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NEW VENTURE CREATION: BUSINESS PLAN FOR GARI PRODUCTION 2009

-AGBARA FESTUS CHIBUISI

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Gari (FASI VENTURES) has been a successful product brand in Nigeria for eleven
years. The company's product has grown in sales by 15% each year, for the past three
years, and is now available in over five countries of West Africa. Nigeria FASI will make
over $500,000 in sales this year. This was generated from an initial investment of
$100,000.

FASI is planning to expand its operation to include distribution to stores within Asian
continent. Owner funding and internally generated cash flow will enable most of the
expansion plan. The company will also secure a $100,000 short-term loan. Sales
projections for the next three years are based on current sales success with the target
customer base. Initial contacts have been made with retail outlets throughout the state
and the potential target markets have been identified.

This plan will result in sales revenues growing to $2 million by the end of Year 3.

MISSION

Our mission is integrated into the following:

 Quality: Our Gari products are the highest quality, most nutritious food
products...because we will accept nothing less.
 Innovative: Our products have always been in the forefront of the health and
nutrition brandish. Innovative products, state of the art manufacturing, quality
assurance and industry expertise are the bases for our past and future successes.
 Integrity: Our customers depend on the quality of our Gari. Our commitment to
the highest standard is the foundation of our customers trust. Delivering crisply
made Gari to consumers depends on extensive cooperation and mutual reliance
between supplier and retailer. We stand behind our products, our service and our
word.

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NEW VENTURE CREATION: BUSINESS PLAN FOR GARI PRODUCTION 2009
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OBJECTIVES

The objective of fasi is as follows:

 Create a regional sales staff.


 Establish strong sales in the company’s five West African countries areas in Year
 Maintain tight control of cost and operation during expansion.
 Maintain positive, strong growth every month.
 Achieve a steady increase in International market expansion throughout Asia.
 Make our product readily available for our customers at affordable price.
 Increase in Profit margin by 1.5% through efficiency and economy-of-scale gains
 Double-triple digit growth rate for the first three years

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NEW VENTURE CREATION: BUSINESS PLAN FOR GARI PRODUCTION 2009
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Description of Business concept


FASI venture is a food production company, integrated as a joint venture (JV), with a
local company, Manja Enterprises. Our operation is basically a business-to-business
(B2B) venture. Our principal office is located in Kuching, Sarawak. FASI is offering
products from cassava base. The company also plans to establish a focus on
production/manufacturing but latter will involve in the distribution of the product to
wholesalers and directly to the retailers. We will control prices, and monitor the quality
of work. The Business concept behind FASI involves an Internet retail shop with
products cost considerably less than the prices of its competitors, yet superior quality.
The online retail shop will offer customers a one-stop shop for addressing their food
needs. We will also adopt business to business and business to customer model and trade
council. Gari is a popular food in Africa derived from the fermentation of the mash
obtained from the enlarged root of the cassava plant, Mani hot esculenta Crantz.
THE TEAM
Our management consists of the CEO, Festus C. Agbara, Arthur Dokubo director
operations, Stephen Endwell director marketing and Innocent Owaka director finance.
Additional management personnel, such as a marketing manager and production
managers, will be hired as growth dictates. Mr. Francis Gan will be the managing director
(MD) who will oversee the corporate functions. The company is built on the of the top
managements’ experiences who has been in this industry for over 11years. The CEO’s
five years knowledge of pharmaceutical production will contribute immensely to the
success of this venture. His extensive research on this venture taking in detail the
business analysis of the Asian environment to analyses the future life of venturing into
this business, and unique administrative skills. Obviously the result is worth taking the
steps for greater achievement.

SUSTAINABILITY
For sustainability, FASI believes that their competence, integrated with lower overhead
costs due to the raw material availability, will allow the company to be more cost

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effective than the companies importing from Africa or the alternatives products.
Furthermore, the cost of product will greatly reduce.
The company’s management philosophy will be based on task and joint force. FASI will
maintain an environment and structure that will encourage productivity and respect for
customers and fellow employees.

PRODUCT OFFERINGS
(GARI, Tapioca snack, cassava chips or even fufu).

Ca ssava f er men t ed
pr o d u c t s

 Gari is made from fresh cassava, which is ground into pastry and the excess liquid
is then squeezed out. To make Gari, cassava tubers are peeled, washed and grated
or crushed to produce a mash. The mash is placed in a non-water proof bag and
allowed to ferment for one or two days. It is then sieved (or sifted) and fried by
heating under low temperature. The resulting dry granular is called Gari can be
stored for long periods over six months without decay.

 long and tapered -firm homogeneous flesh-brown skin (like potato )

 The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish.

 Commercial varieties 5 to 10 cm in dia and 50 to 80 cm long.

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 Cassava roots are very rich in starch, and contain significant amounts of calcium
(50 mg/100g), phosphorus (40 mg/100g) and vitamin C (25 mg/100g).

PREPARATION PROCEDURES

Gari is a fermented, gelled and dehydrated food produced from fresh cassava. It is a
popular diet in Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana and in other West Africa's countries. The
consumption area even expands to Central Africa: Gabon, Cameroon, Congo Brazzaville
and Angola. (Issue 61 deals with the African market and international market of
Gari.) (Dr. B.M. Quenum, 2004)

Gari is a granulated, white or yellowish product - depending on production methods. It


has 10 to 15% moisture content that permits a long conservation (up to one year) period
in normal atmospheric conditions.

As exposed in previous deliveries, fresh cassava contains cyanhydric acid (HCN) that
should be eliminated from any product originating from cassava to render it fit for human
consumption. Depending on the production method (particularly traditional methods)
Gari could contains up to 20 mg / kg of HCN - against 43 mg / kg for fresh peeled
cassava. However, after one month of storage there is an only trace (2 mg / kg) of HCN.
(Dr. B.M. Quenum, 2004)

Caution: One should remark that a Gari sample that contains 30 mg / kg of HCN is
not proper for human consumption.

GARI:

 It can be eaten as a snack with cold water on a very hot day, or cooked in hot
water to make a dough-like meal called Eba or Gari with delicious African
vegetable soups. It is a popular Ghanaian, Sierra Leonean and Nigerian food base.

 Cassava is fermented to remove cyanide and produce flavors.

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NEW VENTURE CREATION: BUSINESS PLAN FOR GARI PRODUCTION 2009
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 roasted to destroy enzymes and microorganisms, to drive off cyanide gas, and to
dry the product.

 Uncontrolled Fermentation - incomplete detoxification and a bland product.

 Too long a period - strong sour taste.

 Both over- and under fermentation - affect the texture of the final gari

 The granules must be roasted to about 80 ºC/175 ºF to achieve partial


gelatinization of the starch.

 The product is hygroscopic (it absorbs moisture from the air) and should be
packed in airtight and moisture-proof bags, especially in areas of high humidity,
to prevent mold growth.

Production of Gari a staple cassava-based food that feeds much of southern Nigeria
on a farm in the Cross River state in southeastern Nigeria

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Grating
peeling Washing • M otorised grater

Frying Pressing Fermentation


• Cast iron pan (20 • Hydralic jerk • Baskets- room
-30 mins) press temp – 5 days

Packing
Cooling Sieving • Polyethenebags,
cool and dry place

CONSUMPTION

The resultant product is crisp and crunchy to taste, and is stored easily and can
be eaten with stew or soup or Shinto and fish.

 It can be soaked with water milk and sugar. Gari has a high swelling
capacity and can absorb up to 4 times its volume in water. It is a popular
diet eaten in may flavors.

 It can also be converted into a breakfast cereal by adding powdered milk,


chunks of coconut, groundnuts and cashew nuts. A truly versatile food and
affordable too.

DEMAND

Gari is very popular among West Africans; the demand for this food both within and
outside the African region is soaring. It’s a food many eat almost every day. The
interaction with the African community President- Sarawak sort to see how this product
can be in steady supply here in Sarawak. The president has approved that the Independent

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celebration coming this October 1st 2009 will be the avenue to let all Nigerians in
Sarawak know the place to get Gari at low price while in Malaysia, and that assignment
was given to me the welfare coordinator for African community here in Sarawak.
Although many produce and sell it in large quantities in Africa, the possibilities of
growing it in Asia have been ignored.

PRODUCT QUALITY
Gari is rich in dietary fiber and complex starch; it is source of low GI carbohydrate that
ensures slow release of energy over a long period of time.
Gari is creamy-white granular flour with slightly fermented flour and a slightly sour taste
made from fermented, gelatinized fresh cassava tubers.
Gari is widely known and consumed in Nigeria and West African countries. It is
commonly consumed either by being soaked in cold water with sugar, coconut, roasted
groundnuts, dry fish, or boiled cowpea. It has a shelf-life of six months or more.

TARGET MARKETS
 Africans

 Cereal lovers (which could be from any race)

In Sarawak where there are over 3000 of Africans comprising of students of INTI,
Swinburne, limkokwin etc and other workers and business men in Miri, Bintulu, Penang
and many others within Sarawak. This consumer relies on African importers who send it
and sell it at a high price. E.g. African Heritage and few firms in Kuala Lumpur.
Currently there is no Gari manufacturing company in South-Asian region this provides
FASI Ventures the opportunity to produce here in Sarawak, Malaysia.

AVAILABILITY OF RAW MATERIALS


This region has everything in place for the successful production, marketing and
distribution of this food staple. Through dedication, passion and committed directors
with quality managerial skills and experience in this industry, FASI is will be able to

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execute this exciting opportunity to meet the needs of Africans in this region by
providing their favorite food even at their doorstep.

DISTRIBUTION
FASI will sell this product through supermarkets. By the end of the year it would sell
and distribute through its website. This will enable the company to have higher margins,
maintain a close relationship with customers and penetrate other regions outside
Malaysia. It will also sell through other retailers.

VALUE PROPOSITION
 The customer will enjoy low cost such that the mount for a 1kg can get him 10kg
of a better quality.
 We will add the product description on the packages.
 With our enterprise resource planning system the customer can place order and
have it at the time he needs it. The customer can if place order ahead of time.
 For customers that may want higher concentrated product can get it on demand

THE COMPETITIVE PRODUCT

For now FASI does not really have competitors as such but it has indirect competitors
producing similar product which is the wheat flour (Tanpung gandum).It is being used in
Malaysia as a substitute for Eba. African heritage is in this line of product but not
producing after the launch of our company (Gari) they will be one of our business
customers.

 The difference we make is that we produce here in Sarawak as the raw material is
readily available. The cost of importation from Africa will be eliminated and this
will allow us have reasonable margin to be able to offer a low price to our
potential customers.
 The compelling reasons why customers need the product from us is that we have
we save them over 60% cost and it is available at any time they want it and for
any quantity.

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 Gari releases energy slowly to the body because of the processes taken in
production and very rich in dietary fiber, meaning that the hunger sustainability is
high.

REVENUE MODEL
FASI will work on generating revenues through
 business to business (b2b)
 business to consumer (b2c)
 trade union models
The major reason why we will use the trade union for even our packaging is for the
fact that the Directors are not locals there is every tendency that the product will
suffer rejection. So we will just concentrate on perfecting our production and let the
problem of the distribution and marketing be laid off for a commission to the trade
union.

SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

Although FASI is entering its first year of operation, the product it is launching is not
‘new’ to its target market. It is a product that will be well received with excitement-
It is like something people have been waiting for. But marketing will be vital to
create awareness and for brand development, as well as building customer base.

MARKET ANALYSIS SUMMARY

FASI Ventures sells to the following

 Small neighborhood natural food stores;


 Large upscale natural food stores;
 Supermarkets with natural food sections.
 hypermarkets

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The largest market is clearly the supermarkets that have the greater number of
customers. Neighborhood supermarkets represent over 550% of the targeted end users
that FASI is focused on. The demographics of FASI end users are families and single
people who are seeking healthy foods that are low in fat. The purchasers are most likely
women who share these common characteristics:

 Single professional woman, ages 25 - 45;


 Married professional women with families, ages 25 - 45;
 Average household income of $60,000+ a year;
 Woman and families involved in athletic activity (energy consuming exercises).

4.1Market Segmentation

FASI Ventures has identified seven metro locations within the region where we can reach
our target customers:

 Boulevard;
 Spring;
 Sarawak plaza;
 Tun Jugan Mall;
 Miri;
 Kuala Lumpur;
 Choice Premiers and seven eleven (7/11).

MARKETING ANALYSIS

A B C

Potential Customers Growth $ $ $

Boulevard 10% 360,000 396,000 435,600

Spring 10% 275,000 302,500 332,750

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Sarawak plaza 10% 485,000 533,500 586,850

Tun Jugan Mall 10% 775,000 853,500 937,750

Miri 10% 662,000 728,200 801,020

Kuala Lumpur 10% 690,000 759,000 834,900

Choice Premier 10% 948,000 1,042,800 1, 147, 08

Total 10% 4,195,000 4,614,500 5, 075, 95

4.1 MARKET DEMOGRAPHICS


The profile for the typical FASI customer consists of the following geographic,
demographic and behavior factors:
Geographic: Target geographic area is the Asian continent. With the use of internet and
other delivery services we can reach as much as 4 million Africans both in Asia and other
parts of the world. We can also reach millions of Asians, and the western world
presenting Gari as a cereal.
Demographics
Gari is both enjoyed by both male and female alike
-People of all ages enjoy Gari; it has no age limitation (apart from infants).

4.2 BEHAVIOUR FACTORS


 Customers enjoy the eating Eba with different kinds of soup.
 Customers enjoy eating Gari as a cereal with sugar/honey, powdered milk, peanut,
chunks of coconut or cashew nuts.
 Customers could be non-African but love African food, culture, and music.

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4.3 MARKET NEEDS


There are about 7 million Africans living in Asia (About 3 million in China). This is seen
as a great opportunity-FASI is providing Gari (both white and yellow Gari) in different
size/packages to reach different customers (business and consumers) and meet their
needs.

4.3.1 MARKETING TRENDS

FASI stands at a very great advantage in producing Gari, an African staple food in a
Sarawak and at the same time market it both in the country and beyond. FASI
distinguishes itself from other importers who have to get the product from Africa and
market in Asia, which has made the food more expensive in Sarawak. FASI can sell it
less than others. With the influx of Africans to Sarawak on the rise, there will be an
increase in demand for Gari like never before. And apart from the general methods of
eating Gari as Eba or cereal, Nigerians in Diaspora are discovering new ways of eating
Gari; some are making deserts out of it.
4.3.2 MARKET GROWTH
In Sarawak with the increase in the number of Africans entering the state and increased
relationship between the locals and the immigrants and the south-Eastern Asia region
there’s been a tremendous growth in the food industry, because by scale of preference no
choice can be made to neglect food, irrespective of the economic challenges in the world.
This provides FASI a great opportunity to thrive and expand.
4.4 SWOT ANALYSIS
The following SWOT Analysis captures the key strengths and weaknesses within the
company and describes the opportunities and threats facing FASI.
Strengths
 Capability and

 In-depth knowledge of the product processing procedures by the


directors.

Weakness

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 The challenge of creating brand awareness as a starting company

 Reliance on outside capital necessary to grow the business.

Opportunities
 Influx of Africans to Asia, Europe.

 Good and conducive business environment with everything necessary


for production

 Cheap labour

Threats
 Future and potential competition from an already established market
participant.

4.5 KEY TO SUCCESS


The main key is to make the product available. Our ability to be consistent, efficient,
flexible and innovative in the business meeting customers demand will make FASI a
sustainable/profitable company both on the short/long run.

4.5.1 Critical Issues


FASI is a start-up business so it is still in the early stages. The critical issues for FASI
include:
 Establish it as the no.1 Gari/cassava-related product producer.

 Ensure that growth is embraced and maintained. Also that revenue


exceeds expenses

 Adequate monitoring of customer satisfaction

5.0 MARKETING STRATEGY


The key to the marketing strategy is focusing on the target market-the Africans, cereal
lovers and food adventurers. As the business progresses FASI is covering the entire Asian

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continent starting from Malaysia, It will also cover a large percentage of American and
European market due to price advantages.

5.1 POSITIONING
FASI will position itself as cost leaders in Gari producing company in Sarawak,
Malaysia. This will be on the premise of making all having access to healthy food.

5.2 STRATEGIES
Single objective is to position FASI as the premier Gari producer, serving the domestic
and the International market. The marketing strategy will seek:
 First, to create customer awareness concerning the products. The message that
FASI will communicate is quality products, available and affordable.
These messages will be passed in different ways:
 Through FASI websites
 Trusted and recognised distributors

STRATEGY AND IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY

The strategy of FASI Ventures is to focus on our niche market which is health/natural
food production that serves the entire family at low price.

COMPETITIVE EDGE

The competitive advantage of FASI Ventures is the following:

 Cassava-based foods have become popular within families: Many nutritionists


encourage people to decrease their meat intake, and to eat more foods that are rich
in fiber, vitamins, antioxidants, and plant proteins. A meatless protein source is an
easy way to do this, and FASI Venture fits the needs absolutely.
 Cassava-based foods improve your health: Gari foods reduce symptoms of
menopause--hot flashes and night sweats. Women who regularly eat foods have
lower rates of breast cancer. Gari may lower blood cholesterol and blood pressure.

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 FASI Venture products are popular with consumers who are new to cassava: The
grains are crispy and mild in flavor, yet rich, creamy, and filling.

MARKETING STRATEGY

FASI Ventures will introduce its products at 20% off the wholesale price during the first
month to promote supermarkets and stores to buy the product. In addition, they will co-
sponsor local athletic charitable events for sponsoring less privileged children to school
to raise the visibility of the brand name. FASI Ventures will use in-store samples booths
to promote the product.

SALES STRATEGY

The sales strategy is to build customer loyalty in the new markets. we will increase its
sales force to focus on the new markets. FASI Ventures will hire three new sales
associates to serve these new markets.

SALES FORECAST

The following table and charts show the rapid ramp-up of sales during the first twelve
months of operation.

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SALES FORECAST
Sales A B C

$ $ $

Supermarkets 660,000 720,000 800.000

Large upscale food stores 250,000 300,000 350,000

Small natural food stores 100,000 140,000 180,000

Total 1,010,000 1,160,000 1,330,000

Direct cost of sales A B C

$ $ $

Supermarkets 151,000 168,000 181,000

Large upscale food stores 59,900 69,000 79,000

Small natural food stores 20,000 28,000 36,000

Subtotal direct cost of sales 230,900 265,000 296,000

MARKETING MIX

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FASI’s marketing is comprised of the following approaches to product, pricing, place,


promotion, people, Process and physical evidence

THE 7 P's of FASI Ventures (Gari)


PRODUCT:
FASI’s product portfolio primarily comprises of bread, cakes, chips and Gari. The Gari is
the only product that serves as food others are like snacks, to the customers. Gari is made
from fresh cassava, which is ground into pastry and the excess liquid is then squeezed
out. To make Gari, cassava tubers are peeled, washed and grated or crushed to produce a
mash. The mash is placed in a non-water proof bag and allowed to ferment for one or two
days. It is then sieved (or sifted) and fried by heating under low temperature. The
resulting dry granular is called Gari can be stored for long periods over six months
without decay.
PRICE:
Gari are priced between RM10 and RM20. The low price strategy is adopted to
encourage the new trial of the product. At least they can afford to spend this offering
price for trial incase they do not like it they would not have much to loose but the reverse
has been the case. Thos who tried it never stopped buying giving us increased number of
customers daily.
PROMOTION:
FASI the quality focus is on targeting families. In cereals which are targeting all people
lovers of “gula gula” Apart from this, various schemes for winning prices by way of
lucky draws and also scratch cards are given when an order is placed on the various sizes.
In fact, the various quantity and consistently also signal to the customer that buying
separate items results in greater value for money for the customer.
PLACE:
although FASI outlets are very scantily spread within kuching Sarawak region. FASI
offers home delivery to increase their coverage and raise convenience for the customers
PEOPLE:
The employees in FASI Ventures have a standard uniform and they specially focuses on
friendly and prompt service to its customers from their employees.

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PROCESS:
The food manufacturing process at FASI is completely transparent i.e. the whole process
is visible to the customers. In fact, the factory allows its customers to view and judge the
hygienic standards at FASI by allowing them to enter the area where the process takes
place. The customers are invited to check the ingredients used in food.
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE:
FASI focuses on clean and hygienic facilities of its outlets and at the same time the
workers are attractive and the factory maintains a proper standard of ethical and hygienic
service and business environment. The most of all they are eco-friendly

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MARKETING RESEARCH
FASI is blessed to be located in Kuching city; Sarawak where all the resources required
in producing the Gari food is available. This gives the company an advantage it also
provides the opportunity to ‘test’ the product among the African community in Sarawak.
3 Financials
The intended capital investment will be RM100, 000

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MANAGEMENT SUMMARY

Festus Agbara currently manages the daily operation of FASI Ventures. Festus is
responsible for production and distribution. Festus has eleven years of experience
in food production. He is an excellent manager. His operation is extremely
efficient and employee turnover is less than 15% over the past 2 years. Expanding
the business into international market festus found a market opportunity in
Sarawak where he went for his business survey and focused on producing his Gari
products there after three months of importing from his home factory in Nigeria
after the comparative analysis on the business. It showed that it was more business
profiting to set-up production here. He runs the business with the same focus on
employees as the foundation of her product's success.

6.1 Personnel Plan: The personnel plan for FASI Venture is as follows:

 Operations manager
 Sales manager
 Production staff (5)
 Distribution staff (4) and Sales staff (4 with 3 new hires).

A B C

Festus $36,000 $40,000 $42,000

Sales manager $36,000 $40,000 $44,000

Production staff $120,000 $130,000 $140,000

Distribution staff $120,000 $130,000 $140,000

Sales staff $140,000 $150,000 $160,000

Total people 15 15 15

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Total payroll $456,000 $490,000 $526,000

EXPENSE FORECAST
Expenses / Capital
1. Advertisement
1.1 Newspaper
1.2 Web site
1.3 Sign Board
1.4 Media Electronic
2.0 Accounting Fee
2.1 Management Account
2.2 Audit
2. Bank Charges
3.1 Service Charge
3. Depreciation
4.1 Machine & Equipment
4. Gift & Donation
5.1 Welfare
5. Entertainment & refreshment
6. Tender Fees
7. Compound & Penalty
8. Fuel & Oil
9. Hire Purchase Interest
10.1 Machine & Equipment
10.2 Raw Material
10.3 Furniture
10. Medical expenses
11.1 Labourers
11. Uniform
12.1 Apron
12.2 T-shirt

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12.3 Cap
12.4 Shoes
12.5 Mask
12. Repair & Maintenance – Motor Vehicle
13. Repair & Maintenance – Warehouse
14. Repair & Maintenance –Machine & Equipment
15. Road tax & Insurance
16.1 Motor Vehicle
16. Printing & stationeries
17. Rental – office & warehouse ( 1 Year )
18.1 6 month deposit
18. EPF
19.1 Address FASI VENTURE SDN BHD
19. SOSCO
20.1 Address FASI VENTURE SDN BHD
20. Legal & Professional fee
21.1 Born by FASI VENTURE SDN BHD
21. Insurance
22. Telephone
23. Training fee
24. Trade License
25. Water
26.1 Monthly RM 30.00 (MANJA ENTERPRISE)
26. Electricity
27.1 Monthly RM 150.00 (MANJA ENTERPRISE)
27. Travelling expenses
28. Allowance
29. Proprietor’s remuneration
30. Wages & salaries
31.1 Lorry Driver ( 2 person – RM 1,200.00)
31.2 Cutting raw Material ( 3 persons – RM 900.00 ) – Base on Volume

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31.3 Machine Controller ( 2 persons – RM 900.00 )


31.4 Frying Controller ( 2 persons – RM 900.00 )
31.5 Packaging ( 2 persons RM 900.00 )
31.6 Administration ( 3 person – RM 1,000.00 )
31.7 Supervisor ( 1 person – RM 1,500.00 )
31. Registration fee
32. Transportation
33.1 Farm / Factory
33.2 Factory / Port
33.3 Factory / Vendor

33. Labeling
34.1 Logo FASI VENTURE SDN BHD
34.2 Logo HALAL / SIRIM / MARDI / BARCODE
34.3 Imported by FASI VENTURE SDN BHD
34.4 Layout Label
34. Packaging
35.1 Machine by FASI VENTURE SDN BHD
35.2 Sealer Machine
35.3 Plastic
35.4 Scale
35. Renovation ( outside compound )
36.1 Extension Awning / Roofing
36.2 Internal- Store
36. Import Export
37.1 License
37.2 Malaysian Custom

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IMPLEMENTATION
The factory will be located at the industrial area at the Samanjaya, on a joint venture with
the local company here in Kuching to be able to avoid the avoidable risks of the total
international company, example the disturbances from government regulations, to tap
into the opportunities that are available through influence of power since we do not have
all the fund required to “push some relevant buttons” that makes things happen.
Office set-up we will use the fund allocated for this as our contribution to the joint
venture and the provision of the rare technology though existing in Nigeria but lacking in
Malaysia.
The decision on recruitment is entirely reserved for the partner company only the person
with the knowledge (tacit) of the whole product will be brought from Nigeria by FASI
ventures.
The human resource management will be the collective responsibility of the directors
though for the purpose of report and control we will appoint of the Directors to bear the
responsibility of the human resource management (HRM).
The advertisement will be responsibility of the marketing manager who is one of the
directors. Why we share these key responsibilities among the vision bearers is to enhance
our productivity through committed performance. We will lunch out officially after two
months of operation. The potential investors will be invited, government through the
designated ministries and political leaders. At the time we have run the operation for two
months the presentation to our invitees will be convincing that what we are doing works
because we will equally present the reports of the two months operations to our intended
investors/shareholders. The financial system to adopt will be considered after two months
operation when we must have verified the capacity of our workforce in correspondence
with the fund raised through the respective directors Festus Agbara, Arthur Dokubo,
Stephen Endwell and Innocent Owakah.

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6.0 CONTROL
The internal auditing will be done after every three months, then at the end of the year we
employ the services of the external audit. Despite that we get their regular advice due to
the retainnership agreement which costs us RM150 monthly different from the fees paid
on any job executed by the auditing firm.

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Conclusion
The success of this venture will depend on a significant number of patronage buying
power and customers knowing about, and regularly using, the product. Marketing using
internet and product awareness campaign at an early stage of development.

Many customers will be addressing issues such as quality, reliability, billing, delivery,
and customer service for the first time in a self-service, Internet-based market creation
and ordering environment.

Educating potential customers is a complex exercise, time consuming and expensive


process. In many cases, organizations must change established business practices and
conduct business in new ways to use the services.

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-AGBARA FESTUS CHIBUISI

References

 Hindle, K. & O’Connor, A.2005, Westpac GEM Australia: a Study of Australia


Entrepreneurship in 2004, Australia Graduate School of Entrepreneurship
Research Report Series, Vol. 2, No. 1, Swinburne University of Technology,
Melbourne

 Jeffrys, A. Timmons, & Stephen, S 2007 New Venture Creation:


Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century 7th edn

 Kuratko,D.F &Hodgetts,R.M. 2007, Entrepreneurship:Theory,Process,Practice,


7th edn, Thomson South Western, Ohio,U.S.A

 Sahlman, W.A. 1997, How to write a great business plan, Harvard Business,
Review, July-August, pp 98-108.
 (Dr. B.M. Quenum, 2004) http://africabiz.org

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Appendix

Sales Forecast
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Sales
Supermarkets 0% $40,000 $40,000 $45,000 $45,000 $50,000 $60,000 $60,000 $60,000 $65,000 $65,000 $65,000 $65,000
Large Upscale Natural Food
0% $15,000 $15,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $25,000 $25,000 $25,000 $25,000
Stores
Small Natural Food Stores 0% $5,000 $5,000 $5,000 $5,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000
Other 0% $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Total Sales $60,000 $60,000 $70,000 $70,000 $80,000 $90,000 $90,000 $90,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000

Direct Cost of Sales Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Supermarkets $8,500 $8,500 $10,000 $10,000 $12,000 $14,000 $14,000 $14,000 $15,000 $15,000 $15,000 $15,000
Large Upscale Natural Food
$3,000 $3,500 $4,900 $4,900 $4,900 $4,900 $4,900 $4,900 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000
Stores
Small Natural Food Stores $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000
Other $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Subtotal Direct Cost of Sales $12,500 $13,000 $15,900 $15,900 $18,900 $20,900 $20,900 $20,900 $23,000 $23,000 $23,000 $23,000

Personnel Plan
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Jean Simmons 0% $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000
Sales Manager 0% $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000
Production Staff 0% $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000
Distribution Staff 0% $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000
Sales Staff 0% $12,000 $12,000 $12,000 $12,000 $12,000 $12,000 $12,000 $12,000 $12,000 $12,000 $12,000 $12,000
Total People 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

Total Payroll $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000

General Assumptions
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Plan Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Current Interest Rate 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00%
Long-term Interest
10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% 10.00%
Rate
Tax Rate 30.00% 30.00% 30.00% 30.00% 30.00% 30.00% 30.00% 30.00% 30.00% 30.00% 30.00% 30.00%
Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Pro Forma Profit and Loss


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Sales $60,000 $60,000 $70,000 $70,000 $80,000 $90,000 $90,000 $90,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000
Direct Cost of Sales $12,500 $13,000 $15,900 $15,900 $18,900 $20,900 $20,900 $20,900 $23,000 $23,000 $23,000 $23,000
Other Production Expenses $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Total Cost of Sales $12,500 $13,000 $15,900 $15,900 $18,900 $20,900 $20,900 $20,900 $23,000 $23,000 $23,000 $23,000

Gross Margin $47,500 $47,000 $54,100 $54,100 $61,100 $69,100 $69,100 $69,100 $77,000 $77,000 $77,000 $77,000
Gross Margin % 79.17% 78.33% 77.29% 77.29% 76.38% 76.78% 76.78% 76.78% 77.00% 77.00% 77.00% 77.00%

Expenses
Payroll $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000
Sales and Marketing and
$6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000
Other Expenses
Depreciation $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800
Leased Equipment $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Utilities $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000
Insurance $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800 $800
Rent $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000
Payroll Taxes 15% $5,700 $5,700 $5,700 $5,700 $5,700 $5,700 $5,700 $5,700 $5,700 $5,700 $5,700 $5,700
Other $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0

Total Operating Expenses $55,300 $55,300 $55,300 $55,300 $55,300 $55,300 $55,300 $55,300 $55,300 $55,300 $55,300 $55,300

Profit Before Interest and


($7,800) ($8,300) ($1,200) ($1,200) $5,800 $13,800 $13,800 $13,800 $21,700 $21,700 $21,700 $21,700
Taxes

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EBITDA ($7,000) ($7,500) ($400) ($400) $6,600 $14,600 $14,600 $14,600 $22,500 $22,500 $22,500 $22,500
Interest Expense $401 $469 $538 $606 $674 $742 $810 $878 $946 $1,014 $1,082 $1,151
Taxes Incurred ($2,460) ($2,631) ($521) ($542) $1,538 $3,917 $3,897 $3,877 $6,226 $6,206 $6,185 $6,165

Net Profit ($5,741) ($6,139) ($1,216) ($1,264) $3,588 $9,141 $9,093 $9,046 $14,528 $14,480 $14,433 $14,384
Net Profit/Sales -9.57% -10.23% -1.74% -1.81% 4.49% 10.16% 10.10% 10.05% 14.53% 14.48% 14.43% 14.38%

Pro Forma Cash Flow


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Cash Received

Cash from Operations


Cash Sales $15,000 $15,000 $17,500 $17,500 $20,000 $22,500 $22,500 $22,500 $25,000 $25,000 $25,000 $25,000
Cash from Receivables $40,000 $41,500 $45,000 $45,250 $52,500 $52,750 $60,250 $67,500 $67,500 $67,750 $75,000 $75,000
Subtotal Cash from Operations $55,000 $56,500 $62,500 $62,750 $72,500 $75,250 $82,750 $90,000 $92,500 $92,750 $100,000 $100,000

Additional Cash Received


Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST
0.00% $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Received
New Current Borrowing $8,333 $8,333 $8,333 $8,333 $8,333 $8,333 $8,333 $8,333 $8,333 $8,333 $8,333 $8,500
New Other Liabilities (interest-
$3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000
free)
New Long-term Liabilities $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000 $3,000
Sales of Other Current Assets $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Sales of Long-term Assets $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
New Investment Received $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Subtotal Cash Received $69,333 $70,833 $76,833 $77,083 $86,833 $89,583 $97,083 $104,333 $106,833 $107,083 $114,333 $114,500

Expenditures Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Expenditures from Operations


Cash Spending $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000 $38,000
Bill Payments $21,023 $30,598 $28,146 $35,502 $32,745 $41,023 $44,187 $42,108 $42,382 $48,907 $46,721 $46,769
Subtotal Spent on Operations $59,023 $68,598 $66,146 $73,502 $70,745 $79,023 $82,187 $80,108 $80,382 $86,907 $84,721 $84,769

Additional Cash Spent


Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Paid
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Out
Principal Repayment of Current
$1,666 $1,666 $1,666 $1,666 $1,666 $1,666 $1,666 $1,666 $1,666 $1,666 $1,666 $1,666
Borrowing
Other Liabilities Principal
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Repayment
Long-term Liabilities Principal
$1,500 $1,500 $1,500 $1,500 $1,500 $1,500 $1,500 $1,500 $1,500 $1,500 $1,500 $1,500
Repayment
Purchase Other Current Assets $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000
Purchase Long-term Assets $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000 $2,000
Dividends $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Subtotal Cash Spent $66,189 $75,764 $73,312 $80,668 $77,911 $86,189 $89,353 $87,274 $87,548 $94,073 $91,887 $91,935

Net Cash Flow $3,144 ($4,931) $3,521 ($3,585) $8,922 $3,394 $7,730 $17,059 $19,285 $13,010 $22,446 $22,565
Cash Balance $43,144 $38,213 $41,735 $38,150 $47,072 $50,465 $58,195 $75,254 $94,539 $107,549 $129,995 $152,560

Pro Forma Balance Sheet


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Assets Starting Balances

Current Assets
Cash $40,000 $43,144 $38,213 $41,735 $38,150 $47,072 $50,465 $58,195 $75,254 $94,539 $107,549 $129,995 $152,560
Accounts Receivable $80,000 $85,000 $88,500 $96,000 $103,250 $110,750 $125,500 $132,750 $132,750 $140,250 $147,500 $147,500 $147,500
Inventory $10,000 $13,750 $14,300 $17,490 $17,490 $20,790 $22,990 $22,990 $22,990 $25,300 $25,300 $25,300 $25,300
Other Current Assets $5,000 $7,000 $9,000 $11,000 $13,000 $15,000 $17,000 $19,000 $21,000 $23,000 $25,000 $27,000 $29,000
Total Current Assets $135,000 $148,894 $150,013 $166,225 $171,890 $193,612 $215,955 $232,935 $251,994 $283,089 $305,349 $329,795 $354,360

Long-term Assets
Long-term Assets $50,000 $52,000 $54,000 $56,000 $58,000 $60,000 $62,000 $64,000 $66,000 $68,000 $70,000 $72,000 $74,000
Accumulated Depreciation $12,000 $12,800 $13,600 $14,400 $15,200 $16,000 $16,800 $17,600 $18,400 $19,200 $20,000 $20,800 $21,600
Total Long-term Assets $38,000 $39,200 $40,400 $41,600 $42,800 $44,000 $45,200 $46,400 $47,600 $48,800 $50,000 $51,200 $52,400
Total Assets $173,000 $188,094 $190,413 $207,825 $214,690 $237,612 $261,155 $279,335 $299,594 $331,889 $355,349 $380,995 $406,760

Liabilities and Capital Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Current Liabilities
Accounts Payable $20,000 $29,668 $26,959 $34,419 $31,382 $39,548 $42,784 $40,703 $40,749 $47,349 $45,162 $45,208 $45,255
Current Borrowing $0 $6,667 $13,334 $20,001 $26,668 $33,335 $40,002 $46,669 $53,336 $60,003 $66,670 $73,337 $80,171
Other Current Liabilities $0 $3,000 $6,000 $9,000 $12,000 $15,000 $18,000 $21,000 $24,000 $27,000 $30,000 $33,000 $36,000
Subtotal Current Liabilities $20,000 $39,335 $46,293 $63,420 $70,050 $87,883 $100,786 $108,372 $118,085 $134,352 $141,832 $151,545 $161,426

Long-term Liabilities $40,000 $41,500 $43,000 $44,500 $46,000 $47,500 $49,000 $50,500 $52,000 $53,500 $55,000 $56,500 $58,000
Total Liabilities $60,000 $80,835 $89,293 $107,920 $116,050 $135,383 $149,786 $158,872 $170,085 $187,852 $196,832 $208,045 $219,426

Paid-in Capital $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000
Retained Earnings $9,000 $33,000 $33,000 $33,000 $33,000 $33,000 $33,000 $33,000 $33,000 $33,000 $33,000 $33,000 $33,000
Earnings $24,000 ($5,741) ($11,880) ($13,096) ($14,360) ($10,771) ($1,630) $7,463 $16,508 $31,036 $45,516 $59,949 $74,333
Total Capital $113,000 $107,259 $101,120 $99,904 $98,640 $102,229 $111,370 $120,463 $129,508 $144,036 $158,516 $172,949 $187,333
Total Liabilities and Capital $173,000 $188,094 $190,413 $207,825 $214,690 $237,612 $261,155 $279,335 $299,594 $331,889 $355,349 $380,995 $406,760

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Net Worth $113,000 $107,259 $101,120 $99,904 $98,640 $102,229 $111,370 $120,463 $129,508 $144,036 $158,516 $172,949 $187,333

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Financial Plan

The following is the financial plan for FASI VENTURE SDN BHD.

7.1 Break-even Analysis

The monthly break-even point is $71,689.

Break-even Analysis

Monthly Revenue Break-even $71,689

Assumptions:
Average Percent Variable Cost 23%
Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost $55,300

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Projected Cash Flow

The following table and chart are the projected cash flow for three years.

Pro Forma Cash Flow


2002 2003 2004
Cash Received

Cash from Operations


Cash Sales $252,500 $290,000 $332,500
Cash from Receivables $690,000 $848,094 $972,673
Subtotal Cash from Operations $942,500 $1,138,094 $1,305,173

Additional Cash Received


Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Received $0 $0 $0
New Current Borrowing $100,163 $0 $0
New Other Liabilities (interest-free) $36,000 $36,000 $36,000
New Long-term Liabilities $36,000 $36,000 $36,000
Sales of Other Current Assets $0 $0 $0
Sales of Long-term Assets $0 $0 $0
New Investment Received $0 $0 $0
Subtotal Cash Received $1,114,663 $1,210,094 $1,377,173

Expenditures 2002 2003 2004

Expenditures from Operations


Cash Spending $456,000 $490,000 $526,000
Bill Payments $460,111 $578,610 $641,410
Subtotal Spent on Operations $916,111 $1,068,610 $1,167,410

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Additional Cash Spent


Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Paid Out $0 $0 $0
Principal Repayment of Current Borrowing $19,992 $19,992 $19,992
Other Liabilities Principal Repayment $0 $0 $0
Long-term Liabilities Principal Repayment $18,000 $18,300 $3,700
Purchase Other Current Assets $24,000 $30,000 $40,000
Purchase Long-term Assets $24,000 $30,000 $30,000
Dividends $0 $0 $0
Subtotal Cash Spent $1,002,103 $1,166,902 $1,261,102

Net Cash Flow $112,560 $43,192 $116,071


Cash Balance $152,560 $195,751 $311,823

7.3 Projected Profit and Loss

The following table and charts are the projected profit and loss for three years.

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Pro Forma Profit and Loss


2002 2003 2004
Sales $1,010,000 $1,160,000 $1,330,000
Direct Cost of Sales $230,900 $265,000 $296,000
Other Production Expenses $0 $0 $0
Total Cost of Sales $230,900 $265,000 $296,000

Gross Margin $779,100 $895,000 $1,034,000


Gross Margin % 77.14% 77.16% 77.74%

Expenses
Payroll $456,000 $490,000 $526,000
Sales and Marketing and Other Expenses $72,000 $132,000 $132,000
Depreciation $9,600 $9,600 $9,600
Leased Equipment $0 $0 $0
Utilities $12,000 $12,000 $12,000
Insurance $9,600 $9,600 $9,600
Rent $36,000 $36,000 $36,000
Payroll Taxes $68,400 $73,500 $78,900
Other $0 $0 $0

Total Operating Expenses $663,600 $762,700 $804,100

Profit Before Interest and Taxes $115,500 $132,300 $229,900


EBITDA $125,100 $141,900 $239,500
Interest Expense $9,310 $13,703 $14,203
Taxes Incurred $31,857 $35,579 $64,709

Net Profit $74,333 $83,018 $150,988


Net Profit/Sales 7.36% 7.16% 11.35%

Projected Balance Sheet

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The following table is the projected balance sheet for three years.

Pro Forma Balance Sheet


2002 2003 2004
Assets

Current Assets
Cash $152,560 $195,751 $311,823
Accounts Receivable $147,500 $169,406 $194,233
Inventory $25,300 $29,036 $32,433
Other Current Assets $29,000 $59,000 $99,000
Total Current Assets $354,360 $453,193 $637,488

Long-term Assets
Long-term Assets $74,000 $104,000 $134,000
Accumulated Depreciation $21,600 $31,200 $40,800
Total Long-term Assets $52,400 $72,800 $93,200
Total Assets $406,760 $525,993 $730,688

Liabilities and Capital 2002 2003 2004

Current Liabilities
Accounts Payable $45,255 $47,763 $53,162
Current Borrowing $80,171 $60,179 $40,187
Other Current Liabilities $36,000 $72,000 $108,000
Subtotal Current Liabilities $161,426 $179,942 $201,349

Long-term Liabilities $58,000 $75,700 $108,000


Total Liabilities $219,426 $255,642 $309,349

Paid-in Capital $80,000 $80,000 $80,000


Retained Earnings $33,000 $107,333 $190,351
Earnings $74,333 $83,018 $150,988
Total Capital $187,333 $270,351 $421,339
Total Liabilities and Capital $406,760 $525,993 $730,688

Net Worth $187,333 $270,351 $421,339

7.5 Business Ratios

Business ratios for the years of this plan are shown below. Industry profile ratios based
on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) , Groceries and related products, are
shown for comparison.

Ratio Analysis
2002 2003 2004 Industry Profile
Sales Growth 74.14% 14.85% 14.66% 4.60%

Percent of Total Assets


Accounts Receivable 36.26% 32.21% 26.58% 33.30%

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Inventory 6.22% 5.52% 4.44% 26.00%


Other Current Assets 7.13% 11.22% 13.55% 20.90%
Total Current Assets 87.12% 86.16% 87.24% 80.20%
Long-term Assets 12.88% 13.84% 12.76% 19.80%
Total Assets 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

Current Liabilities 39.69% 34.21% 27.56% 45.20%


Long-term Liabilities 14.26% 14.39% 14.78% 10.00%
Total Liabilities 53.95% 48.60% 42.34% 55.20%
Net Worth 46.05% 51.40% 57.66% 44.80%

Percent of Sales
Sales 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
Gross Margin 77.14% 77.16% 77.74% 44.10%
Selling, General & Administrative Expenses 69.78% 70.00% 66.39% 26.70%
Advertising Expenses 5.94% 10.34% 9.02% 0.70%
Profit Before Interest and Taxes 11.44% 11.41% 17.29% 0.80%

Main Ratios
Current 2.20 2.52 3.17 1.69
Quick 2.04 2.36 3.01 1.01
Total Debt to Total Assets 53.95% 48.60% 42.34% 55.20%
Pre-tax Return on Net Worth 56.69% 43.87% 51.19% 3.60%
Pre-tax Return on Assets 26.11% 22.55% 29.52% 8.00%

Additional Ratios 2002 2003 2004


Net Profit Margin 7.36% 7.16% 11.35% n.a
Return on Equity 39.68% 30.71% 35.84% n.a

Activity Ratios
Accounts Receivable Turnover 5.14 5.14 5.14 n.a
Collection Days 59 66 67 n.a
Inventory Turnover 10.91 9.75 9.63 n.a
Accounts Payable Turnover 10.73 12.17 12.17 n.a
Payment Days 28 29 28 n.a
Total Asset Turnover 2.48 2.21 1.82 n.a

Debt Ratios
Debt to Net Worth 1.17 0.95 0.73 n.a
Current Liab. to Liab. 0.74 0.70 0.65 n.a

Liquidity Ratios
Net Working Capital $192,933 $273,251 $436,139 n.a
Interest Coverage 12.41 9.66 16.19 n.a

Additional Ratios
Assets to Sales 0.40 0.45 0.55 n.a
Current Debt/Total Assets 40% 34% 28% n.a
Acid Test 1.12 1.42 2.04 n.a
Sales/Net Worth 5.39 4.29 3.16 n.a
Dividend Payout 0.00 0.00 0.00 n.a

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