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Psychology 101: Introduction to Psychology

Chapter 12: Practice Questions

1. All but which of the following mental health professionals are psychotherapists?
A) Cheryl, who works from the psychoanalytic perspective
B) Tim, who is a couples therapist using behavioral techniques
C) Lisa, who works from the humanistic perspective
D) Frankie, who conducts therapy with groups using cognitive techniques
E) Vernon, who administers electroconvulsive therapy to people experiencing severe
2. Psychoanalysts are typically which type of mental health professional?
A) Psychiatrists or psychologists
B) Clinical or psychiatric social workers
C) Psychiatric nurses
D) Psychiatric nurses or psychiatric social workers
E) Psychiatrists or psychiatric nurses
3. In Freudian terms, the goal of psychoanalysis is to shine the light of the _____ on the
unconscious recesses of the ______.
A) ego; id
B) ego; superego
C) id; ego
D) superego; ego
E) id; superego
4. In psychoanalysis, _____ describes blocking that occurs when the therapy touches upon
anxiety-evoking thoughts or feelings.
A) resistance
B) transference
C) countertransference
D) interpretation
E) insight
5. In psychoanalysis, transference is when
A) the client talks freely about whatever comes to mind.
B) the therapist directs some of his or her anxiety toward the client.
C) the manifest content of dreams evolves into latent content.
D) the client begins acting toward the therapist in ways that mirror the client's conflictridden relationships with others.
E) the client transfers material from the unconscious mind to the conscious mind.

6. Iqbal and his therapist have fallen into treating each other in a father-son manner. The
therapist has started to react to Iqbal as if Iqbal was his son, while Iqbal plays out his
troubled relationship with his own father with the therapist. In this case, Iqbal is
experiencing ______, while the therapist is experiencing ______.
A) repression; resistance
B) insight; interpretation
C) countertransference; transference
D) transference; countertransference
E) resistance; repression
7. Carl Rogers is to ______ therapy as Fritz Perls is to ______ therapy.
A) behavioral; Gestalt
B) Gestalt; client-centered
C) Gestalt; behavioral
D) client-centered; Gestalt
E) client-centered; behavioral
8. In client-centered therapy, the therapist demonstrates empathy when s/he
A) completely accepts the client.
B) can distinguish between latent and manifest dream content.
C) accurately mirrors the client's experiences and feelings.
D) maintains a direct, problem-solving focus during therapy.
E) genuinely demonstrates her/his feelings during therapy.
9. Gestalt therapy frequently uses which of the following techniques?
A) Empty chair
B) Free association
C) Dream analysis
D) Reflecting back
E) Behavior modification
10. Behavior therapy focuses on
A) changing thoughts to correspond to behaviors.
B) helping clients achieve self-actualization.
C) changing maladaptive patterns of responding.
D) altering errors of thinking.
E) the adaptive functioning of the ego.

11. Lakeisha has a snake phobia and decides to see a behavioral therapist. Her therapist
suggests systematic desensitization. What is the second step Lakeisha will take in her
A) Touching a snake
B) Looking at pictures of a snake
C) Learning relaxation techniques
D) Being in the same room as a snake
E) Developing a fear hierarchy for snakes
12. Learning desirable behavior by watching and imitating others is known as ______, and
______ pioneered the use of this technique to help people overcome phobias.
A) transference; Sigmund Freud
B) modeling; John B. Watson
C) modeling; Albert Ellis
D) transference; Albert Bandura
E) modeling; Albert Bandura
13. Associating objects that elicit an undesirable response with unpleasant or negative
stimuli is the key principle of
A) systematic desensitization.
B) aversive conditioning.
C) in vivo exposure.
D) gradual exposure therapy.
E) virtual therapy.
14. Which approach to therapy combines techniques like gradual exposure and modeling
with efforts to challenge and correct faulty thinking patterns?
A) Humanistic
B) Psychodynamic
C) Cognitive-behavioral
D) Gestalt
E) Gestalt-behavioral
15. According to Ellis, negative emotions are
A) inevitable consequences of negative events.
B) automatic reactions of the central nervous system.
C) produced directly by life events.
D) the result of irrational beliefs about life events.
E) the logical result of overanalyzing one's life situation.

16. Paul was not given a promotion. He feels upset and disappointed because he thinks of
himself as a failure who will never succeed. From the perspective of rational-emotive
behavior therapy, Paul's view of himself is the
A) activating event.
B) irrational belief.
C) self-defeating behavior.
D) consequence.
E) outcome.
17. Which type of therapy focuses on helping families focus on changing disruptive patterns
of communication and improving the ways in which members relate to each other?
A) Group therapy
B) Marital therapy
C) Couples therapy
D) Family therapy
E) Behavioral modification
18. All but which of the following are advantages of group therapy over individual therapy?
A) Group therapy allows the client to see how others have coped with similar
B) Because it involves group interaction, group therapy is especially helpful for people
experiencing problems like loneliness and shyness.
C) Those in group therapy have the extra benefit of social support from the group.
D) Clients feel safer expressing their feelings in a group setting.
E) Group therapy is usually less costly than individual therapy.
19. Regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy, which of the following statements is
A) While the majority of people benefit from therapy, some may deterioriate.
B) Meta-analysis is a statistical technique used to average the results across a large
number of studies, and this technique has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of
C) The greatest improvements in therapy are typically gained during the last few
months of treatment.
D) Research supports the overall effectives of psychotherapy, marital therapy, group
therapy, and family therapy.
E) The average therapy client achieves greater improvement than the majority of
people assigned to untreated control groups.
20. Summarize the major approaches to psychotherapy.

21. Minor tranquilizer drugs are also called

A) antidepressants.
B) antisomatic drugs.
C) antipsychotics.
D) tricyclics.
E) antianxiety drugs.
22. There are ______ types of antidepressants, and they are called _______.
A) 2; minor and major tranquilizers
B) 3; MAO inhibitors, tricyclics, and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors
C) 3; Valium, Librium, and Xanax
D) 2; phenothiazines and neo-phenothiazines
E) 2; stimulants and anticonvulsants
23. Hugo has major depression. He might be treated with any of the following EXCEPT
A) Tofranil.
B) Xanax.
C) Elavil.
D) Nardil.
E) Zoloft.
24. Antidepressants are predicted to have some effectiveness in treating all of the following
A) bulimia.
B) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C) social phobia.
D) schizophrenia.
E) depression.
25. Phenothiazines would be used to treat which of the following people?
A) Tobey, who has schizophrenia
B) Kirsten, who has bulimia
C) Sami, who has bipolar disorder
D) Michelle, who has an anxiety disorder
E) Alfredo, who has major depression
26. Jewel takes an antianxiety drug for the treatment of her panic disorder. She experiences
a common side effect from her treatment. Which side effect is Jewel most likely to
A) Sexual dysfunction
B) Memory impairment

C) Dry mouth
D) Drowsiness
E) Muscular tremors
27. Nedra takes an antipsychotic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia. Nedra has
developed a movement disorder in which she involuntarily smacks her lips and makes
facial grimaces. What is Nedra's disorder?
A) Epilepsy
B) Hypochondriasis
C) Tardive dyskinesia
D) Electroconvulsive disorder
E) Systematic desensitization
28. What is a primary disadvantage of the antianxiety drug Valium?
A) It can lead to psychological and physiological dependence, and it can be deadly
when mixed with alcohol.
B) It is overused in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity
C) Its overuse suggests that mental health professionals are too eager to find quick
fixes for complex problems.
D) Its use may lead to the development of a disabling movement disorder.
E) A significant percentage of relapses occur in patients who use this drug.
29. Regarding prefrontal lobotomy, which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) Antonio Egas Moniz, who was later shot and paralyzed by one of his own patients,
developed this technique.
B) This technique was eliminated because of serious complications in patients.
C) Compared to this technique, psychiatric drugs offer a less radical alternative to
treating abnormal behavior.
D) In this technique, nerve pathways between the frontal lobe and lower brain centers
are severed.
E) This technique was once used to treat extreme passivity or extreme aggressiveness.
30. What was the hope of the community-based care movement?
A) That promising psychotropic drugs could help people deal more effectively with
psychological disorders
B) That mental patients could be reintegrated into society instead of being hospitalized
for the long-term
C) That mental hospitals would reflect the values of their community
D) That the treatment of the mentally ill would be humanized
E) That costs of caring for the mentally ill would be reduced

31. Of the following, which is the primary purpose of the modern mental hospital?
A) To provide outpatient care
B) To provide a supervised residential facility
C) To serve as a halfway house
D) To offer day treatment programs
E) To provide a protective living environment for long-term patients
32. Describe the three primary categories of psychotropic drugs.
33. In therapy, unconditional positive regard is
A) the therapist's complete acceptance of the client.
B) accepting the client only when s/he behaves acceptably.
C) accepting the client only when s/he approaches self-actualization.
D) the therapist's ability to express genuine feelings.
E) the ability to accurately mirror the client's feelings and experiences.
34. Which of the following is NOT a feature of systematic desensitization?
A) Fear hierarchy
B) Relaxation training
C) Use of an incompatible response to anxiety
D) Observing non-fearful subjects interact with fearful stimuli
E) Imagining or viewing fearful stimuli
35. Aaron Beck is to ______ therapy as Albert Ellis is to ______ therapy.
A) rational-emotive behavior; cognitive
B) cognitive; Gestalt
C) operant-based behavioral; classical-based behavioral
D) Gestalt; cognitive
E) cognitive; rational-emotive behavior
36. Aaron Beck refers to errors in thinking as
A) cognitive distortions.
B) faulty attributions.
C) cognitive appraisals.
D) activating events.
E) irrational beliefs.

37. In research reported in your text, an analysis of 400 controlled studies evaluating the
effectiveness of psychotherapy found that the average person receiving therapy did
better than approximately what percentage of people placed on waiting lists for therapy?
A) 30%
B) 50%
C) 60%
D) 80%
E) 93%
38. Behavior therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapies have demonstrated impressive
results in treating all of the following EXCEPT
A) panic disorder.
B) bulimia.
C) bipolar disorder.
D) depression.
E) generalized anxiety disorder.
39. Generalizing from research evidence, some forms of psychodynamic therapy are
predicted to produce good results in treating which of the following?
A) Schizophrenia
B) Anorexia
C) Bulimia
D) Panic disorder
E) Obsessive-compulsive disorder
40. Psychotropic drugs are also known as _______ drugs.
A) illicit
B) psychological
C) psychiatric
D) hallucinogenic
E) biopsychosocial
41. Tricyclic antidepressants raise brain levels of neurotransmitters by
A) increasing production of neurotransmitters.
B) reducing breakdown of neurotransmitters.
C) interfering with the reuptake process.
D) increasing receptors for neurotransmitters.
E) making receptors for neurotransmitters more sensitive.
42. Regarding the use of antidepressants, which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) Tricyclics and SSRIs are about equally effective in treating depression.

B) SSRIs are generally preferred over tricyclics because they are less dangerous in
overdose situations.
C) Antidepressants that target serotonin can help treat eating disorders like bulimia.
D) Compared to tricyclics, SSRIs have more severe side effects.
E) Antidepressants are helpful in treating a variety of anxiety disorders.
43. Most of the antipsychotic drugs target which neurotransmitter?
A) Serotonin
B) Dopamine
C) Acetylcholine
E) Norepinephrine
44. Common side effects of antidepressants are
A) muscle ache and drowsiness.
B) agitation and aggression.
C) sexual dysfunction and dry mouth.
D) muscular tremors and impairments in memory.
E) rigidity and severe movement disorders.

Answer Key

The earliest systematic approach to psychotherapy originated with Sigmund Freud and
his psychodynamic approach. His specific approach to therapy is called psychoanalysis.
Essentially, the psychodynamic view is that most humans are troubled. This results from
the presence of unconscious conflicts among the three components of personality (id,
ego, and superego). Occasionally, some of this unconscious activity threatens to reach
conscious awareness and can result in anxiety. The basic premise of psychoanalytic
therapy is that these unconscious issues need to be exposed and confronted. Through
this process, people can attain psychological health. Some of the specific techniques
utilized in psychoanalysis include free association, dream analysis, and interpretation.
Humanistic therapy is based on a positive assumption that humans are naturally capable
of achieving full and complete lives (self-actualization). Problems arise when this
tendency to self-actualize is compromised, often by interactions with others. Clientcentered therapy was developed by Carl Rogers as a means of helping people achieve
self-awareness and self-acceptance. It is nondirective and nonconfrontational, as the role
of the therapist is to support and encourage the client. Key aspects of client-centered
therapy include unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness. Gestalt
therapy is a form of humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls. The assumption is that
people suffer when various aspects of their personality are in conflict. The goal of
Gestalt therapy is to help people merge and integrate these various aspects.
Behavior therapists focus on a person's behavior as the primary element to be changed.
They utilize principles of learning to achieve this goal. Systematic desensitization uses
learning principles to help people overcome fear through learning of relaxation
techniques and gradual exposure to the feared stimulus. Aversive conditioning can be
used to help people overcome problem behaviors through negative associations, and
operant conditioning techniques such as a token economy are also used to shape



behavior. Behavior therapists might also use modeling to help people with problem
The basic assumption underlying cognitive therapies is that people develop emotional
problems because they engage in faulty thinking and, consequently, self-defeating and
maladaptive behaviors. The goal of therapy is to change the underlying thinking. The
rational-emotive behavior therapy of Albert Ellis involves identifying and changing
irrational beliefs, includingshoulds and musts. There is also an emphasis on changing
maladaptive behaviors. The cognitive therapy of Aaron Beck focuses on cognitive
distortions or errors in thinking, many of which occur automatically. The focus of the
therapy is to identify and eliminate these distortions and replace them with more
adaptive ways of thinking.
The main categories of psychotropic drugs are the antianxiety compounds, the
antidepressants, and the antipsychotics. The antianxiety agents are used to treat the
various anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder. These are drugs that
typically increase the activity of the neurotransmitter GABA. Examples of antianxiety
drugs are Valium and Xanax.
There are three main types of antidepressants. The tricyclics increase levels of
norepinephrine and serotonin by blocking their reuptake. Examples of tricyclics include
Tofranil and Elavil. The monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors elevate levels of
norepinephrine and serotonin by reducing their enzymatic breakdown. Examples of
MAO inhibitors include Nardil and Parnate. The SSRIs (selective serotonin-reuptake
inhibitors) are very specific in increasing levels of serotonin by blocking its reuptake.
Examples of SSRIs include Prozac and Zoloft. The SSRIs have the fewest adverse side
The antipsychotics all tend to share some ability at blocking dopamine receptors.
Phenothiazines were the first to be developed, and they revolutionized the treatment of
schizophrenia. This class includes Thorazine, Prolixin, and Mellaril.