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High gain and broadband microstrip array antenna using

combined structure of corporate and series feeding

Wonkyu Choi' , Jang Myoun Kim, Ji Hoon Bee. Cheolsig Pyo

Electronicsand TelecommunicationsResearch Institute (ETRI)
161 Gajeong-dong.Yureong-gu. Oaejon. 305-600.Korea
Tel : +6242-8604989,Fax : r8242-860-5189,E-mail :

The main purpose of this paper is to present microstrip array antenna with high
gain and broadband. A single patch with the gain over 9.5dBi and impedance
bandwidth of about 19% at 12.2 GHz is designed. Microstrip array antenna using
the designed single patch and combination of corporate and series feeding is also
fabricated. The impedance bandwidth Of 2x12 array antenna is above 12.3 % for
VSWRc2 and the gain is about 20.5 dBi.

There is considerable interest in the use Of microstrip antenna because of its many
attractive features. However, classical microstrip antenna has major drawbacks
such as narrow bandwidth and IOW efflciency. To solve these problems, the
substrates of very low perminivity material have been studied which make it
possible to prevent the appearance of surface waves while enhancing radiation
and widening the frequency bandwidth Ill. Air or low density foam usually offers
the lowest loss and highest radialion efflciency. The efflciency of the microslrip
army antenna ais0 depends on the feeding structure. Corporate-fed arrays are
mainly used for antennas With broadside beam, especially for uniform distributions.
One Of the drawbacks of corporate feeding is that it takes up considerable space.
As the anay size increases. the feedline of the antenna is long. Therefore, the
losses of the feedline become larger and antenna emciency is reduced. On the
other hand, series-fed arrays have significantly less feedline length and take up
less space 121. The reduced length of feedline can minimize the conductor and
dielectric loss and spurious radiation. This paper describes the high gain and
broadband microstrip array antenna in which the gain and bandwidth can be
improved by using the Stacked patches. thin film, foam with low perminivity and
combined Structure of corporate and Series feeding. Details Of Ihe designed
antenna and experimental results are presented.

2. Design of the antenna element

This paper proposes the configuration such as Fig.1 (a) to obtain the high gain and
broadband microstrip array antenna. As seen in the F1g.l (a), two parches are
etched on the thin film of 6,=2.25 and thickness 0.04mm and the feedline is
etched on the substrate of &,=2.5 and thickness 0.508mm. Since the flim layer is
quite thin With resped to wavelength, its effect on the radiation Characteristics of

02004 IEEE 2484


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the antenna is practically negligible [3]. On the ground plane underneath the lower
patch. a reaanguiar si01 is etched and il is piaced at the center of the patch.
Patches are fed by aperture wupiing method. In order to reduce radiation toward
back of the antenna, the metal board as reflector is placed below the feedline at
distance of 1Omm. Based on the geometry specified in Fig.l (a), the results of the
simulation wing DESiGNER 1.0 are shown in Fig.1 (b). Aretum IDSS bandwidth for
SI?C-lOdB is 19.5% at 12.2 GHL and maximum gain is about 9.7 dBi at 12.4 GHz.
Compared with the back radiation of the antenna without a reflector, that of the
antenna with a reRectw is decreased abut 14 dB.

3. Design of array antenna

The array antennas are composed Of the designed single patches and wmbined
stwcture of corporate and series feeding. For series-fed array, as the patches have
to be in phase to obtain a broadside beam, the phase difference behveen patches
must be N timer 360 degrees. where N is integer. The width Of the microstrip line
from the main feedline to the patch wntmla the amplitude of poww toward a patch
and the phase difference between patches is controlled by the length of the feed
line. As the phase difference caused by the feedline varies wim frequency, me main
beam angle also changes with it. So. the bandwidth of array antenna is limited by
how much beam movement can be tolerated. To Overwme this disadvantage of
series-fed array, this paper proposes Me center-fed StNCtUre for broadside beam.
Fig. 2 shows the patch and feedline StNCfUre of 2x12 array antenna for Uniform
power dislnbution, The dietame behveen each patch is 0.7 1, at 12.2 GHz.

4. Fabrication and measurement

In this paper, the 2x12 array antenna is fabricatad. Fig. 3 shows the photograph of
fabricated array antenna. The measured return-loss and gain campared to
simuiatiin is shown in Fig. 4 and the measured radiation patterns at 12.2 GHz are
also shown in Fig. 5. For the 2x12 array antenna, the sideiobe level is lower than-
13 dB and cross-polarizationievei is lawerthan 3 5 d0 for broadside diredion. The
half power beamwidths are about 32' in E-piane and 6' in H-plane. respectively.
The gain of the array antenna is a b u t 20.5 dBi 81 12.2 GHz. The experimental
impedance bandwidths for VSWRc2 are above 12.3 %. The summary for designed
Single and array antenna is given in Table 1.

5. Conclusion
The microstrip array antenna with the thin Sim and foam with low peminivity is
designed to obtain broadband and high gain. The designed antenna is composed
of the Stacked patches and wmbined s t ~ c t u r eof corporate and series feeding.
The gain of the designed 2x12 anay antenna is about 20.5 dBi at 12.2GHz. Having
the retum-loss bandwidth above 12.3%. the designed antenna can be used for
application of broadband system


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1. Zurcher, J. F,, "The SSFIP, a Global Concept for High Pedormance Broadband
PlanarAntennaS; Electronics Letters vol. 24, pp.1433-1435, 1985.
2 . James. J. R., P. S. Hall. and C. Wood, Micmstip Antenna Theory and Design,
London,UK: Peter Peregrinus, Ltd., 1981, Chaps. 5 and 6.
3. Wonkyu Choi, Yong Heui Cho. Cheol-Sik Pyo, and Jae-lck Choi. "A High-Gain
Micmstdp Patch Array Antenna Usin9 a Su~erstrateLaver." ETRl J., Yo1 25. no. 5.

, F*.din. ~~3-T-2~

(a) Detailed radiating single patch (b) Simulated result3 offhe designed single patch

Fig. 1. Detailed radiating single patch and simulated results of that


\ \ I1 i
..,U.l L-.

Fig. 2. Feeding structure of 2x12 array antenna for uniform power distribution


(a) Radiating patches on thin film

(b) The combined Structure of corporate and se%s feeding

Fig. 3.Photograph of fabricated 2x12 array antenna


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F ~ ~ W , O " Z I

Fig. 4. Simulated and measured results of 2x12 array antenna

(a) Eplane (b) H-plans

Fig. 5. Measure4 mdialion panems 0 f 2 ~ 1 array
2 antenna SI12.2 GHr

Table 1. Comparison table for impedance bandwidth and gain

Single patch 2x12 array antenna
Si*"latiO" Simulation Measurement
1mpedanCa 11.1 -13.5 GHr 11.3-12.9GHz 11.6-13.1 GHr
bandwidth (19%) 113%) (12.3 % )
Gain 9.7dBi 21.7 d8i 20.5 dBi


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