You are on page 1of 4

60-GHz Multi-Layer Parasitic Microstrip Array Antenna with

Stacked Rings using Multi-Layer LTCC Substrate


Tomohiro SEKI, Kenjiro NISHIKAWA, and Kazuyasu OKADA

Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, Japan


1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0847, Japan
E-mail: t.seki@ieee.org

Abstract – This paper proposes a novel high-gain To overcome these problems, we proposed a multi-
millimeter-wave microstrip array antenna formed on a layer parasitic microstrip antenna (MSA) array structure
multi-layer low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and a multi-ring antenna that employs a multi-layer
substrate. The proposed antenna employs a multi-layer ceramic substrate [10]-[12]. However, the multi-layer
parasitic microstrip array antenna with stacked rings. This parasitic MSA array has difficulty in achieving an
paper describes the design and characteristics of the adequately high gain when the antenna is constructed on
proposed antenna. The antenna performance is also the LTCC substrate. Moreover, the multi-ring antenna
calculated by electro-magnetic simulation. The thickness of requires multiple layers that have several degrees of
the proposed antenna is 0.5 mm and the proposed antenna thickness, resulting in an increase in the production cost.
achieves the antenna gain of 12.9 dBi in calculation in a 60- The multi-layer configuration also degrades the reliability
GHz band. The proposed millimeter-wave antenna due to fabrication tolerances.
promises compact antenna-integrated RF modules that In this paper, we propose a new antenna structure to
provide a low-cost millimeter-wave system-on-package. achieve high gain and a thin structure. The antenna
Index Terms - active integrated antenna, multi-layer employs a multi-layer parasitic microstrip array antenna
LTCC substrate, quasi-millimeter and millimeter-wave with stacked rings formed on a 0.5-mm-thick multi-layer
frequency band, multi-layer parasitic microstrip array LTCC substrate. Simulation results show a gain higher
antenna, system-on-package than 12.9 dBi in a 60-GHz band.

II. CONCEPT OF TARGET SYSTEM-ON-PACKAGE


I. INTRODUCTION FOR MILLIMETER-WAVE APPLICATIONS

System studies and hardware investigations on high- The concept of the SOP module integrated with an
speed wireless communications are being conducted at antenna is shown in Fig. 1. A multi-layer structure and
quasi-millimeter and millimeter-wave frequencies [1]-[3]. the proposed antenna are mounted on the SOP module
These applications require compact, high performance, that incorporates a highly integrated transceiver MMIC.
and low-cost wireless equipment. A highly integrated RF The multi-layer structure for the MMIC chips and the
module, the so-called system-on-package (SOP) module, antenna is vertically stacked. This module includes a
which employs a multi-layer structure, is effective in high-gain antenna constructed on the package substrate, a
achieving the above requirements [4]-[7]. It is necessary transmission MMIC, and a bandpass filter (BPF) circuit
to adopt active integrated antenna technology to achieve a for frequency limitation. The module integrates the
module with antennas that are low-power consuming and multi-layer LTCC substrate to achieve low cost and to
that have low-noise characteristics [8],[9]. An on-chip enable the mounting of an MMIC and other parts. The
antenna [4], a multi-chip module including antenna chips antenna and the BPF circuit are mounted onto this
[5], and the use of a lens antenna on a RF package [7] substrate which in turn is mounted onto the motherboard
were proposed. However, these approaches have several by bump mounting. Exterior connections provide only a
issues such as size limitations, connection loss, and baseband signal and the bias.
mounting tolerances that result in an integrated antenna
with low gain and low efficiency characteristics.

1-4244-1463-6/08/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE 679 RWS 2008


Authorized licensed use limited to: MADHAV INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE. Downloaded on February 7, 2010 at 05:49 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
y
High gain antenna
w1
Multi-layer Bump Parasitic array
ceramic Metal ring
Parasitic
Via hole element

Mother Mother x
board board
Highly-integrated Feeding Bump
MMIC chip element BPF

Metal ring
Fig. 1 System-on-package configuration
Feeding element
(a) Top view
III. ANTENNA DESIGN

The proposed antenna structure is shown in Fig. 2. The 0.10mm


figure at the top shows the top view and the bottom figure
0.10mm
shows the cross-sectional view. This antenna employs a
parasitic microstrip array antenna with stacked rings. 0.10mm
However, for the sake of simplicity, the proposed antenna 0.10mm
is described in terms of a one parasitic element layer case.
t1
Here, we use the moment method as the calculation 0.10mm
method and assume that the ground plane is infinite. For
convenience, the width (horizontal direction) is expressed Parasitic Feeding Metal
such that the width of the parasitic layer is w1, and t1 is element element ring
the substrate thickness of the parasitic element as shown
in Fig. 2. The material constants of the LTCC substrate (b) Cross-sectional view
are εr = 7.7 and tanδ = 0.002 at 10 GHz. The size of the Fig. 2 Antenna structure
feeding element is 0.78 mm x 0.78 mm, and the feeding
point is 0.25 mm away from the center of the patch. The
15
size of the parasitic elements mounted on the parasitic
layer is 0.69 mm x 0.69 mm. Width w1 is 0.77 mm and t1
is 0.05 mm. The four parasitic elements mounted on the
parasitic layer are arranged such that they are equidistant
from the center of the feeding MSA. Moreover, the metal 10

rings can be arranged at wavelength intervals at


approximately 1/20 the dielectric substrate thickness in
the 60-GHz band. As a result, it is possible to use the
metal ring as a metal wall. The width of the metal rings 5
of each layer is 1.0 mm. The metal rings are arranged in
five layers with the ring radius offset starting from the
bottom of 0.2 mm. The absolute gain of this antenna
when the radius of the metal ring at the bottom is changed 0
2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
is shown in Fig. 3. The figure shows that the ring radius
Radius of bottom metal ring [mm]
at the bottom is adjusted to 3.0 mm to achieve the
maximum absolute gain. Fig. 3 Absolute gain versus bottom ring radius

680
Authorized licensed use limited to: MADHAV INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE. Downloaded on February 7, 2010 at 05:49 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
Next, the absolute gain of this antenna when the
substrate thickness is changed is shown in Fig. 4. This
IV. CONCLUSION
figure shows that the peak characteristics are achieved
when the substrate thickness is 0.5 mm.
The radiation characteristics of the antenna are We proposed a novel multi-layer parasitic microstrip
described hereafter. The calculated results of the antenna array antenna with stacked rings employing a multi-layer
radiation characteristics when the ring radius at the LTCC substrate for a millimeter-wave SOP. The design
bottom is 3.0 mm and the substrate thickness is 0.5 mm and calculated results of the proposed antenna were
are shown in Fig. 5. In this figure, the 3 dB beam width described. The results clearly show that the proposed
of the H-plane and the E-plane are 45 degrees and 22 antenna achieves the antenna gain of 12.9 dBi in a 60-
degrees, respectively. Furthermore, the antenna achieves GHz band. This paper presented a 60-GHz band antenna
the absolute gain of 12.9 dBi at 60 GHz. This paper design employing a two-layer LTCC substrate that is well
presented a 60-GHz band antenna design employing suited to achieving a low cost module.
multi-layer parasitic array antenna with stacked rings
using a multi-layer LTCC substrate that is well suited to
achieving a thin and a low cost SOP. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
15 The authors thank Dr. Shuji Kubota of NTT Network
Innovation Laboratories for their constant encouragement.

10 REFERENCES
[1] Y. Takimoto, "Recent activities on millimeter wave indoor
LAN system development in Japan," in IEEE MTT-S Int. Symp.
Dig., pp. 405-408, June 1995.
5
[2] N. Morinaga and A. Hashimoto, "Technical trend of
multimedia mobile and broadband wireless access systems,"
Trans. IEICE., Vol. E82-B, No. 12, pp. 1897-1905, Dec. 1999.
[3] T. Ihara and K. Fujimura, "Research and development of
0
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 millimeter-wave short-range application systems," Trans., IEICE,
Substrate thickness [mm] Vol. E79-B, No. 12, pp. 1741-1753, Dec. 1996.
[4] T. Nakagawa, K. Nishikawa, B. Piernas, T. Seki, and K.
Fig. 4 Absolute gain versus substrate thickness
Araki, "60-GHz antenna and 5-GHz demodulator MMICs for
more than 1-Gbps FSK transceivers," in 32nd European
0
Microwave Conference Dig., pp. 929-932, Sep. 2002.
[5] Y. Hirachi, H. Nakano, and A. Kato, "A cost-effective RF-
module with built-in patch antenna for millimeter-wave wireless
systems," in 29th European Microwave Conference Dig., pp.
347-350, Oct. 1999.
-10
[6] M. Tentzeris, N. Bushyager, J. Laskar, G. Zheng, and J.
Papapolymerou, "Analysis and design of MEMS and embedded
components in Silicon/LTCC packages using FDTD/MRTD for
system-on-package applications system-on-package (SOP),"
-20 Digest of Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems,
2003 Topical Meeting, pp. 138-141, April 2003.
H-plane
[7] U. Sangawa, T. Urabe, Y. Kudoh, A. Omote, and K.
E-plane
Takahashi, "A study on a 60 GHz low profile dielectric lens
-30 antenna using high-permittivity ceramics -toward a low profile
-90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 antenna," Technical report of IEICE, MW2002-116, pp. 57-62,
Angle [deg]
Nov. 2002.
Fig. 5 Calculated radiation pattern

681
Authorized licensed use limited to: MADHAV INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE. Downloaded on February 7, 2010 at 05:49 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
[8] J. Lin, and T. Itoh, "Active integrated antennas," IEEE Trans.
MTT, Vol. 42, pp. 2186-2194, Dec. 1994.
[9] T. Seki, H. Yamamoto, T. Hori, and M. Nakatsugawa,
"Active antenna using multi-layer ceramic-polyimide substrates
for wireless communication systems," Digest on IEEE MTT-S
2001 Int. Microwave Symp., pp. 385-388, May 2001.
[10] T. Seki, K. Nishikawa, and K. Cho, "Multi-layer parasitic
microstrip array antenna on LTCC substrate for millimeter-wave
system on-package," 33rd European Microwave Conference,
33rd European Microwave Conference, pp. 1393-1396, Oct.
2003.
[11] T. Seki, Naoki Honma, K. Nishikawa, and K. Tsunekawa,
"High Efficiency Multi-Layer Parasitic Microstrip Array
Antenna on TEFLON Substrate," 34th European Microwave
Conference, pp. 829-832, Oct. 2004.
[12] T. Seki, N. Honma, K. Nishikawa, and K. Tsunekawa,
“Novel Microstrip Antenna Employing Stacked Rings on Multi-
Layer Ceramic Substrate for mm-Wave Applications,” IEEE
International Microwave Symposium 2005, TH1C-4, June 2005.

682
Authorized licensed use limited to: MADHAV INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE. Downloaded on February 7, 2010 at 05:49 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.