SEV454 Advanced Structural Design Project 2
Project Title: Shear wall and footing design
Department of Civil Engineering
Student Name: Busiku Silenga
Student ID: 210037589
Supervisor Name: Dr Riyadh AlAmeri
Submission Date: 28th May 2014
Page  1
Contents
Chapter 1 Group Work ............................................................................................................................ 4
1.0 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 4
2.0  SCOPE .......................................................................................................................................... 4
3.0 DESIGN CONCEPT ....................................................................................................................... 5
4.0 ASSUMPTIONS............................................................................................................................ 7
5.0 MATERIAL PROPERTIES .............................................................................................................. 8
5.1 Shear walls ................................................................................................................................ 8
5.1.1 General requirements ............................................................................................................ 8
5.1.2 Hardened Concrete ............................................................................................................. 8
5.1.3 Reinforced steel .................................................................................................................. 9
5.2 Foundation ................................................................................................................................ 9
5.2.1 General requirements ............................................................................................................ 9
5.2.2 Hardened Concrete ........................................................................................................... 10
5.2.3 Reinforced steel ................................................................................................................ 10
6.0 Structural Layouts .................................................................................................................... 11
6.1 Allocation ................................................................................................................................. 17
7.0 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................ 18
7.1 Shear wall ............................................................................................................................. 18
7.1.2 Shear and bending moment diagrams. ................................................................................ 21
7.2 Foundation............................................................................................................................... 22
Chapter 2.0 Individual Work ................................................................................................................. 26
1.0
Shear Wall Design ................................................................................................................. 26
1.1 Axial load, Lateral load, Shear force, Bending Moment ............................................................. 26
1.1.1 Axial Loads ........................................................................................................................... 26
1.1.2 Lateral load for entire building and for shear wall AB ......................................................... 27
1.2 Check If Wall Is Subject To Compression over Entire Section..................................................... 29
1.2.1 Section properties of wall: ................................................................................................... 29
1.2.2 Stresses on shear Wall ......................................................................................................... 29
1.3 Check If Wall Is Subject To Compression over Entire Section (inplane bending) ...................... 30
1.2.3 Axial Load from supports 2124 ........................................................................................... 30
1.2.3 Stresses on shear Wall ......................................................................................................... 30
1.4 Effective Height of Wall (clause 11.4, AS36002009).................................................................. 32
1.5 Design Axial Compressive Capacity............................................................................................. 33
1.6 Design InPlane Shear Capacity................................................................................................... 34
Page  2
1.6.1 Aspect ratio .......................................................................................................................... 34
1.6.2 The shear strength without shear reinforcement (Clause 11.6.3) ...................................... 34
1.6.3 The shear strength without shear reinforcement (Clause 11.6.3) ...................................... 34
1.6.4 Design Shear Strength of Wall ............................................................................................. 35
1.6.5 Final Check ........................................................................................................................... 35
1.7 Check reinforcement Requirement for Wall............................................................................... 35
1.7.1 Minimum reinforcement (Clause 11.7.1 AS36002009) ...................................................... 35
1.7.2 Horizontal Reinforcement for Crack control (Clause 11.7.2 AS36002009) ........................ 35
1.7.3 Reinforcement Spacing (Clause 11.7.3 AS36002009) ......................................................... 35
1.8 Design Summary Sketch .............................................................................................................. 36
2.0
Footing Design ...................................................................................................................... 37
2.1 Design axial load ..................................................................................................................... 37
2.2 Plan dimensions ..................................................................................................................... 37
2.3 Clearance with other footing & property boundaries ............................................................ 37
2.4 Trial footing thickness, cover & calculate effective depth ...................................................... 39
2.5 Design for punching shear ...................................................................................................... 40
2.6 Design for bending moment ................................................................................................... 41
2.6.1 Calculate the design moment .............................................................................................. 41
2.6.2 Estimation of reinforcement area........................................................................................ 41
2.6.3 Minimum reinforcement (Clause 8.1.6.1AS36002009) ..................................................... 41
2.6.3 Check bending capacity using N24@300) ............................................................................ 41
2.7 Design for flexural shear ......................................................................................................... 43
2.7 Development length, bar anchorage ...................................................................................... 43
2.8 Starter Bars ............................................................................................................................. 44
2.9 Design Summary Sketch .......................................................................................................... 44
2.9 Design reflection ......................................................................................................................... 45
Page  3
Chapter 1 Group Work
1.0 INTRODUCTION
A new reinforced concrete six storey building has been proposed in greater city of Geelong
area in Australia and therefore must adhere to Australian Design Standards. The building
consists of a car park in the ground floor, offices in the 1st 4th floors , and a fifth floor for
services. Group 10 has been engaged as the structural design team responsible for the
structural design and analysis of level 5 for the project. A full set of architectural and
structural drawings have been made available and will be the basis of the design.
2.0  SCOPE
Group 10 is required to perform a full reinforced concrete design and analysis for all the
columns, shear walls for the fifth floor and subsequent footings of this six storey building.
There are two projects overall, with this one being project 2. For design project 2 there will
be one submission to be made comprising of an initial group work were a full structural
analysis will be performed to determine the design load actions (axial loads, shear and
moments) on all shear walls at the base of the building and subsequent footings. The second
part of the project involves an individual part where each group member will perform a full
reinforced concrete design for one shear wall and footing. These two submissions comprise
of the following tasks:
Group work:
Signed cover sheet
Scope and assumptions
Material properties
Loads and combinations
Floor plans and sections
Structural analysis
Individual work:
Signed cover sheet
Update to group submission
Shear wall design
Footing design
Reflection on design project
Note: A full set of architectural drawings has been provided. Also provided are detailed engineering
drawings showing dimensions of the floor, beam and column and wall placement with details of spacings,
gridlines and selected elements for simplistic analysis. Placement of some of the structural members has
been relocated ensuring it has no carry on effect on the car parking, in order to simplify analysis.
Page  4
3.0 DESIGN CONCEPT
This particular building will be designed according to the framing structural system which
consists of slab on beams, columns, shear wall and isolated footings. The framing will be
designed using reinforced concrete rather than steel. This particular frame is a moment
resisting frame which means that the connections between beams and columns are rigid.
Using beams will ensure longer spans between columns ensuring there are less columns
inside the building obstructing views and space. The framing system will consists of shear
walls such as the lift core. Such a design will ensure that relative sideways between the top
and bottom of the column is insignificant, making the columns braced and more stable.
Lateral loads (wind, earthquake) are also carried by combined shear core/wall and rigid
frame action. The concrete slab will behave as a horizontal diaphragm to distribute the
lateral loading to vertical structural elements (shear core/wall, columns). This type of action
can been seen in figure 3.1 and figure 3.2. It will be assumed that the resulting force from
the wind load will act along the centre line as shown in figure 3.2. This will result in in each
parallel wall talking half of the forces. Since the resulting force acts through the centre of
parallel shear walls, then the effects of torsion can be neglected.
All vertically loads will be transmitted through the beams, then the columns and finally
down to the footings. Depending on the makeup of the soil, different types of footings can
be used. If the soil is weak near the surface then piles will need to be used to transmit the
loads to a deeper stratum that is more firm and less compressible. In the case of this project
where the soil has a reasonable bearing capacity, then spread footings can be used. The
footings will be designed to carry an axial load and biaxial moments. Due to biaxial
moments, isolated spread footings will be used as this design caters for moments in both
directions. If the bi axial moments are small and similar then square footings can be used,
however rectangular footings will be used if one moment in one direction is significantly
larger than the moment in the other direction. Due to these moments the footings will be
designed as an eccentrically loaded footing meaning that the bearing pressure isnt uniform,
resulting on there being a higher bearing pressure on one side than the other. It is
important that the eccentricity isnt too large as this can cause excessive rotation of the
footing. .
Figure 3.1 Braced columns
Page  5
Figure 3.2 wind loads on shear wall
Figure 3.3 footing loads
Design procedure:
1. Outline design process which takes place in idealizing a reinforced concrete structure
2. Simplify standard reinforced concrete building into a number of manageable
idealized substructures and structural elements and to construct their load paths
3. Estimate primary design loads on structural elements using appropriate standards
and handbooks.
4. Combine primary design load cases as per design standards to find critical load
combinations that govern design
5. Model building structure and analyse structural elements for design actions such as
design bending moment, shear force and deflections, etc.
6. To design reinforced concrete structural elements for design actions to satisfy
strength limit state criteria and serviceability criteria.
Page  6
4.0 ASSUMPTIONS
Building is located in the city of Geelong with a temperate climate condition.
Design life of buildings is assumed to be 50 years {Buildings and other common
structures}
The building is located where it is not in contact with sea water and is not subjected
to any sulphate.
No earthquake considerations were adopted for the loads and combinations as
required per the brief.
Structure members will be enclosed for its entire service life, except for a brief
period during construction.
Building was not factored for fire safety.
All dimensions not supplied on the floor plan have been scaled off the plans to gain
necessary information.
Torsion in our design we have deemed as negligible as it is assumed that wind loads
acts the centroid of parallel shear walls.
N40 concrete strength has been adopted for our initial shear wall analysis; however
this will be reviewed at the individual design stage to confirm its adequacy.
N32 concrete strength has been adopted for our initial foundation analysis; however
this will be reviewed at the individual design stage to confirm its adequacy.
D500N reinforcement steel was adopted for our shear and foundation analysis;
however this will be reviewed at the individual design stage to confirm adequacy.
Any columns that are shifted from their original positions will still have the same
design axial loads provided. It will also be assumed that shifting these columns wont
have any effect on the original design of the building.
Floor system is designed for gravity loads only
AS 3600 codes will be crossed checked in order to ensure that any specific
requirements are taken into account, after the regulations are verified other factors
such as safety, cost and aesthetics may then be taken into account.
Biaxial moments calculated for each columns on level 5 will be assumed to be the
same moments acing on the footings.
Soil capacity is assumed to be 500 kPa.
Shear wall is assumed to have same cross section for the entire height of the building
as this is a relatively low building. Therefore the shear wall will be designed at the
base of the building.
Page  7
5.0 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
5.1 Shear walls
5.1.1 General requirements
Exposure classification
Based on our location and building type we select a exposure class of A2, {Nonresidential, temperate climate [refer to table 4.3 AS36002009]}
Cover
Based on selected characteristic strength of our concrete (fc), which is selected as
40MPa, a exposure class of A2, the required minimum concrete cover will be 20mm {refer
to table 4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
Figure 5.1 Concrete cover
5.1.2 Hardened Concrete
Values are based on 28 Days of curing. All values are taken from AS36002009, unless stated
otherwise.
Property
value
Reference
Compressive strength fc (MPa)
40
Table 4.4
Minimum Compressive Strength 
25
Table 4.4
43
Table 3.1.2
32800
Table 3.1.2
Required for Exposure A2
Mean insitu compressive strength fc.mi (Mpa)
Modulus of elasticity Ec *(MPa)
Uniaxial tensile strength fct (MPa)
2.27
Coefficient of thermal expansion /oc
10*106
Table 5.1.2 Properties of 40 MPa standard grade concrete
Page  8
Section 3.1.1.3
Section 3.1.6
5.1.3 Reinforced steel
All values are taken from AS3600 2009, unless stated otherwise
Min Yield strength (MPa)
500
Table 3.2.1
Shear modulus (MPa)
77000
Youngs modulus (MPa)
200000
Section 3.2.2
Min Tensile Strength
(MPa)
675MPa
AS4671:2001
Elongation at maximum
force
5%
AS4671:2001
Coefficient of thermal
expansion
12*10^6/oc
Poisons ratio
0.3
Ductility class
Table 3.2.1
Minimum cover
20mm
Table 4.10.3.2
Table 5.1.3 Properties of reinforced steel
5.2 Foundation
5.2.1 General requirements
Exposure classification
Based on our location and building type we select an exposure class of A2, {other
members in nonaggressive soils [refer to table 4.3 AS36002009]}
Cover
Based on selected characteristic strength of our concrete (fc), which is selected as
32MPa, a exposure class of A2, the required minimum concrete cover will be 25mm {refer
to table 4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
Figure 5.2 Concrete cover
Page  9
5.2.2 Hardened Concrete
Values are based on 28 Days of curing. All values are taken from AS36002009, unless stated
otherwise.
Property
value
Reference
Compressive strength fc (MPa)
32
Table 4.4
Minimum Compressive Strength 
25
Table 4.4
35
Table 3.1.2
30,100
Table 3.1.2
Required for Exposure A2
Mean insitu compressive strength fc.mi (Mpa)
Modulus of elasticity Ec *(MPa)
Uniaxial tensile strength fct (MPa)
2.04
Coefficient of thermal expansion /oc
10*106
Section 3.1.1.3
Section 3.1.6
Table 5.2.2 Properties of 32 MPa standard grade concrete
5.2.3 Reinforced steel
All values are taken from AS3600 2009, unless stated otherwise
Min Yield strength (Mpa)
500
Shear modulus (MPa)
77000
Youngs modulus (MPa)
200000
Section 3.2.2
Min Tensile Strength
(MPa)
675MPa
AS4671:2001
Elongation at maximum
force
5%
AS4671:2001
Coefficient of thermal
expansion
12*10^6/oc
Poisons ratio
0.3
Ductility class
Table 3.2.1
Minimum cover
20mm
Table 4.10.3.2
Table 5.2.3 Properties of reinforced steel
Page  10
Table 3.2.1
6.0 Structural Layouts
Notes on each drawing:
Shear wall layout:
The elevator shaft will act as a shear wall acting in both directions. The elevator shaft
consists of four shear walls with one of the walls having an opening. W2 was not considered
as a shear wall but instead as a column.
Footing layout:
The footing dimensions were calculated by dividing the design axial load by the allowable
bearing pressure. The footings were also assumed as square for initial analysis but will
however be very checked in individual part to account for moments. Both columns C21 and
C19 be on the same footing as their individual footings overlapped with each other. This is
also the case with c15 and the elevator core. It is assumed that the building boundary
extends further then the outside perimeter of the building. This allows for the footings on
the exterior to extend outside of the building perimeter.
Page  11
Fifth Floor (service) Shear Wall Layout
Scale: 1:150
Page  12
Shear Wall Allocation
Scale: 1:150
Page  13
Page  14
Foundation Layout
Scale: 1:150
Page  15
Foundation Allocation
Scale: 1:150
Page  16
6.1 Allocation
Student
Shear Wall
Busiku Silenga [210037589]
Green Shear Wall 1
Adrian Saliba [211261419]
Red shear wall 3
Alexander Karl Schmid [210689597]
Green Shear wall 1
Thisara Indula Siriwardena [210057207]
Table
allocation
Table6.06.1Shear
Shearwall
wall
allocation
Syed Adil Amzar Syed Amerrudin [211178813]
Yellow Shear wall 2
Qingyu Zhu [211178878]
Table 6.2 Foundation allocation
Student
Foundation
Busiku Silenga [210037589]
Green F11
Adrian Saliba [211261419]
Red F12
Alexander Karl Schmid [210689597]
Yellow F13
Thisara Indula Siriwardena [210057207]
Syed Adil Amzar Syed Amerrudin [211178813]
Qingyu Zhu [211178878]
Page  17
7.0 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
7.1 Shear wall
Axial Loads
Page  18
Shear wall 1,2,3,4
Summary
support
21
22
23
24
node
201
203
241
214
258
212
260
213
243
Total
Highest load
1128
910
382
1756
1186
1530
1241
1507
345
9985
Distributed load =
Page  19
Distributed Load, N*
length
1.75
1.75
2.4
2.4
kN
8.3
Total axial load 9985 kN
=
= 1,203.01
8.3
total length
1203.01 kN/m
Shear force
RL (m)
Horizontal force (kN)
Shear force (kN)
21.9
50
50
18.3
100
150
14.7
100
250
11.1
100
350
7.5
100
450
3.9
100
550
Moment
RL (m)
= ( ) +
Distance (m)
Shear force (kN)
Moment (kNm)
21.3
50
18.3
150
150
14.7
3.6
250
690
11.1
3.6
350
1590
7.5
3.6
450
2850
3.9
3.6
550
4470
3.9
6450
There are two wall parallel in each direction.
Therefore each shear wall will have half the shear force and moment.
Shear force per wall, V* (kN)
300
Page  20
Moment per wall, M* (kNm)
2700
7.1.2 Shear and bending moment diagrams.
Page  21
7.2 Foundation
= 500
=
Footings are assumed square =
B is rounded up to the nearest 0.5
Table 7.2: Footing areas
Column ID
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19
C110
C111
C21
C22
C31
C32
C33
C34
C35
C4
w2
Shear Wall
Page  22
Column
Axial Load (kN)
2,954
3,509
3,412
2,645
2,915
3,313
2,768
1,877
3,090
2,338
2,183
3,643
4,094
3,080
3,216
3,366
3,249
3,039
4,557
5,964
9,985
Area (m )
5.91
7.02
6.82
5.29
5.83
6.63
5.54
3.75
6.18
4.68
4.37
7.29
8.19
6.16
6.43
6.73
6.50
6.08
9.11
11.93
19.97
2
Footing
B (m)
B (m) round up
2.43
2.50
2.65
3.00
2.61
3.00
2.30
2.50
2.41
2.50
2.57
3.00
2.35
2.50
1.94
2.00
2.49
2.50
2.16
2.50
2.09
2.50
2.70
3.00
2.86
3.00
2.48
2.50
2.54
3.00
2.59
3.00
2.55
3.00
2.47
2.50
3.02
3.50
3.45
3.50
4.47
4.50
Footing summary
F = Footing
F1
F2
Page  23
F3
F4
Page  24
F5
F6
Page  25
Chapter 2.0 Individual Work
1.0 Shear Wall Design
1.1 Axial load, Lateral load, Shear force, Bending Moment
Figure 1 shows the plane view of the shear walls with axial loads from supports 2124 as given in the
table below:
1.1.1 Axial Loads
support
21
22
23
24
node
201
203
241
214
258
212
260
213
243
total
load
1128
910
382
1756
1186
1530
1241
1507
345
9985
kN
Figure 1.Plane view of shear wall (supports are labeled in red)
Total axial load N* = 9985 KN
Page  26
 Total length of the shear walls: L = 2*1.95 +2*2.20 =8.3m
The axial load per unit length of the shear wall is
W* = N* / L = 9985 / 8.3 = 1203.3 KN/m
1.1.2 Lateral load for entire building and for shear wall AB
Lateral load for the whole building:
* Roof level = 50KN
*other levels = 100 KN per floor
Figure 2: Lateral load applied on whole building
(Refer to section 7 of group work for shear and bending moment calculations)
Lateral load for the selected wall (AB)
Wall to be designed is AB and is highlighted in figure 1 (highlighted in green)
Because the selected wall, AB is identical to the wall opposite it, CD, their stiffness will also
be equal. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the wall AB will carry half the lateral load
of the building.
Therefore: Lateral load applied on the wall AB
At roof level : (1/2) * 50 = 25 KN
At other levels : (1/2) * 100 = 50KN per floor
Page  27
Lateral load on shear wall AB (Shear and bending moment diagrams):
25KN
Roof
25KN
0KNm
50KN
5th Floor
3.0m
75KN
50KN
4th Floor
3.6m
125KN
75KNm
345KNm
3.6m
50KN
3rd Floor
50KN
2nd Floor
50KN
1st Floor
3.6m
175KN
795KNm
225KN
3.6m
1425KNm
275KN
2235KNm
3.9m
Ground
3307.5KNm
Shear Wall
Shear Force Diagram
Bending Moment Diagram
Figure 3.Lateral load applied on shear wall AB.
Note: Figure2 shows the lateral load applied on the shear wall AB and the resultant shear force
diagram and inplane bending moment diagram of the wall AB. The wall AB is assumed to be a
vertical cantilever. It is also assumed that there is no lateral uniformly distributed load at the wall
face.
Note: The maximum inplane shear force V* and inplane bending moment M* of the wall AB at
ground level are:
V* = 25 + 5 * 50 = 275 KN
RL (m)
= ( ) +
Distance (m)
Shear force (kN)
Moment (kNm)
21.3
25
18.3
75
75
14.7
3.6
125
345
11.1
3.6
175
795
7.5
3.6
225
1425
3.9
3.6
275
2235
3.9
Page  28
3307.5
1.2 Check If Wall Is Subject To Compression over Entire Section
1.2.1 Section properties of wall:
M*=3240KNm
Thickness of wall = 200mm
W*=1203KN/m
Moment of Inertia of wall section
IX = 200 * 24003 / 12 =230.4 *109mm4
Distance from centroid to extreme fibre;
Y= 2400/2 =1200mm.
200mm
Wall AB
x
2400mm
1.2.2 Stresses on shear Wall
The compressive strength due to the axial
(+) 6.015MPa
loading is:
N* =
6.02MPa
1203 * 103 / 1000 *200
Stress due to axial load
= 6.015 MPa (compression)
(+)17
The stress due to inplane bending moment is;
M* = (+/ ) (M* /IX)* Y
=(+/) (3307.5 *106 / 230.4 *109) * 1200
()17
= (+/) 17MPa (compression/tension)
Stress due to bending
(+)23MPa
The total stresses are:
N* + M*
=6.015 + 17 = 23 MPa (Compression)
=6.015 17 = 10.87 MPa (Tension)
()10.87MPa
Figure 4.Axial load and inplane bending moment
Therefore:
The wall is not in compression over entire section; we need to design for inplane bending, in
addition to designing for compression and shear.
Page  29
1.3 Check If Wall Is Subject To Compression over Entire Section (inplane bending)
1.2.3 Axial Load from supports 2124
Support
21
22
23
24
Sum
N* (KN)
1128
1756
1530
1507
5921
Therefore axial load
Therefore above process is repeated using inplane bending moment.
Figure 4: Shear force and inplane bending moment at level 1 of the selected shear wall.
Note: Slab depth is assumed to be 150mm.
The shear force at level 1 of the selected shear wall is:
V* = 25 +50+50+50+50 =225KN
The design inplane bending moment at level 1 of the selected wall is
M* =225 * 3.45 = 776KNm
Total axial load N* = 5921 KN
 Total length of the shear walls: L = 2*1.95 +2*2.20 =8.3m
The axial load per unit length of the shear wall is
W* = N* / L = 5921/ 8.3 = 713.4 KN/m
1.2.3 Stresses on shear Wall
Page  30
Due to axial load only:
N* = 713.4 *1000 / 1000*200 = 3.6MPa (Compression)
Due to inplane bending moment only:
M* = (+/) (M*/Ix)*Y = (+/) (776 *106 / 230.4 *109) * 1200 = (+/) 4.04 MPa (compression/tension)
Total stresses are:
N* + M*
= 3.6 + 4.04 = 7.64 MPa (Compression)
= 3.6  4.04 = 0.44 MPa (Tension)
Figure 5.Axial load and inplane bending moment
Page  31
Note: A very small portion of the wall has tension stress. This tension stress is very small and less
than the characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete (fct.f)
Therefore:
* = 0.44MPa < fct.f = 0.6 40 = 3.8 MPa.
The concrete itself can therefore carry this small tension stress and we would not need to design the
wall for inplane bending.
1.4 Effective Height of Wall (clause 11.4, AS36002009)
The floor to floor unsupported height of the wall is
HW = 3.6 0.15 =3.45m.
Figure 6.
Assume that the selected wall AB (refer to figure 1) is restrained against rotation by the
floor, and wall AC provides support to wall AB. Wall BD (with the opening), the area of the
opening is greater than 1/10 of the area of the wall, so we can assume that the wall BD will
not provide lateral support to the wall CD.
Note: The selected wall CD is considered to be supported laterally on three sides.
Page  32
The effective height of the selected wall is
HWE = K*HW
For wall supported on 3 sides, we have
K= 1/ 1 + (Hw/3*L1)2 = 1 / 1 + (3.45 / 3* 2.30)2 = 0.80

K must be within the limits of 0.3 K 0.75. Since 0.8 >0.75, we take k =0.75.
Therefore;
HWE = 0.75 * 3.45 = 2.6m
1.5 Design Axial Compressive Capacity

Check effective height to thickness ratio:
Hwe / tw 30
= 2600 / 200 = 13 30; therefore OK.
The design axial strength per unit length of the wall is determined using (Clause 11.5. AS36002009)
Nu = (tw 1.2*e 2ea )*0.6*fc
e is taken as the minimum eccentricity
e = 0.05 *tw = 0.05 * 200 =10mm.
The additional eccentricity of the load on the wall is calculated as:
ea = (Hwe)2 /2500 * tw = (2600)2 /2500*200 = 13.52mm,
= 0.6
Tw = 200mm
Fc = 40MPa
Therefore the design axial strength per unit length of the wall is:
Nu = (tw 1.2*e 2ea )*0.6*fc
Nu = 0.6 * (200 1.2*10 2* 13.52)*0.6*40
Nu = 2317.8 KN/m.
Check:
W* Nu
Therefore, for 2.4 m long wall, the total capacity = 2.4 * 2317.8 = 5562.72KN/m
713 KN/m < 5562.72 KN/m.therefore wall has adequate axial strength (acceptable)
Page  33
1.6 Design InPlane Shear Capacity
1.6.1 Aspect ratio
The aspect ratio of the wall is:
HW /LW = 3450 / 2400 = 1.44 > 1; therefore:
1.6.2 The shear strength without shear reinforcement (Clause 11.6.3)
The lesser of;
Vuc = (0.66*fc 0.21 * (HW/LW)* fc)*0.8*LW * tW
Vuc
=(0.05*fc + 0.1 * (fc/(Hw/Lw 1)))*0.8*LW * tW
Therefore:
(0.66*40 0.21 * (3450/2400)* 40)*0.8*2400 * 200 *103 = 868.5KN.
(0.05*40
+ 0.1 * (40/(3450/2400 1)))*0.8*2400 * 200 *103 = 673.4KN
Therefore the lesser of {868.5, 673.4}
Vuc = 673.4KN
But Vuc is not less than;
0.17 fc (0.8*LW*tW) = 0.17 40 (0.8*2400*200) * 103 = 413KN.
Since 673.4 > 413 KN. Therefore OK.
Therefore we take; VUC = 673.4 KN.
1.6.3 The shear strength without shear reinforcement (Clause 11.6.3)

Assume N12@300 for both ways and both faces.
The ratio of reinforcement in either the vertical or horizontal directions is;
Pw = 2 * 370 / 200*1000 = 0.0037
The contribution to shear strength by shear reinforcement is determined (Clause 11.6.4)
VUS = PW * fsy * (0.8*Lw*tw) = 0.0037 *500 *0.8 *2400 *200 *103 =710.4KN
Page  34
1.6.4 Design Shear Strength of Wall
The ultimate shear strength of wall is
Vu = VUC + VUS = 673.4 + 710.4 = 1383.8 KN
VU.MAX = 0.2* fc * (0.8 *LW *tW) = 0.2 * 40 *0.8 *2400 *200 *103
= 3072KN
Since 1383.8KN < 3072KN
Therefore, we take VU = 1383.8KN
Therefore the design shear capacity is therefore:
VU = 0.7 * 1383.8 = 967KN
1.6.5 Final Check
Since
V* *Vu = 225KN < 967KN the wall has adequate shear capacity (acceptable)
1.7 Check reinforcement Requirement for Wall
1.7.1 Minimum reinforcement (Clause 11.7.1 AS36002009)
PW = 0.0037 > PW,,min = 0.0015 in the vertical direction..OK
PW= 0.0037 > PW,min = 0.0025 in the horizontal direction..OK
1.7.2 Horizontal Reinforcement for Crack control (Clause 11.7.2 AS36002009)
PW = 0.0037 > 0.0035
Sufficient to provide a moderate degree of crack control for A2 exposure classification.
1.7.3 Reinforcement Spacing (Clause 11.7.3 AS36002009)
Check clear distance between parallel bars:
126mm > 3 * db = 3*12 = 36mm..OK
288mm > 3 * db = 3 * 12 = 36mm............OK
102mm > 3 * db = 3*12 = 36mm..............OK
Page  35
Check centretocentre spacing of parallel bars:
S the lesser of {2.5*tW, 350} ={2.5 *200, 350} = {500, 350}
S 350mm.
Since Smax = 300mm < 350mmTherefore OK.
1.8 Design Summary Sketch
Wall Thickness: 200mm
Reinforcement: N12@300 (2 sides, 2ways)
*At intersections with other walls, use 4N16 (where the area of 1N16 is about 2 times the area of
1N12).
Figure 7.Wall cross section
Page  36
2.0 Footing Design
2.1 Design axial load
Same as for column C11 (refer to table 7.2 in group structural analysis section).
N* =2954 KN
2.2 Plan dimensionsThe ultimate bearing pressure is taken as q*allowable = 500KPa
the required area of footing;
L = N* / q*allowable = 2954 / 500 = 5.91m2
Because there are no space restrictions (as will be checked in in section 3) and the footing is
eccentrically loaded, we can design a square footing.
Therefore required size: B=L = 5.91m = 2.43 2.5m
Therefore; lets try a square footing of 2.5m * 2.5m.
2.3 Clearance with other footing & property boundaries
Column
Column ID
Axial Load (kN)
C11
2,954
C12
3,509
C13
3,412
C14
2,645
C15
2,915
C16
3,313
C17
2,768
C18
1,877
C19
3,090
C110
2,338
C111
2,183
C21
3,643
C22
4,094
C31
3,080
C32
3,216
C33
3,366
C34
3,249
C35
3,039
C4
4,557
w2
5,964
Shear Wall
9,985
Table 2.1Footing areas
Page  37
Footing
Area (m )
5.91
7.02
6.82
5.29
5.83
6.63
5.54
3.75
6.18
4.68
4.37
7.29
8.19
6.16
6.43
6.73
6.50
6.08
9.11
11.93
19.97
2
B (m)
2.43
2.65
2.61
2.30
2.41
2.57
2.35
1.94
2.49
2.16
2.09
2.70
2.86
2.48
2.54
2.59
2.55
2.47
3.02
3.45
4.47
B (m) round up
2.50
3.00
3.00
2.50
2.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
2.50
2.50
2.50
3.00
3.00
2.50
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.50
3.50
3.50
4.50
Check B*L
N*/q*
OK
OK
OK
Ok
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
OK
OK
Ok
OK
OK
Ok
OK
Figure 1. Footing layout (Selected footing for design)
The figures above show the selected footing for design in this assignment and the footings adjacent
to the selected footings are also shown. The preliminary sizes of these footings are calculated in
table 2.1.
The footing layout shows that using spread footings is reasonable regarding the required
clearance between any two footings and the clearance between a footing and the property
boundaries.
The plan dimensions of the selected footing can therefore be finalised as 2.5m * 2.5m, and
bearing pressure will not need to be rechecked.
Note: For footing design we use concrete with fc =32MPa.
Page  38
2.4 Trial footing thickness, cover & calculate effective depth
 assume 800mm thick footing
The cover to the nearest bar is taken as;
C = 30 (minimum cover for A2 exposure classification [table 4.10.3.2AS36002009]) + 20 (additional
cover where concrete is cast against ground (additional cover where concrete is cast against ground
[Clause 4.10.3.5As36002009])
C = 30+20 =50mm (therefore adopt cover)
Assuming we use N24 bars in two layers as the reinforcement of the footing;
the effective depth for the TOP layer of reinforcement is.
800 (50 + 24 + 24/2) = 714mm
the effective depth for the bottom layer of reinforcement is
800(50 + 24/2) = 738mm
Therefore the average effective depth can be taken as;
D= 714mm + 738mm/2 = 726mm, therefore use d= 725mm.
Note: The footing is square, and we
intend to use to use the same
reinforcement in both directions.
Note: column dimensions are 350mm*350mm as designed in individual project 1.
Page  39
2.5 Design for punching shear
Note: column dimensions are 350mm*350mm as designed in individual project 1.
At distance dOM/2 from the face of the column, the design punching shear force is :
V*punch = q*net * Ap = 500 * (2.52 1.0162) = 2608.9KN
Where;
dOM = 800 50 24 =726, say 725mm.
Punching shear perimeter= (350 +dOM)2 = (350+725)2 =1016 mm
VUO = * U * dOM * fCV = 0.7 * 4064 * 725 * 1.92 = 3960KN
Where;
Take fCV = 0.34 32 = 1.92 N/mm2
U = 2 (1016+1016) = 4064mm
Therefore;
Since V* < VUO ; 2608.9 < 3960KNTherefore the design is OK
Therefore d is acceptable and no fitments are needed. The footing thickness of 800mm is adequate.
Page  40
2.6 Design for bending moment
Column dimensions are 350mm*350mm as designed in individual project 1;
bc =350mm and dc =350mm.
The footing outstand in the direction of bc is
Lx = (B bc / 2) = 2500 350 /2 = 1075mm.
The footing outstand in the direction of dc is
Lx = (B bc / 2) = 2500 350 /2 = 1075mm.
Because lx=ly, it is reasonable to design bending in the lx direction and adopting the obtained
results in the ly direction.
2.6.1 Calculate the design moment
At face of the column (lx direction)
M* =W* B * lx2 / 2 = 500 *2.5 * (1.0752 / 2) = 722 KNm (for full width)
Or M* = 722/ 2.5 = 288.8 KNm/m width.
2.6.2 Estimation of reinforcement area
The required reinforcement area is approximately calculated as
M* Muo (0.8)*Ast * fsy*(0.9 *d)
Ast = M* / 0.8 * fSY *(0.9*d) = 288.8 *106 / 0.8 * 500 *(0.9*725) = 1107 mm2/m width.
2.6.3 Minimum reinforcement (Clause 8.1.6.1AS36002009)
AST> AST,MIN
AST,MIN = 0.2* (D/d)2 * (fct.f/fsy) *b*d = 0.2* (800/725)2 * (0.632/500) *1000*725 =1198mm2/m width
Therefore try N24@300 with AST =1500mm2/m width > A ST,MIN..therefore OK.
2.6.3 Check bending capacity using N24@300)
assuming steel has yielded, the tensile force in the steel is
T = AST * fsy =1500 * 500 = 750000 KN
=1.05 0.007*fc
(Clause 8.1.3AS36002009)
=1.05 0.007 * 32 =0.826.
2= 1 0.003 *fc = 10.003 *32 =0.9 >0.85
Therefore take 2 =0.85.
the depth of the compressive stress block is
X = T/ 2*fc*b = 750000 / 0.85 * 32 *1000 = 28mm
Page  41
Ductility of section
Ku = X/ *d = 28 / 0.826 * 725 = 0.05 < 0.36.Therefore OK.
Design bending capacity
Mu = *T*(dX/2) = 0.8*750000*(725(28/2)) * 106 = 427KNm/m width
Check
M* Mu ; 288.8 427 KNm/m width.
The bending strength is satisfactory and we adopt N24@300 reinforcement bars for both lx and ly
directions of the footing.
M*
Page  42
2.7 Design for flexural shear
At distance d=725mm from the face of the column is:
V*max = W*B*(lxd) = 500*2.5*(1.0750.725) = 437.5KN
the nominal shear capacity without shear reinforcement (clause 8.2.7.1 AS36002009):
Vuc = 1*2*3*b*d*fcv (3Ast/bd)
1 = 1.1 * (1.6 d/1000) = 1.1 * (1.6 725/1000) =0.963
2=1.0
3 =1.0
b=2500mm, d=725mm, fcv = 3fc = 332 = 3.17MPa
For the width 2500mm, the number of N24 bars is 2500/300 = 9, and the area of reinforcement is
Ast = 450*9 = 4050mm2 (Where 450 is the area of 1N24 bar)
Therefore:
Vuc = 0.963*1*1*2500*725*3.17 (34050/2500*725) * 103 = 723 KN.
The design flexural shear strength
vuc = 0.7* 723 =506KN
Therefore:
V* = 437.5 KN < 506KN.Therefore the design is adequate. OK
2.7 Development length, bar anchorage
 The minimum required development length for a straight bar is determined as;
LSY.T = 0.5 * K1 *K3*fsy*db / K2 fc 29*K1*db
(Clause 13.1.2.1AS36002009)
Db=24mm
K1 =1.0
K2 = 132db/100 = 13224 /100 = 1.08
K3 = 1 0.15 (Cddb /db) = 10.15 (5024/24) =0.84
Cd= min {bottom cover, side cover, facetoface bar spacing/2} = min { 50, 50, (30024/2)=138} =
50mm.
LSY.T = 0.5 * 1 *0.84*500*24 / 1.08 32 = 825mm > 29*1*24 = 696mm.
Therefore, the required minimum anchorage length is Lsy.t = 612mm.
The available anchorage length for a straight bar is
*In lx direction:
Page  43
Lx end cover = 107550 =1025 mm >
LSY.T
*In lx direction:
Lx end cover = 107550 =1025 mm >
LSY.T
*In ly direction:
Ly end cover = 107550 =1025 mm >
LSY.T
Hence the available anchorage length is greater than the required LSY.T & straight bars are
sufficientDesign is acceptable.
2.8 Starter Bars
We need 8N24 Starter bars (As for the column)
Splice (Overlap) with vertical column rebar:
40db = 40 *24 = 960mm..use 1000mm.
Anchorage length within footing
LSY.C =20 * db = 20 * 24 = 480mm
The actual anchorage within the footing of the starter bars is:
80050242424/2 =690 > LSY.C = 480mm.therefore (Acceptable)
2.9 Design Summary Sketch
350mm
1000mm
(<40*db = 40 *24=960)
8N24 starter bars
800mm
50 clear
cover
N24@300
Page  44
9N24@300
2.9 Design reflection
Taking all aspects of our design into consideration we have been able to design fully reinforced
concrete elements that comply with the Australian standards and also are adequate for all critical
actions but despite this we still identified limitations to the design. Limitations include not
considering environmental loads and site conditions. Site concrete is exposed to a multitude of
influences that were not taken into consideration, therefore design and construction data is not
as reliable. Taking a more analytical laboratory approach is a potential improvement as the
design and construction data will be more reliable
Page  45
References
AS3600  2009 Concrete Structure
AS1170.1 2002 Structural design Action Part 1: Permanent, imposed and other actions
Foster S.J., Kilpatrick A.E. & Warner R.F (2010) Beams. In Reinforced Concrete Basics, 2nd
ed., pp.77188. Sydney: Pearson Education Australia
Mamlouk M. & Zaniewski J. (2002) Portland Cement Concrete. In Materials for Civil and
Construction Engineers, 3rd ed., pp. 246314. USA: Pearson Education
Page  46
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