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You are on page 1of 26

Winter 2010

M.Sudha

VIT University-Vellore India

1

Topics:

• Analog and digital signal

• Bandwidth of a signal

• Transmission of digital signal

Baseband transmission

• Low-pass channel with wide bandwidth

• Low-pass channel with limited bandwidth

Broadband transmission

• Data rate limits

Noiseless Channel: Nyquist bit rate

Noisy Channel: Shannon capacity

• Performance

Bandwidth, throughput, delay

2

3.1 Analog and Digital

Figure 3.1 Comparison of analog and digital signals

3

3.2 Periodic Analog Signals

Sine Wave

A sine wave

• S(t) =A*sin(2πft + θ )

• Peak Amplitude (A)

• Period/Frequency (f)

• Phase (θ )

Examples

From Figure 3.2 of Data Communications

• S(t) = 5 sin(2π4000t + 0)

and Networking by Forouzan, 4th

• S(t) = 10sin(2π8000t + 0)

• S(t) = 5 sin(2π2000t + π/4)

4

3.2 Periodic Analog Signals (cont.)

Time and Frequency Domains

• Time Domain Plot

• Frequency Domain

Plot

5

3.2 Periodic Analog Signals (cont.)

Composite Signals

• A combination of many sine

waves with different

frequencies, amplitudes,

and phases

Fourier Analysis

s(t) = A1sin(2πf1 +θ1) +

A2sin(2πf2 +θ2) + From Figure 3.9 of Data

A3sin(2πf3 +θ3) + … Communications and Networking by

Forouzan, 4th

6

3.2 Periodic Analog Signals

For a periodic composite signal

• The decomposition gives a series of signals with

discrete frequencies

For a nonperiodic composite signal

• The decomposition gives a combination of sine

waves with continuous frequencies

Bandwidth of a composite signal

• The difference between the highest and the lowest

frequencies contained in that signal

7

Figure 3.10 Decomposition of a composite periodic signal in the time and

frequency domains

8

Figure 3.11 The time and frequency domains of a nonperiodic signal

9

Figure 3.12 The bandwidth of periodic and nonperiodic composite signals

10

Example 3.10

with frequencies of 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 Hz,

what is its bandwidth? Draw the spectrum, assuming

all components have a maximum amplitude of 10 V.

Example 3.11

highest frequency is 60 Hz. What is the lowest

frequency? Draw the spectrum if the signal contains

all frequencies of the same amplitude.

11

3.3 Digital Signals

with two signal levels

and the other with four

signal leve ɠ

Communications and

Networking by Forouzan,

4th

12

3.3 Digital Signals

In general, if a signal has L levels, each level needs log2L bits.

Example:

1) A digital signal has eight levels. How

many bits are needed per level? We

calculate the number of bits from the

formula

many bits are needed per level?

13

3.3 Digital Signals

Bit Rate – number of bits sent in 1s, bps

Digital Signal

• A composite signal having an infinite number

of frequencies or harmonics

• Bandwidth (∞)

• Periodic digital signal – discrete frequencies

• Nonperiodic digital signal – continuous

frequencies

14

Example 3.19

is made by digitizing a 4-kHz bandwidth analog voice

signal. We need to sample the signal at twice the

highest frequency (two samples per hertz). We assume

that each sample requires 8 bits. What is the required

bit rate?

15

The time and frequency domains of periodic and nonperiodic digital signals

16

3.3 Digital Signals (cont.)

• A digital signal is a composite analog signal

with an infinite bandwidth.

• Baseband Transmission – low-pass channel

17

Bandwidths of two low-pass channels

18

Case 1: Low-Pass Channel with Wide Bandwidth

shape of the digital signal is possible only if we have a low-pass

Channel with an infinite or very wide bandwidth.

• Example: dedicated links in LAN

Baseband transmission using a dedicated medium

19

Case 2: Low-Pass Channel with Limited Bandwidth

Rough approximation of a digital signal using the first harmonic

for worst case – Required bandwidth = N/2 – 0 = N/2

20

Simulating a digital signal with first three harmonics

21

In baseband transmission, the required bandwidth is

proportional to the bit rates; if we need to send bits

faster, we need more bandwidth.

Bandwidth Requirements

22

Example:

What is the required bandwidth of a low-pass

channel if we need to send 1 Mbps by using

baseband transmission?

Solution

The answer depends on the accuracy desired.

a. The minimum bandwidth, is B = bit rate /2, or

500 kHz.

harmonics with B = 3 × 500 kHz = 1.5 MHz.

and fifth harmonics with B = 5 × 500 kHz = 2.5

MHz.

23

3.3 Digital Signals (cont.)

Transmission of Digital Signals

• Broadband Transmission (using modulation) – bandpass

channel

• Bandpass channel – a channel with a bandwidth that

does not start from zero.

Bandwidth of a bandpass channel

24

3.3 Digital Signals (cont.)

Transmission of Digital Signals

• Broadband Transmission (using modulation) – bandpass

channel

Bandpass channel is more available than a low-pass channel

Digital signal can not be directly sent by bandpass channel.

Digital signal needs to be changed to an analog signal before

transmission using bandpass channel - modulation.

25

Modulation of a digital signal for transmission on a bandpass channel

26

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