FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

Automation
Submitted To: Sir Awais Ahmad Submitted By: ASFA (BSIEM06-35) Date of Submission: 06-01-2010

IQTM

WHAT IS AUTOMATION?
It is the technology associated with the use of electrical, mechanical and computer based systems to operate and control production in order to increase reliability and efficiency. This is usually accomplished through programmed commands combined with automatic feedback control to ensure proper execution of the instructions. The resulting system is capable of operating without human intervention. For a manufacturer, this could entail using robotic assembly lines to manufacture a product. Examples include: • Automated machine tools that process parts • Transfer lines that perform a series of machining operations • Automated assembly systems • Manufacturing systems that use industrial robots to perform processing or assembly operations • Automated material handling and storage systems to integrate manufacturing operations • Automatic inspection systems for quality control

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FIXED AND PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION:
FIXED AUTOMATION A system in which the sequence of the processing or assembly operation is fixed by the equipment configuration Consists of workstations connected by conveyers or machine transfer lines High initial investment for customized equipment (Jig, Die, etc.) Very efficient - High production rate (no extra operations) Relatively inflexible in accommodating product changes For the products with high demands and volumes Example: Automobile production PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION The production equipment is designed with the capability to change the sequence of operations to accommodate different product configuration Operations sequence controlled by a program (a set of instruction codes - system can read and interpret) High investment in general-purpose equipment (flexible) Low production rates relative to fixed automation (not efficient) Flexibility to deal with changes in product configuration Used in low to medium production Example: Programmable Auto Equipments

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ADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATION:

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Increases productivity Reduces labor cost Alleviates the effects of labor shortages

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Reduces or eliminates the routine manual and clerical tasks Improves worker safety Improves product quality Reduces manufacturing lead time Accomplishes processes that cannot be done manually Reduces unit cost Performs repetitive tasks consistently Large amounts of data can be stored Data can be retrieved from memory reliably Multiple tasks can be performed at the same time High forces and power can be applied Performs computations quickly

DISADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATION:
• • • • Worker displacement High costs of designing, fabricating, and installing equipments/machines A higher level of maintenance needed than with a manually operated machine Requires relatively extensive labor training in order to make labor capable of operating automated machines

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