278m = 2278mm

Weight of vessel, W= 27133.939kg 9.81ms-2 = 266183.9416N

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt would occur when the drum is full of the

solvent NaOH.

Approximate weight = (

= 332156.6897N

152

= 598.341kN

ts = 35mm

bs

4Ms

4(598340.63) x 103

= 3.855 N/mm2

ws

W

598340.63

= 2.1952 N/mm2

s (tensile) = bs - ws

= 3.855 2.1952 = 1.6598 N/mm2

s (comprehensive) = bs + ws

3.855+2.1952 = 6.0502N/mm2

The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind and deadweight loading the following design criteria are not exceeded (Sinnott Vol 6, page 846):

s

s

153

fs = maximum allowable design stress for the skirt material, normally taken at ambient

temperature, 20oC

J = weld joint factor

Considering the design criteria

s (tensile) fs J sin

1.6598 114.75

6.0502 1094.09

Both criteria are satisfied, and thus skirt support thickness is 35mm (Sinnott, vol. 6 Pg 848850)

1. Longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to pressure (internal and external)

given by

PDi

2t

PDi

L

4t

154

Where

= circumferential stresses

L=

longitudinal stresses

Di = is the internal diameter of the absorber

t = thickness of the vessel

3.850 2203

113.18 N / mm2

2 37.47

3.850 2203

L

56.59 N / mm2

4 37.47

2. Direct stress due to the weight of the vessel, its contents and any attachments.

W

266183.9416

1.009 N / mm2

( Di t )t (2203 37.47)37.47

Approximate pitch circle diameter = 1.5m

Circumference of bolt circle = 1500

1500

7.8 8

600

Scheiman gives the following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor

bolts:

1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm (1 in.) diameter should not be used.

2. Minimum number of bolts 8.

3. Use multiples of 4 bolts.

155

(Sinnot, volume 6, pg 848)

Table 9.4: Summary of Mechanical Engineering Design

Parameter

Value

Equipment(shell) thickness

37.47mm

Weight of tower

140952N

Weight of packing

125231.9N

Vessel volume

27.904m3

Skirt thickness

20mm

Longitudinal stress

56.59N/mm2

Circumferential stress

113.18N/mm2

Direct stress

1.009N/mm2

No. Of bolts

Bending moment

68329.38Nm

Type support

Straight skirt

156

CHAPTER 10

10.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

In the production of ethylene and acetylene, the removal of water is very crucial. This is

because, water that accumulate during the process will turn into its solid form (ice) when

the separation process of the gas mixture into individual required components is being

done. The aim of the design is to remove almost all the amount of water in the gas mixture

using a spray tower at a lower operating cost.

10.2 JUSTIFICATION

The mixture of gases ready to undergo separation into their individual has water in it. The

exposure of the gas mixture to water sprayed at Tdp over a period of time will allow all the

water to be collected downstream. In this way about 96% of the water is sure to be

removed. By this process, the gas mixture is ready to be separated into individual gases.

Water cooler

Inlet air(Gas mixture)

157

Mass flowrate of inlet gas= Gin

Mass flowrate of outlet gas= Gout

Mass flowrate of inlet water(sprayed water)= Lin

Mass flowrate of outlet water(condensed water)=Lout

Lin

Gout

Gin

Lout

Gin = 29438.1762

Therefore the amount of water entering the spray tower = 87.9234 kg/hr

Therefore to find the flowrate of the exit gas stream = 29241.1306kg/hr

But water of 2ppm is the least that can be allowed in the mixture without effect on the

result.

2ppm which is 0.0002% of the total amount present;

Lin = Lout

158

..(tosun, 2007)

.. (tosun, 2007)

Ga is the mass flowrate of the inlet gas

is thedensity

V is the velocity of the gas particles

Assuming ideal gas situation:

Average molecular weight of the gas, M = [1666.4062 + 30340.545 + 4460.0818 +

180.29189 + 2509.1142 + 263.1622 + 28505.952 + 443.1622]/1488.71549

MwG= 19.704 Kg/Kmoles

Get tight in the main door close to the housing of it

159

l=

The velocity of the gas is assumed to be the same as the mass velocity since the gas mixture

is in vapour form(perry cha 6 pg 6-7)

V = 1485.36kmol every hour

D = 3.878m

An assumption is made;

and applying the force balance between buoyancy and drag forces.

But;

160

d = 0.09551 m

Ut = 0.005283 m/s

H = vtt.(tosun, 2007)

Where H is the height of the tower,

vt is the terminal velocity of the water particles

t is the time for the unsteady state energy balance around the condensed water

10.4.4.1 Cooling period

Lin = Lout

(tosun, 2007)

is the heat capacity of the water.

Cpl = 1.82964 10+(4.72118 10-1

6

3133)

Cpl = 18.2964+147.7730-130.9630+40.3002

161

d = 1.31424 10-6

Cpl = 75.4066J/mol.K

Tdp is dew point

It is assumed that the pressure of the inlet water is at atmospheric pressure

The actual vapour pressure of water (p) at 40 C is 0.0728atm (7376.46Pa)

Therefore dv = 0.051069kg.m-3

..T G Anthony & P R Clarke(2006)

Therefore

And f is enhancement factor is f

f = 1+A+P[B+C(T+D+EP)2].(Buck A. 1981)

f = 1+(4.8 10-4)+35000[(3.47 10-6)+5.9 10-10(313+0-(0 35000)2]

f = 1.1284

Therefore

ps = 2556.89 Pa

162

to find the dew point; the temperature at which the water in the gas mixture begins to

condense.

(tosun, 2007)

tdp = 21.4922=21.5 C

thus a temperature below this will condense the water in the mixture.

(40-21.5) C = 24.5 C/2=9.25 C 12.5

12C is assumed to be the temperature(modeling in transport)

therefore

..(tosun, 2007)

10.4.4.1Height of tower

H = terminal velocitytime for cooling

H = Utt

H = 0.0052831880.5447

H = 9.935m

163

= 5.1878 10-5m3/m2s

Assume a water flow of 50gal/min (3.2 L/s) per nozzle; this is a typical flow rate for usual

cooling-tower nozzles. Then, the number of nozzles required equals 10,000 gal/(min)/(50

gal/min per nozzle) = 200 nozzles. If six nozzles are used in each spray group in a series of

crossed arms, with each arm containing one or more nozzles, then 200 nozzles divided by 6

nozzles per spray group means that 33 1/3 spray groups will be needed. Since a partial

spray group is seldom used, 34 spray groups would be chosen.

(handbook of chem. Eng cal)

Pch = Sugden's parachor,

pL = liquid density, kg/m3,

pv density of the saturated vapour, kg/m3,

M molecular mass.

, pi, pv evaluated at the system temperature

164

= (17.11)+(11.31)+(20.01)

= 48.4

= 49.20mJ/m2

10.6.1.1 Summary of chemical engineering design

Table 10.1 Chemical engineering design of spray tower

Parameter

Value

Column diameter

3.878m

Column height

9.94m

Terminal velocity

0.005283m/s

Dew point

21.5 C

Water temperature(inlet)

12 C

Residence time

31.34minutes

5.1878 10-54mol/m3hPa

34

200 nozzles

Inner Diameter of tower, Di = 3.878m

Skirt height = 2m

Density of material column = 7700 Kg/m3

165

Material: Carbon Steel

Permissible tensile stress (f) = 950kg/cm2

10.6.1 Thickness Of Shell:

Thickness of shell, ts = [p D / (2f J p)] + c

Where,

Inner Diameter of vessel, Di = 3878 mm

Working Pressure = 3500103 N/m2

Design Pressure, p = 3850103 N/m2= 3.850 N/mm2

Permissible Stress = 135N/mm2

Joint Efficiency (J) = 0.85

Corrosion allowance = 2mm

Hence,

ts= (3.853878)/[(21350.85-3.85]+2

ts= 68.17mm

So outer diameter of shell Do = 3.878 m + (20.06617m) = 4.0103 m

Thickness of tower = 69.17mm = 0.06917m

Diameter = 3.878m

Outer diameter of the shell (Do) = 4.0103m

Implies radius, r = 2.0052m

166

= 2 2.00529.940.06917+ 9.940.069172

= 8.8119 m

Density of carbon steel = 7700Kg/m

Therefore mass of carbon steel = 77008.8119

= 67851.63 Kg

Weight of the tower is therefore = 67851.63 9.81 = 665624N

Area =

= 6.0915 m2

The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead-weight loads and bending

moments imposed on it by the vessel.

The resultant stress in the skirt will be

s (Tensile) = bs ws

s (Comprehensive) = bs ws

Where

167

bs

4Ms

( Ds ts )tsDs

ws

W

(Ds ts)ts

Where

Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base of the skirt

W = total weight of the vessel and contents

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base

ts = skirt thickness

Dynamic wind pressure = 1280 N/m2

Mean diameter = 3.878 + 2(0.0543) = 3.9866m

Loading per linear mater (Fw) = 1280N/m22.278m

= 2915.84 N/m

The weight of the spray nozzles is approximated to be 500kg

Thus total dead weight = 67851.63+500

= 68351.63kg

Ds = 4.0103m = 4010.3mm

168

Approximate weight = (

= 1230427.61N

Therefore total weight, W = 669845.97+ 1230427.61= 1900273.31N

= 1900.27kN

ts = 66mm

4Ms

4(1900273.31) x 10 3

bs

= 3.242N/mm2

ws

W

1900273.31

= 2.148 N/mm2

s (tensile) = bs - ws

=3.242 2.148= 1.094 N/mm2

s (comprehensive) = bs + ws

3.242+2.148 = 5.390/mm2

The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind and deadweight loading the following design criteria are not exceeded (Sinnott Vol 6, page 846):

169

s

fs = maximum allowable design stress for the skirt material, normally taken at ambient

temperature, 20oC

J = weld joint factor

Approximate pitch circle diameter = 1.5m

Circumference of bolt circle = 1500

1500

7.8 8 (closest

600

Scheiman gives the following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor

bolts:

1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm (1 in.) diameter should not be used.

2. Minimum number of bolts 8.

3. Use multiples of 4 bolts.

4. Bolt pitch should not be less than 600 mm (2 ft).

(Sinnot, volume 6, pg 848)

170

Direct stress due to the weight of the vessel, its contents and any attachments.

W

665624

0.762 N / mm 2

( Di t )t (4010.3 68.17)68.17

Parameter

Value

Equipment(shell) thickness

68.17mm

Weight of tower

665624N

Vessel volume

60.549m3

Direct stress

0.762

No. Of bolts

Bending moment

98854.38Nm

Type support

Straight skirt

171

CHAPTER 11

11.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

This section of the project is aimed at designing a demethanizer which would serve the

purpose of separating methane and hydrogen constituents from the condensed cracked gas

stream.

Determining the number of stages required for the desired degree of separation and the

location of the feed tray is merely the first steps in producing an overall column design.

Other things that need to be considered are tray spacings; column diameter; internal

configurations; heating and cooling duties.

Condenser

Splitter

Distillate, D

D = 577.7694 kmol/hr

Feed, F

F = 1448.2614 kmol/hr

V

L

Re-boiler

172

Bottoms product, B

B = 870.4920 kmol/hr

F = Flow rate of the feed stream, B = Flow rate of the bottoms product stream

D = Flow rate of the distillate stream, L = Flow returned as reflux

L = Flow of liquid at the bottom, V = Flow rate of vapour at the top

V = Flow rate of vapour from re-boiler into column

Component

Mole fraction

Hydrogen, H2

0.350

Methane, CH4

0.046

Ethane, C2H6

0.222

Acetylene, C2H2

0.002

Ethylene, C2H4

0.340

Propane, C3H8

0.040

Temperature = -120oC

Pressure = 2000kPa

Component

Mole fraction

Ethane, C2H6

0.3693

173

Acetylene, C2H2

0.0033

Ethylene, C2H4

0.5600

Propane, C3H8

0.0666

Methane, CH4

0.0008

Temperature = 6.05oC

Pressure = 3600kPa

Component

Mole fraction

Hydrogen, H2

0.8773

Methane, CH4

0.1142

Ethylene, C2H4

0.0085

Temperature = -127oC

Pressure = 3200kPa

Ethylene, C2H2 and Methane, CH4 are considered as the key components. The light key

component shall be methane, CH4 and the heavy key component shall be ethylene, C2H2.

Methane, CH4 Light key (LK)

174

Assuming constant relative volatility, the minimum number of stages is thus estimated by

the FENSKE equation:

N min

x D , LK x B , HK

ln

x B , LK x D , HK

ln LK , HK

XB, LK = mole fraction of the light key component in the bottoms product

XD, LK = mole fraction of the light key component in the distillate

XB, HK = mole fraction of the heavy key component in the bottoms product

XD, HK = mole fraction of the heavy key component in the distillate

LK,

HK

= relative volatility of the light key component with respect to the heavy key

component

From the stream composition tables above,

XB, LK = 0.0008

XD, LK = 0.114

XB, HK = 0.56

XD, HK = 0.0085

Temp.

Pmeth/ Pethyl

175 K

1573.072 Pa

813.309 Pa

1.93

200 K

2018.18 Pa

1096.51 Pa

1.84

230 K

2555.48 Pa

1434.98 Pa

1.78

253 K

2969.00 Pa

1696.86 Pa

1.75

175

Realize that, LK , HK

Therefore,

Pmrthane

and

Pethylene

N min

Average LK , HK

1.83

4

0.56

0.114

ln

ln 9388.2353

0.0008 0.0085

1

1

ln LK , HK

ln 1.83

The Underwoods first equation is used to determine the minimum reflux ratio. It is given

by

Rm 1

x

V

i , HK D ,i

D

i i , HK

Where:

i, HK is the relative volatility of a component i, with respect to the heavy key component at

feed conditions

xd, I is the mole fraction of a component i, in the distillate

Rm is the minimum reflux ratio

i xi , f

1 q

176

Component Xi,f

i, HK

i, HK Xi,f

Try = 1.75

Try = 2.2

Try = 2.21

Methane

0.046

2.37

0.11

0.18

0.65

0.68

Ethane

0.222

1.33

0.30

-0.71

-0.345

-0.34

Propane

0.040

0.18

0.0072

-0.0046

-0.0036

-0.0036

Hydrogen

0.350

345.86

121.05

0.35

0.35

0.35

Acetylene

0.002

0.40

0.0008

-0.0006

-0.00044

-0.00044

Ethylene

0.340

1.00

0.340

-0.45

-0.283

-0.28

= -0.64

= 0.367

= 0.406

Table 11.6: Determining Rm

Component

XD,i

i,HK

S = i,HK -

Methane

0.1142

2.37

0.16

0.27

1.68

Ethane

1.33

-0.88

Propane

0.18

-2.03

Hydrogen

0.8773

345.86

343.65

303.423

0.88

Acetylene

0.40

-1.81

Ethylene

0.0085

1.00

-1.21

0.0085

-0.007

177

Rm 1

i , HK x D,i

V

D

i i , HK

For R = 2.19,

R

2.33

0.70

R 1 2.33 1.00

From the Erbar-Maddox plot, N min 0.62

N

and hence

N min

R

f

N

R 1

14

22.6 23

0.62

The minimum reflux ratio is 1.46; the actual reflux ratio is 2.33; the minimum number of

theoretical stages is 14, and the actual number of theoretical stages is therefore 23.

Using a column efficiency of 60 per cent and taking the reboiler as equivalent to one stage,

the number of real stages is given as Number of real stages

23 - 1

37

0.6

Note that the number of plates is same as the number of real stages.

KIRKBRIDES equation is used for the estimation of the number of plates above and

below the feed plate and hence to locate the feed stage. The equation is given by:

N R xF , HK

N S xF , LK

xB , LK

x

D , HK

2

B

0.206

Where:

B = molar flow rate of bottom product, D = molar flow rate of top product

178

XF, LK = mole fraction of the light key component in the feed

XB, LK = mole fraction of the light key component in the bottoms product

XD, LK = mole fraction of the light key component in the distillate product

NR = number of theoretical stages in the rectifying section

NS = number of theoretical stages in the stripping section

Therefore,

N R x F , HK

N S x F , LK

x B , LK

x

D , HK

2

B

0.206

NR

0.206

7.39130.0088581.50664

0.62

NS

Solving N R 0.62 N S

N S 14.20 14

N R 8.80 9

14.20

23.67 24

0.6

8.80 1

13

0.6

Hence, feed enters the column at the 24th tray from the top.

Vapour and liquid flow rates at the top of the column

179

0.206

Where

V = Vapour flow rates at the top of the column, L = Liquid flow rates at the top of the

column

D = Distillate flow rate

Again, R

L

D

V

R 1

D

Having found that R = 2.19 and D = 593.660 kmol/hr;

V 593.6602.19 1 1893.78kmol / hr

Therefore vapour and liquid rates at the top of the column are 1893.78kmol/hr and

1300.12kmol/hr respectively.

At top of the column conditions (30bar and 175 K), the following are attained:

vap 2.06kg / m 3

liq 221.67kg / m 3

180

The contribution of the feed stream to the internal flow of liquid is described by the

equation below:

L = L + qF

V = V (1 q) F

Where:

L = liquid flow rate at the bottom of the column

V = vapour flow rate at the bottom of the column

V ' 1893.78 (1 0.6)1488.094 1298.54kmol / hr

At bottom of the column conditions (30bar and 253 K)

vap 1.43kg / m 3

liq 433.20kg / m 3

Assumptions:

Condenser mass balance is

V=L+D

Condenser energy balance is

181

V hV + QC = DhD + L hL

Where: hV = enthalpy of vapour at the top of column = 4694.491 KJ/kgmol

V = vapour flow rate = 1893.78 kgmol/hr

QC = condenser duty

D = flow rate of distillate = 593.660 kgmol/hr

hD = enthalpy of distillate = 7662.846 kJ/kgmol

L = flow rate of liquid at the top of the column = 1300.12 kgmol/hr

hL = enthalpy of liqiud at the top of the column = -517480.041 kJ/kgmol

QR = V hV + B hB L hL

Where:

QR = reboiler heat duty

hB = enthalpy of bottom product = 1446.39 kJ/kgmol

L = flow rate of liquid at the bottom of the column = 2192.98 kgmol/hr

V= flow rate of vapour at the bottom = 1298.54 kgmol/hr

B = flow of bottoms = 894.434 kmol/hr

182

11.4 Determination of liquid-vapour flow factor, FLV at the bottom and top

The liquid-vapour flow factor, FLV is given by:

FLV

Lw

Vw

V

L

Where:

Lw = liquid flow-rate

FLV , bottom

FLV , top

Vw = vapour flow-rate

2192.98 1.43

0.097 0.10

1298.54 433.20

1300.12 2.06

0.06618 0.07

1893.78 221.67

Therefore, the liquid-vapour flow factor at the bottom and top are 0.10 and 0.07

respectively.

The flooding velocity can be estimated from the correlation given by Fair (1961):

uf =

K1 ( L V ) 0.5

V 0.5

Where:

uf = is the flooding vapour velocity in m/s or maximum permissible velocity based on the

net column cross-sectional area

K1 = empirical constant

V = vapour density

183

L = liquid density

From fig. 11.27 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986), and using a plate spacing of 0.5m at bottom and top

and their respective flow factors:

K1= 8 x 10-2 ..bottom

K1 = 8.5 x 10-2 .top

11.5.1 Surface tensions:

Bottom surface tension = 0.045 N/m

= 0.022 N/m

0.045

K1 = 0.08

0.02

0.2

0.022

K1 = 0.085

0.02

0.094 ..bottom

0.2

0.094 .top

Hence,

Bottom uf =

Top

1.63m / s

1.430.5

0.99m / s

uf =

2.06 0.5

The flooding condition fixes the upper limit of the vapour velocity. A high vapour velocity

is needed for high plate efficiencies, and the velocity will normally be between 70 to 90 per

cent of that which will cause flooding. For design, a value of 80 to 85 per cent should be

used. (R.K. Sinnot, 1986)

184

Hence design for 85 per cent flooding at maximum flow rate (uf) will be:

Bottom uf = 1.63 x 0.85 = 1.39 m/s

Top uf

The maximum volumetric flow rate can be calculated from the correlation,

..(10)

= maximum volumetric vapour flow rate

Bottom

Top

1298.54 20.80

5.25m 3 / s

1.43 3600

1893.78 3.82

0.98m 3 / s

2.06 3600

The net area required can be estimated from the equation:

A = / uf

Where:

A = net area

Bottom A

5.25

3.78m 2

1.39

Top A

185

0.98

1.2m 2

0.84

Downcomer area is taken as 12 per cent of total and hence, column cross-sectioned area is

calculated as follows:

3.78

4.3m 2

0.88

Bottom =

1.2

1.4m 2

0.88

Top =

The column diameter is determined by:

A 4

Bottom

4.3 4

2.34m

Top

1.4 4

1.34m

Maximum volumetric liquid rate: L =

LB

L

Where:

Bottom L

2192.98 20.80

2.9 10 2 m 3 / s

3600 433.20

Top

L= liquid density

1300.12 3.82

6.22 10 3 m 3 / s

3600 221.67

The plate diameter is within the range of Figure 11.28 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986) and it is clear

from the flow pattern that a single pass plate can be used for both the top and the bottom.

186

For safe operations

0.3m is taken as the spacing between the draw off tray and the bottom of the

product. (Coulson et al, 1983)

Hence, height of column = (number of plates x plate spacing) + 0.4 m = (37 x 0.5) + 0.4 =

19 m

Table 11.7 Summary of Property Values Used

Parameter

Enriching Section

Stripping Section

1300.12

2192.98

1893.78

1298.54

221.67

433.20

2.06

1.43

0.022

0.045

0.07

0.10

0.84

1.39

0.98

5.25

187

Parameter

Enriching Section

Stripping Section

Temperature, oC

-98

-20

3000

3000

Number of trays

24

13

Column diameter, m

1.34

2.34

Parameter

2.33

Height, m

19

-677127

-6203

Pressure, kPa

. For columns operating above atmospheric pressure, the weir heights will normally be

between 40-90mm; 40-50mm is recommended, (R.K. Sinnot, 1986).

Since the column is operated at about 30 atm, weir height (hw) of 50mm is used.

Tray area

Downcomer area Ad 0.12 Ac 0.12 1.4 0.2m 2 , at 12 per cent

Net area, An Ac Ad 1.4 0.2 1.2m 2

Active area, Aa Ac 2 Ad 1.4 20.2 1.0m 2

Hole area, Ah 0.1Aa 0.1m 2

188

From Fig.11.31 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986),

Ad

0.17

100%

100% 12% corresponds to

Ac

1.4

lw

0.76

Dc

Where lw is the weir length

Weir length = D C 0.76 1.34 0.76 1.02m

Take:

Hole diameter = 3 mm

Plate thickness = 3 mm

The hole area must be chosen so that at the lowest operating rate the vapour flow velocity is

still and well above the weep point.

Maximum liquid rate = Liquid density, kg/m3 x Maximum volumetric liquid rate, m3/s

Minimum liquid rate, at 70 per cent turn-down = 0.7 1.38 0.97kg / s

L

750 w

Llw

2/3

hw

1.38

750

221.67 1.02

2/3

25mm liquid

189

0.97

hw 750

221.67 1.02

2/3

At minimum rate, hw + h

19mm liquid

= 50 + 19 = 69 mm

From the weep-point correlation Eduljee (1959), Fig. 11.30 (R K Sinnot), K2 = 30.4

Minimum vapour velocity through the holes at weep point is given by:

u h min

v 0.5

2.06 0.5

6.86 7m / s

Ah

0.1

This implies that the minimum operating rate is well above the weep point, and hence no

weeping occurs.

Dry plate drop: Maximum vapour velocity through holes: u h

0.98

9.8 10m / s

0.1

The pressure drop through the dry plate can be estimated using expressions derived for flow

2

u

hd 51 h V

CO L

Where the orifice coefficient CO is a function of the plate thickness, hole diameter and the

hole to perforated area ratio.

From discharge coefficient (CO) plot, fig 11.34 (R.K Sinnot, 1986), Liebson et al, (1957),

for plate thickness/hole diameter =1 and Ah/Ap Ah /Aa = 0.1, CO = 0.84.

190

10 2.06

Hence hd can be estimated as: hd 51

67mm liquid

0.84 221.67

Residual head

Methods have been proposed for estimating the residual head as a function of liquid surface

tension, froth density, and froth height. However as this correction term is small the use of

an elaborate method for estimation is not justified and the simple equation proposed by

Hunt et al (1957) can be used. (R.K.Sinnot 1986)

hr

12.5 10 3

12.5 10 3

56mm liquid

221.67

ht hd hw hw hr 67 50 19 56 192mm liquid

Downcomer liquid back-up

Downcomer pressure loss; assume the height of apron, hap = hw 10 = 40mm

Then area under apron, Aap = lw x hap = 1.02 x 0.04 = 0.041 m2

As this is less than Ad = 0.17 m2, the head loss in the downcomer, hdc can be estimated

using the equation given by Cicalese et at, (1947)

L

hdc 166 wd

L Am

Am = either the downcomer area Ad or the clearance area under the downcomer Aap;

whichever is smaller, m2

191

1.38

hdc 166

3.83 4mm

221.67 0.041

Back-up in Downcomer

In terms of clear liquid the downcomer back-up, hb, is given by:

hb hw how ht hdc ...................................................................................(21)

0.22

1

plate spacing weir height and hence the tray spacing is acceptable.

2

A time of at least 3 seconds is recommended.

Ad hb L

0.17 0.27 221.67

tr

7.4s

Lwd

1.38

The residence time, tr = 7.4s is well above 3 seconds and hence indicative of a satisfactory

result.

As a rough guide the upper limit of

The percentage flooding is given by:

Percentage flooding

uf

192

uv

0.82m / s

net area

1.2

Percentage flooding =

0.82

0.83 83%

0.99

FLV = 0.07

Perforated Area

Using the cartridge-type construction, assume: 50 mm unperforated strip round plate edge;

50 mm wide calming zones. From Fig. 11.32 (Sinnot, 1986) and at

lw

0.76 ,

Dc

99 0

Angle subtended at plate edge by unperforated strip = 180 99 810

Mean length, unperforated edge strips = 1.34 50 10 3

81

1.82m

180

Mean length of calming zone, approximate = weir length + width of unperforated strip

= 1.02 + 50 x 10-3 = 1.07 m

Area of calming zones = 2 (1.07 x 50 x 10-3) = 0.107 m2

Total area for perforations, Ap = 1.0 (0.107 + 0.091) = 0.802 m2

193

Hole Pitch

The hole pitch (distance between the hole centres) lp should not be less than 2.0 hole

diameters, and the normal range will be 2.5 to 4.0 diameters. Square and equilateral

triangular patterns are used; triangular is used in this design.

d

A

For an equilateral triangular pitch: h 0.9 h

Ap

l p

3

0.9 32 0.802

0.1

8.06mm

Where lp denotes the hole pitch

0.9 l p

0.1

0.802

l p

lp = 8.06 mm is in the range 2.5 4.0 hole diameter and hence a satisfactory result.

dh2

4

3 10 3

hole area

0.1

14147.113 14148

area of one hole 7.06858 10 6

Design pressure

From the chemical design analysis, the design pressure is taken as 10% of the operating

pressure.

10

3000 300kPa

100

Hence, the design pressure = 3000 kPa + 300 kPa = 3300 kPa

194

Design temperature

The strength of the materials decreases with temperature. The maximum operational

temperature used was -20oC (253 K). For design purposes, a tolerance of about 20oC is

allowed. The maximum operational temperature could therefore be pegged at 0oC (273 K).

For carbon and low alloy steel, a minimum allowance of 2.0mm should be used. (R.K.

Sinnot). Where more corrosion is expected a minimum of 4mm is allowed.

Wall thickness

If Di is internal diameter; e the minimum thickness required; f the design stress and Pi the

internal pressure, then:

Pi Di

2 f Pi

Design stress (f) for carbon steel at the design temperature is 135 N/mm2 = 135000 kPa

(Table 13.2, Sinnot, 1993)

At bottom of the column, minimum thickness required is:

3000 2.34

0.026 26mm

2135000 3000

3000 1.34

0.015 15mm

2135000 3000

Top = 15 mm + 2 mm = 17 mm plate

195

Using a standard ellipsoidal head at the top,

Pi Di

3000 1.34

0.015 15mm

2 Jf 0.2 Pi 2 1 135000 0.2 3000

At the bottom, e

3000 2.34

0.026 26mm

2 1 135000 0.2 3000

Top = 15 mm + 2 mm = 17 mm plate

Conical Section

With Dc as the diameter of the cone at a point and as half the cone apex angle which from

geometry is found to be 8.7o;

Thickness at top of the knuckle,

ek

Pi Dc

1

30001.34

1

0.0152 15.2mm

2 fJ Pi cos 2135000 3000 cos 8.7

At the bottom,

ek

30002.34

1

0.0263 26.3mm

2135000 3000 cos 8.7

Top = 15.2 mm + 2 mm = 17.2 mm

Length of thicker section

The length of the thicker section Lk depends on the cone angle and is given by:

196

Lk

Di

2.34

0.77m

4 cos

4 cos 8.7

Weight of shell

According to Sinnot, 1993, the approximate weight of the column, Wv is given by:

Wv 240Cv Dm H c 0.8Dm t

Where:

Wv = Total weight of column excluding internal fittings such as plates

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and plate support ring or

equivalent fittings and it is equal to 1.15 for distillation columns. (R.K sinnot, 1993)

Hc = height of cylindrical section

t = wall thickness

Dm = mean diameter of column = t + diameter of column

Since the column diameter at the top is different from that at the bottom, the total weight of

the column is determined as below:

Total weight of shell = weight of bottom + weight of top

weight of top 240Cv Dm H c 0.8Dm t 240 1.15 1.35712.1 0.81.357 0.017 84kN

weight of bottom 240 1.15 2.3686.9 0.82.368 0.028 161kN

197

Weight of Plate

Since the plate diameter at top is different from that the bottom, the weight of the plates is

determined as shown below:

Weight of plates = weight of plates at the top + weight of plates at the bottom

Weight of plates at the top = 1.2 kN x 1.4 x 24= 40.32 kN

Weight of plates at the bottom = 1.2 kN x 4.3 x 13= 67.08 kN

Total weight of plates = 40.32 + 67.08 = 107.4 kN

Weight of insulation

Mineral wool is used for the insulation because it is relatively cheap and also widely used

for insulating distillation columns (Nelson, 1963).

Density of mineral wool = 130kg/m3 (Nelson, 1993)

Thickness of insulation = 75mm (Nelson, 1993)

Approximate volume of insulation

Weight of insulation = 7.6 x 130 x 9.81 = 9692 N

The weight of insulation is doubled to allow for attachment of fittings and moisture

absorption. (Nelson, 1963)

Therefore weight of insulation together with fittings is taken as: 2 x 9692 = 19384 N

Total weight = weight of shell + weight of plates + insulation weight

= 245 + 107.4 + 19.38 = 371.78 kN

198

Wind Loading

Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2

Mean diameter, including insulation (using average diameter and average thickness)

Mean diameter = 1.84 + 2(23 + 75) x 10-3 = 2.04 m

Loading (per linear metre) Fw = 1280 x 2.04 = 2611 N/m

2611

19 2 471285.5 Nm

2

Analysis of Stresses

Pressure stresses

PDi

2t

t = wall thickness (avg.) = 23 mm = 0.023 m

2t

2 0.023

60000kPa 60 N / mm 2

4t

4 0.023

199

The stress due to the weight of the vessel and the attachments are referred to as the dead

weight stress and is calculated as follows:

W

, where W is the total weight of the column

Di t t

371.78

2761.8kN / m 2.77 N / mm 2

1.84 0.0230.023

Bending Stress

As a result of bending moments on the column, the column would definitely be subjected to

bending stress. The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on the location

and it is given by:

M

Iv

Di

Iv = second moment of the area of the vessel about the plane of bending and it is given by:

Iv

D

64

Di

Iv

1.886

64

471285500 1840

23 7.6 N / mm 2

10

5.84 10 2

200

As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be

z,

and

h.

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the down-wind side.

Thus 120 49.63 = 70.37 N/mm2.

The value is well below the allowable design stress of 115 N/mm2 and hence satisfactory.

Elastic Stability

The critical buckling stress

t

Do

c 2 10 4

c is

given by:

23

2

2 10 4

244 N / mm

1886

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure.

Thus maximum compressive stress = 2.77 + 7.6 = 10.37 N/mm2 and this value is well

above the critical and hence acceptable.

Column Supports

The supports must be designed to carry the weight of the vessel and contents, and any

superimposed loads such as wind loads. Supports should also be designed to allow easy

access to the vessel and fittings for inspection and maintenance. The height of the skirt is

usually between 2-3m. For this design a height of 2m is used.

In this design, a straight cylindrical skirt (s = 90o) is adopted. The material of construction

shall be carbon steel.

201

Skirt thickness

The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead-weight loads and bending

moments imposed on it by the vessel; it will not be under the vessel pressure.

The resultant stresses in the skirt will be: s (tensile) bs ws

s (compressive) bs ws

Where

bs

ws

4M s

Ds t s t s Ds

W

Ds t s t s Ds

Where:

Ms = maximum bending moments evaluated at the base of the base of the skirt

W = total weight of the vessel and its contents

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt at the base

ts = skirt thickness

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt would occur when the column is full of the

feed in liquid form at top and bottom conditions.

Approximate weight = 1.34 2 12.1 221.67 9.81 2.34 2 6.9 433.20 9.81

4

4

202

212

575.50kNm

Using a skirt height of 2 m, bending moment at the base of skirt, 2.61

2

As a first trial, take skirt thickness to be 20 mm

ws (test)

163.21 10 3

1.40 N / mm 2

1840 2020

ws (operating)

371.78 10 3

3.18 N / mm 2

1840 2020

Maximum s (tensile) 10.7 - 3.18 7.52 N / mm2

Take the joint factor, J as 1.0

f s J sin

f s J sin

2

135N / mm2 is greater than the maximum stress (tensile) = 7.52 N/mm

t

0.125E s

Ds

20

2

sin 0.125 200000

sin 90 271.8 N / mm

1840

203

t

0.125E s

Ds

Both criteria are satisfied, adding 2 mm for corrosion gives a skirt thickness of 22 mm.

Base ring and anchor bolts

The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the bolt area

required is given by:

Ab

4M s

W

N b f b Db

Where:

Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread

Nb = number of bolts

Fb = maximum allowable bolt stress also equal to the design stress

Ms = bending moments at the base

Db = bolt circle diameter

Circumference of bolt diameter = 2040

According to Scheiman (1963), bolt spacing should not be less than 600mm and the total

number of bolts should be in multiples of 4.

2040

11

600

Assume bolt diameter = 3.2m

204

Number of bolts = 12

Bolt spacing =

Ab

2040

534mm

12

1 4M s

1 4 575.5 10 3

W

371.78 752mm 2

N b f b Db

2.04

12 125

4 752

31mm

The total compressive load, Fb on the base ring per unit length is given by:

Fb

4 575.5 10 3 371.78 10 3

281 10 3 N / m

2

1

.

84

1.84

The minimum width of the base ring, Lb is given by:

Lb

Fb

1

281 10 3

3

56.2mm

f c 10

5 10 3

205

Parameter

Value

Weight of shell, kN

245

Weight of plates, kN

107.4

19.38

Total weight, kN

371.78

244

10.37

64.83

49.63

60

2.77

Skirt height, m

Skirt thickness, mm

22

Number of bolts

12

752

31

206

CHAPTER 12

12.1 Problem statement

Design a distillation column (de-ethanizer) to separate C2s from C3s with propane and

ethylene as the main bottom product at a rate of 62.0737 kmol/hr at 40C and ethane,

methane, acetylene and ethylene as distillate at a rate of 832.3602kmol/hr at -34.95 C

operating at 3000kPa.

The material balance over the distillation unit has been prepared on the basis given in

chapter 4; thus in sub-section 4.9.

The relative volatility is taken as the geometric mean of the values at the column top and

bottom temperatures.

, ....................................................................................................................................1

where,

PA = vapour pressure of heavier key component (propane).

PB = vapour pressure of lighter key component (ethylene).

= Relative volatility.

207

Table 12.1 Vapour pressure and relative volatility of propane and ethylene

Temperature (K)

C3H8 (Pa)

C2H4(Pa)

248.05

2.2608106

3.7808106

1.6723

313

3.3714106

7.2785106

2.1592

,..............................................................................................................................2

HV is the enthalpy of feed at dew point.

HL is the enthalpy of feed at boiling point.

HV is the enthalpy of feed at entering conditions.

Assuming constant relative volatility, the number of ideal plates at total reflux can be

estimated by the FENSKE equation:

Where:

Nmin = Minimum number of ideal plates

208

LK and HK denote lighter component and heavy component respectively

xD = mole fraction of distillate

= relative volatility of the two component

Nmin =

Nmin =

Therefore the minimum number of stages, Nmin = 21

,..4

where , = the relative volatility of component i with respect to some reference component,

usually the heavy key,

Rm = the minimum reflux ratio,

xD = concentration of component i in the tops at minimum reflux

and is the root of the equation:

, .5

xF = the concentration of component i in the feed, and q depends on the condition of the

feed.

209

But,

-1 = 1.75597

Most columns are designed to operate between 1.2 and 1.5 times the minimum reflux ratio

because this is approximately the region of minimum operating cost.

The Erbar-Maddox correlation which gives the ratio of number of stages required to the

number at total reflux, as a function of the reflux ratio, with the minimum reflux ratio as a

parameter was used here. Estimates of the number of stages at total reflux and the minimum

reflux ratio gives

For plate/tray efficiency, Eo = 0.59100 = 59%

210

By the feed stage location is given by;

, ...............................................................................................5

Where;

NR = number of stages above the feed, including any partial condenser,

NS = number of stages below the feed, including the reboiler,

B = molar flow bottom product,

D = molar flow top (distillate) product,

XF, MK =concentration of the heavy key in the feed,

XF, LK = concentration of the light key in the feed,

XD, HK = concentration of the heavy key in the top product,

XB, LK = concentration of the light key if in the bottom product.

2

N R 0.0666 0.04035 62.0737

0.206

= 4.552196 .........................................................................................................................6

........................................................................................................................7

Solving equation A and B simultaneously,

NR = 6.484 = 7 and NS = 29

211

Therefore the number of plates below the feed is 29. Hence the feed plate is at the 28th

plate from the top.

, 8

Where;

N = Number of trays

Ts = tray spacing ( 0.6 m is specified)

Kd = safety factor = 1.3

H = (36-1) 0.61.3 = 27.3 = 27m.

Material balance around the first tray of the column and the condenser gives:

.9

Where V and L are vapour and liquid rates at the top of the column

D = Distillate or top product

Now

Where:

212

R = reflux ratio

V = 3.1072857.2043 =2663.5052kmol/hr

Also

/hr

Therefore vapour and liquid rate at the top of the column are 2663.5052kmol/hr and

1806.3892kmol/hr respectively.

Assume a constant molal overflow at the bottom of the column, the total material balance

gives:

LB = VB +B.11

Where:

LB = liquid rate at the bottom of the column

VB = vapour rate at the bottom of the column

B = bottom product

F= feed rate

But

LB = L + F..12

LB = 1806.3892 + 894.434 = 2700.8232kmol/hr

213

Therefore liquid and vapour rate at the bottom of the column are 2700.8232kmol/hr and

2638.7495kmol/hr respectively.

Steady state energy balance around the entire column:

FhF + QC + QR = DhD + BhB..13

Assumptions:

Condenser mass balance is

V = L + D, .14

Condenser energy balance is

V HV + QC = DHD + LHL... 15

Where:

HV = enthalpy of vapour at the top of column = -5468.588kJ/kgmol

V = vapour flow rate = 2663.5052kmol/hr

QC = condenser duty

D = flow rate of distillate = 832.3602kgmol/hr

214

kJ/kgmol

HL = enthalpy of liquid at the top of the column = -5468.588kJ/kgmol

QC =DHD + LHL - VHV, 16

QC = [1806.3892(-5468.588)]+[ 1806.3892(-2.405

] - [-5468.588 (2663.5052)]

QC = -195.4954138MJ/hr

From equation (16), QR = DHD + BHB - FHF - QC

Where:

QR = reboiler heat duty

HF = the enthalpy of feed = -6458kJ/kgmol

HD = enthalpy of distillate = -2.405

kJ/kgmol

D = flow rate of distillate =832.3602kmol/hr

QC = condenser heat duty = - 617.4183MJ/hr

F = feed flow rate = 894.434kmol/hr

B = flow rate of bottoms = 62.0737kmol/hr

QR =[832.3602(-2.405

QR = 688.1685452MJ/hr

215

12.1.12 Determination of vapour and liquid density at the top and bottom

From calculations the vapour and liquid density of the column are as shown below

Table 12.2: Vapour and liquid density at the top and bottom

Property

Vapour

Top

Bottom

density

(V, 434.2564

450.9902

Density

(L, 460.0943

482.8811

Kg/m3)

Liquid

Kg/m3)

The liquid-vapour flow factor FLV is given by:

Where

Lw = liquid mass flow-rate, kg/s,

Vw = vapour mass flow-rate, kg/s.

= 0.98913

Therefore, the liquid-vapour factor at the bottom and top are 0.98913 and 0.6566

respectively.

216

The flooding velocity can be estimated from the correlation given by [2]:

,....18

Where:

uf = is the flooding vapour velocity in m/s or maximum permissible velocity based on

bubbling of active area,

K1 = empirical constant,

V = vapour density

L = liquid density

Using a plate spacing of 0.6m [1] and the flow factors at the top and bottom; thus

for FLV = 0.98913, K1= 0.035 (bottom) and

for FLV =0.6566, K1 = 0.046 (top)

Corrections for surface tensions:

Bottom surface tension = 0.1333N/m

Top surface tension

= 0.000801N/m

Therefore:

Bottom, K1 =

= 0.0541

217

Top,

K1 = 0.048

0.0252

Hence,

Bottom uf =

Top

= 0.0144m/s

uf =

The flooding condition fixes the upper limit of the vapour velocity. A high vapour velocity

is needed for high plate efficiencies, and the velocity will normally be between 70 to 90 per

cent of that which will cause flooding. For design, a value of 80 to 85 per cent should be

used. [1]

Hence design for 85 per cent flooding at maximum flow rate (uf) will be:

Bottom uf = 0.0144

Top

0.85 = 0.01224m/s

The maximum volumetric flow rate can be calculated from the correlation,

..19

V = vapour density

= maximum volumetric vapour flow rate

Top;

218

Bottom;

The net area required can be estimated from the equation:

...20

Where:

AC = column area

= maximum volumetric flow rate

uf = maximum flooding flow rate

Top;

Bottom;

Column diameter:

21

Where:

AC = column area

Top;

219

Bottom ;

Maximum volumetric liquid rate,

..22

Where:

LB = liquid rate at the bottom of the column, kg/s

L=

liquid density

Table 12.3: Column Design Specifications

6.005

3006

3000

3000

Reflux Ratio(R)

2.1072

1.7560

R/Rmin

1.2

Feed Stage

28

220

21

36

Tray Efficiency

59%

Height of column(m)

27

-195.4954138

688.1685452

Column diameter, m

top

2.8265

Bottom

3.4584

The sieve tray is chosen for the purpose of this design because of its efficiency, wide

operating range, and ease of maintenance and cost factors.

For columns operating above atmospheric pressure, the weir height will normally be

between 40-90mm; 40-50mm is recommended. Therefore a weir height of 50mm is chosen;

hw = 50mm.

The weir height fixes the area of the down comer (Ad).

221

An = Ac Ad, 23

For the top, An = 6.2745

0.075 = 6.1995m2

Using

Where;

lw = length of weir

Dc = column diameter

0.805 = 2.2753m

A preferable hole diameter = 5mm. [2]

A preferable tray thickness = 3mm

, ...24

Thus for the top, Aa = 6.2745 2(0.075) =6.1245m2

For the bottom, Aa = 9.9393

2(0.075) = 9.7893m2

222

, ..25

For the top AH =

For the bottom,

At the top = 14.4697kg/s

minimum liquid rate at 70% turn down =

At the bottom = 21.3354kg/s

minimum liquid rate at 70% turn down

,26

where:

Lw = liquid flow rate, kg/s

Lw = weir lenght weir crest, mm liquid

For the top

= 43.1960mm liquid.

= 56.71893mm liquid.

223

Top,

=34.0546 mm liquid.

Bottom,

= 41.1666mm liquid.

Minimum rate =

Top, 50 + 39.0546 =89.0546 mm liquid.

Bottom, 50 + 39.1332 =58.1332 mm liquid.

The weep-point correlation,

K2 of the top is 30.8 and that of the bottom is 30.9 [1]

, .............................................................................................................27

vapour density

hole diameter

=0.5970m/s

= 0.6018m/s

= 24.3853m/s

224

Bottom, =

= 22.7953m/s

This means minimum operating rate will be well above weep point.

The total pressure drop is taken as the sum of the pressure drop calculated for the flow of

vapour through the dry plate (i.e. the dry plate drop, hd); the head of the clear liquid on the

plate (i.e.

); and a term to account for other, minor, sources of pressure loss, the

,28

ht =

hd = head loss across the dry hole

, ........................................................................................................29

k1, k2 are constants

For sieve plates

k1 = 0 and

Cv = 0.7419

k2 = 50.8 / 0.74192 = 92.77

For the top, uh = 0.1254m/s

225

Thus

mm liquid

Hence

The simple equation proposed by Hunt [1] is used.

, .30

mm liquid

Bottom, hr =

mm liquid

Hence ht =117.6008mm liquid for the top and 84.2379mm liquid for the bottom

12.3.1 Head loss over downcomer apron

, ..................................................................................................................31

liquid flow rate in downcomer kg/s

Bottom,

226

, 32

+

For the top,

89.0546+177.6008+9.8335=276.4889mm liquid

Since these values are less than the tray spacing of 0.6m there will be no flooding in the

enriching section and stripping sections (bottom and top).

Downcomer residence time is given by:

, ............................................................33

is clear liquid back up

For the top tr

13 6275

= 0.7001sec

In operation some liquid droplets will be entrained and carried up the column by the vapour

flow, and this will reduce the actual, operating, efficiency. The dry-plate efficiency can be

corrected for the effects of entrainment using the equation proposed by Colbura (1936)[1]:

227

At

lw

Dc

Area of one hole = 1.963 x 10-5m2

Number of holes

0.0148

753.95 754

1.963 105

Active area, Ac Top

6.1245m2

Length of weir, lw

Bottom 9.7893m2

Top

2.2753m

Bottom 2.7842m

Weir height

50mm

Downcomer area, Ad

0.075m2

Plate thickness

3mm

Hole area, Ah

0.61245m2

117.6 mm liquid

Top

Hole diameter,

Bottom 0.97893m2

Net area, (An)

Top

6.1995m2

5mm

dh

Number of holes

754

Downcomer area

0.07m2

Bottom 9.8643m2

Plate spacing

0.6m

Plate material

228

carbon steel

12.4.1 Maximum Design Pressure

Vessels subject to external pressure should be designed to resist the maximum differential

pressure that is likely to occur during operation. From the chemical design analysis, the

design pressure is taken as 10% of atmospheric pressure.

10

3000kPa

100

The strength of materials decreases with temperature. The maximum operational

temperature was -34.95 C for the top and 40 C for the bottom. For design purposes, a

tolerance is allowed. Hence the maximum operational temperature could therefore be

pegged at -45 C for the top and 85 C for bottom. [2]

The material selected must be compatible with the process conditions. [1] Carbon steel is

therefore used for the construction.

A structure must be designed to resist gross plastic deformation and collapse under all the

conditions of loading. The loads to which a process vessel will be subject in service are

listed below.

The major loads include:

229

Maximum weight of the vessel and contents under hydraulic test conditions.

Wind loads

The approximate weight of the column, Wv is given by:

Wv

240Cv Dm Hc

0 8 Dm t ,.......................................................................................34

Where:

W v = Total weight of column or shell; N

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and plate support ring or

equivalent fittings and it is equal to 1.15 for distillation columns. [1]

Hc = Column height = 27m

g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81N/m2

t = wall thickness, mm = 5mm

Dm = mean diameter of column = t + Hc = 0.005 + 2.8265 = 2.827m for the top and

3.4589m for the bottom

Wv

240

1 15

2 827

27

2 827 0 005

21077 83286N for the top and 34763 44462N for the bottom. Therefore total weight of

column =21077.8386 + 34763.444462 = 55.8412831MN.

Plate area = 4

0 62

0 28m2

230

The total weight of a plate are found by multiplying the plate area by 1.2kN/m

weight of plate = 1.2 0.28 = 0.34kN

Total weight of plates = 36340 = 12.240kN

Mineral wool is used for the insulation because it is relatively cheap and also widely used

for distillation columns.

Density of mineral wool = 130kg/m3

Thickness of insulation = 75mm

3

Approximate volume of insulation = 0.6 14 0.075 1.98m

The weight of insulation is doubled to allow for attachment of fittings and moisture

absorption.[1]

Therefore weight of insulation together with fittings is taken as 2 2525 = 5.050kN

Sum of Weights = weight of shell + weight of plates + insulation weight

= 21.077 + 12.24 + 5.050

= 38.367kN for the top and 52.053kN for the bottom, hence total weight = 90.420kN

Wind pressure for smooth cylindrical columns is estimated from the relation;

231

Pw = 0.05Uw 2,...35

Pw = wind pressure, N/m2

Uw = wind speed, km/h.

Average Uw = 150km/h [6]. To allow for tolerance, a value of 160km/h will be used.

Pw

0 05

1602

1280N/m2

Fw = Pw Deff, ..36

Deff = 2.8265 + 2(0.075 + 0.005) = 2.9865mfor the top and 3.6184m for bottom.

Fw

1280

2 9865

3822 72N m for the top and 4426.753N/m for the bottom. Hence

Since the column would be free standing and mounted on skirt supports it would act as a

cantilever under wind loading.

Now for a uniform loaded cantilever, the bending moment at any plane is given by:

Mx

Wx2

2

, .37

x = column height

Mx

3822 72 272

2

232

To ensure that column is sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight, a minimum wall

thickness is allowed. For column with diameter between 3-3.5m a minimum thickness of

12mm is required.[2] Since the column diameter is approximately between 3 and 3.5, wall

thickness of 12mm is used.

12.5.1 Primary stress

The longitudinal stress is given by:

PDi

2t

, ..38

Where:

h=

Di= internal diameter of column = 2.8265m for the top and 3.4584m for the bottom.

t = wall thickness = 0.005m

3300 2 8265

h

2 0 005

PDi

4t

, ...39

3300 2 8265

L

4 0 005

The stress due to the weight of the vessel and the attachments are referred to as the direct

stress,

is calculated as:

233

W

w

, 40

Di t t

21077 8386

w

1114316.534kN/m2

As a result of bending moments on the column, the column would definitely be subjected to

bending stress. The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on the location

and it is given by:

M Di

Iv

t ,.41

where:

M is the total bending moment at the plane being considered

Iv is the second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending moment

Iv

64

Do 4

Di 4 , .42

Do = 2.8265 + (20.005) = 2.8365m for the top and 3.4684 for the bottoms.

Iv = 0.0446m for the top and 0.0816m for the bottoms

b

For compressive stress,

Therefore,

upwind

negative

3108434536 N m2

234

b .....................43

downwind

2072721518N m2

and

k.

The greatest

difference between the principal stresses will be on the down-wind side and this should be

below the maximum allowable of 141.92 N/mm2.

Therefore the metal can withstand the stresses imposed on it during operation since the

stresses are well below the maximum allowable stress.

The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight of the

vessel, the design temperature and pressure, the vessel location and arrangement and the

internal and external fittings and attachments.

The most suitable support for the column is the skirt support since the bending moment is

significant.

The height of the skirt is usually between 2-3 m. For this design a height of 2.5 m is used.

The skirt thickness must be sufficient enough to withstand the dead weight loads and

bending moments imposed on it by the column.

Thus, the resultant stresses, in the skirt will be:

bs

ws

...44

Where:

bs =

235

bs

4Ms

Ds ts ts Ds

.45

Where,

bs =

bending stress,

Ds = inside diameter of skirt (assumed to be that of column = 3.4584m)

ts = skirt thickness: as first trial, take skirt thickness to be 15 mm.[1],

Approximate weight

1 52

28

1081 736

525074 2508

wx2

2

9 81

481038 2

525074 2508 N

1006112 451 N

.................................................................................46

x = distance measured from the free end = height of cylinder + height of skirt below apex

of cone (try 1.5 m) = 28 + 1.5 = 29.5 m.

bs

29 52

2131 2

4Ms

4 927338 4 103

Ds ts ts Ds

1500 15 15 1500

927338 4 Nm

34 64 N mm2

Also

W

ws

Ds ts ts

Where,

ws

......................................................................................................

236

47

Ds = inside diameter of skirt = 3.4584m,

ts = skirt thickness, 15 mm.

1006112 451

ws

1500 15 15

14 09 N mm2

bs

ws

bs

34 64

ws

34 64

14 09

14 09

48 73 N mm2

20 55 N mm2

t

s

ts = skirt thickness, 15 mm

= base angle of conical skirt = 90o

E = Young modulus of skirt material = 190000 N/m2

maximum

0 125

190000

0 015

sin90

3 4584

103 01N m2

This is far higher than the calculated design stress. The criterion is therefore satisfied.

Maximum tensile stress = fsJsin [1].

Where fs = maximum allowable design stress for skirt material = 103.01 N m2

J = weld joint factor = 0.85 [1]

237

maximum tensile strength

103 01

0 85

sin90

87 559N m2

2mm is added to the skirt thickness to cater for possible corrosion. Design skirt thickness is

therefore taken as 17 mm.

The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt base ring.

The moments produced by wind and other lateral loads will tend to overturn the column;

however this will be opposed by the couple set up by the weight of the column and the

tensile load in the anchor bolts.

The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the bolt area

required is given by:

Ab

4Ms

Nb fb

Db

W .. 49

Where:

Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread

Nb = number of bolts

fb = maximum allowable bolt stress = 125 N/m2

Ms = bending moment at the base = 1613551 469 Nm

Db = bolt circle diameter = 2.2 m

238

Bolt spacing should not be less than 600 mm and the total number of bolts should be in

multiples of 4.[1]

2200

600

11 519

1

Ab

12

4

125

4 453 3

Bolt spacing =

1613551 469

22

2 2 103

12

9042

1895 54m2

49 127mm

575 95

576 mm

The total compressive load, Fb on the base ring per unit length is given by:

4

Fb

1613551 469

15

90420

15

973363 35 N m

Fb

fc

Lb

1195507 822

103

103

194 673m

LR

100

Lf

ts

15

50 mm

50

165 mm

239

fc

Fb

LR

1195507 822

165

10

7 25 N mm2

The minimum thickness of base ring is found by the ring as a cantilever beam and it is

given by:

tb

Lr

tb

3fc

fr

.50

150

7 25

140

59 mm

240

Weight of

shell, Wv

Resultant

longitudinal

stress

(upwind),

Design

temperatur

e

3108434536N/

m2

Resultant

longitudinal

stress

(downwind),

2072721518N/

m2

Weight of 12.241kN

plates

Circumferenti

al stress

1037008.5kN/m

Skirt

height

2.5m

Direct stress

1114316.53kN

Number of

bolts

12

length of the

column, Fw

8249.473Nm

Total weight

column

55.841283MN

-45C(top)

85C(botto

m)

Wind

pressure

1280Pa

Bolt area

1895.54mm

Bolt spacing

576mm

Total

compressiv

e load, Fb

125N/m2

Minimum

width of base

ring, Lb

194.673m

Bolt

diameter

49.127mm

Actual

pressure,

Minimum

thickness

of

base

ring, tb

59mm

Design

pressure

241

3000kPa

3300kPa

CHAPTER 13

13.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

To design C2- splitter which will separate ethylene, acetylene and other hydrocarbon

exiting the de-ethanizer.

SETUP

By aid of a diagram, a distillation column can be illustrated as shown below:

D=500.0665Kmol/hr

x(C2H6) =0.3970

x(CH4)=0.0008

x(C2H4) =0.994

x(C2H2)=0.0035

x(C2H2)=0.006

x(C2H4)=0.5987

T=262.3K

P=3200kPa

F=832.3662Kmol/h

T=238.05K

B=332.24407kmol/hr

P=3080027kPa

x(C2H6)=0.9942

x(C2H4)=0.0038

x(CH4)=0.002

T=265.099K

P=2000kPa

242

Relative volatility()

To determine the relative volatility between the two substances,a formula is employed from

(R.K. Sinott,1986) to determine their vapour pressures.The relative volatility is taken as the

geometric mean of the values at the top column and the bottom temperature.

=PBo/PAo

where PBo = vapour pressure of the light key

PAo= vapour pressure of the heavy key

Using the formula,

expC1+(C2/T)+C3x ln(T)+ C4x TC5,(1)

PBo (C2H4) = 31.44

PAo (C2H6) =25.28

Therefore , = 31.262/25.28=1.24

Using the McCabe Thiele theory,

y= x/1+(-1)x..(2)

Choosing sample values for x between 0.1 to 1.0(values are used to construct the

equilibrium curve and operating lines)

243

0.1

0.12

0.6

0.65

0.2

0.23

0.7

0.74

0.3

0.36

0.8

0.83

0.4

0.45

0.9

0.91

0.5

0.56

1.0

1.00

Figure 3 shows the Equilibrium curve relation between Ethylene and Ethane

244

For the McCabe Thiele theory, only one component is being considered (predominantly

the lighter component) throughout the entire section.

By the aid of figure 1 above,

For ethylene compositionXD in top stream,

=0.994 1.00

For ethylene composition,XB in bottom stream,

=0.0038 0.004

For the construction of the equilibrium curve, the compositions are :

XF=0.6 XB=0.003 XD=1.00

For construction of the q line,

q=(HV HF)/ .(3)

where :

CP=heat capacity

HV=enthalpy of vapour flow

HF=enthalpy of feed

=latent heat of vapourisation of ethylene

HV=mvCpT

but m=Mn=28x1.0=28kg(M(ethylene)=28)

Hv=28x0.994x87.461x262.3=638494.47

245

HF= mFCpT

Cp=82.04

HF= 28x0.5987x82.04x238.05=327386.771

q=(638494.47-327386.771)/2182578.473=0.15 0.2

For minimum reflux(Rm)

Rm/Rm+1=(XD-yI)/(XD-xI)

= 1-0.92/1-0.9

0.8=Rm-0.8Rm

0.80=0.2Rm

Rm=0.8/0.2=4.0

Ractual=1.5Rm

=1.5x4

=6.00

Reflux ratio,RR

R=L/D and RR=Ractual

L(liquid flow rate)=?

D(distillate flow rate)=500.0665Kmol/hr

R=6.00

246

L=RxD=6x500.0665=3000.399Kmol/hr

Also,V=L+D , where V vapour flow rate

V=3000.399+500.0665

=3500.4655Kmol/hr

For Rectification section,

Calculate for :

XD/(R+1)=1/(6+1)=0.14

From the Fenske equation,

Nm=log(dL/1-dL)X(1-bL/bL)/logL,H.(4)

=(0.99/1-0.99)x(1-0.003/0.003)/log1.24

=4.417/0.093

=48.35 stages

Using Gilliland correlation,

R-Rm/(R+1)=6-4/6+1=0.286

247

From correlation,

N-Nm/N+1=0.35

N-Nm=0.35N+0.35

but Nm=48.35

N-48.35=0.35N+0.35

0.65N=48.7

N=74.92 stages

Feed stage location

By the feed stage location is given by;

2

N R 0.5987 0.0038 332.244

0.206

Where;

NR = number of stages above the feed, including any partial condenser,

NS = number of stages below the feed, including the reboiler,

B = molar flow bottom product,

D = molar flow top (distillate) product,

XF, HK =concentration of the heavy key in the feed,

XF, LK = concentration of the light key in the feed,

XD, HK = concentration of the heavy key in the top product,

248

2

N R 0.5987 0.0038 332.244

0.206

= 4.47 .................................................................................................................................5

................................................................................................................................6

Solving equation A and B simultaneously,

NR = 63 and NS = 14

Therefore the number of plates below the feed is 14. Hence the feed plate is at the 13th

plate from the top.

Tray Spacing

Chosen as 0.5m using theory from Handbook of Chemical engineering calculations

H=(N-1)TsKd

Where:

N= number of trays

Ts=tray spacing(0.5m taken from Sinnot,2003)

Kd=safety factor(1.3 taken from Sinnot,2003)

249

H=(75-1)x0.5x1.3

=48.1m

Chosen as 3.7m using F-factor method,

From correlation,Fc= 1.58Ib/(ft)(s2)

FREE AREA FOR VAPOUR FLOW

AF=W/(Fcv1/2)..(7)

Where :

AF=Free area (Ft2)

W=vapour mass flow rate(Ib/s)

Fc=F-factor(Ib/(ft)(s2))

v=vapour density(Ib/ft3)

For W

Molar flow rate of ethylene

=498.378Kmol/hr=(30.754/3600)Ibmol/s

But n=m/M,M(ethylene)=28

m=nxM=498.378x28

m=13954.58kg/hr

250

by conversion,W=8.542Ib/s

From theory, v=2.085kg/m3.By conversion,v=1.402Ib/ft3

AF=(8.542Ib/s)/1.58x(1.402)1/2

=4.56ft2

FLOODING VELOCITY(at the top and bottom columns)

Flooding velocity can be estimated from the correlation given by Fair(1961)

Uf=K1(L- v)0.5/ v0.5 ..(8)

where :

Uf=flooding vapour velocity in m/s or maximum permissible velocity based on bibbling of

active area

K1=empirical constant

v=vapour density

L=liquid density

From fig.11.27(R.K. Sinnot,1986)

Using a plate spacing of 0.5m(18in) and the flow factor,FLV from figure 11.27(Coulson and

Richardson.Vol. 6)

FLV=Lw/VW v/ L where

LW=liquid mass flow rate ,kg/s=332.24407kmol/hr=2.58kg/s

Vw=vapour mass flow rate ,kg/s=501.0665kmol/hr=3.89kg/s

251

v=density of vapour(ethylene)

L=density of liquid(ethane)=

Mv(ethylene)=0.994(28)+0.006(26)=27.98g/mol

Assume ideal gas law is applicable to vapour

Then PV=nRT=m/MvRT

vMv=(m/V)RT

v=PMv/RT

=101.325x27.98/8.314x262.3

=1.300kg/m3

L=0.994(497.1149)+0.006(2.9516)

=494.14kg/m3

Vapour density at bottom

MV=0.0038(28)+0.9942(30)+0.002(16)

=29.96g/mol

Assuming the ideal gas law is applicable

Then v=PMv/RT=101.325x29.96/8.314x265.099

=1.377kg/m3

252

=328.338kg/m3

DETERMINATION OF LIQUID-VAPOUR FLOW FACTOR,FLV AT THE BOTTOM

AND TOP COLUMNS

The liquid-vapour flow factor FLV given by R.K. Sinnot

FLV=Lw/VW v/ L where

LW=liquid mass flow rate ,kg/s

Vw=vapour mass flow rate ,kg/s

FLV,bottom=0.71.37/328.33=0.04

FLV,top=0.71.3/494.14=0.035

Therefore the liquid-vapour factor at the bottom and top columns are 0.04 and 0.035

respectively.

DETERMINATION OF FLOODING VELOCITY AT THE TOP AND BOTTOM

COLUMNS

The flooding velocity can be estimated from the correlation given by (Fair 1961)

Uf=K1(L-v)0.5/ v0.5(9)

Where Uf=flooding vapour velocity in m/s or maximum permissible velocity based on

bubbling of active area

K1=empirical constant

253

v=vapour density

L=liquid density

From figure 11.27(Sinnot 2003) using a plate spacing of 0.5m(18in) and the flow factors at

the top,

K1=0.06.bottom

K1=0.08top

Correlations for surface tensions ( =0.02N/m multiply K1 by( /0.02)0.23)

Bottom surface tension=128x10-3N/m

Top surface tension=171.28x10-3N/m

Therefore

Bottom K1=(128/20)0.2x10x10-2=0.14

Top K1=(171/20)0.2x9x10-2=0.13

Hence

Bottom,Uf=0.14(328.33-1.37)/1.37

=2.16m/s

Top Uf=0.13(494.14-1.3)/1.3

=2.53m/s

The flooding condition fixes the upper limit of the vapour velocity.A high vapour velocity

is needed for high plate efficiencies, and the velocity will normally be between 70 to 90%

254

of that which will cause flooding.For design, a value of 80 to 85% should be used(R.K.

Sinnot,1986).Hence design for 80% flooding at maximum flow rate(Uf) will be as follows:

Bottom Uf=2.16x0.80

=1.728m/s

Top Uf=2.53x0.80=2.024m/s

Maximum volumetric flow rate

The maximum volumetric flow rate can be calculated from the correlation,

..(10)

V = vapour density

= maximum volumetric vapour flow rate

Base =3.89/1.37=2.84m3/s

Top

=2.58/1.3=1.98m3/s

Area required

The net area required can be estimated from the equation:

AC / f ...(11)

Where:

AC = column area

255

f = maximum flooding flow rate

Bottom

Ac=2.84/1.728=1.64m2

Top

Ac=1.98/2.024=0.98m2

Column diameter:

4 AC .. (12)

DC

Where:

AC = column area

Top Dc=((4x0.98)/3.142)0.5=1.117m

Bottom Dc=((4x1.64)/3.142)0.5=1.44m

Liquid flow pattern

Maximum volumetric liquid rate,

L =

LB

..(13)

Where:

LB = liquid rate at the bottom of the column, kg/s

L = liquid density

256

L = 2.58/328.338=7.86x10-3m3/s

From Fig. 11.28 (R.K. Sinnot, 2003) the flow pattern is chosen to be cross flow (single

pass) based on the value of L.

Using the Underwood equation

QCOND = V (HV HL)

where QCOND = heat rejected in the condenser

the top of the column

But HV=mCPdT= 500.06X28X87.46 X262.3=321209152.5

HL=mCPdT= 332.244X28X111.4X265.1=274732537.00

QCOND=500.06(321209152.5-274732537.00) = 2.32x1010

QR =L(HL- HV)

Where QR= Heat given out by the reboiler

L = Liquid flow rate at the bottom of the column

HL, HV = Molar enthalpy of the liquid and the vapour at the bottom of the column

But HL=mCPdT =332.244X28X111.4X265.1=274732537.00

257

QR =332.24(274732537.00-321209152.5) = -1.5x1010

Table 13.2: Column Design Specifications

-34.95

3080027

3200

2000

Reflux Ratio(R)

6.00

4.00

R/Rmin

1.5

Feed Stage

13

48.35

75.0

Tray Efficiency

78%

Height of column(m)

48.1

Reboiler Heat Duty, QR, (MJ/h)

-1.5x104

Column diameter, m

Top

1.117

Bottom

1.44

258

The sieve tray is chosen for the purpose of this design because of its efficiency, wide

operating range, and ease of maintenance and cost factors. The sieve tray is the simplest

type of cross-flow plate.

Weir height

It is an important factor which determines the volume of the liquid on the plate and is an

important factor in determining the plate efficiency. A high weir will increase the plate

efficiency but at the expense of a higher plate pressure drop. For columns operating above

atmospheric pressure, the weir heights will normally be between 40-90mm; 40-50mm is

recommended, (R.K. Sinnot, 1986).

Since the column is operated above 1 atmosphere, weir height, hw, of 50mm is used.

Tray area

The weir height fixes the area of the down comer (Ad).

Ad 0.12 0.50 0.06m2 , at 12 per cent

Using

Ad

100 12 , Ad/ Ac x 100 = 6.12

AC

equivalent

lw

0.76 is read from Fig.11.31 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986).

DC

259

Dc = column diameter

For top column

lw = 0.76 x 1.117 = 0.848m

For bottom column

lw= 0.76x1.44=1.09m

Value of hole diameter, d h and plate thickness are 5mm and 5mm respectively.

Active area, Aa= Ac -2Ad = 0.98 2(0.06) = 0.86m2

Hole area, Ah = 0.1Aa= 0.1x 0.86 = 0.086m2

The lower limit of the operating range occurs when liquid leakage through the plate

becomes excessive. This is known as the weep point. The vapour velocity at the weep point

is the operating rate the vapour flow velocity is still and well above the weep point.

14090.52

Maximum liquid rate

3.91kg / s

3600

how=750(Lw/(Llw))2/3(14)

where:

Lw= liquid flow rate,kg/s

260

lw =weir length

how=weir crest,mm liquid

Maximum how

For top column=750(3.91/(264.615x0.848))2/3=50.4mm liquid

For bottom column=750(3.91/(264.615x1.09))2/3=42.6mm liquid

Also minimum how

For top column= 750(2.74/(264.615x0.848))2/3=39.76mm liquid

For bottom column=750(2.74/(264.615x1.09))2/3=33.64mm liquid

Hence at minimum rate, hw + how

For top column = 50 + 39.76= 89.76mm

For bottom column=50+33.64=83.64mm

From Fig. 11.30, the weep-point correlation Eduljee (1959), K2 = 30.4

Also;

uh=(K2- 0.9(25.4-dh))/ v0.5.(15)

uh= minimum vapour velocity through the holes at weep point

v=vapour density

dh= hole diameter,mm

uh=(30.4-0.90(25.4-0.0055))/1.6800.5=5.8m/s

261

= (0.7 x3.91)/0.086=31.83m/s

This means minimum operating rate will be well above weep point.

Perforated area,Ap

The width of each zone is usually made the same; recommended values are: below 1.5 m

diameter, 75 mm; above, 100 mm.(Coulson and Richardson. Vol.6)

Therefore chosen diameter is 1.4m.

Ap=d2/4...........................................................................................................(16)

=3.142x(1.42)/4

=1.5m2

Dry Plate Drop

Maximum vapour velocity through holes:

uh=3.91/0.105=37.2m/s

The pressure drop through the dry plate can be estimated using expressions derived for flow

through orifices given as:

2

u

hd 51 h V . (17)

CO L

Where the orifice coefficient CO is a function of the plate thickness, hole diameter, and the

hole to perforated area ratio.

262

From discharge coefficient (CO) plot, fig 11.34 (R.K Sinnot, 1986), Liebson et al, (1957),

for plate thickness/hole diameter =1 and Ah/Ap Ah /Aa = 0.06 0.1, CO = 0.84. Hence hd

can be estimated as:

=51(37.2/0.84)2x(0.974/264.61)

=368mmliquid

=0.3mliquid

Residual Head

Methods have been proposed for estimating the residual head as a function of liquid surface

tension, froth density, and froth height. However as this correction term is small the use of

an elaborate method for estimation is not justified and the simple equation proposed by

Hunt et al (1957) can be used. (R.K.Sinnot 1986)

hr=12.5x103/L

hr=12.5x103/264.61=47.23mmliquid(18)

Total plate pressure drop, ht

ht hd hw how hr .(19)

ht = 9.81x504.99x10-3x58=287.33Pa

For bottom column=368+(50+33.64)+47.23=498.87mmliquid

ht = 9.81x498.87x10-3x58=283.84Pa

263

Downcomer design

Downcomer pressure loss

Assume the height of apron, hap = hw 10 = 40mm

Then area under apron, Aap = lw x hap

For top column= 0.848 x 0.04 = 0.03m2

For bottom column=1.09x0.04=0.04m2

As these values are less than Ad 0.06m2 , the head loss in the downcomer, hdc can be

estimated using the equation given by Cicalese et at, (1947)

L

hdc 166 wd .................................................................................................(20)

L Am

where:

L wd liquid flow rate in downcomer, kg/s

A m either the downcomer area Ad or the clearance area under the downcomer A ap :

whichever is the smaller, m 2

hdc= 166(3.91/(264.615x0.06))=40.88mm

Downcomer liquid back-up

In terms of clear liquid the downcomer back-up, hb, is given by:

hb hw how ht hdc ...................................................................................(21)

= 417.97mm

264

= 0.42m.

For bottom column hb=(50+33.64) +283.84+40.88

=408.36mm

=0.41m

Downcomer residence time is given by:

tr

Ad hbc L

.....................................................................................................(22)

Lwd

where:

tr residence time

h bc clear liquid back-up

tr=( 0.06x0.4x264.615)/3.91=1.62s

Determination of entrainment

Entrainment must therefore be reduced to a minimum amount such that it will not exceed

0.1 moles liquid per mole of gas. This can be estimated from the correlation given by Fair

(1961), which gives the fractional entrainment (kg/kg gross flow) as a function of liquidvapour factor FLV, with percentage approach to flooding as a parameter.

The percentage flooding is given by:

Percentage flooding =

(23)

uf

265

un

5.59

3.63m / s un= 3.91/1.54=2.54m/s

1.54

3.63

87, FLV 0.05 =2.54/4.24=60 FLV =0.03

4.24

From Fig. 11.28 (R.K. Sinnot, 2003), fractional entrainment =0.06 which is less than

the upper limit of 0.1, hence satisfactory.

Estimation of perforated area

lw

0.76

DC

Where

990

Mean length, unperforated edge strips = (3.7-50X10-3)X81/180=5.16m

Area of calming zones= 2(50x10-3)x(2.81-2x50x10-3)=0.271m2

Total area available for perforation AP=1.48-(0.26+0.271)=0.949m2

Ah/Ap=0.148/0.949=0.16

266

lp

dh

Where:

lp = the hole pitch (distance between the hole centers)

lp=dh x2.7=5x2.7=13.5mm

Calculation of the Number of Holes

Area of one hole = 1.963 x 10-5m

Number of holes

0.0148

753.95 754

1.963 105

Plate I.D.

Weir height

1.48m

0.005m

0.848m

1.09m

Hole diameter, d h

5mm

Plate thickness

5mm

1.112m2

Active area, Ac

0.98m2

Hole area, Ah

0.086m2

Hole pitch, lp

13.5mm

Plate spacing

0.5m

Active holes

754

Turn-down

287.33Pa

Plate material

Mild steel

Downcomer material

267

Mild steel

Design pressure

Vessels subject to external pressure should be designed to resist the maximum differential

pressure that is likely to occur during operation. From the chemical design analysis, the

design pressure is taken as 10% of the operating pressure.

10

101.3 10.13kPa

100

Design temperature

The strength of materials decreases with temperature. The maximum operational

temperature was 104oC. For design purposes, a tolerance of about 20oC is allowed. The

maximum operational temperature could therefore be pegged at 125oC.

Corrosion allowance

For carbon and low alloy steel, a minimum allowance of 2.0mm should be used. (R.K.

Sinnot). Where more corrosion is expected a minimum of 4mm is allowed.

Weight Loads

According to Sinnot, 1993, the approximate weight of the column, Wv is given by:

W v 240Cv Dm H c 0.8( Dm ) t

(24)

Where:

268

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and plate support ring or

equivalent fittings and it is equal to 1.15 for distillation columns. (R.K sinnot, 1993)

Hc = Column height = 48.1m

g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81N/m2

t = wall thickness, mm = 5mm

Dm = mean diameter of column = t + diameter of column(top) = 0.005 + 1.117 = 1.122m

= t + diameter of column(bottom)=0.005+1.44=1.445m

Wv(top)=240x1.15x1.122(48.1+(0.8x1.122))x5 = 75.87kN

Wv(bottom)=240x1.15x1.445(48.1+(0.8x1.445))x5=98.22 kN

Weight of plates

Plate area =

0.6 0.28m2

2

The total weight of a plate are found by multiplying the plate area by 1.2kN/m

weight of plate = 1.2 0.28 = 0.34kN

Total weight of plates = 75x0.34=25.5kN

Weight of insulation

269

Mineral wool is used for the insulation because it is relatively cheap and also widely used

for insulating distillation columns. (Nelson, 1963).

Density of mineral wool = 130kg/m3 (Nelson, 1993)

Thickness of insulation = 75mm (Nelson, 1993)

Approximate volume of insulation = = x0.6 x48.1x0.075=6.7m3

Weight of insulation =6.7x130x9.81=8.544kN

The weight of insulation is doubled to allow for attachment of fittings and moisture

absorption. (Nelson, 1963)

Therefore weight of insulation together with fittings is taken as 2x8.54=17.08

Sum of Weights = weight of shell + weight of plates + insulation weight

= 44.13 + 25.5 + 17.08

= 86.71kN

Wind loading

Wind pressure for smooth cylindrical columns is estimated from the relation;

Pw = 0.05Uw 2

Pw = wind pressure, N/m2

Uw = wind speed, km/h.

Average Uw = 150km/h (Meteorological Department, KNUST). To allow for tolerance, a

value of 160km/h will be used.

270

The load per unit length of the column, Fw, is obtained from the wind pressure multiply by

the effective diameter, Deff, (i.e. the outside diameter + an allowance for the thermal

insulation).

Fw = Pw Deff..(25)

Deff = 2.04 + 2(0.075 + 0.005) = 2.2m

Since the column would be free standing and mounted on skirt supports it would act as a

cantilever under wind loading.

Now for a uniform loaded cantilever, the bending moment at any plane is given by:

Mx =

Wx 2

2

(26)

x = column height

Mx= (2816x48.12)/2 =3257562.88Nm

Primary stress

PDi

(27)

2t

271

Where:

P = Design pressure, N/mm = 111.43kPa = 1.4bar = 0.14N/mm2

t = wall thickness = 5mm

0.14 2040

28.56 N / mm2

25

PDi

.............................................................................................( Sinnot , 1993)

4t

2040 0.14

L

14.28 N / mm2

45

The stress due to the weight of the vessel and the attachments are referred to as the direct

stress, w , is calculated as:

W

....................................................................................( Sinnot , 1993)

( Di t )t

w

57010

1.77 N / mm 2

(2040 5) 5

As a result of bending moments on the column, the column would definitely be subjected to

bending stress. The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on the location

and it is given by:

272

M Di

Iv 2

where:

M = Total bending moment at the plane being considered

I v = The second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending and it is given by:

Iv

64

Do 2040 (2 5) 2050mm

Iv

64

5 16.84 N / mm 2

10

1.68 10 2

hence, b

z (down wind ) 14.28 1.77 16.84 4.33N / mm 2

According to Sinnot, 1993; the greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on

the down-wind side and this should be below the maximum allowable of 115N/mm2.

The greatest difference between principal stresses = 29.35 - (-4.33) = 33.68N/mm2. This far

below the maximum and it is therefore allowable.

Elastic Stability

The critical buckling stress c is given by:

t

Do

2

N / mm ...................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)

5

2

c 2 104

48.78 N / mm

2050

c 2 104

The maximum compressive stress that would occur when the column is not under pressure

would be equal to the dead weight stress plus the bending stress.(Sinnot, 1993).

273

The maximum compressive stress = 5.95 + 19.17 = 25N/mm2. This is far below the critical

and therefore acceptable.

Column Supports

The method used to support a vessel depends on the size, shape and weight of the vessel;

the design temperature and pressure; the vessel location and arrangement and the internal

and external fittings. Horizontal vessels are usually mounted on two saddle supports whilst

tall vertical vessels like distillation columns are mounted on skirt supports. The supports

must be designed to carry the weight of the vessel and contents, and any superimposed

loads such as wind loads. Supports should also be designed to allow easy access to the

vessel and fittings for inspection and maintenance. The height of the skirt is usually

between 2-3m. For this design a height of 2m is used.

Skirt thickness

The skirt thickness must be sufficient enough to withstand the dead weight loads and

bending moments imposed on it by the vessel.

The resultant stresses, in the skirt will be:

s bs ws (28)

Where: bs = the bending stress in the skirt given by

bs

4M s

.............................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)

( Ds ts )ts Ds

274

ws

W

..........................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)

Ds ts ts

Where:

Ms = maximum bending moments evaluated at the base of the base of the skirt

W = total weight of the vessel and its contents

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt at the base

Ts = skirt thickness

The skirt thickness should be such that under worst combination of wind and dead weight

loading the following design criteria should not be exceeded;

ts

Ds

ws 0.125E

Where:

E = Youngs modulus = 200,000N/mm2

s

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt that would occur when the column is full of

water. (Sinnot, 1993)

4

275

=(/4x2.042x48.1)

Weight of column = 57.01kN

Total weight 57.01 448.90 505.91kN

(14 2)2

Bending moment at base of skirt=2.82

360.96kN

2

bs

6.44 N / mm2

2040 17 2040 17

ws (test )

505.91103

4.61N / mm2

2040 17 17

ws ( operating )

The

57.01103

0.51N / mm2

2040 17 17

maximum

stress

(compressive),

is

calculated

as:

Criteria test for design

17

o

2

Maximum allowable stress 0.125 200, 000

sin 90 186.25 N / m

2040

This is far higher than the calculated design stress. The criterion is therefore satisfied.

276

2mm is added to the skirt thickness to cater for corrosion. Design skirt thickness is

therefore taken as 19mm.

Base ring and anchor bolt

The anchor bolts are assumed to share the overturning load equally, and the bolt area

required is given by:

Ab

1 4M s

W ........................................................................ Scheiman, 1963

N b f b Db

Where:

A b area of one bolt at the root of the thread, N/mm 2

N b number of bolts

f b maximum allowable bolt stress also equal to the design stress opf 115N/mm 2

M s bending moments at the base, Nm

D b bolt circle diameter, m

Circumference of bolt circle 2200

According to Scheiman (1963), bolt spacing should not be less than 600mm and the total

number of bolts should be in multiples of 4.

Number of bolts = 12

Bolt spacing =

2.2 103

12

575.96mm 576mm

277

2200

12

600

Ab

1 4 360.96 103

57.01103 399.52mm2 400mm2

12 125

2.2

399.52 4

22.55mm 23mm

The total compressive load, Fb on the base ring per unit length is given by:

Fb

110kN / m

2

2.04

2.04

The minimum width of the base ring, Lb is given by:

Lb

Fb 1

...................................................................................( Scheiman,1963)

f c 103

Lb

110 103

22mm

5 103

Where Lr is the distance from the skirt to outer edge of the ring.

Actual width = 76 + 13+50 = 139mm

Actual pressure on the concrete foundation,

f c'

Fb

...............................................................................................( Scheiman, 1963)

LR

f c'

110 103

0.79 N / mm2

139 103

The minimum thickness of base ring is found by the ring as a cantilever beam and it is

given by:

278

tb Lr

3 f c'

.......................................................................................( Scheiman, 1963)

fr

tb 79

3 0.79

10.28mm 10mm

140

279

Weight of shell, Wv

Critical

stress, c

44Kn

buckling 49 N/mm2

29N/mm2

Resultant

longitudinal

(upwind), z

stress

Resultant

-4 N/mm2

longitudinal stress

(downwind), z

14N/mm2

Weight of plates

25.5kN

Circumferential

stress

Skirt height

2m

skirt base

Number of bolts

12

of the column, Fw

Weight of column

57kN

Bending

Mx

Wind pressure,N/m2

1280

Total weight

506kN

Maximum

stress(compressive),

s

11N/mm2

Maximum

stress(tensile), s

7N/mm2

Bolt area

400mm2

23mm

moment, 3257.56kNm

load, Fb

base ring, Lb

ring

Actual pressure,

of base ring, tb

Total weight

column

280

0.8N/mm2

of 506kN

CHAPTER 14

14.1 Problem Statement

To design acetylene absorber for the absorption of 80Kg/hr acetylene from a gas phase of

ethylene and acetylene at an average temperature of 210C at 17atm with acetone as an

absorbent which flows counter-currently to the flow of gas.

Components specification

Height of packings

Type of packing

Diameter calculation

Support design

14.1.2 CONSTRAINTS

Flooding limits

Loading Limits

Absorption factor

14.20 ASSUMPTIONS

281

Once the process is followed by air stripping, the value of X2 will approach zero

Since we're considering a new design with no serious pressure drop constraint, we'll

choose the more economical random packings.

14.3 Justification

Random packing absorber is chosen over the other types because

It is cheaper in terms of cost of the type of packings used.

It is economical as far as this pilot project is concern.

It is simple to construct.

14.5 PROCESS DESIGN OF AN ACETYLENE ABSORBER

BASIS: 1 HOUR OF OPERATION

INCOMING TEMPERATURE: -100C, 2000KPa

Table 14.1: COMPOSITION OF INCOMING GAS (G):

Component

mass

(kg/hr)

Amount

kmole/hr

Acetylene

76.7416

0.0059

2.9516

Ethylene

13919.217

0.9941

497.1149

TOTAL

13,995.958

1.0000

500.0665

282

in

Table14.2: COMPOSITION OF OUTGOING GAS:

Component

mass

Amount

(kg/hr)

in

kmole

Acetylene

1.535

1.18

0.0059

Ethylene

13900.00

0.999882

496.423

TOTAL

13,901.535

1.0000

496.4345

Table 14.3: COMPOSITION OF INCOMING LIQUID (L):

Component

mass fraction

Amount in kmole/s

Acetone

127.201

2.190

Component

Mass

Amount in kmole/s

(kg/s)

Acetone

127.20

0.628

2.190

Acetylene

75.2066

0.372

2.8925

Total

202.4076

5.0825

283

acaaaa

Where:

Gm = total gas molar flow rate (mole/hr)

y = mole fraction of acetylene in gas stream

Lm = total liquid molar flow rate (mole/hr)

x = mole fraction of the acetone in pure liquid

The flow of gas and liquid does not change in the absorber

284

At the minimum, liquid rate Y1 and X1 will be in equilibrium. Applying the Henrys law.

Henrys correlation (Hy) = 0.0082atm.m3/mol at 200C and 17 atm (Ray and Johnson)

285

Multiply the slope of the minimum operating line by 1.5 to get the slope of the actual

operating line: (sinott 2005)

AF = absorption factor

L2 = molar flow rate of liquid

m = slope of the equilibrium line on a mole fraction basis = Hy

G1 = molar flow rate of gas

= 87%

286

page 587. First we calculate the liquid-vapour flow factor FLV,

K4 at flooding line = 0.64

Thus, the liquid flow rate is given as,

Ls

Kg/s

The value for the absorption factor (AF) for most absorption processes is 0.5-0.95 (treybal,

1980)

Adopting the methodology as given in RICHARDSON AND COULSON, VOLUME 6,

Choosing the following packing, as given in RICHARDSON & COULSON, Pg 608

Material = 3 Pall rings metal

Nominal Size = 76 mm

Bulk Density = 273 Kg/m3

Surface Area = 66 m2/ m3

Packing Factor (Fp) = 52 m-1

Voidage, = 75

Then,

287

= 0.4545 Kg/m2s

Designing for a Pressure Drop of 32 mm acetone per m of packing, we have

K4 = 1.25

Then, Cornells method for determining percentage flooding (sinnot 2005, page 618).

Percentage flooding at selected diameter:

% Flooding =

= 71.55%

And,

(Sinnott 2005)

Di =

288

14.5.4 HEIGHT OF PACKING CALCULATION:

289

0.415 m/s

Given that,

Surface Area of Packing (SP) = 66 m2/ m3

Liquid Density =

(Kister (1992))

The Methodology adopted for the calculation of Height of the Packing is referred from the

literature by NORMAN W.S (ABSORPTION, DISTILLATION AND COOLING

TOWERS), Pg 214.

The Average Properties of the gas at the temperature are given as follows,

The Density of gas mixture

0.9941

290

Diffusivity of the gas (DF) =

(sinott 2005)

The Reynolds number is calculated for the Standard Wetted Wall Column having the

diameter,

dw = 3.2447m

COOLING TOWERS), Pg 212, the co-relation is,

kG

(sinott 2005)

Now,

With (P/PBM) =1(approx), we have,

Also given in the table of NORMAN W.S (ABSORPTION, DISTILLATION AND

COOLING TOWERS), Pg 210 & Pg 211

291

Partial Pressure at the Outlet,

P2 =

=203.257 Pa

Acetylene absorbed =

Area of Packing =

=550.96 m

Therefore the height of the packing required is 9.2677 m

H tower = 1.40 H pack + 1.02 D + 2.81 ((Ray and Johnson)

Htower = 1.40(9.2677) + 1.02(

) + 2.81 = 19.09775 m

292

(1.50)

PARAMETER

VALUE

Height of Packings

9.2677m

Column Height

19.0977m

Wetting rate

Choice of packing

Packing size

76 mm

Type of installation

Random

Absorption factor

87%

Percentage Flooding

71. 55%

1722.525KPa

Diameter of Column

Cross sectional area

0.0082atm.m3/mol

MATERIAL:

Carbon Steel

Inner Diameter of vessel, Di =

293

Skirt height

= 2m

Wind pressure = 90 Kg/m2

Permissible tensile stress (f) = 95N/mm2 for temperature (00C-500C)

Poisson ratio (v) =0.3

Thickness of skirt = 30mm

Youngs modulus (E) = 207GPa

Where,

Inner Diameter of vessel, Di =

For design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure. (Sinnott 2005,pg 835)

Design Pressure, p = 1.10 x 17.23x105 N/m2

= 1.89 N/mm2

Permissible Stress (f) = 95N/mm2

Joint Efficiency (J) = 0.5 (Sinnott 2005, table 9.21)

294

Most design codes and standards specify minimum allowance of 3.0 mm. (sinnott2005, pg

826)

Corrosion allowance(c) = 3mm = 0.003m

Hence,

= 11.733mm

For column of diameter 2m-3m, the minimum thickness should be 10mm. (sinnott2005, pg

828)

Most standard ellipsoidal heads are manufactured with a major and minor axis ratio of 2: 1.

For this ratio, the following equation can be used to calculate the minimum thickness

required:

11.756 mm

21 MPa

295

14.6.4OUT OF ROUNDNESS

Figure 2.0

So outer diameter of shell Do = 3.248 m + 2 x 0.03m = 3.308 m

Ovality (out-of-roundness) of a cylinder is measured by:

%

For vessels under external pressure this should normally exceed 1.5%. (Sinnot 2005, pg

841)

MPa

296

1.562 MPa

297

W=

= 188 KN

The bending stresses will be compressive or tensile, depending on location, and are

given by:

The forces due to wind load acting on the lower and upper parts of the vessels are

determined as

Plw = k 1 h1 Do

Puw = k

h2 Do

. (1)

(2)

Data:

Choosing cylindrical skirt support as the support for the absorber

Skirt support is used to support the absorber column.

Material to be used = Structural steel (ISO 800)

1 = density structured steel = 7700 kg /m3

h1=2m

D0=3.308m

Plw= 0.723.3087700 =35,660 Pa

Pressure due to the upper part of column

298

Bending moment due to wind at the base of the vessel is determined by:

Iv the second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending

Torsional shear stresses resulting from torque caused by loads offset from the vessel axis.

The torsional shear stress is given by:

299

Where

the effective column diameter is: This includes the outside diameter plus an

allowance for the thermal insulation and attachments, such as pipes and ladders.

D0=3.308 m

An allowance of 0.4 m is mostly added for expansion

300

g = the acceleration due to gravity,

W = total weight of the vessel.

(ae/g) is called the seismic constant Ce,

For most cylindrical vessels, the seismic constant is 0.08

Critical buckling stress:

71.076

Outer Diameter of the vessel, Do = 3.305 m

301

Wmin=7.86 x 105 N (assumed)

= 596696.65

Ab

1 4Ms

Nb fb Db

Where:

Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread

Nb = number of bolts

fb = maximum allowable bolt stress

Ms = bending moment at the base

Db = bolt circle diameter

W = weight of column

Bolt spacing should not be less than 600 mm and the total number of bolts should be in

multiples of 4.[Sinnott pg860]

302

00

600

Ab

4

125

Bolt spacing =

1613551 469

22

4

2 2 103

9042

mm

mm

Pbolt = (fcmin x A) / N = 31.89 x 105N

303

m2

PARAMETER

VALUE

cylindrical skirt

11.733mm

Critical Pressure

21MPa

Weight of Support

188 KN

3.248m

3.308m

Number of Bolts

Material of Construction

Carbon Steel

Elastic stability

71.076

Earthquake loading

15040 N

0.37MPa

Bending stress (

2.6 MPa

11.756 mm

304

CHAPTER 15

15.1 Chemical engineering design of a binary distillation column

Fractional distilling of Acetylene in a mixture with Ethylene using binary distillation

column with ellipsoidal head.

The basis of the design of the distillation column is to produce pure Ethylene of

purity1.0ppm and Acetylene of purity 1.0x10-4 from a feed(F) rate of 13496.41774Kg/Hr.

the mass fraction of Ethylene and Acetylene are 99.99988% and 1.1838 x 10-4%

respectively. The feed entered the column at -10 oC and a pressure of 1atm.

Assumptions

Solution in the column is well mixed and homogeneous

Vapour leaving is pure Acetylene vapour at temperature of boiling solution and

operating pressure of the distillation column.

The column is well insulated and adiabatic

All of the heat transfer takes place in the condenser and reboiler

Balances on fig.1

Basis: 13496.41774 kg of feed

Overall balance: F = D + B.. (1)

305

Where:

F = feed

D = distillate or top product

B = bottom product.

Component Balance:

FX F DX D BX B ....................................................... 2

XB = mass fraction of bottom product

XF = mass fraction of feed

Substituting values in equation (2):

For acetylene:13494.41774 (1.18381x0-4) = (0.999999)D + (1.01x0-6)B

Solving simultaneously gives B =13894.83353kg and D = 1.584212kg

Number of ideal plates

Assuming constant relative volatility, the number of ideal plates at total reflux can be

estimated by the FENSKE equation:

N min

ln[ xD (1 xB ) / xB (1 xD )]

1 .. (3)

ln

Where:

Nnim = Minimum number of ideal plates

306

XD = mole fraction of distillate

= PA/ PE (relative volatility of the two component)

PA = Partial pressure of Acetylene

PA =2769.6800KPa

PE =Partial pressure of Ethylene

PE =2250KPa

=1.23

Average molecular Weight of mixture = MEXE + MAXA

Where ME = molar mass of Ethylene

XE = mass fraction of Ethylene

MA = molar mass of Acetylene

XA= mass fraction of Acetylene

The average molecular Weight of mixture = 28.05(0.9999988) + 26.06 (1.183810-6) =

28.0499Kg/kmol

Fraction of distillate (Acetylene), XD = 0.999999

Similarly, mole fraction of acetylene at the bottom, XB = 1.010-6

And mole fraction of Acetylene in the feed, XF = 1.183810-4

307

Therefore Nnim =

1

ln 1.23

Minimum and optimum reflux ratio

The Underwoods first equation is used to determine the minimum reflux ratio. It is given

by:

Rmin =

1

X / X 1 X D /1 X F (4)

1 D F

Where:

is the relative volatility of the two components

Rmin is the minimum reflux ratio

XD and XF are the mole fraction of methanol in the distillate and feed

respectively.

Rmin

1

0.99999 / 0.11838 10^6 1.231 0.99999 /1 0.11838 10^6 3662

1.23 1

From studies, the optimum reflux ratio to use for lowest cost per year is between the

minimum Rmin and the total reflux. This has been shown for many cases to be at an

operating reflux ratio between 1.2 Rmin and 1.5 Rmin. (Geankopolis, 198.)

Therefore, the optimum reflux ratio, R is chosen as

R = 1.2(Rmin) = 4394

308

From Gillilands correlation given by:

R Rmin

N N min

f

N 1

R 1

......................................................................................(5)

Where R is the optimum reflux ratio and N is the number of plates.

R Rm

1.83

R 1

For plate efficiency, Eo = 85%

N=Nmin/0.85

N=129

Location of feed plate

KIRKBRIDES equation is used for the estimation of the number of plates above and

below the feed plate. The equation is given by:

B X

m

log 0.206 log FF

p

D X MF

X FD

(6)

X MD

Where:

B = mass flow rate of bottom product

D = mass flow rate of top product

309

XMF = mole fraction of Acetylene in feed XFD = mole fraction of Ethylene in top product

XMD = mole fraction of Acetylene in top product

m = number of theoretical stages above the feed plates

p = number of theoretical stages below the feed plate

13494.83

m

0.99999

1.0 10^ _ 6

log 0.206 log

0.9998

p

1.5977 0.11838 10^ 6 0.99999

m

0.9998

p

m = 0.9998p... (7)

Total number of plates, T = p + m.................................... (8)

Substituting equation (7) into (8) gives:

T = p + 0.9998p

129 = 1.9998p

P= 65

Therefore the number of plates below the feed is 69. Hence the feed plate is at the 11th

plate from the top.

310

For safety considerations,

0.5m is taken as the spacing between the draw off tray and the bottom of the

product. (Coulson et al, 1983)

H = (129*0.6)+0.75= 78.15m

Vapour and liquid rates at the top of the column

Material balance around the first tray of the column and the condenser gives:

V = L + D. (9)

Where V and L are vapour and liquid rates at the top of the column

D = Distillate or top product

Now

V

R 1 (Mc Cabe et al, 1986)

D

Where:

R = reflux ratio

V

4394 1 4395 , but D = 1.5842kg /hr

D

V=6962.6147kg/hr

Also

L

R

4394

0.9459 L=6961.0305kg/hr

V R 1 4394 1

311

Therefore vapour and liquid rate at the top of the column are 6962.6147kg/hr and

6961.0305kg/hr respectively.

Vapour and liquid rates at the bottom of the column

Assume a constant molal overflow at the bottom of the column, the total material balance

gives:

LB = VB +B (10)

Where:

LB = liquid rate at the bottom of the column

VB = vapour rate at the bottom of the column

B = bottom product

F= feed rate

But

LB = L + F.. (11)

LB =20457.4482kg/hr

VB=LB-B

VB=6962.6182kg/hr

Therefore liquid and vapour rate at the bottom of the column are 20457.4482kg/hr and

6962.6182kg/hr respectively.

Balances around entire column

312

FhF + QC + QR = DhD + BhB.. (12)

Condenser mass balance is

V=L+D

Condenser energy balance is

V hV + QC = DhD + L hL... .. (13)

Where:

hV = enthalpy of vapour at the top of column =

V = vapour flow rate = 6962.6147kg/hr

QC = condenser duty

D = flow rate of distillate 1.5842kg/hr

hD = enthalpy of distillate = -2086.74kJ

L = flow rate of liquid at the top of the column =6961.0305kg/hr

hL = enthalpy of liqiud at the top of the column = -2086.74kJ

QC 32614MJ / hr

From equation (11), QR = DhD + BhB - FhF - QC

Where:

QR = reboiler heat duty

313

hD = enthalpy of distillate = -2086.74kJ

hB = enthalpy of bottom product = 102.55kJ

D = flow rate of distillate 1.5842kg/hr

QC = condenser heat duty = MJ/hr

F = feed flow rate = 13496.4177kg/hr

QR 29833MJ / hr

Determination of vapour and liquid density at the top

Molecular weight of vapour MV = 0.99999(26.06) + 1.0*10-6(28.05) = 26.06g/mol

Assume the ideal gas law is applicable to vapour,

Then

PV = nRT PV =

M

RT

MV

M

PMV = RT , PMV V RT

V

PM V

RT

Where:

T = Boiling point temperature of Acetylene = 357K

314

MV = molecular vapour = 26.06g/mol

R = gas constant =8.314 Pam3/mol.K

V vapour density

V (5030 x 26.06)/(8.314 x 357) =44.1636kg/ m3

V 0.999999(7.61)+(5.5909)(1.x10-6)=7.61kg/m3

Liquid density = (1.0 x10 -6)(11.03329) +(0.999999 x17.2133)=17.2132kg/ m3

Determination of vapour and liquid density at the bottom

Molecular vapour, MV = 0.999999(28.05) + 1.0 x 10 -6(26.06) = 28.0499g/mol

Assume the ideal gas law is applicable to vapour,

then PV = nRT PV =

M

RT

MV

M

PMV = RT

V

PM V

RT

Where:

T = Boiling point temperature of Ethylene= 377K

P = pressure of column = 5030kPa

315

R = gas constant =8.314 Pam3/mol.K

V vapour density

V (5030 x 28. 0499)/(8.314 x 377)=45.0140kg/ m3

Hence the gas mixture is not ideal.

Liquid density, = 11.0339kg/ m3

Determination of liquid-vapour flow factor, FLV at the bottom and top

The liquid-vapour flow factor, FLV is given by:

FLV

Lw

Vw

V

L

Where:

Lw = liquid mass flow-rate, kg/hr

Vw = vapour mass flow-rate, kg/hr

At bottom;

=2.091

At the top

=0.665

316

Therefore, the liquid-vapour factor at the bottom and top are 2.091 and 0.665 respectively.

Determination of flooding velocity at the top and bottom

The flooding velocity can be estimated from the correlation given by Fair (1961):

uf =

K1 L V

0.5

V 0.5

.. (9)

Where:

uf = is the flooding vapour velocity in m/s or maximum permissible velocity

based on bubbling of active area,

K1 = empirical constant,

V = vapour density

L = liquid density

From fig. 11.27 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986), using a plate spacing of (24inch)

K1= 0.09.bottom

K1 = 0.10.top

Corrections for surface tensions:

Bottom surface tension = 56x10-3N/m

Top surface tension

= 21x10-3N/m

Therefore:

317

0.2

Bottom K1 =

56

2

9 10 0.11

20

Top

21

2

10 10 0.10

20

0.2

K1 =

Hence,

Bottom

uf=0.11((11.033-5.59)/(5.59)^0.5)

uf b= 13.5398 m/s

Top

uft =11.2352 m/s

The flooding condition fixes the upper limit of the vapour velocity. A high vapour velocity

is needed for high plate efficiencies, and the velocity will normally be between 70 to 90 per

cent of that which will cause flooding. For design, a value of 80 to 85 per cent should be

used. (R.K. Sinnot, 1986)

Hence design for 85 per cent flooding at maximum flow rate (f) will be:

Bottom fb 13.5398 x 0.8500=11.5088m/s

Top

ft =11.2352 x 0.8500=9.55m/s

The maximum volumetric flow rate can be calculated from the correlation,

318

..(10)

V = vapour density

= maximum volumetric vapour flow rate

Base = (6962.6182/5.59)

=124.55488 m3 / hr

Top

= (6961.0305/7.61)

=91.7215 m3 / hr

The net area required can be estimated from the equation:

AC / f ...(11)

Where:

AC = column area

= maximum volumetric flow rate

f = maximum flooding flow rate

Bottom

319

AC (124.5548/11.5088)=10.8225m2

Top

AC (91.7215/9.55)

=9.5120m2

Column diameter:

DC

4 AC .. (12)

Where:

AC = column area

Top

=(4 x9,51220/3.124)^0.5

=3.4801m =3.5m

Bottom

=(4 x 10.8225/3.142)^0.5

3.7120m

=3.7m

For the design

320

Dc =3.6m

Liquid flow pattern

Maximum volumetric liquid rate,

L =

LB

..(13)

Where:

LB = liquid rate at the bottom of the column, kg/s

L = liquid density

L =(20457.4482/11.033)

=1854.2054 m3 /hr

=0.5151m3s-1

321

-30

1atm

0.999atm

1.001atm

Reflux Ratio(R)

4394

3662

R/Rmin

1.2

Feed Stage

65

110

129

Tray Efficiency

85%

Height of column(m)

78.2m

Reboiler Heat Duty, QR, (MJ/h)

29833

Ethylene purity

99.9999%

Column diameter, m

3.6

322

The sieve tray is chosen for the purpose of this design because of its efficiency, wide

operating range, and ease of maintenance and cost factors. The sieve tray is the simplest

type of cross-flow plate.

Weir height

For columns operating above atmospheric pressure, the weir heights will normally be

between 40-90mm; 40-50mm is recommended, (R.K. Sinnot, 1986).

Since the column is operated at 1 atmosphere, weir height, hw, of 0.050m is used.

Tray area

The weir height fixes the area of the down comer (Ad).

Ad =10.1672 x 0-05=0.5084m2

at 12 per cent

AN =9.6588m2

Using

Ad

l

100 12 , equivalent w 0.76 is read from Fig.11.31 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986).

AC

DC

Dc = column diameter

lw =0.76 x 3.6m =2.7720m

Value of hole diameter, d h and plate thickness are 0.05m and 5mm respectively.

323

dh

=0.05m

Hole area, Ah =0.1Aa

Ah=0.91504m2

Checking weeping

The hole area must be chosen so that at the lowest operating rate the vapour flow velocity is

still and well above the weep point.

Maximum liquid rate L = 1854.2054m3/hr

Minimum liquid rate =70% of L (minimum liquid rate at 70% turn down)

=1297.9438m3/hr

=1.3535m3s-1

How =750(LW/ L lw) 2/3

Where;

LW =liquid flow rate, kg/hr

Lw =weir length,m

how =weir crest, mm

Maximum how

LW=1.9336kg/s

324

=88.48mm

Minimum how = 750(1.3535/17.2132 x 2.772)2/3

=69mm

Hence at minimum rate,hw + how =120mm

From Fig. 11.30, the weep-point correlation Eduljee (1959), K2 = 31.4

Also;

V = vapour density

dh

= hole diameter.mm

=(31.4-0.90(25.4 -0.05)/(5.59) 0.5)

=8.63m/s

(16)

Ah

=18ms-1

This means minimum operating rate will be well above weep point.

325

Maximum vapour velocity through holes:

=38m/s

The pressure drop through the dry plate can be estimated using expressions derived for flow

through orifices given as:

2

u

hd 51 h V . (17)

CO L

Where the orifice coefficient CO is a function of the plate thickness, hole diameter, and the

hole to perforated area ratio.

From discharge coefficient (CO) plot, fig 11.34 (R.K Sinnot, 1986), Liebson et al, (1957),

for plate thickness/hole diameter =1 and Ah/Ap Ah /Aa = 0.1, CO = 0.84. Hence hd can be

estimated as:

2

37.8 0.74

= 51

69.5mm liquid

0.84 1100

Residual Head

hr

hr

12.5 103

L

12.5 103

11.4mm liquid...........................................................................(18)

1100

326

ht hd hw how hr .(19)

ht 9.81145.9 103 23 32.92 Pa

Downcomer design

Downcomer pressure loss

Assume the height of apron, hap = hw 10 = 40mm

Then area under apron, Aap = lw x hap = 1.22 x 0.04 = 0.049m2

As this is less than Ad =0.5084m2 the head loss in the downcomer, hdc can be estimated

using the equation given by Cicalese et at, (1947)

L

hdc 166 wd .................................................................................................(20)

L Am

where:

L wd liquid flow rate in downcomer, kg/s

A m either the downcomer area Ad or the clearance area under the downcomer A ap :

whichever is the smaller, m 2

3.91

hdc 166

12.0mm

1100 0.049

In terms of clear liquid the downcomer back-up, hb, is given by:

327

hb 50 15 145.9 12

222.9mm

= 0.22m

Residence time

Downcomer residence time is given by:

tr

Ad hbc L

.....................................................................................................(22)

Lwd

where:

tr residence time

h bc clear liquid back-up

tr

3.7 s

3.91

Determination of entrainment

The percentage flooding is given by:

Percentage flooding =

(23)

uf

un

5.59

3.63m / s

1.54

328

3.63

87, FLV 0.05

4.24

From Fig. 11.28 (R.K. Sinnot, 1986), fractional entrainment 0.08 which is less than the

upper limit of 0.1, hence satisfactory.

Estimation of perforated area

lw

0.76

DC

Where

990

Mean length, unperforated edge strips = 2.04 50 103

81

2.81m

180

Area of calming zones 2 50 103 1.22 2 50 103 0.117m2

Total area available for perforation AP 1.48 0.141 0.117 1.222m2

Ah 0.148

0.121

Ap 1.222

lp

dh

Where:

329

l p d h 2.8 5 2.7 13.5mm

Area of one hole = 1.963 x 10-3m2

Number of holes =AC/ Area of a hole

=48989

Table 15.2: Plate Specifications

Plate I.D.

3.6m

Length of weir, lw

2.772m

Weir height

0.5m

Hole diameter, d h

50mm

Downcomer area, Ad

0.5084m2

Plate thickness

5mm

9.6588m2

Active area, Ac

10.1672m2

Hole area, Ah

0.00196m2

Hole pitch, lp

13.5mm

Plate spacing

0.6m

Active holes

48989

Turn-down

146mm

liquid=32.92Pa

Plate material

Mild steel

330

15.6.1 Design pressure

Vessels subject to external pressure should be designed to resist the maximum differential

pressure that is likely to occur during operation. From the chemical design analysis, the

design pressure is taken as 10% of the operating pressure.

10

101.3 10.13kPa

100

15.6.2 Design temperature

The strength of materials decreases with temperature. The maximum operational

temperature was 45oC. For design purposes, a tolerance of about 20oC is allowed. The

maximum operational temperature could therefore be pegged at 55oC.

15.7 Material for construction

A material suitable for the fabrication must be selected. The material selected must be

compatible with the process conditions. Carbon and alloy steel are generally good for use

as constructional material for pressure vessels. (Sinnot,1993). Stainless steel is therefore

used for the construction.

Corrosion allowance

Corrosion or Scaling in equipments such as this is inevitable. An additional thickness

(corrosion allowance) is therefore added to the constructional material to allow for material

lost by scaling or corrosion. The allowance is based on experience with the material of

construction under previous service conditions similar to that intended for the design.

331

For carbon and low alloy steel, a minimum allowance of 2.0mm should be used. (R.K.

Sinnot). Where more corrosion is expected a minimum of 4mm is allowed.

Design load

The column must be designed to overcome gross plastic deformation and collapse under all

conditions of loading. Two main categories of loads are identified. The major loads

include:

Design pressure: including any significant static head of liquid.

Maximum weight of the vessel and content under operating conditions.

Maximum weight of the vessel and contents under hydraulic test conditions.

Wind loads

Weight Loads

According to Sinnot, 1993, the approximate weight of the column, Wv is given by:

W v 240Cv Dm H c 0.8( Dm ) t

Where:

332

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and plate support ring or

equivalent fittings and it is equal to 1.15 for distillation columns. (R.K sinnot, 1993)

Hc = Column height = 78.2m

g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81N/m2

t = wall thickness, mm = 5mm

Dm = mean diameter of column = t + diameter of column = 0.005 + 3.6 = 3.605m

WV =240 X 1.15 X 3.605[78.2 +(0.8 X 3.605)] X 5 =403.3847kN

Weight of plates

Plate Area = d2/4

=10.1788m2

The total weight of a plate are found by multiplying the plate area by 1.2kN/m

Weight of a plate =1.2kN/m x 10.1788m2

=12.2146N

Therefore for 129 plates;

Total weight of plates =129 X 12.2146 =157.56782kN

Weight of insulation

333

Mineral wool is used for the insulation because it is relatively cheap and also widely used

for insulating distillation columns. (Nelson, 1963).

Density of mineral wool = 130kg/m3 (Nelson, 1993)

Thickness of insulation = 75mm (Nelson, 1993)

Approximate volume of insulation =3.142 X 3.6 X 78.2 X 0.075

=66.34m3

Weight of insulation =66.3400 x 130 x 9.81 =84.60364kN

The weight of insulation is doubled to allow for attachment of fittings and moisture

absorption. (Nelson, 1963)

Therefore weight of insulation together with fittings is taken as 2 X 84.6036 =169.2073kN

Sum of Weights = weight of shell + weight of plates + insulation weight

= 403.3847 +157.5682 + 169.2073

= 730.1602kN

Wind loading

Column loading is a very important factor which must be considered since the column

would be sited in an open. Usually, columns are free standing and mounted on skirt

support. The column under these conditions under wind loading acts as a cantilever beam.

Wind pressure for smooth cylindrical columns is estimated from the relation;

Pw = 0.05Uw 2

334

Uw = wind speed, km/h.

Average Uw of Takoradi = 150km/h (Meteorological Department, Takoradi). To allow for

tolerance, a value of 160km/h will be used.

pw 0.05 1602 1280 N / m2

The load per unit length of the column, Fw, is obtained from the wind pressure multiply by

the effective diameter, Deff, (i.e. the outside diameter + an allowance for the thermal

insulation).

Fw = Pw Deff

Deff = 3.6 + 2(0.075 + 0.005) = 3.76m

FW = PW Deff

1280 x 3.76 = 4812.8N/m

Since the column would be free standing and mounted on skirt supports it would act as a

cantilever under wind loading.

Now for a uniform loaded cantilever, the bending moment at any plane is given by:

Mx =

Wx 2

2

x = column height

335

Wx =Fx

Mx =(4812.8 )2 /2 =11581521.92Nm

Wall thickness

To ensure that column is sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight, a minimum wall

thickness is allowed. For column with diameter between 0.5-2m a minimum thickness of

10mm is required. (R.K. Sinnot, 1993) Since the column diameter is 3.6m, wall thickness

of 10mm is used.

Design stress

It is necessary to decide a value for the maximum allowable stress that can be acceptable in

the material of construction.

It is determined by applying a suitable design stress factor (factor of safety) to the

maximum stress that the material is could be expected to withstand failure under standard

test conditions. The design stress factor allows for any uncertainty in the in the design

methods, the loading, the quality of the materials and the workmanship.

For materials not subject to high temperatures, the design stress is based on the yield stress

(proof stress) or the tensile strength of the material at design temperature.

Primary stress

PDi

2t

336

t = wall thickness = 5mm

The circumference stress is also calculated from the relation:

(Sinnot 1993)

=(0.14 x 3600) /(20) =25.2Nmm-2

The stress due to the weight of the vessel and the attachments are referred to as the direct

Stress

is calculated as;

(sinnot,1993)

(t)=residence time

Di =column diameter

As a result of bending moments on the column, the column would definitely be subjected to

bending stress. The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on the location

and it is given by:

337

IV = Seccond moment of area of te vessel obout the plan of bending and is given as

IV =9.1991 X 1010

227.2466N/mm2

The total longitudinal stress;

=239.5542N/mm2

338

= -214.939N/mm2

According to Sinnot, 1993; the greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on

the down-wind side and this should be below the maximum allowable of 11581N/mm2.

The greatest difference between principal stresses =239.5542-(-214.939)= 454.4932N/mm2.

This far below the maximum and it is therefore allowable.

Elastic Stability

The critical buckling stress c is given by:

The maximum compressive stress = 5.95 + 19.17 = 25N/mm2. This is far below the critical

and therefore acceptable.

15.8Column Supports

Horizontal vessels are usually mounted on two saddle supports whilst tall vertical vessels

like distillation columns are mounted on skirt supports. The supports must be designed to

carry the weight of the vessel and contents, and any superimposed loads such as wind

loads. Supports should also be designed to allow easy access to the vessel and fittings for

inspection and maintenance. The height of the skirt is usually between 2-3m. For this

design a height of 2m is used.

339

Skirt thickness

The resultant stresses, in the skirt will be:

s bs ws

Where: bs = the bending stress in the skirt given by

bs

4M s

.............................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)

( Ds ts )ts Ds

ws

W

..........................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)

Ds ts ts

Ms = maximum bending moments evaluated at the base of the base of the skirt

W = total weight of the vessel and its contents

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt at the base

Ts = skirt thickness

The skirt thickness should be such that under worst combination of wind and dead weight

loading the following design criteria should not be exceeded;

ts

sin s .....................................................................(Sinnot, 1993)

Ds

ws 0.125E

340

s

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt that would occur when the column is full of

water. (Sinnot, 1993)

Approximate weight =7808.5544kN

Weight of column = 730.160kN

Total weight =8538.7146kN

Wind loading = 48.128kN

341

=934.4826.N/mm2

Maximum stress (tensile), s = 44.2023 +3.7798 =47.9821N/mm2

Maximumallowablestress

This is far higher than the calculated design stress. The criterion is therefore satisfied.

2mm is added to the skirt thickness to cater for corrosion. Design skirt thickness is

therefore taken as 19mm.

Where

Ab=Area of the Bolt at the root of the thread,mm2

Nb =number of Bolts

Fb=maximum allowable bolt stress also equal to the design stress of 11581.521N/m

Db =bolt circle diameter,m

Ms =bending moment at the base,Nm

342

Circumference of bolt =3675

According to Scheim (1963), bolt spacing should not be less than 600mm and the total

number of bolts should be in multiples of 4.

Number of bolt =3675/600=20

The total compressive load, Fb on the base ring per unit length is given by:

343

Where Lr is the distance from the skirt to outer edge of the ring.

Actual width = 76 + 13+50 = 139mm

Actual pressure on the concrete foundation,

The minimum thickness of base ring is found by the ring as a cantilever beam and it is

given by:

tb Lr

3 f c'

.......................................................................................( Scheiman, 1963)

fr

344

Weight of shell, Wv

403.4000kN

Resultant

longitudinal 240N/mm2

stress (upwind), z

Resultant

longitudinal -13 N/mm2

stress (downwind), z

Weight of plates

8kN

Circumferential stress

Skirt height

2m

base

Number of bolts

20

column, Fw

Weight of column

703kN

Bending moment, Mx

154780.6kNm

Wind pressure,N/m2

1280

Total weight

731kN

Maximum

stress(compressive), s

934.4826N/mm2 Maximum

s

Bolt area

724mm2

23N/mm2

stress(tensile), 48N/mm2

30.4mm

Fb

ring, Lb

Actual pressure,

0.8N/mm2

731kN

Minimum thickness

base ring, tb

22mm

of 9mm

345

CHAPTER 16

The location of the plant is a very important factor to consider when designing a chemical

industrial plant. It does not only affect the profitability of the project but can give way for

future expansion. The plant should therefore be located where minimum cost of production,

as well as distribution could be obtained. Also, an environmental impact analysis needs to

be performed to determine the expected effect of the plant and its by-products on the

surrounding areas.

The yard stick for choosing an appropriate location for the plant was an analysis of

industrial areas in Ghana such as Kumasi, Takoradi and the Tema heavy industrial area,

which was chosen for the following reasons: close to the shore (in case of import and

export), constant power supply in the industrial area, and proximity of some raw materials

(from TOR). However, this site had to be dropped because of lack of available land in the

Tema industrial area for lease by Tema Development Corporation (TDC). [source: TDC

personnel]

After detailed analysis of the various locations appropriate for the siting of the ethylene

plant, cape three points, close to the jubilee oil field, Western Region was chosen.

16.2 FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR SELECTION OF AREA

The following are some of the important considerations when selecting the plant site:

1. Proximity to the raw materials supply.

2. Location, with respect to the marketing area.

346

4. Availability of labour.

5. Transport facilities.

6. Availability of suitable land.

7. Environmental impact and waste disposal.

8. Local community considerations.

16.2.1 Proximity of Raw Material

The raw material for our ethylene production is ethane gas. There will be proximity of the

raw materials from the off-gases from the oil drilling at the jubilee oil grounds and hence

the decision to site the plant in the western region since it will provide a cheaper means of

transporting the raw materials. Also, in case of import it would be easier to transport to the

plant site via the harbour.

16.2.2 Marketing Area

The major market for the ethylene produced is the foreign market. The export is the

primary focus for production and hence the product would be exported out of the country.

This is one of the reasons why our plant will be situated in the western region closer to the

sea port to facilitate the transport of our product to the foreign market via shipping. The

local market is also targeted and can be served. Our target market is the food industries,

plastics industries, paints, packaging, and for use in welding. Examples of such industries

are Qualiplast, Duraplast, Interplast, Blue Skies Ghana, and Ezzy Paints.

16.2.3 Transport Facilities

The transport of materials and products to and from the plant is a major factor in the plant

location. If practicable, a site should be selected that is close to at least two major forms of

347

transport: road, rail, waterway (canal or river), or a sea port. The towns proximity to the

port serves as a good means of easily transporting the raw materials and products by sea.

The western region also has good road networks for transport of materials, products and

equipments to and from the site. Rail transport is also available in the region.

16.2.4 Availability of Suitable land

Sufficient suitable land must be available for the proposed plant and for future expansion.

The land should ideally be leveled, well drained and have suitable load-bearing

characteristics. The western region has a vast array of land and its gentleness in level or

topography becomes an added advantage. There is also good drainage system.

16.2.5 Availability of labour

Labour will be needed for construction of the plant and its operation. There must be an

adequate pool of labour available locally, and labour suitable for training to operate the

plant. Unemployment among the youth in most developing areas in Ghana is high, thus

labour especially unskilled labour will not be a problem in our chosen plant site. Skilled

labour can also be brought in for special purposes.

16.2.6 Availability of utilities

Ethylene plants require large quantities of water for quenching, washing, and for the

production of steam as well as other non-production related purposes such as drinking and

sanitary purposes among others. Power and steam requirements are high, as in most

industrial plants, and fuel is ordinarily required to supply these utilities. In view of this,

power and fuel can be combined as one major factor in the choice of a plant site. Takoradi

has a reliable water supply from the Ghana Water Company and electricity supply from the

348

Electricity Company of Ghana since there exist a power line network connecting Takoradi

to the national hydroelectric source of energy (Akosombo). Thus uninterrupted electricity is

assured.

16.2.7 Environmental Impact and Waste Disposal

Many legal restrictions have been placed on the methods for disposing of waste materials

from the process industries. The disposal of toxic and harmful effluents will be covered by

local regulations, and the appropriate authorities must be consulted during the initial site

survey to determine the standards that must be met. All industrial processes produce waste

products and full consideration must be given to the difficulties and cost of their disposal.

The site selected for a plant should have adequate capacity and facilities for correct waste

disposal. The location of our plant meets all the specifications and conditions afore

mentioned.

Even though the area has minimal restrictions on pollution, it should not be assumed that

this condition will continue to exist. In choosing our plant site, the permissible tolerance

levels for various methods of waste disposal have been considered carefully, and attention

will be given to potential requirements for additional waste-treatment facilities.

16.2.8 Local community consideration

The proposed plant must fit in with and be acceptable to the local community. Full

consideration must be given to the safe location of the plant so that it does not impose a

significant additional risk to the community. The local community must be able to provide

adequate facilities for the plant personnel such as schools, banks, housing, and recreational

and cultural facilities. Our chosen plant location is favoured by this factor.

349

1. Size requirements

50 acres of land including transportation and tanks.

2. Ghanaians with Disabilities Act compliance

All our structures will be built (stairs, ramps, parking lots, etc.) to comply fully with this

act.

350

CHAPTER 17

17.0 SAFETY AND POLLUTION CONTROL

Any organization has a legal and moral obligation to safeguard the health and welfare of its

employees and the general public. Safety is also good business; the good management

practices needed to ensure safe operation will also ensure efficient operation.

All manufacturing processes are to some extent hazardous, but in chemical processes there

are additional, special hazards associated with the chemicals used and the process

conditions. The designer must be aware of these hazards, and ensure, through the

application of sound engineering practice, that the risks are reduced to acceptable levels.

[43]

Plant engineers must ensure the quality of the environment both inside and outside the

facility as well as the safety and health of the employees and the reliability of its systems

and equipment. And they are expected to do all of this in a cost-effective manner.

17.1 PLANT SAFETY

Fire, toxic chemicals, mechanical equipments and electrical faults are the major health and

safety hazards usually encountered in the process industries. To avert these, the following

measures will be taken;

1. All electrical wires are to be insulated with PVC while the use of fuses and earth

leakage breakers would be employed to break off power automatically in times of

overload.

2. Periodic and regular maintenance or checks will be made on mechanical equipment

and electrical installation.

351

employed wherever needed in the plant.

4. Where the equipment produces a lot of heat, for example the furnace, adequate

ventilation will be provided to prevent long-term damage to the workers. Also

workers will be adequately clothed to shield them from the heat.

5. Personnel working in the plant will be trained on plant hazards and how to control

and avoid them.

6. Proper working clothes, tools and equipments will be provided and management

will ensure that it becomes a prerequisite before any work is under taken.

7. Fire hydrants, extinguishers and alarms will be provided at vantage points due to the

inflammable nature of materials being handled(lube oil, liquefied propane)

Guards or metal cases will be provided for machines with external moving parts. All

underground tanks will be covered. All ladders in the factory will be provided with safety

guards. The pipe will be laid such that it will allow easy access to any part of the plant.

17.1.2 Personnel safety

With the exception of the administrative staff, all the workers will be provided with work

clothing (overall). Operators will be provided with rubber (Wellington) boots and heavily

solid boots for supervisors and those of higher ranks. There will be specific days every

quarter of the year when workers will be lectured on the importance of safety. Also, there

will be an award scheme established for the most safety conscious worker.

352

In order to ensure that, the product is free from impurities, the workers at the storage and

transportation units will be required to observe strict handling practices.

17.1.4 Work Conditions and Welfare

The plant will be well illuminated. Basic amenities like washing and drying rooms will be

provided. A cafeteria will be built for the workers. The workers will also enjoy some

medical services.

17.2 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

The main hazards of concern in the ethylene industry are the storage of the produced gases

and handling operations. The hazards also include emissions of flue gases from the furnace.

This can be curbed by the application of capture collection systems of the gases and any

particulate matter. Acetone is also an extremely flammable liquid and extreme precaution

will be taken to avoid any spillage or leakage.

17.3 POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL

The effect of all forms of pollutions namely air, water and environmental pollution to man

and his environment cannot be over-emphasized. Thus all possible measures are taken to

minimize if not eliminate any form of pollution. The waste products include spent caustic,

oily waters, and gas emissions. As much as possible, workers should avoid contacts with

these waste products and all workers who come into contact with them should be provided

with suitable protective clothing.

17.3.1 Liquid emissions

353

Spent caustic is derived from scrubbing ethylene gas and typically contains a range of

various components namely NaOH, Na2CO3 and some soluble oil. In addition to soluble

components, insoluble polymers resulting from the condensation of olefins during

scrubbing are present in the liquor. Spent caustic is intensely malodorous, toxic, and highly

alkaline. It contains high chemical oxygen demand (COD), some total organic carbon

(TOC), and high total dissolved solids (TDS). These insoluble polymers have a lower

specific gravity than the spent caustic and can be removed from the spent caustic stream by

gravity separation and decanting from a quiescent tank or separator. (Wet Air Oxidation of

Ethylene Plant Spent Caustic, Ellis et al). A spent caustic oxidation unit, which is a wet air

oxidation (WAO) system, will therefore be built to treat the wastewater by oxidizing a

majority of the COD. This allows the oxidized spent caustic to be further treated by

conventional biological treatment prior to discharge.

17.3.2 Gas emissions

Gaseous and particulate emissions to air that are produced primarily come from the flue

gases from the furnace during the steam cracking of the hydrocarbon feedstock. Typical

gases include carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2). The temperature of the furnace is

regulated so that NOx emission is reduced to the barest minimum. Methane (CH4) is burnt

completely to avoid CH4 emission.

17.4 NOISE POLLUTION

Excessive noise is a hazard to health and safety. Long exposure to high noise levels can

cause permanent damage to hearing. At lower levels, noise is a distraction and causes

fatigue. Permanent damage to hearing can be caused at sound levels above about 90 dB

(A), and it is normal practice to provide ear protection in areas where the level is above 80

354

dB(A).(sinnott).Noise from the plant will result from the operations and movement of

equipment such as the quench tower, absorbers, strippers, and the furnace.

17.4.1 NOISE POLLUTION CONTROL

The plant will be sited well away from residential areas to prevent the unavoidable noise

levels generated by some of the process units. Ear plugs will be worn by all employees

operating any of the heavy equipments to prevent the harmful effect of noise on the human

ear. Sound absorbing materials will be used in constructing all plant buildings for

equipments that cause a lot of noise, thus minimizing significantly the noise levels in the

plant.

355

CHAPTER 18

18.0 INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL

In the chemical processing industry, controllers play a crucial role in keeping the plants

running by controlling process variables.

A typical control system consist of

Sensor

Transmitter

controller

The primary objective of any control system in the operation of the plant is to monitor and

stabilize process parameters. The objectives in installing control devices and other

instrument in the plant are;

1. It keeps the process variables within safe operating mode.

2. To ensure that effluents are within acceptable limits as prescribed by environmental

regulations.

3. To attain the production rate and product quality in terms of product specification.

4. To minimize operational cost as much as possible

5. Dangerous situations are detected as they develop and alarms and automatic

shut-down systems are provided.

18.1 INSTRUMENTATION

A central control computerized panel will be located in the plant and it will be responsible

for indication, recording, and regulation of process variable and indication of a signal when

a process variable exceeds its set point.

356

The following process variables will be measured and monitored by the control systems.

1. Temperature

2. Pressure

3. Flow

4. Level

5. Concentration

These variables play vital roles in their respective places and recording continuously will

enable personnel to control them within limit.

18.2 Process Variable Control System

18.2.1 Flow meters

Flow rate is checked by the help of a valve and flow meters. Overflowing is undesirable in

any chemical plant hence the control valve and flow meters are to ensure that the set flow

of material moves from one equipment to another. The flow meters in this case acts as the

measuring device which measures the errors in the flow. Error signal is sent through the

transmitter to a controller. An actuating signal from the controller then causes a variance in

the orifice of the valve. The flow meters will therefore be used to indicate the volume of

liquid pumped from the different units. It will also be used to control their flow rates as is

required in the process. The flow control system will thus operate by closing and operating

valves to check overflowing and emptying of holding vessels.

18.2.2 Temperature control system.

Temperature control is quite essential in process design for some equipment such as the

furnace, heat exchanger, stripper and distillation column temperatures. The reason is that

357

any deviation from the required temperatures will result in the production of undesirable

by-products or products that do not meet specifications.

18.2.3 Pressure Control system

Excessive pressure can lead to explosion and destruction of equipment and it is usually

necessary for equipments handling vapour or gas. The pressure control system will

maintain operating pressures within required limits so that any excessive pressure that

builds up will be relayed to pressure releasing valves to open in order to let out excessive

pressure. This will specifically be employed to check the pressure of the compressor,

different absorbers, stripper, and the various distillation columns in order to obtain good

products.

18.2.4 Level control system

This will be used to monitor the settling tank, flash drum, stripper, vacuum distillation

column and storage tanks to prevent entrainment in the case of columns.

358

CHAPTER 19

19.0 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

Ideal for every investment, the chemical engineering process must be economically viable.

To access the profitability of a project, an estimate of the required investment and cost of

production must be made. An acceptable plant design must present a process that is capable

of operating under conditions which will yield a profit.

Basis of economic analysis:

Start of construction: January, 2012

Completion of construction: December, 2014

Commencement of processing: January, 2015

Plant operation: 3 shifts per day

Process: continuous

Plant life: 19 years

Plant production rate: 100,000 tons per annum

Working period: 300 days

Production capacity: 333 tonnes per day

Selling price of ethylene: $0.53/Kg

Exchange rate of dollar: GH1.5

19.1 Project cost estimation

Once the process plant has designed and approved for construction then the chemical

engineer has to estimate the amount of capital required for the construction, operation of

the plant and sale of products.

359

This is the capital needed to purchase and install the manufacturing facilities and it includes

the design, engineering, construction and supervision, all items of equipments and their

installation, all piping, instrumentation and control systems, buildings and structures, and

site preparation.

19.1.2 Working Capital

This is the additional investment (capital) needed over and above the fixed capital

investment to start the plant, and operate it to the point when income is earned. It includes

start-up, raw materials and supplies carried in stock, finished and semi-finished products,

cash kept on hand for monthly payment of expenses such as salaries and wages, accounts

payable and taxes payable. It is estimated that working capital is approximately 5% of the

fixed capital investment.

19.1.3 Total capital investment

The total capital investment is the sum of the fixed capital investment and the working

capital. Some sources of total capital investment for a process plant are loans (banks, rich

relatives, etc), operating companys reserves, bond market (treasury bills), and stock

exchange (for companies listed on the stock exchange. All sources of capital have to be

paid back with interest therefore interest rates must be compared before settling for any

source of funding.

19.2 ESTIMATION OF DIRECT FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT

The method usually used to update historical cost data makes use of published cost indices

according to the equation below:

360

.. (Eqn 19.1)

The latest Marshall and Swift cost index available is for the year 2010.

Table 19.1 Cost Index

Year

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

1373.3

1449.3

1468.6

1457.4

Total Equipment cost

Unit

Unit

Cost Gross

Equipment

Quantity Cost($)2007

($)2010

($)2010

Cracking furnace

4,400,000.000

4,669,453.142

4,669,453.142

exchanger

120,000.000

127,348.722

127,348.722

Storage tank

90,000.000

95,511.542

382,046.166

Quench tower

130,000.000

137,961.116

137,961.116

Caustic tower

160,000.000

169,798.296

169,798.296

Reboiler

90,000.000

95,511.542

382,046.166

Condenser

84,000.000

89,144.105

356,576.422

Compressor

120,000.000

127,348.722

509,394.888

cooler

100,000.000

106,123.935

212,247.870

Dryer

105,000.000

111,430.132

111,430.132

Trasfer

line

361

cost

Demethanizer

110,000.000

116,736.329

116,736.329

Ethylene column

150,000.000

159,185.903

159,185.903

Deethanizer

110,000.000

116,736.329

116,736.329

C2- splitter

95,000.000

100,817.738

100,817.738

centrifugal pump

10,000.000

10,612.394

31,837.181

Asorber

90,000.000

95,511.542

95,511.542

Truck

70,000.000

74,286.755

74,286.755

Pick up

30,000.000

31,837.181

31,837.181

Bus

60,000.000

63,674.361

191,023.083

stripper

95,000.000

100,817.738

100,817.738

PCE

6,584,990.170

987,748.525

7,572,738.695

The installation of the equipment includes cost of labour, platforms, insulation,

formulation, construction expenses and other factors directly related to the erection of

purchased equipment such as painting). This component is estimated to be 35% of the

purchased equipment cost.[43]

19.2.2 Instrumentation and control cost

This component is estimated to be 15% of the purchased equipment cost. Instrument cost,

installation-labour cost and expenses of auxiliary equipment and materials constitute the

major portion of the capital investment required for instrumentation.[43]

362

This includes cost for valves, fittings, pipe, support and other items involved in the

complete erection of all piping used directly in the process. It also includes process piping

for raw materials, products, steam, water, and chemicals. The piping cost is estimated to be

45% of purchased equipment cost.[43]

19.2.4 Cost of electrical systems

This includes the cost of the power wiring, lighting, instrument and control wiring,

installation labour, etc. This component is estimated to be 10% of the purchased cost.

19.2.5 Cost of building structures

This involves cost for the erection of all buildings connected with the plant (labour,

materials and supplies), including cost for plumbing, heating, lighting, ventilation, and

similar building services. This component is estimated to be 47% of the purchased

equipment cost.

19.2.6 Cost of site development and improvement

Costs for fencing, roads, side walks, rail road sidings, landscaping and similar items

constitute the portion of the capital investment included in yard improvements. Yard

improvement cost for chemical plant is estimated to be 5% of the purchased equipment

cost.

19.2.7 Service facility and utility cost

This involves the utilities for supplying steam, water, power and fuel in the plant. This also

includes the cost involved in waste disposal, fire protection, and miscellaneous service

363

items such as shop, first aid and cafeteria equipment among others. This component is

estimated to be 30% of the purchased equipment cost.

19.2.8 Cost of land

The plant will be sited in the western region. As a rough average, land cost for industrial

plants amounts to 6% of purchased equipment cost.

19.3 ESTIMATION OF INDIRECT FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT

19.3.1 Engineering and supervision cost

This cost consist of the cost for construction design and engineering, drafting, purchasing

accounting, construction and cost engineering, travel, reproductions, communications and

home office expenses including overhead. This component is estimated as 25% of the total

direct costs of the process plant.

19.3.2Construction expenses

This cost component involves the cost for construction or field expenses. It involves

temporal construction and operation, construction tools and rentals, construction payroll,

taxes, insurance and other overheads. This component is estimated as 10% of the total

direct cost.

19.3.3 Contractors fee

The contractors fee can be taken as 5% of the total direct cost.

19.3.4 Contingency fees

364

A contingency fee is included in the total capital investment in recognition of the fact that,

experience show that, there will be unexpected events and changes that will inevitably

increase the cost of the project. These events may include strikes, price changes, small

design changes, storms, floods etc. this component is estimated as 10% of the total direct

cost.

Table 19.3 Total capital investment

1

7,572,738.695

0.400

0.200

Piping

0.700

0.100

Utilities

0.500

Storages

0.150

0.150

Site Development

0.050

3.250 24,611,400.759

10

0.300

11

Contractors Fee

0.050

12

Contingency

0.100

1.450 35,686,531.101

Fixed Capital Investment (FCI), D + I

60,297,931.860

18,089,379.558

365

78,387,311.418

This involves the estimation of cost for operating the plant and selling the products. Total

product cost is broken down into two broad categories:

Total product cost = manufacturing cost + general expenses

Manufacturing cost = direct production cost + fixed charges + plant overhead cost

General expenses = administrative expenses + distribution and marketing expenses

The fixed charges are costs that do not vary with production rate. These are mainly

depreciation, taxes, insurance and rent.

Plant overheads consists of medical bills, packaging, payroll overhead, control laboratories,

general plant maintenance, storage facilities, etc.

19.5 ESTIMATION OF TOTAL OPERATING LABOUR COST

Table 19.4 Operating labour cost

Operating Labour cost

Direct labour cost

Staff

Number

Annual

Salary

head, $

Plant manager

35,000

35,000

Production manager

20,000

20,000

366

Chemical Engineer

15,000

45,000

Mechanical Engineer

15,000

30,000

Supervisors

13,500

67,500

Electrical Engineer

15,000

30,000

Occupational

health

and 2

20,000

10,000

safety specialists

Quality Controller

10,000

30,000

Chemist

13,000

39,000

9,000

216,000

532,500

equipment 24

Chemical

operators

Personnel

Number

Annual

($)

($)

Managing Director

30,000

30,000

Personnel Manager

20,000

20,000

Human Resources

18,500

37,000

Sales Manager

18,000

18,000

Accountant

18,000

18,000

Accounts Clerk

10,000

10,000

Store Keeper

9,000

9,000

Secretary

4,000

12,000

Receptionist

3,200

3,200

367

Drivers

3,000

15,000

Cleaners

1,600

4,800

Security men

1,600

4,800

181,800

Total (ILC)

714,300

coct)

753,587

753,587

Operating labour may be divided into skilled and unskilled labour.

19.5.2 Determination of Raw material

In the chemical industry, one of the major costs in production operation is for the raw

materials involved in the process. The amount of the raw material which must be supplied

per unit of time can be determined from process material balances.

368

RAW MATERIAL COST

Raw

Annual Quantity kg

Unit Cost,$

Ethane

11,470,625.000

0.864

9,910,620.000

Methane

566,347.860

4.000

2,265,391.440

Acetone

13,646,835.400

1.000

13,646,835.400

NaOH

645,681.220

0.870

561,742.662

Material

26,384,589.502

Total

If a plant is to be kept in efficient operating condition, a considerable amount of expenses is

necessary for maintenance and repairs. Since the annual cost for the plant is high, this

component is estimated as 6% of the fixed capital investment.

19.5.4Operating supplies

This includes the cost of items such as lubricants, test chemicals, charts etc, required to

keep the plant functioning efficiently. It is assumed to be 15% of maintenance and repairs.

19.5.5 Laboratory Charges

This involves cost of laboratory tests for control operation and product quality control. It is

taken as 20% of operating labour.

19.5.6 Patents & Royalties

This is taken to be 4% of total product cost.

369

Certain expenses are always present in an industrial plant whether or not the manufacturing

process is in operation. Costs that are invariant with the amount of production are

designated fixed charges. These include cost for depreciation, local property taxes,

insurance and rent. Expenses of this type are a direct function of the fixed capital

investment

19.6.1 Annual depreciation charge

Several methods may be used for determining the rate of depreciation, but for engineering

projects, a straight line method is assumed. In applying this method, a useful life period and

salvage value at the end of the useful plant life is assumed. The difference between the

initial cost and the salvage value divided by the total years of useful life gives the annual

cost due to depreciation (peters et al). From the above, the formula below is deduced

AD

C f S1

S

Cf = fixed capital investment

S = plant useful life

S1 = salvage value

The plant life will be 16years (Peters et al) on a foreign land).

Assumption

Salvage value is 10% of the fixed capital investment (peters et al)

370

19.6.2 Insurance

The insurance cost paid on the plant and general site is estimated as 1% of the fixed capital

investment (peters et al).

19.6.3 Local taxes and royalties

Local taxes are estimated as 1% of the fixed capital investment (Peter et al, 1990).

Cost, ($)

Description

Manufacturing Costs

Direct Production Costs

Variable costs

1

Raw Materials

26,384,589.52

Miscellaneous

361,787.591

materials

3

Power

757,273.870

Utilities

Fixed costs

4

Operating

753,586.500

150,717.300

Labour

5

Operating

Supervision

3,617,875.912

Repairs

7

Laboratory

371

150,717.300

Charges

8

Royalties

602,979.319

Local Taxes

1,205,958.637

10 Insurance

602,979.319

11 Capital Charges

6,029,793.186

12 Total

Overhead Costs

42,879,348.29

0

General Expenses

15% of the Total Manufacturing Costs

6,431,902.244

4,287,934.829

12 Administrative

expenses

Marketing

14 Research

2,143,967.415

Development

Total General Expenses (G)

12,863,804.47

55,743,152.77

0.463

These are costs associated with operating the plant such as the general management, plant

security, medical, canteen, general clerical staff and security. This is 30% of the total cost

of operating labour, supervision and maintenance.

372

General expenses comprise of administrative expenses, distribution and marketing

expenses, and research and development expenses.

19.7.1 Administrative expenses (general overheads)

This includes executive salaries, electrical wages, engineering and legal cost, office

maintenance and communication. It is estimated as 20% of operating labour cost (peters et

al).

19.7.2 Distribution and marketing expenses

Expenses associated with selling the products, sales office and salaries of salesmen,

advertising cost, container cost and shipping expenses. It is estimated as 15% of the total

product cost.

19.7.3 Research and development

In order to remain in a competitive industrial position, research and development (R&D) is

essential. This component is estimated as 3% of the total product cost.

Before capital is invested in any project, one must estimate its profitability. Besides, a

manufacturing process must earn more than the cost of capital in order to make it attractive.

Profitability analysis attempts to proof the desirability of taking risk and also serves as a

measure of attractiveness of this project in comparison to the other competing projects. It is

also a qualitative measure of profit with respect to the investment required to generate that

profit. The analysis of profitability will be based on the following standards:

373

b. Turn over Ratio (TOR)

c. Return on Investment (ROI)

d. Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return (DCFRR)

e. Net Present Value (NPV)

f. Payback Period

19.8.1 Break Even Point (BEP)

Breakeven point is the time of plant life where there is neither net profit nor net loss. It is

the level above which the production rate must exceed in order to make profit. The

breakeven point would vary as the sales and manufacturing cost varies over the years.

Mathematically;

Variable cost =$ 27,503,650.96

Total Sales = =$ 62,420,221.360

42,879,348.290

62,420,221.360 27,503,650.96

19.8.2 Turn over ratio

This is a rapid method suitable for order of magnitude estimates. In other words, it could be

the ratio of gross annual sales to the fixed capital investment.

That is,

374

62,420,221.360

0.796

78,387,311.418

19.8.3 Annual Cash Flow

The average selling price for ethylene is $0.53 per kilogram (VAT exclusive). The aim of

our project is to produce high quality product at a lower cost. The tax rate now is at 15%.

19.8.4 Rate of Return (ROR)

Rate of return which is a ratio of annual profit to investment is a simple index of the

performance of the money invested. It does not consider the time value of money and it

does not account for the fact that profit and cost may vary significantly over the life of the

project. [43]

CNCF

100%

LP OI

Where

CNCF is the cumulative net cash flow at the end of project

LP is the life of the project

OI is the original investment

383,808,042.486

100% 30.60%

16 78,387,311.418

19.8.5 Discounted Cash Flow

The net cash flow in each year of the project is brought to its present worth at the start of

the project by discounting it at some chosen compound interest rate.

375

( NFW )n

(1 r ) n

Where

(NFW) n is the net future worth in year n

r is the discount rate (interest rate) per cent /100 and

n t

NFW

(1 r )

n 1

The discount rate is chosen to reflect the earning power of money. It would be roughly

equivalent to the current interest rate that the money could earn if invested. (Coulson and

Richardson, Volume 6). From the figure 19.2 the discounted rate is 22.12%

19.8.6 Pay-back Time

Payout period is the minimum length of time theoretically necessary to recover the original

capital investment in the form of cash flows to the project based on total income minus all

cost except depreciation. The Figures 19.1a,b below depict that, break even will occur at

the end of the 5.3 rd year.

376

$50.00

$40.00

$30.00

$20.00

$10.00

$0.00

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Time, yrs

-$10.00

377

0.450

0.400

0.350

Interest rate

0.300

0.250

0.200

0.150

0.100

0.050

0.000

0.000

0.200

0.400

0.600

0.800

Ratio: PV/TCI

378

1.000

1.200

1.400

1.600

CHAPTER 20

20.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

20.1 DISCUSSION

The prevailing price of the raw materials needed to operate the plant allows for a oneyear break-even point and is an exciting investment prospect. From the economic

analysis, the rate of return is a profitable 30.6% on the invested value. The issue of

fluctuating market prices of some of the process inputs can however alter the

profitability of this project. Challenges as to the constant profitability can be accurately

overcome by continued vigorous research and extensive market surveillance.

Environmental analysis shows that sodium carbonate sludge is one of the predominant

and problematic wastes produced. This is sent to a wet-air oxidation unit or regeneration

unit for regenerating NaOH from the sludge. Noise, thermal and gaseous pollution are

present but minimal.

The major feedstock being used in this project is ethane. This was chosen after

considering its availability, and high yield and selectivity of ethylene. Its processing is

relatively simple, involving lower capital costs. Also ethane is again produced in large

quantities as a by-product from the process and can be reused as a feedstock. This is of

key importance to the project. This is because failure to get your constant supply

(needed quantity) would cripple the project.

Again, cape three points in the western region was considered to be the area where the

project would take place. After considering factors such as availability of needed raw

materials, cost of labour, roadwork, and tax rate among others, it was prudent to

establish the industry at the said place.

379

20.2 CONCLUSION

From the economic analysis, our ethylene plant is economically viable. The ethylene

plant will have an enormous impact on the Ghanaian economy. Among such positive

impacts are the creation of capital for investors, reduction in unemployment, and

provision of foreign exchange for Ghana.It also does not pose very serious threats to the

environment. The steam pyrolysis process using ethane as feedstock to obtain our

product is also very economical since it does not involve the use of catalysts and other

expensive raw materials. Due to the location of the plant, our raw materials can be

easily acquired or imported. The products of the plant also have an already established

market in the country and in the world at large.

The conclusion drawn is that, the establishment of an emerging ethylene-producing

plant that uses steam pyrolysis process is feasible under the current technological and

economic development of Ghana, and would come with a lot of advantages.

20.3 RECOMMENDATION

From the economics, the plant is feasible, and we recommend that this plant design

should be given a favorable consideration. We also recommend that, the issue of safety

and control should be enforced at all levels and times to ensure the safe and smooth

running of the plant, to protect lives and the environment as a whole. It is again

recommended that the possibility of mixing ethane and propane as feedstock is

considered since propane will be produced as a by-product and can be reused.

380

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Study Approach, Volume 6,Chapter 12, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers,

New York,(1964)

45) Seader, J. D., and E. J. Henley, (1989) Separation Process Principles, Wiley,

New York

46) Treybal, R. E., Mass-Transfer Operations, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York

47) The Innovation Group. Chemical Profiles Available on the web at

http://www.theinnovation-group.com/ChemProfiles/Ethylene.htm.

Accessed

48) Timothy M. Zygula, Karl Kolmetz, Randy Summerfield, Revising An Ethylene

Feed Saturator for Increased Reliability, AIChE 2003 Spring National

Meeting, April 1, 2003, New Orleans, Louisiana

384

Butterworth-Heinemann, Washington Street, Newton, MA. (USA)

50) Waller D. (1983). Ethylene from NGL Feedstocks-Part 2: World ethylene

outlook. Hydrocarbon Process.

51) Wankat, P. C., Equilibrium Staged Separations, Elsevier, New York (1988).

52) W.L. Badger and J.T. Banchero, (1984). Introduction to Chemical Engineering,

McGraw-Hill, New York

385

APPENDIX A

CALCULATIONS FOR MATERIAL BALANCES

Molecular weights

Component

Molecular weight

Ethylene

28

Acetylene

26

Water (steam)

18

Methane

16

Hydrogen

Ethane

30

Propane

44

From our stated capacity, ethylene to be recovered at the end of the process is 100 000

tonnes/year.

1x10 8 kg

1yr

1day

x

x

Ethylene to be produced = 100,000TPA = 1 x 10 kg/yr =

1yr

300day 24hr

8

=13888.89kg/hr

Basis: 1hr of operation

Total weight of ethylene produced = 13888.89kg

Assuming 2% of the ethylene is lost during the production and coke was also assume to

be negligible but CO2 formed is assume to be 0.05% of the ethane that reacted

386

2

x 13888.89 = 277.778kg

100

505.952kgmol/hr

Assuming ethane conversion to be 65% and out of that 80% conversion for ethylene and

0.5% conversion for acetylene.

Ethane supplied = Ethane reacted + Ethane unreacted

Ethane reacted conversion = ethylene produced

Acetylene produced =

505.952

= 632.4405 kmol/hr

0.8

0 .5

ethane reacted

100

0 .5

632.4405 = 3.1622 kmol/hr

100

Ethane supplied =

632.4405

= 972.985 kmol/hr

0.65

= 972.985 632.4405 = 340.545 kgmole/hr

Chemical reactions in the furnace

C2H6

C2H4 + H2

............................... (a)

2C2H6

C3H8 + CH4

................................ (b)

C3H8

387

C + 2H2O

CO2 + 2H2

............................ (d)

Where Ns = flowrate of the species

= extent of reaction

= stoichiometric coefficient

C2H6 out

C2H4 out

1 .......................................................... (2)

H2 out

1 + 3 + 4.............................................. (3)

C3H8 out

2 - 3...................................................... (4)

CH4 out

2 + 3...................................................... (5)

C2H2 out

3........................................................... (6)

CO2 out

4........................................................... (7)

From equation (1), 22 = 972.985 340.545 505.952

2 = 63.244 kgmole/hr

From equation (6), 3 = C2H2 out = 3.1622 kgmole/hr

1 = 505.952 kgmole/hr

2 = 63.244 kgmole/hr

3 = 3.1622 kgmole/hr

388

Hence:

C2H6 out = 340.545 kgmole/hr

C2H4 out = 505.952 kgmole/hr

H2 out = 509.1142 kgmole/hr

C3H8 out = 60.0818 kgmole/hr

CH4 out = 66.4062 kgmole/hr

C2H2 out = 3.1622 kgmole/hr

CO2 out =0.3162 kgmole/hr

Steam to Ethane (supplied) ratio = 0.3: 1

Steam used = 0.3 x Ethane supplied = 0.3 x 972.985 = 291.8955 kgmole/hr

Total output from furnace = 340.545 + 505.952 + 509.1142 + 60.0818 + 66.4062 +

3.1622 + 291.8955+0.3162 = 1777.4731 kgmole/hr

The mole percentages of the individual components leaving the furnace are as follows:

C2H6 =

340.545

x 100% = 19.16%

1777.4731

C2H4 =

505.952

x 100% = 28.46%

1777.4731

H2 =

509.1142

x 100% = 28.64%

1777.4731

C3H8 =

60.0818

x 100% = 3.38%

1777.4731

389

CH4 =

66.4062

x 100% = 3.74%

1777.4731

C2H2 =

3.1622

x 100% = 0.18%

1777.4731

H2O =

291.8955

x 100% = 16.42%

1777.4731

CO2 =

0.3162

100

1777.4731

=0.02 %

390

APPENDIX B

CALCULATIONS FOR ENERGY BALANCE

Reactions in the furnace:

.Reaction 1

C2H6

C2H4 + H2

2C2H6

C3H8

C + 2H2O

391

Substance

Nin 103

Nout

Hin KJ/mol

103

Hin KJ/mol

mol/hr

CO2

3.555

H3

C2H2

3.199

H4

C2H4

505.869

H5

C3H8

60.79

H6

CH4

66.477

H7

392

H2O

291.896

H1

291.265

H8

C2H6

972.985

H2

340.564

H9

H2

509.068

H10

,

mol

CAUSTIC TOWER

Reference: CO2, C2H2, C2H4, C3H8, CH4, H2O, C2H6, H2 at 35oC for gas and 25oC for

NaOH solution 1 atm

393

Substance

Nin 10

Nout

Hin KJ/mol

103

Hin KJ/mol

mol/hr

CO2

3.1622

3.1662

H8

C2H2

3.1622

3.1660

H5

C2H4

505.952

505.952

H6

C3H8

60.0818

60.0818

H3

CH4

66.4064

66.4064

H1

H2O

0.29189

0.29189

H7

C2H6

340.545

340.545

H2

H2

509.1142

509.1142

H4

NaOH

3981.535

H9

3987.1098

H10

394

H= 212827.5891

QUENCH TOWER

A balance around water

Reference: H2O, at 25oC 1 atm

Substance

Nout

Nin 103

Hin KJ/mol

103

Hin KJ/mol

mol/hr

H2O

1492.490

H1

7874.283

H=323794.543

DEMETHANIZER

Reference: C2H2, C2H4, C3H8, CH4,C2H6, H2 at 25oC 1 atm

Substance

Nin 103

Hin KJ/mol

C2H2

2.9762

H1

C2H4

505.9520

H2

395

H2

C3H8

59.5238

H3

CH4

68.4523

H4

C2H6

330.3569

H5

H2

520.833

H6

Flows

Distillate (D)

Bottoms (B)

Hout KJ/mol

Hout KJ/mol

2.9762

H11

505.9520

H9

59.5238

H10

68.4523

H8

H14

330.3569

H13

520.833

H7

,

mol

,

mol

396

H= -11244.9174

C2 SPLITTER

Reference: C2H2, C2H4, CH4, C2H6, at 35oC, 25oC 1 atm

Substance

Nin 103

Hin KJ/mol

C2H2

2.9516

H1

C2H4

498.3786

H2

CH4

0.6658

H3

C2H6

330.3148

H4

397

Flows

Distillate (D)

Bottoms (B)

Hout KJ/mol

Hout KJ/mol

497.1149

H5

2.9516

H6

0.6558

H7

330.3145

H8

398

H=1609.18309

ACETYLENE ABSORBER

A balance around the gas Reference: C2H2, C2H4, 25oC,1 atm

Substance

Nin 10

Nout

Hin KJ/mol

103

Hin KJ/mol

mol/hr

C2H2

3.0725

H1

3.1660

H3

C2H4

481.9578

H2

505.952

H4

399

H=

400

APPENDIX C

CALCULATIONS ON TANK DIMENSIONS

Tank volume 1

The volume of the tank is determined by the volume of fluid stored

Where,

= volume of acetylene required for a days operations

= the mass of acetylene for a day = 1896 kg/day (material balance calculations)

= density of acetylene = 1.091 kg/m3 at 21oC and 1 atm (Perry, 1999)

The total storage volume for at most 7 days of supply cut off

There should always be a small ullage (the air space between the water surface and the

top of the tank) remaining when the contents gauge registers full. Thus equivalent to 5%

of the total contents of the tank (Mobley, 2001).

Volume of the storage tank

Ullage =

m3 = 3,374,331.513 gal (US)

401

TABLE 18.2. Storage Tanks, Underwriter or API Standard, Selected Sizes (wallas, pg

622)

Internal diameter of acetylene storage tank =

Length of acetylene storage tank = 42.05 in =106.807cm =1.068 m

Thickness of tank = 25mm

Tank volume 2

The volume of the tank is determined by the volume of fluid stored

Where,

= volume of ethylene required for a days operations

= the mass of ethylene for a day = 333,333.36 kg/day (material balance calculations)

= density of ethylene = 1.115 kg/m3 at 20oC and 1 atm (Perry, 1999)

The total storage volume for at most 7 days of supply cut off

There should always be a small ullage (the air space between the water surface and the

top of the tank) remaining when the contents gauge registers full. Thus equivalent to 5%

of the total contents of the tank (Mobley, 2001).

Volume of the storage tank

402

Ullage =

= 4,063,274.222 gal (US)

TABLE 18.2. Storage Tanks, Underwriter or API Standard, Selected Sizes (wallas, pg

622)

Internal diameter of ethylene storage tank =

Length of ethylene storage tank = 43.43in =110.3122cm = 1.103m

Thickness of tank = 25mm

Tank volume 3

The volume of the tank is determined by the volume of fluid stored

Where,

= volume of propane required for a days operations

= the mass of propane for a day = 63254.28 kg/day (material balance calculations)

= density of propane = 1.83 kg/m3 at 94oC and 1.0130bar (Perry, 1999)

The total storage volume for at most 7 days of supply cut off

403

There should always be a small ullage (the air space between the water surface and the

top of the tank) remaining when the contents gauge registers full. Thus equivalent to 5%

of the total contents of the tank (Mobley, 2001).

Volume of the storage tank

Ullage =

= 3,537,431gal (US)

TABLE 18.2. Storage Tanks, Underwriter or API Standard, Selected Sizes (wallas, pg

622)

Internal diameter of propane storage tank =

Length of propane storage tank = 42.376in =107.64cm = 1.076m

Thickness of tank = 28.18mm

Tank volume 4

The volume of the tank is determined by the volume of fluid stored

Operation storage volume

Where,

= volume of ethane required for a days operations

= the mass of ethane for a day = 700,549.20 kg/day (material balance calculations)

= density of ethane = 1.282 kg/m3 at 21oC and 1atm (Perry, 1999)

The total storage volume for at most 7 days of supply cut off

404

There should always be a small ullage (the air space between the water surface and the

top of the tank) remaining when the contents gauge registers full. Thus equivalent to 5%

of the total contents of the tank (Mobley, 2001).

Volume of the storage tank

Ullage =

= 7,427,160.362gal (US)

TABLE 18.2. Storage Tanks, Underwriter or API Standard, Selected Sizes (wallas, pg

622)

Internal diameter of ethane storage tank =

Length of ethane storage tank = 50.1667 in =127.423cm = 1.274m

Thickness of tank = 25mm

405

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