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Concrete-1

Sixth Term CE-313

Civil Engineering

Design of Beams

(Ultimate Strength Design of

Beams)

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

T & L Beams

With the exception of pre-cast systems,

reinforced concrete floors, roofs, decks, etc.,

are almost always monolith.

Beam stirrups and bent bars extend up into

the slab.

It is evident, therefore, that a part of the

slab will act with the upper part of the beam

to resist longitudinal compression.

The slab forms the beam flange, while a

part of the beam projecting below the slab

forms what is called the “web” or “stem”.

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

T & L Beams (contd…)

b or bf b

hf

d h

bw

b = Effective width

bw = width of web/rib/stem

hf = Thickness of flange

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Effective With of T & L Beams

T-Beams

Effective width will be minimum of the

following:

1. L/4

2. 16hf + bw

both sides)

= c/c spacing for beams at regular

interval

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Effective With of T & L Beams

L-Beams

Effective width will be minimum of the

following:

1. L/12

2. 6hf + bw

Note: Only above discussion is different for isolated

(pre-cast) T or L beam. Other discussion is same

(analysis and design formula).

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior

Case-I: Flange is in Tension

C T

C

T

+ve -ve

Moment Moment

In both of the above cases beam can be designed as

rectangular beam

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior (contd…)

Case-II: Flange is in Compression and N.A. lies within

Flange

b

c C N.A.

beam can be

designed as a hf

d T T

rectangular beam of

total width “b” and

effective depth “d”.

c ≤ hf

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior (contd…)

Case-III: Flange is in Compression and N.A. lies out of

the Flange

b

c C

Beam has to be

N.A.

designed as a T- hf

d

Beam.

Separate

expressions are to c > hf

be developed for

analysis and design.

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior (contd…)

Cf / Cf / hf/2

2 2 εcu = 0.85 Cf

hf 0.003 fc

Cw c a Cw N.A.

(d- d – β1hf/2

fs a/2) T = Asfs

ε

Strain s Whitney’s Internal Force

Diagram Stress Diagram

Diagram

Cw = Compression developed in the web = 0.85fc’bwa

Cf = Compression developed in the overhanging flange

= 0.85fc’(b-bw) hf

C = Total Compression = Cw + Cf

T = Total Tension = Tw + Tf

Tw = Tension to balance Cw

T =Tension to balance C

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior (contd…)

It is convenient to divide total tensile steel into two parts. The first part,

Asf represents the steel area which, when stressed to fy, is required to

balance the longitudinal compressive force in the overhanging portions of the

flange that are stressed uniformly at 0.85fc’.

compression in the rectangular portion web above the N.A.

Tf = A sf f s

Tw = A sw f s = ( A s − A sf ) f s

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior (contd…)

Majority of T and L beams are under-reinforced (tension

controlled). Because of the large compressive concrete

area provided by the flange. In addition, an upper limit

can be established for the reinforcement ratio to ensure

the yielding of steel.

For longitudinal equilibrium

ΣF = 0

Tf = C f & Tw = C w

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior (contd…)

Tf = C f

Asf f y = 0.85 f c ' ( b − bw ) h f

fc '

Asf = 0.85h f ( b − bw ) Only for case-

fy III

Tw = C w

( A s − A sf ) f y = 0.85f c ' b w a

( A s − A sf ) f y c=

a

a= and

0.85f c ' b w β1

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior (contd…)

Flexural Capacity

From Compression Side

M n = M nf + M nw

hf a

M n = C f d − +Cw d −

2 2

hf a

M n = 0.85 fc '( b −b)w h f d − 0.85

+ f c ' b w a d −

2 2

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior (contd…)

Flexural Capacity

From Tension Side

M n = M nf + M nw

hf a

M n = Tf d − +Tw d −

2 2

hf a

M n = Asf f y d − ( + As −A) sf f y d −

2 2

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Tension Controlled Failure of T-Beam

As

ρw = = Total tension steel area (all steel will be

bwd in web)

A sf

ρf = = Steel ratio to balance the flange

b w d compressive force

ρ b = Balanced steel ratio for the singly reinforced

rectangular section

( ρ w ) max = Maximum steel ratio for T-Beam

rectangular section

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Tension Controlled Failure of T-Beam (contd…)

For longitudinal equilibrium

T = C w + Cf

T = C w + Tf

A s f y = 0.85 f c ' b w a + A sf f y

Divide by fybwd

As f c ' a A sf

= 0.85 × +

bwd fy d bwd

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Tension Controlled Failure of T-Beam (contd…)

For longitudinal equilibrium

3

For εs = 0.005 a = β1 × d To ensure tension controlled

8 section

fc ' 1 3 A sf

( ρ w ) max = 0.85 × × β1 × d +

fy d 8 bwd

3 f c ' A sf

( ρ w ) max = 0.85β1 × × +

8 f y bwd

( ρ w ) max = ρ max + ρ f

If ρ w ≤ ( ρ w ) max Tension controlled

If ρ w > ( ρ w ) max section

Transition or Compression controlled

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Capacity Analysis

Known: b, d, bw, hf, L, fc’, fy, As

Required: ΦbMn

Step # 1: Check whether the slab is in tension or not, if

Yes, analyze as a rectangular section

Step # 2: Assume the N.A. to be with in the flange and

calculate the “a” and “c” b

Asf y a

a= c=

0.85f c ' b β1

h hf

If c ≤ hf Our assumption is

correct and beam will be

designed as rectangular beam.

(b x h)

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Capacity Analysis (contd…)

Step # 3 fc '

Asf = 0.85h f ( b − bw )

fy

Step #

4 A sw = A s − A sf

A sw f y

a=

0.85f c ' b w

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Capacity Analysis (contd…)

If 3

a ≤ β1 d ⇒ Φ = 0.9

8

Step # 7

a hf

Φ b M n = Φ b Asw f y d − + Φ b Asf f y d −

2 2

For Under-reinforced

section

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Example:

A T-Beam has the following data:

fc’ = 20 MPa fy = 420 MPa d = 450 mm

Determine the flexural strength for the following two

cases if the slab is in compression.

As = 3900 mm2

As = 3000 mm2

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