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Proceedings of EmDesbnmO3:Thlrd ImernaUDnal Sympslum on

Envfmnmental Conscious Deslgn and Inve168 Manufacturlng

Tokyo.Japan. kcember B11,2W3

Case Study for Calculation of Factor X (Eco-Efficiency)

Comparing CRT TV, PDP TV and LCD TV -
Taeko Aoe
Corporate Environmental Affairs Division, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
Takayuki Michiyasu, Yuichi Matsuoka andNaohiro Shikata
Panasonic AVC Networks Company, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co.. Ltd

Abstract 1. Introduction

Ii is generally believed ihoi LCD TV sefs are more In general LCD (Liquid Clystal Display) TV Sets
envimnmenial friendly ihon CRT TV sets and PDP are considered more environmental fiiendly than
TV sets. However ihis perception is based only on CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) TV sets and PDP (plasma
power consumpiion during operotion. Judgment Display Panel) TV sets. However this perception is
should be assessed noi by focusing only on one siage based only on power consumption during operation.
bur on the entire pmducf l f e cycle. Funhennore i f Judgment should he assessed not by focusing only on
should also be assessed from other viewpoints, nof one stage but on the entire product life cycle from
only enw.Then fhree iypes of TVsei were assessed materials manufacture to product disposal.
using a "Facior X Tool 2001" independenily Furthermore it should also be assessed from other
developed from ihose viewpoints. We understood it viewpoints, not only energy.
was noi necessorily true that an LCD TV was most AFactor X (Eco-Efficiency) tool introduced in this
preferred for fhe envimnmeni. In 30-inch or smaller paper was independently developed from those
@pes, ihe LCD TV has the smallesf environmental viewpoints. This tool has tbree critical concerns:
impact In the 32-fo-4Qinch ronge, from ihe these are 1) "the prevention of global warming," 2)
viewpoini of global warming prevention ihe CRT is "theeffectiveutilization ofresources" and 3) '"theuse
beffecbur the LCD is befferfor effeciive utilizotion of of nontoxic materials" as shown in table 1. Many
resources. In foriy-two-inch or lorger fypes, the PDP case studies already have been published since this
TVis la&y expected. Factor X tool was published at "Matsushita Electric
Environmental Forum" held at both Tokyo (Japan)
and Freiburg (Germany) in 2001 for the k s t time.

Table I.Factor X Tool 2001 (Independently development)

0 How to calculate Eco-efficlency 0 How to calculate Factor X

speclflc bromlne-basad flame nbrdants and PVC

0769520460 0 2003 IEEE - 650

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This tool was introduced to Matsushita Electric 2. The Relation between Power
Group as a qualification standard for “Green” Consumption and Size in the CRT, PDP,
products and services (here afler called GPs) in 2002,
has been used internally for accelerating GP and LCD TV Displays
development by relating it to business performance
evaluation from April 2002 and has also been used Figure 1 shows the relation between power
externally for propagation and penetration of GPs via consumption and size in the CRT (Cathode Ray
a Type I1 environmental label from April 2003 Tube), LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), and PDP
[I ,2,3,4,51. (Plasma Display Panel) provided with built-in BS/CS
This Factor X tool was also intxoduced to Hitachi 110 digital tuner. For the annual amount of power
Group and MitsubishiElectric Corporation in 2003. consumption the data in the wehsite of ‘‘Green
Three types of TV set will be assessed using this tool. Purchasing Network (GPN)” on August 14,2003 and
In this paper the environmental influence is evaluated products catalogs were used [7].
for the denominator side. Considerations including It is widely believed that the LCD TV consumes
the product functions will be presented in the the least power, but the data indicate this is not
conference as “Development of a Factor X always true. Though the LCD consumes the least
(Eco-Efficiency) Tool -Study of How to Calculate power for 32-inch or smaller models, the CRT
‘Product Function’-” [6]. consumes the least for larger models than that.

ADDrOxlmate CUNe Of Mean Value for Each Inch --


16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 48 48 50 52Rrr~cnsirafinnl
.... - . . . . . ..
. ..
. ’ ADDroximate Curve bf Mln: Value oi Each Inch .: I







16 I6 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 38 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52
.~ ~ ...~ ~~~ ~- ~ Sorsens,ze[Inchl/

Figure I.Relation between Annual Power Consumption and Screen Size

(CRT, LCD, and PDP TVs provided wlth built-In BSlCS 110 digital tuner)

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Furthermore, the PDP is predicted to consume less
for 40-inch or larger models from the approximation 3.3. Resources
c w e of the m i n i u m values. (For 42-inch or larger
types it is just estimation because only PDP TVs exist The amount of used resources was evaluated as the
today.) These results are obtained by focusing on a sum of resources in the procurement, production, and
specific aspect of power consumption. Next, a use stages, ignoring the recycle and disposal stages.
32-inch TV,which is on the borderline, is evaluated For the procurement and production stages of TV sets
through the life cycle from the viewpoints of the resource amount was calculated with the basic
prevention of global warming and effective components as the product itself, ;accessories,
utilization of resources by applying the “Factor X package, and manuals. For the assembly industry,
tool 2001” shown in Table I. secondary materials and yield losses are not included
because they have little contributim to the
3. Evaluation environmental impact. For the procwement and
production of the display devices the amount was
3.1. Evaluated Products calculated with the basic components of devices and
secondary materials. For the using stage, the amount
of battery consumption in the remote <controlwas
32-inch type CRT. PDP, and LCD TVs provided
used. In this resource evaluation, electricity was not
with installed BS/CS 110 digital tuner. The outline of
considered, since it is separately evaliiated as &
product specifications is shown in Table 2. The
energy resource in the global warming prevention
lifetime is calculated to be eight years in this
evaluation based on a technical data-hook for TV
A ‘Re-ed‘ resource is “reprocessed resource of
reception published by NHK (Nippon Hoso Kyokai =
materials or components already used once or more
Japan Broadcasting Corporation).
(recycled material, reused component)”, showing
actual amount. For CRT TV sets, recyc,led resin is
Table 2. The Outllne of Product counted. For metals, since it is difficult to know the
Speclflcatlons actual state, data in the following papers were used.
Iron: 35% (Japan Environmental
Management Association for
Industry, 1995)
Copper: 12% (National Institute for
Resources and Environment, 1998)
Aluminum: 18% (The Japan Machinery
Federation, 1995)
A ‘Re-able’ resource is the one which can he
reusedlrecycled when applicable products . or
resources that are supplied with over the product
lifecycle end its life. The above values were
determined by the reference of technical levels of
Matsushita Eco Technology Center (METEC), our
company’s ‘recycling plant. Re-able resource
3.2. Greenhouse Effect Gases reuseirecycling is actually carried out, or at least
resources that are supported by engineering and
The GHG emissions were calculated for the life application are counted. Collection rate of products
cycle from the component manufacturing of the and pmcess yield are ignored. Economical efficiency
display device to the TV set disposal mainly using the is considered from the viewpoint of recycling
LCA source unit in “Software of JAMAI-LCA” [8] business. For TV sets, chassis metal .and
and using our original source unit for the component flame-resistant polystyrene are counted For display
manufacturing by “Matsushita Product Assessment devices, glass and metals of the CRT, aluminum
Support System” [9]. frame of the PDP, and metals of the LCD are counted.
Used energy in the “production” and “recycling” Technologies for glass and metals of the CRT, chassis
stages of TV set is roughly calculated by dividing the metal, and flame-resistant polystyrene were
total energy consumption of the factory by the established respectively by a recycling examination
number of sets. The energy consumption of display study in 1997, the development of part separator in
devices in the ‘production” stage was calculated with 2000, and the development of plastics separator in
effective area base.

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4. Evaluation Results



1.4Eto3 ............. ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~

a 1.2Eto3 ................... ..............

._ 1.0W3


3 6.0W2



Figure 2. GHG emissions quality

200 ~~

...................................... OR& resouma

0 DlspOssd r e s "
-2 160
140 .............................
Newly supplled mmrca
:e 100

2 60
Lo 40
Figure 3. Resource quantity

Figure 2 and 3 show "the GHG emissions Let us consider the GHG emissions from the
quantity" and "the resource quantity", respectively. display device. The component-manufacturing
load of the LCD and PDP devices is much
As for the GHG emissions in life cycle, the smaller than that of the CRT device because of
CRT TV set has the least Though LCD TV the thickness reduction e&ct However, the
shows the least power consumption, the load of production process load is large due to
LCD device (element manufacturing and complicated process, so the total load becomes
assembly process) is large, and this is why the larger. This indicates that size reduction
CRT TV is the least for the life cycle, The sometimes increases environmental impact.
importance of a life cycle approach is As for the sum of newly supplied resources and

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disposed resources across the life cycle, the LCD and PDP TV have smaller re-able
LCD TV is the smallest, followed by PDP TV. resource quantity. That is why we placed
The CRT TV requires much Re-ed resources greater importance on the quantity than the
and Re-able resources, but the quantity of ratio when developing this criterion..
newly supplied resource becomes large since
much glass is used. On the other hand, LCD 6. Future Actions
and PDP TV make the quantity of newly
supplied resource small by the effect of
thickness reduction, though Re-ed and Re-able Data collection needed great efforts. For the
resources are little. improvement in the evaluation accuracy, a
Though CRT TV has the largest Re-able disclosure and collection system of data by
ratio, Re-able resource quantity is smaller in developing better supplyshain management is
LCD and PDV TV Thus, it cannot be discussed indispensable.
only by the ratio. Although it is just a graphical expression of
data already disclosed on the Web, even
environmental specialists concerning the LCA
5. Conclusion and Green Purchasing did not know the results
of Fig. 1. It also highlights the difficulty and
Though it is generally believed that an LCD importance. of information transfer. Without
TV is most preferred for the environment, proper information, products cannot be
above discussions have revealed that it is not appropriately selected. In addition to the
necessarily true. feedback of the evaluation result to the design
In 30-inch or smaller types, the LCD TV has site for.incessant product developnient, we will
the smallest environmental impact both for issue information helpful for appropriate
GHG gases and resources. In the 32-to4O-imch choice and use of product.
range, the CRT TV and LCD TV have mutually
better and worse points. From the viewpoint of 7. Acknowledgements
global warming prevention the CRT is better, Special acknowledgements should go to Professor
but the LCD is better for effective utilization of Ryoichi Yamamoto of Tokyo University for his
resources. The CRT TV is expected to reduce suggestion provided to this writing.
the weight of panel and funnel that occupy
about 80% of whole CRT and to improve the
use of Re-ed resources, and the LCD TV is
8. References
expected to reduce the power consumption and
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Electric Group,“Proceedings of The Fifth Jntematioeal
Forty-two-inch or larger TVs are difficult tu Cdercnce on EcoBalance,November 2002
compare between different types since only
PDP TV exists today. Larger types cannot be [2] T. Aoe, “Indicatorsfor SustainablePmduclslSeMces
predicted simply on the expanded line from the and Green PrductslServices,”Proceedings of the First
evaluation result of 32-inch type TV, because International Workshop on Life Cycle Appro8shesto
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approximation curve of annual power Tool,” Proceedings of2003 IEEE IntemationalSymposium,
May 2003
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technology is further developing. Fukuda, “Case Studies for Calculationfor Factor X”.
As for the GHG emissions by 32-inch type W, Proceedings of 2003 IEEE lntemational Symposium on
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environmental impact. Roceedings of EcoDesign 2003 3rd Intemational
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[7] Green Purchasing Network (GPN)

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[SI “ S o h a r eof IEMAI-LCA,”Japan Environmental

ManagementAssociation for Industry

191 T.Aoe. “Constructionof Eco-Design database system

with Internet,”Proceedings of Ecc-design 2000 Japan

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