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1.

County Bank offers one-year loans with a stated rate of 9 percent but requires a
compensating balance of 10 percent. What is the true cost of this loan to the borrower?
How does the cost change if the compensating balance is 15 percent? If the compensating
balance is 20 percent? In each case, assume origination fees and the reserve requirement
are zero.

The true cost is the loan rate (1 compensating balance rate) = 9% (1.0 0.1) = 10 percent.
For compensating balance rates of 15 percent and 20 percent, the true cost of the loan would be
10.59 percent and 11.25 percent respectively. Note that as the compensating balance rate
increases by a constant amount, the true cost of the loan increases at an increasing rate.
2.

Metrobank offers one-year loans with a 9 percent stated or base rate, charges a 0.25 percent
loan origination fee, imposes a 10 percent compensating balance requirement, and must
pay a 6 percent reserve requirement to the Federal Reserve. The loans typically are repaid
at maturity.
a. If the risk premium for a given customer is 2.5 percent, what is the simple promised
interest return on the loan?
The simple promised interest return on the loan is BR + m = 0.09 + 0.025 = 0.115 or 11.5
percent.
b. What is the contractually promised gross return on the loan per dollar lent?

k 1

of ( BR m)
0.0025 (0.09 0.025)
0.1175
11
1 1
1 12.97 percent
1 [b(1 RR )]
1 [0.1(1 0.06)]
0.906

c. Which of the fee items has the greatest impact on the gross return?
The compensating balance has the strongest effect on the gross return on the loan. Without
the compensating balance, the gross return would equal 11.75 percent, a reduction of 1.22
percent. Without the origination fee, the gross return would be 12.69 percent, a reduction of
only 0.28 percent. Eliminating the reserve requirement would cause the gross return to
increase to 13.06 percent, an increase of 0.09 percent.
3.

Suppose the estimated linear probability model is PD = 0.3X1 + 0.2X2 - .05X3 + error,
where X1 = 0.75 is the borrower's debt/equity ratio; X2 = 0.25 is the volatility of borrower
earnings; and X3 = 0.10 is the borrowers profit ratio.
a. What is the projected probability of default for the borrower?
PD = 0.3(.75) + 0.2(.25) - 0.05(.10) = 0.27
b. What is the projected probability of repayment if the debt/equity ratio is 2.5?

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PD = 0.3(2.5) + 0.2(.25) - 0.05(.10) = 0.795


The expected probability of repayment is 1 - 0.795 = 0.205.
4.

MNO, Inc., a publicly traded manufacturing firm in the United States, has provided the
following financial information in its application for a loan.
Assets
Cash
Accounts receivables
Inventory

$ 20
90
90

Plant and equipment


Total assets

500
$700

Liabilities and Equity


Accounts payable
Notes payable
Accruals
Long-term debt
Equity (ret. earnings = $0)
Total liabilities and equity

$ 30
90
30
150
400
$700

Also assume sales = $500, cost of goods sold = $360, taxes = $56, interest payments = $40,
net income = $44, the dividend payout ratio is 50 percent, and the market value of equity is
equal to the book value.
a. What is the Altman discriminant function value for MNO, Inc.? Recall that:
Net working capital = Current assets - Current liabilities.
Current assets = Cash + Accounts receivable + Inventories.
Current liabilities = Accounts payable + Accruals + Notes payable.
EBIT = Revenues - Cost of goods sold - Depreciation.
Net income = EBIT - interest - taxes.
Retained earnings = Net income (1 - Dividend payout ratio)
Altmans discriminant function is given by: Z = 1.2X1 + 1.4X2 + 3.3X3 + 0.6X4 + 1.0X5
X1 = (20+90+90-30-30-90)/ 700 = .0714 X1 = Working capital/total assets (TA)
X2 = 44(1-.5) / 700 = .0314
X2 = Retained earnings/TA
X3 = (500-360) / 700 = .20
X3 = EBIT/TA
X4 = 400 / 150 = 2.67
X4 = Market value of equity/long term debt
X5 = 500 / 700 = .7143
X5 = Sales/TA
Z = 1.2(0.07) + 1.4(0.03) + 3.3(0.20) + 0.6(2.67) + 1.0(0.71) = 3.104
= .0857 + .044 + .66
+ 1.6
+ .7143 = 3.104
b. Should you approve MNO, Inc.'s application to your bank for a $500 capital expansion
loan?
Since the Z-score of 3.104 is greater than 2.99, ABC Inc.s application for a capital
expansion loan should be approved.
c. If sales for MNO were $300, the market value of equity was only half of book value,
and the cost of goods sold and interest were unchanged, what would be the net income
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for MNO? Assume the tax credit can be used to offset other tax liabilities incurred by
other divisions of the firm. Would your credit decision change?
ABCs net income would be -$100 without taking into account text credits. Note, that
ABC's tax liability is -$56. If we assume that ABC uses this tax credit against other tax
liabilities, then:
X1 = (20 + 90 + 90 - 30 - 30 - 90) / 700 = .0714
X2 = -44 / 700 = -0.0629
X3 = -60 / 700 = -0.0857
X4 = 200 / 150 = 1.3333
X5 = 300 / 700 = 0.4286
Since ABC's Z-score falls to $.9434 < 1.81, credit should be denied.
5.

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