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1 For instance, see [, %RåLü 6 ûLUNRYLü 0 (NPHþLü 9 'HGLMHU Istorija
Jugoslavije%HRJUDG3URVYHWDí].
2 For instance, see <D. 3DYOLþHYLü 3RYLMHVW+UYDWVNH'UXJRL]PLMHQMHQRLSURãLUHQR
izdanje, Zagreb: Naklada P.I.P. 3DYLþLü, 2000, 252].
3 For instance, see >% 3HWUDQRYLü ,VWRULMD -XJRVODYLMH í, Prva knjiga:
.UDOMHYLQD-XJRVODYLMDí%HRgrad: Nolit, 1988, 3].

3

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th

The South-East Europe in the first half of the 19 century

4

On the pre-modern identity in Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia, see [J. Fine, When
Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans: A Study of Identity in Pre-Nationalist
Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia in the Medieval and Early Modern Periods,
University of Michigan Press, 2006].
4

9ODGLVODY%6RWLURYLüThe Croatian National Revival Movement and the Serbs

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D. 3DYOLþHYLü 3RYLMHVW +UYDWVNH 'UXJR L]PLMHQMHQR L SURãLUHQR L]GDQMH, Zagreb:
Naklada P.I.P. 3DYLþLü, 2000, 244. On more profound account on Lj. Gaj's role in the
movement, see [E. M. Despelatoviü, Ljudevit Gaj and the Illyrian Movement, New
<RUNí/RQGRQ 8QLYHUVLW\ RI 0LFKLJDQ (DVW (XURSHDQ 0RQRJUDSKV  N.
6WDQþLü, Ideologija Ljudevita Gaja u pripremnom razdoblju hrvatskog narodnog
preporoda, Zagreb, 1989].
7 For instance, see [L. Kontler, Millenium in Central Europe: A History of Hungary,
Budapest: Atlantisz Publishing House, 1999, í ɉɊɨɤɚɢɁȭɟɪɟɌɉɚɥ Ⱥ
ɄɚɫɚɲɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɚɆɚɻɚɪɚȻɟɨɝɪɚɞClio, 2002, 44].
8 For the matter of comparison, a conflict between the Croatian and the Hungarian
aristocracy over the ³state-KLVWRULFDOULJKWV´RIDalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia in the
Kingdom of Hungary after 1102 up to the end of the Habsburg Monarchy and
Austria-Hungary in 1918 is very similar to the conflict between the Polish and the
6

6

9ODGLVODY%6RWLURYLüThe Croatian National Revival Movement and the Serbs

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Lithuanian aristocracy over the state-political position of the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania within the Kingdom of Poland after the Kreve Union act of 1385 and in the
Republic of Two Nations, i.e. the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Lublin
Union act signed on July 1st, 1569 (Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodow). While the
Polish authorities and scholars claimed that Lithuania legally lost her statehood after
both signed acts with Poland in 1385 and especially in 1569 and became an ordinary
province of the Kingdom of Poland without any special state-political rights, the
Lithuanian aristocracy claimed that the Lublin Union was a confederation act of two
indepandent states in which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania preserved in essence her
statehood. About this problem, see more in [N. Davies, *RG¶V3OD\JURXQGA History
of Poland, vol. I, The Origins to 1795, New York: Columbia University Press, 1982;
R. L. Johnson, Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends, New YorkíOxford,
1996, 105±136; P. S. Wandicz, /DLVYơV NDLQD: ViduULR 5\Wǐ (XURSRV LVWRULMD QXR
viduramåLǐLNLGDEDUWLHV, Vilnius, 1997, 127±138; R. Bideleux, I. Jeffries, A History
of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, LondoníNew York: Routledge, 1998, 114±
164; ( *XGDYLþLXV /LHWXYRV LVWRULMD QXR VHQLDXVLǐ ODLNǐ LNL  PHWǐ, Vilnius:
/LHWXYRV UDã\WLMǐ VąMXQJRV OHLG\NOD  í í Z. Kiaupa, J.
.LDXSLHQơ$.XQFHYLþXV, The History of Lithuania before 1795, Vilnius: Lithuanian
Institute of History, 2000, 282±304; S. Cynarski, ³7KH6KDSHRI6DUPDWLDQ Ideology
LQ 3RODQG´ Acta Poloniae Historica, 19, 6±17; A. Bumblauskas, Lietuvos istorija 
í 9LOQLXV 5 3DNQLR OHLG\NOD  í í = =LQNHYLþLXV
/LHWXYLDL 3UDHLWLHV GLG\Eơ LU VXQ\NLPDV 9LOQLXV 0RNVOR LU HQFLNORSHGLMǐ OHLG\ERV
centraVí@. It became a common attitude of modern western historians
of non-Polish ethnic origin to describe the Republic of Two Nations as exclusivelly
Polish due to the high level of linguistic Polonization of the Lithuanian society and
culture. See, for instance [A. Palmer, The Lands Between: A History of East-Central
Europe since the Congress of Vienna, London, 1970, 4]. The fact is that majority of
the Polish scholars and other Polish writers from the legal point of view rightfully
claim that the Grand Duchy of Lithuania became an integral part of the Kingdom of
Poland even before the Lublin Union, i.e. after the Union of the Act of Kreve/Krewo
(August 14th, 1385). See, for instance [J. Vislicius, Bellum Prutenum, 1515; M.
Kromer, De origine et rebus gestis Polonarum, Basel, 1555]. However, majority of
their Lithuanian colleagues claim that the Grand Duchy of Lithuania did not lose its
state-political sovereignty either after 1385 or 1569 unions with Poland [E. Bakonis et
al., Lietuvos istorija: Ilustruota enciklopedija, Vilnius: âYLHVD84í@
9 -.XãHYLüDe municipalibus iuribus et statutis Regnorum Dalmatiae, Croatiae et
Slavoniae, Zagreb, 1830.
10 M. Gross, 3RYLMHVW SUDYDãNH LGHRORJLMH, Zagreb, 1973; A. StarþHYLü, Izabrani
SROLWLþNL VSLVL, Zagreb, 1999; D. 3DYOLþHYLü Povijest Hrvatske. Drugo, izmijenjeno i
SURãLUHQRL]GDQMH, Zagreb: Naklada P.I.P. 3DYLþLü, 2000, 245.
7

9ODGLVODY%6RWLURYLüThe Croatian National Revival Movement and the Serbs

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11 For a deeper account on this issue, see [ȼ ȭ Ʉɪɟɫɬɢʄ Ƚɟɧɨɰɢɞɨɦ ɞɨ ɜɟɥɢɤɟ
ɏɪɜɚɬɫɤɟȾɪɭɝɨɞɨɩɭʃɟɧɨɢɡɞɚʃɟȳɚɝɨɞɢɧɚȽɚɦɛɢɬ]. A leader (poglavnik)
of the Ustashi movement and a head of the Independent State of Croatia during the
WWII, Ante Paveliü, was in his youth a member of the Pure Croatian Party of Rights
lead by the Croat ultra-nationalist and Serbophobic Josip Frank of the Jewish origin
[% - )LãHU, Balkanski diktatori: 'LNWDWRUL L DXWRULWDUQL YODGDUL MXJRLVWRþQH (YURSH,
%HRJUDG,360HGLDí,33URVYHWD@
12 ɉɊɨɤɚɢɁȭɟɪɟɌɉɚɥ ȺɄɚɫɚɲ ɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɚ ɆɚɻɚɪɚȻɟɨɝɪɚɞ Clio, 2002,
44.
13 Probably as the best example of such claims is [S. SrNXOM - /XþLü Hrvatska
SRYLMHVW X GYDGHVHW SHW NDUDWD 3URãLUHQR L GRSXQMHQR L]GDQMH, Zagreb: Hrvatski
informativni centar, 1996]. According to many Serb schollars, this theory was and is
the main cause of interethnic conflicts between the Croats and the Serbs in Dalmatia,
Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Srem and Slavonia [ȼ ȭ Ʉɪɟɫɬɢʄ Ƚɟɧɨɰɢɞɨɦ ɞɨ
ɜɟɥɢɤɟɏɪɜɚɬɫɤɟȾɪɭɝɨɞɨɩɭʃɟɧɨɢɡɞɚʃɟȳɚɝɨɞɢɧɚȽɚɦɛɢɬí@
14 ɉɆɢɥɨɫɚɜʂɟɜɢʄ, ɋɪɛɢɢʃɢɯɨɜʁɟɡɢɤɏɪɟɫɬɨɦɚɬɢʁɚ, ɉɪɢɲɬɢɧɚɇɚɪɨɞɧɚɢ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬɫɤɚɛɢɛɥɢɨɬɟɤɚ, 1997, 13±50.

8

9ODGLVODY%6RWLURYLüThe Croatian National Revival Movement and the Serbs

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15 On the question of disputed territories between the Croats and the Serbs, see [ɅɆ
ɄɨɫɬɢʄɋɩɨɪɧɟɬɟɪɢɬɨɪɢʁɟɋɪɛɚɢɏɪɜɚɬɚȻɟɨɝɪɚɞȾɟɪɟɬɚ].
16 About the issue of the Croatian and the Serbian linguistic nationalism in the first
half of the 19th century, see: [V. B. Sotiroviü Srpski komonvelt: /LQJYLVWLþNL PRGHO
GHILQLVDQMD VUSVNH QDFLMH 9XND 6WHIDQRYLüD .DUDGåLüD L SURMHNDW ,OLMH *DUDãDQLQD R
VWYDUDQMX OLQJYLVWLþNL RGUHÿHQH GUåDYH 6UED, Vilnius: privatno izdanje, 2011; V. B.
Sotiroviü ³1DFLRQDOQR VDPRRGUHÿenje Hrvata i Srba putem jezika u Trojednoj
Kraljevini Dalmaciji, Hrvatskoj i Slavoniji, 1835.± J´ Zgodovinski
þDVRSLV/Historical Review, Ljubljana, letnik 58, 3±4 (130), 2004, 377±389].
17 For instance, see [M. 0RJXã 3RYLMHVW KUYDWVNRJD NQMLåHYQRJD MH]LND, Zagreb:
Nakladni zavod Globus, 1993; 0 .DþLü Hrvatski i srpski: Zablude i krivotvorine,
=DJUHE =DYRG ]D OLQJYLVWLNX )LOR]RIVNRJ IDNXOWHWD 6YHXþLOLãWD X =DJUHEX  0
/RQþDULü Hrvatski jezik, Opole: Uniwersytet Opolski±Instytut Filologii Polskiej,
1998].
18 A German language edition of the book was published in Zagreb (Agram) in 1834.

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19

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izdanje, Zagreb, 1990].
21 J. âidak et al., Hrvatski narodni preporod, I, Zagreb, 1965, 7.
20

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24 ɉɆɢɥɨɫɚɜʂɟɜɢʄ, ɋɪɛɢɢʃɢɯɨɜʁɟɡɢɤɏɪɟɫɬɨɦɚɬɢʁɚ, ɉɪɢɲɬɢɧɚɇɚɪɨɞɧɚɢ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬɫɤɚɛɢɛɥɢɨɬɟɤɚ, 1997. However, the Croatian historiography claims that
those leading Slavic philologists developed their system of classification of the
6ODYRQLF ODQJXDJHV RQ WKH ³DUELWUDU\´ DQG IDOOV EDVLV >I. Periü, Povijest Hrvata,
Zagreb: Krinen, 1997, 161].

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D. 3DYOLþHYLü Povijest HrvatskH'UXJRL]PLMHQMHQRLSURãLUHQRL]GDQMH, Zagreb:
Naklada P.I.P. 3DYLþLü, 2000, 247.
26 On imagined and self-proclaimed glorious Croat history with megalomania
projections for the future, see [ȼ Ȼ ɋɨɬɢɪɨɜɢʄ ³ɏɪɜɚɬɫɤɚ µɩɪɚɜɚɲɤɚ¶
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɨɝɪɚɮɢʁɚɢɋɪɛɢ´, Serbian Studies Research, 4 (1), Novi Sad, Serbia, 2013, 
í].
25

14

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27 V. Dedijer, History of Yugoslavia, New York, 1975, 103; B. Jelavich, History of
the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1983, 304±308. See more in [R. D. Greenberg, Language and Identity in the
Balkans2[IRUGí1HZ<RUN2[IRUG8QLYHUVLW\3UHVV@
28 J. âidak et al., Hrvatski narodni preporod-Ilirski pokret, Drugo izdanje, Zagreb,
1990, 210.
29 ȻȻɪɛɨɪɢʄ, 2ʁɟɡɢɱɤɨɦɪɚɫɤɨɥɭɋɨɰɢɨɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɨɝɥɟɞɢ,, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ 
ȻȻɪɛɨɪɢʄ, ɋʁɟɡɢɤɚɧɚʁɟɡɢɤɋɨɰɢɨɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɱɤɢɨɝɥɟɞɢII, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ2001,
321±326.

15

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30 J. Anisimov, Rusijos istorija nuo Riuriko iki Putino. äPRQơV ƲY\NLDL 'DWRV,
9LOQLXV0RNVORLUHQFLNORSHGLMǐOHLG\ERVFHQWUDV4, í
31 About the western borders of the Slavic extension in the early Middle Ages, see
[Engel J. (redactor), Großer Historischer Weltatlas. Zweiter Teil. Mittelalter,
München, 1979, 36].
32 ɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɚɧɚɪɨɞɚȳɭɝɨɫɥɚɜɢʁɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ 1960, í
33 According to Jovo Bajiü, St. Jerome was a Serb [ȳ Ȼɚʁɢʄ Ȼɥɚɠɟɧɢ ȳɟɪɨɧɢɦ
ɋɨɥɢɧɫɤɚɰɪɤɜɚɢɋɪɛɨ-ȾɚɥɦɚɬɢɒɚɛɚɰȻɟɥɢɚɧɻɟɨ]. A Croat archeologist
don Frane Buliü claimed that he was born in Bosansko Grahovo (the West Bosnia) ± a
region before 1995 populated by the Serbs. Nevertheless, St. Jerome was an Illyrian
DQGWKHUHIRUHDFFRUGLQJWRWKH³,OO\ULDQ´WKHRU\RIWKH6ODYLFRULJLQD6RXWK6ODY

16

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34 Hammond, Historical Atlas of the World, Maplewood, MCMLXXXIV, 3, 5;
Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte, Braunschweig, 1985, 11, 14±15, 22±
23, 24; J. Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans. A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the
Late Twelfth Century $QQ $UERU  í About a homeland of the IndoEuropeans, see [0 *LPEXWDV ³3ULPDU\ DQG 6HFRQGDU\ +RPHODQG RI WKH ,QGR(XURSHDQV´Journal of Indo-European Studies, 13, 1985, 185±202; P. J. Mallory, In
Search of the Indo-Europeans. Language, Archeology and Myth, London, 1989; W.
G. Davey, Indo European Origins, 2009; C. Watkins, The American Dictionary of
Indo-European Roots, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011].
35 C. 7DGLQ Ä(OLR /DPSULGLR &HUYD³ Rivista Dalmatica, 3 (6), 1903, 265±278; M.
)UDQLþHYLü, 3RYLMHVW KUYDWVNH UHQHVDQVQH NQMLåHYQRVWL =DJUHE  í ,
Banac, Hrvatsko jeziþQRSLWDQMH, Zagreb, 1991, 29.
36 M. 3DQWHOLü Ä*ODJROMVNL EUHYLMDU SRSD 0DYUD L] JRGLQH ´ Slovo, XV±XVI,
1965. 94±149; I. Banac, Hrvatsko jeziþQRSLWDQMH, Zagreb, 1991, 9.

17

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37 A. Schmaus, ³9LQFHQWLXV 3ULERHYLXV´ Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas,
1953, 254.
38 M. Orbini, Kraljevstvo Slovena, Beograd, 1968, CXLII±CXLIX.
39 Eq. Pavlus Ritter [Pavao Riter Vitezoviü], Croatia rediviva; regnante Leopoldo
Magno Caesare, Zagreb, 1700. About historical development of the Slavic idea
among the Croatian Baroque writers, see [J. âLGDN, ³3RþHFLSROLWLþNHPLVOLX+UYDWD±
-.ULåDQLüL35LWWHU9LWH]RYLü´ 1DãHWHPH, 16, 1972; T(HNPDQ$.DGLü(eds.),
³-XUDM .ULåDQLü (1618±1683): Russophile and Ecumenic Visionary, The Hague,
1976].
40 /M *DM ³+RUYDWRY 6]ORJD \ =MHGLQMHQ\H´ Danicza Horvatska, Slavonska y
Dalmatinzka, 7. 1. 1835. About the problem of ideas of national identification of the

18

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Studies, 10, 1993, 215±237]. About the ideological origins of the Illyrian Movement,
from the Croat viewpoint, see [N. StanþLü (ed.), Hrvatski narodni preporod, 1790±
1848: Hrvatska u vrijeme Ilirskog pokreta, Zagreb, 1985].
41 J. Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans. A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late
Twelfth Century, Ann Arbor, 1994, 302.
42 V. âWHIDQLü, ³7LVXüXLVWR JRGLQDRGPRUDYVNHPLVLMH´Slovo, XIII, 1963, 34±36.
43 However, many of the ancient and early mediaeval historical sources are using the
term Illyrians as a syninim for modern ethnic-name of the Serbs and claiming at the
same time St. Jerome from Dalmatia that was in fact of a Serb ethnic origin. There is
a visible tendency, based on the sourses and tradition, among contemporary Serbian
historians and ethnologists to claim that the Serbs are the oldest Balkan (indigenous)
people, and evenmore that the original name for all Slavs has been ± the Serbli. On
this question, see for instance [Ɉ Ʌɭɤɨɜɢʄ-ɉʁɚɧɨɜɢʄ, ɋɪɛɢɧɚɪɨɞ ɧɚʁɫɬɚɪɢʁɢ,
IíIII, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ  Ȼ ȼɥɚʁɢʄ-Ɂɟɦʂɚɧɢɱɤɢ, ɋɪɛɢ ɫɬɚɪɨɫɟɞɟɨɰɢ Ȼɚɥɤɚɧɚ ɢ
ɉɚɧɨɧɢʁɟɭɜɨʁɧɢɦɢɰɢɜɢɥɧɢɦɞɨɝɚɻɚʁɢɦɚɫɚɊɢɦʂɚɧɢɦɚɢɏɟɥɟɧɢɦɚɨɞI ɞɨ X
ɜɟɤɚ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ; Ⱦȳɟɜɻɟɜɢʄ, Ɉɞɂɧɞɢʁɟɞɨɋɪɛɢʁɟɉɪɚɫɬɚɪɢ ɩɨɱɟɰɢɫɪɩɫɤɟ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɟ ɏɢʂɚɞɟ ɝɨɞɢɧɚ ɫɟɨɛɟ ɫɪɩɫɤɨɝ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ ɤɪɨɡ Ⱥɡɢʁɭ ɢ ȿɜɪɨɩɭ ɩɪɟɦɚ
ɫɩɢɫɢɦɚɢɰɢɬɚɬɢɦɚɧɚʁɜɟʄɢɯɫɜɟɬɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɚɪɚ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ reprint from
19

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1961, Rome); Ɇ ȳɨɜɢʄ, ɋɪɛɢ ɩɪɟ ɋɪɛɚ, Ʉɪɚʂɟɜɨ ; J. Ȼɚʁɢʄ, Ȼɥɚɠɟɧɢ
ȳɟɪɨɧɢɦ ɋɨɥɢɧɫɤɚ ɰɪɤɜɚ ɢ ɋɪɛɨ-Ⱦɚɥɦɚɬɢ, ɒɚɛɚɰ ; ȳ ɂ Ⱦɟɪɟɬɢʄ Ⱦ ɉ
Ⱥɧɬɢʄ ɋ Ɇ ȳɚɪɱɟɜɢʄ ɂɡɦɢɲʂɟɧɨ ɞɨɫɟʂɚɜɚʃɟ ɋɪɛɚ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ ɋɚɪɞɨɧɢʁɚ 
Ɇ Ɇɢɥɚɧɨɜɢʄ ɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɫɤɨ ɩɨɪɟɤɥɨ ɋɪɛɚ Ⱦɪɭɝɨ ɞɨɩɭʃɟɧɨ ɢ ɩɪɨɲɢɪɟɧɨ
ɢɡɞɚʃɟȻɟɨɝɪɚɞȼɚɧɞɚɥɢʁɚ].
44 A Yugoslav linguist Ranko Bugarski is in oppinion that in sociolinguistic sense the
dialects are not separate languages, but in linguistic sense they are. According to him,
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20

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RQH³GLDOHFW´ZLOOEHSURFODLPHG and recognized DVD³ODQJXDJH´)RUKLPLQIDFWWKH
most important criteria that creates D GLIIHUHQFH EHWZHHQ WKH ³ODQJXDJH´ DQG WKH
³GLDOHFW´LVcomprehensibility [R. Bugarski, Uvod u opãWXOLQJYLVWLNX, Beograd, 1996,
238±239]. A 6HUELDQSKLORORJLVWDQGDFDGHPLF/MXERPLU6WRMDQRYLü(1860±1929) was
in opinion that around 20% of the South Slavic population can not be exactly
classified to one linguistic-national group according to their spoken language because
WKH\ DUH VSHDNLQJ ³PL[WXUH GLDOHFWV´ RI WZR ODQJXDJHV 7KXV WKHUH DUH ³WUDQVLWLRQDO
]RQHV´EHWZHHQthe South Slavic languages [ȴɋɬɨʁɚɧɨɜɢʄ, ɉɪɢɫɬɭɩɧɚ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɫɤɚ
ɛɟɫɟɞɚ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ11-I-1896].
45 Ȼ Ȼɪɛɨɪɢʄ, ɋ ʁɟɡɢɤɚ ɧɚ ʁɟɡɢɤ ɋɨɰɢɨɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɱɤɢ ɨɝɥɟɞɢ II, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ 2001,
43±44, 68.
46 About the genesis of the idea of Serbian national identity among the Catholic
intelligentsia of Dubrovnik and Dalmatia in the 19th century, see [I. Banac, ³7KH
&RQIHVVLRQDO ³5XOH´ DQG WKH 'XEURYQLN ([FHSWLRQ 7KH 2ULJLQV RI WKH ³6HUE&DWKROLF´ &LUFOH LQ 1LQHWHHQWK-&HQWXU\ 'DOPDWLD´ Slavic Review. American
Quarterly of Soviet and East European Studies, 42 (3), Fall 1983].
47 ɉɆɢɥɨɫɚɜʂɟɜɢʄ, ɋɪɛɢɢʃɢɯɨɜʁɟɡɢɤɏɪɟɫɬɨɦɚɬɢʁɚ, ɉɪɢɲɬɢɧɚɇɚɪɨɞɧɚɢ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬɫɤɚɛɢɛɥɢɨɬɟɤɚ, 1997, 13±41, 412±426, 466±476.
21

9ODGLVODY%6RWLURYLüThe Croatian National Revival Movement and the Serbs

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48 It is true that the region of Dubrovnik before 1945 was given to the Province of
Croatia (Banovina Hrvatska) within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in August 1939
according to the agreement reached by a leading Croat politician Vladimir Vlatko
Maþek and the Yugoslav PM DragiãD &YHWNRYLü (a Gipsy) but, however, this
agreement was never approved by the Yugoslav Parliament and was opposed by all
Serbian leading political parties, politicians, intelligentsia and public workers.
Nevertheless, the agreement of August 26th, 1939 on Banovina Hrvatska was
approved by the Yugoslav Royal Governorship and therefore it was created a kind of
a Greater Croatia within Yugoslavia. The banovina was composed by the kajkavian
Croatia, the ãWRNDYLDQ Slavonia, the West Srem, whole Dalmatia with Dubrovnik and
huge territories in Bosnia-Herzegovina with a total population of 4,024,601 people
(the 1931 census) [6 6UNXOM - /XþLü Hrvatska povijest u dvadeset pet karata.
3URãLUHQR L GRSXQMHQR L]GDQMH =DJUHE $*0í+UYDWVNL LQIRUPDWLYQL FHQWDUí7UVDW 
í@ +RZHYHU WKH 6HUEV FRPSRVHG DERXW  RXW RI WKH EDQRYLQD¶V
population. The borders of Banovina Hrvatska were created according to the Croat
claim that all Roman Catholic ãtokavian speaking population in Yugoslavia have been
WKH&URDWVíDYLHZSRLQWLQKHULWHGE\WKHIllyrian Movement¶VLGHRORJ\
49 A spoken language of the people from Dubrovnik was always the ãWRNDYLDQdialect,
but their literature was written in four languages: the Latin, Italian, þDNDYLDQdialect,
and ãWRNDYLDQGLDOHFW7KHODVWWZRZHUH³GRPHVWLFODQJXDJHV´The ýDNDYLDQdialect
was used till mid-15th century as the most fashionable literal language in the whole
Dalmatia besides the Italian and Latin. However, from the mid-15th centuty the
writers from Dubrovnik mainly wrote in the ãWRNDYLDQ dialect that became the
language in which the most glorious Ragusan literature (the period of Baroque) was
written. According to the most experts on the Slavic literature, probably, the
ãWRNDYLDQ Baroque literature of Dubrovnik gave the best examples of the Slavic
Baroque literature.

22

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50 M. Ɋɟɲɟɬɚɪ, $ɧɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ ɞɭɛɪɨɜɚɱɤɟ ɥɢɪɢɤɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ ; Ɇ Ɋɟɲɟɬɚɪ,
³ɇɚʁɫɬɚɪɢʁɢ ɞɭɛɪɨɜɚɱɤɢ ɝɨɜɨɪ´ Ƚɨɞɢɲʃɚɤ ɋɪɩɫɤɟ ɤɪɚʂɟɜɫɤɟ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢʁɟ, 50,
Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ  M. 5HãHWDU, ³'LH 5DJXVDQLVFKHQ 8UNXQGHQ GHV ;,,,±XV.
-DKUKXQGHUWV´ Archiv für slawische Philologie, XVI Jahrgang, Wien, 1891; M.
5HãHWDU, ³'LH ýDNDYãWLQD XQ GHUHQ HLQVWLJH XQG MHW]LJH *UHQ]HQ´ Archiv für
slawische Philologie, XVI Jahrgang, Wien, 1891. However, during a time of the
Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918± 5HãHWDUFRUUHFWHGKLVVWDQGXSRQthe Serbs and
Croats and their languages. Namely, under the strong influence of the official policy
RI³WKHLQWHJUDO<XJRVODYLVP´5HãHWDUEHFDPHDQDGYRFDWHRI an idea that the Serbs
and the Croats were and are speaking the same language, and therefore they belong to
the same people who just has two names (see more in [ȼ ɇɨɜɚɤ, Ⱥɧɬɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ
ʁɭɝɨɫɥɨɜɟɧɫɤɟ ɦɢɫɥɢ ɢ ɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝ ʁɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɚ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ ]). Nevertheless, M.
ReãHWDU WZR \HDUV EHIRUH GLHG UHWXUQHG WR KLV RULJLQDO LGHD WKDW the Serbs and the
Croats are two different peoples who spoke two different languages and that Ragusian
literal heritage belonges definitelly to the Serbs, but not to the Croats.

23

9ODGLVODY%6RWLURYLüThe Croatian National Revival Movement and the Serbs

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51 ȾɊɭɜɚɪɚɰ, ȿɜɨɲɬɚɫɬɟɧɚɦɤɪɢɜɢ, ɁɟɦɭɧThis book is important as
the author is dealing with the ethnolinguistic division between the Serbs and the
Croats.
52 Ⱦ Ɉɛɪɚɞɨɜɢʄ, ³ɉɢɫɦɨ ɏɚɪɚɥɚɦɩɢʁɭ´ ɀɢɜɨɬ ɢ ɩɪɢɤʂɭɱɟɧɢʁɚ, ɇɨɜɢ ɋɚɞ
1783; P. J âafaĜik, Slowansky narodopis, 3UDKD  3 - âDIDĜLN, Serbische
Lesekörner, 3HVW  3 - âDIDĜLN, Geschichte der slawischen Sprache und
Literatur nach allen Mundarten, Buda, 1826; J. Dobrovský, Geschichte der
böhmische Sprache und Literatur, Wien, 1792/1818; J. Kopitar, Serbica, Beograd,
1984 (reprinted sellected works); J. Kopitar, ³3DWULRWVNH IDQWD]LMH MHGQRJ 6ORYHQD´
Vaterländische Bläter, 1810; F. 0LNORãLþ³6HUELVFKXQGFKRUYDWLVFK´Vergleichende
Gramatik der slawischen Sprachen, Wien, 1852/1879.

24

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See, for instance [A. ɉɟɬɪɨɜɢʄ, ³ɒɬɚ ɫɦɨ ɦɢ ɲɬɚ ʄɟɦɨ ɛɢɬɢ ɤɚɤɨ ʄɟɦɨ ɫɟ
ɡɜɚɬɢ"´ ɋɪɩɫɤɢ ɧɚɪɨɞɧɢ ɥɢɫɬ, ʋ   ,  ȭ ɇɢɤɨɥɚʁɟɜɢʄ, ɋɪɩɫɤɢ
ɫɩɨɦɟɧɢɰɢ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ0].
54 On the ancient Balkan Illyrians, their culture and history, see [A. StiSþHYLü The
Illyrians: History and Culture, Noyes Press, 1977; J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, Oxford
8.í&DPEULGJH86$%ODFNZHOO].
53

25

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55

P. E. Ritter, Anagrammaton, sive Laurus auxiliatoribus Ungariae liber secundus,
Vienna, 1689, 69±117.
56 P. Ritter, Croatia rediviva: Regnante Leopoldo Magno Caesare, Zagreb, 1700, 10.
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57

P. Ritter, Croatia rediviva: Regnante Leopoldo Magno Caesare, Zagreb, 1700, 10.
On the present-day Ukraine as a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, see [A.
Blanuca et al., Ukraina: Lietuvos epocha, í, Vilnius: Mokslo ir
enciklopedijǐOHLG\ERVFHQWUDV].
59 P. Ritter, Croatia rediviva: Regnante Leopoldo Magno Caesare, Zagreb, 1700, 32.
60 P. R. Vitezoviü, Mappa Generalis Regni Croatiae Totius. Limitibus suis Antiquis,
videlicet, a Ludovici, Regis Hungariae, Diplomatibus, comprobatis, determinati,
1:550 000 (drawing in color), 69,4 x 46,4 cm., Croatian State Archives, Cartographic
Collection, D I., Zagreb, 1699.
58

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61 P. Ritter, Croatia rediviva: Regnante Leopoldo Magno Caesare, Zagreb, 1700, 32;
P. Ritter, Stemmatographia, sive Armorum Illyricorum delineatio, descriptio et
restitutio, Vienna, 1701.
62 P. Ritter, Croatia rediviva: Regnante Leopoldo Magno Caesare, Zagreb, 1700, 32;
P. Ritter, Stemmatographia, sive Armorum Illyricorum delineatio, descriptio et
restitutio, Vienna, 1701; I. Banac, ³7KH,QVLJQLDRI,GHQWLW\+HUDOGU\DQGWKH*URZWK
RI1DWLRQDO,GHRORJLHV$PRQJWKH6RXWK6ODYV´Ethnic Studies, 10, 1993, 223±227.

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65 On the Muslim identity and tradition in Bosnia-Herzegovina, see [R. J. Donia, J. V.
A. Fine, Bosnia and Hercegovina: A Tradition Betrayed, New York: Columbia
University Press, 1994; M. Pinson, The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Their
Historic Development from the Middle Ages to the Dissolution of Yugoslavia,
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996].
66 D. 3DYOLþHYLü 3RYLMHVW+UYDWVNH'UXJRL]PLMHQMHQRLSURãLUHQo izdanje, Zagreb:
Naklada P.I.P. 3DYLþLü, 2000, 248±249.

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67 D. 3DYOLþHYLü 3RYLMHVW+UYDWVNH'UXJRL]PLMHQMHQRLSURãLUHQRL]GDQMH, Zagreb:
Naklada P.I.P. 3DYLþLü, 2000, 250±251.
68 G. M., ³+UYDWVNLMH]LN´Narodne novine, 241, Zagreb, 1857.
69 ɉɆɢɥɨɫɚɜʂɟɜɢʄ, ɋɪɛɢɢʃɢɯɨɜʁɟɡɢɤɏɪɟɫɬɨɦɚɬɢʁɚ, ɉɪɢɲɬɢɧɚɇɚɪɨɞɧɚɢ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬɫɤɚɛɢɛɥɢɨɬɟɤɚ, 1997, 28±30.
70 D. 3DYOLþHYLü 3RYLMHVW+UYDWVNH'UXJRL]PLMHQMHQRLSURãLUHQRL]GDQMH, Zagreb:
Naklada P.I.P. 3DYLþLü, 2000, 250±251; I. Periü, Povijest Hrvata, Zagreb: Krinen,
1997, 157±159.
71 ȼ ɋ Ʉɚɪɚʇɢʄ Äɋɪɛɢ ɫɜɢ ɢ ɫɜɭɞɚ³ Ʉɨɜɱɟɠɢʄ ɡɚ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɭ ʁɟɡɢɤ ɢ ɨɛɢɱɚʁɟ
ɋɪɛɚ ɫɜɚ ɬɪɢ ɡɚɤɨɧɚ  Ȼɟɱ ; Ɋ ȴɭɲɢʄ Ʉʃɢɝɚ ɨ ɇɚɱɟɪɬɚɧɢʁɭ
ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢɢɞɪɠɚɜɧɢɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɤɧɟɠɟɜɢɧɟɋɪɛɢʁɟ  ȻɟɨɝɪɚɞȻɂȽɁ
72 V. B. SotirovLü Ä1LQHWHHQWK-FHQWXU\ LGHDV RI 6HUELDQ ¶OLQJXLVWLF¶ QDWLRQKRRG DQG
VWDWHKRRG³Slavistica Vilnensis, 49 (2)9LOQLXVí
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Gaj, ³ýLMHMHNROR"´Danica ilirska, 31, Zagreb, 1. 8. 1846.
ɉɂɜɢʄ, ɋɪɩɫɤɢɧɚɪɨɞɢʃɟɝɨɜʁɟɡɢɤ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ
ɉɂɜɢʄ, Ɉʁɟɡɢɤɭɧɟɤɚɞɚɲʃɟɦɢɫɚɞɚɲʃɟɦ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞɉɪɢɲɬɢɧɚ 10.
76 A. Leskien, Grammatik der Serbo-kroatischen Sprache. 1. Teil. Lautlehre,
Stammbildung, Formenlehre, +HLGHOEHUJ  3-âDIDĜLN LQ KLV ZRUN Slowansky
narodopis, Praha, 1842 (reprinted in 1955) on pages 146±147 named the language of
Dalmatia as the Serb one. This opinion was severely criticized by Vjekoslav Babukiü
one of the most prominent leaders of the Illyrian Movement, who named the language
73 Lj.
74
75

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of both Croatia and Dalmatia as the horvatski >³9%DEXNLüWR3-âDIDĜLN´ Zagreb,
1842, National and university library in Zagreb, R 3992a].
77 3-âDIDĜLN, Slowansky narodopis, Praha, 1955 (reprinted from 1842), 144±150; I.
Banac, The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics,
IthacaíLondon, 1993, 80±82.
33

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I. Periü, Povijest Hrvata, Zagreb: Krinen, 1997, 163.
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9-DJLü ,]DEUDQLNUDüLVSLVL, Zagreb, 1948, 19±98; V. Jagiü Djela, Zagreb, 1953.
For instance [ȼɋɄɚɪɚʇɢʄ, ³ɋɪɛɢɫɜɢɢɫɜɭɞɚ´Ʉɨɜɱɟɠɢʄɡɚɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɭʁɟɡɢɤ
ɢɨɛɢɱɚʁɟɋɪɛɚɫɜɚɬɪɢɡɚɤɨɧɚ, 1, Ȼɟɱ 1±27; ȴɋɬɨʁɚɧɨɜɢʄ, ³ɉɪɢɫɬɭɩɧɚ
ɚɤɚɞɟɦɫɤɚ ɛɟɫɟɞɚ ȴɭɛ ɋɬɨʁɚɧɨɜɢʄɚ´ Ƚɥɚɫ ɋɪɩɫɤɟ ɤɪɚʂɟɜɫɤɟ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢʁɟ, LII,
Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ]. See more about this problem in [9%6RWLURYLü ³1LQHWHHQWK-century
ideas of Serbian ³OLQJXLVWLF´QDWLRQKRRGDQGVWDWHKRRG´ Slavistica Vilnensis, 49 (2),
Vilnius, 2000, 7±24].
81 J. âidak et al., Hrvatski narodni preporod-Ilirski pokret, Drugo izdanje, Zagreb,
1990, 134±138; D. 3DYOLþHYLü 3RYLMHVW +UYDWVNH 'UXJR L]PLMHQMHQR L SURãLUHQR
izdanje, Zagreb: Naklada P.I.P. 3DYLþLü, 2000, 252.
79
80

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J. Horvat, 3ROLWLþNDSRYMHVW+UYDWVNH, I, Zagreb, 1990, 73±76.
On the history of Serbia from 1830 to 1839, see [ɊȴɭɲɢʄɄɧɟɠɟɜɢɧɚɋɪɛɢʁɚ 
í  ȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɋȺɇɍ].

82
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The first Habsburg planes to occupy the Balkans date back at the time of the
Illyrian Movement LQ  ZKHQ ,OLMD *DUDãDQLQ ZURWH D 1DþHUWDQLMH) [ɑ ɉɨɩɨɜ
ȼɟɥɢɤɚɋɪɛɢʁɚ± ɫɬɜɚɪɧɨɫɬɢɦɢɬɋɪɟɦɫɤɢɄɚɪɥɨɜɰɢíȻɟɨɝɪɚɞ].
85 According to many historiographic works on the origin of the WWI, it was exactly
a confrontation of the Habsburg imperialism with the Serb nationalism that as a
SUHWH[WEURXJKWWKHZRUOGWRWKH*UHDW:DURIí2QWKLVLVVXHVHHPRUHLQ
[J. S. Levy, J. A. Vasquez (eds.), The Outbreak of the First World War, New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2014; T. G. Otte, -XO\&ULVLV7KH:RUOG¶V'HVFHQWLQWR
War, Summer 1914, Cambridge University Press, 2014; S. McMeekim, July 1914:
Countdown to War, New York: Basic Books, 2014; Ɇ Ɋɚɞɨʁɟɜɢʄ ȴ Ⱦɢɦɢʄ
ɋɪɛɢʁɚ ɭ ȼɟɥɢɤɨɦ Ɋɚɬɭ í Ʉɪɚɬɤɚ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɚ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ
ɋɄɁíȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɢ ɮɨɪɭɦ ɡɚ ɫɜɟɬ ɪɚɜɧɨɩɪɚɜɧɢɯ  Ɇ Ȼʁɟɥɚʁɚɰ í
Ɂɚɲɬɨ ɪɟɜɢɡɢʁɚ? ɋɬɚɪɟ ɢ ɧɨɜɟ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɜɟɪɡɟ ɨ ɭɡɪɨɰɢɦɚ ɉɪɜɨɝ ɫɜɟɬɫɤɨɝ ɪɚɬɚ,
ȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɆɟɞɢʁɚɰɟɧɬɚɪÄɈɞɛɪɚɧɚ³].
86 Ɇ Ɋɚɞɨʁɟɜɢʄ ȴ Ⱦɢɦɢʄ ɋɪɛɢʁɚ ɭ ȼɟɥɢɤɨɦ Ɋɚɬɭ í Ʉɪɚɬɤɚ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɚȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɋɄɁíȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɢɮɨɪɭɦɡɚɫɜɟɬɪɚɜɧɨɩɪɚɜɧɢɯ, 50í51.
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87 ý 3RSRY *UDÿDQVND (YURSD í  'UXJD NQMLJD 3ROLWLþND LVWRULMD
Evrope, Novi Sad: Matica Srpska, 1989í
88 On the Hungarian struggles against Vienna at the time of Enlightenment, reforms
DQG WKH í 5HYROXWLRQ í  VHH >/ .RQWOHU Millenium in Central
Europe: A History of Hungary, Budapest: Atlantisz Publishing House, 1999, 
í@ 2Q OLEHUDOLVP Dnd nationalism in the Habsburg Monarchy, see [S. B.
Várdy, A. H. Várdy, The Austro-Hungarian Mind: At Home and Abroad, New York:
&ROXPELD8QLYHUVLW\3UHVVí@
89 ɉ Ɋɨɤɚɢ Ɂ ȭɟɪɟ Ɍ ɉɚɥ Ⱥ Ʉɚɫɚɲ ɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɚ Ɇɚɻɚɪɚ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ Clio, 2002,
416. According to the 1910 census, in Austria-Hungary there were 51,356,465
inhabitants: the Germans and Hungarians ± 22,077,661 (42,9%); the Slavs ±
24,388,413 (47,7%); the others ± 4,089,391 (9,3%) [Ɇ Ɋɚɞɨʁɟɜɢʄ ȴ Ⱦɢɦɢʄ
ɋɪɛɢʁɚ ɭ ȼɟɥɢɤɨɦ Ɋɚɬɭ í Ʉɪɚɬɤɚ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɚ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ
ɋɄɁíȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɢɮɨɪɭɦɡɚɫɜɟɬɪɚɜɧɨɩɪɚɜɧɢɯ, 54].

38

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ȼɄɪɟɫɬɢʄȻɢɫɤɭɩɒɬɪɨɫɦɚʁɟɪɭɫɜɟɬɥɭɧɨɜɢɯɢɡɜɨɪɚɇɨɜɢɋɚɞ
Ɇ Ɋɚɞɨʁɟɜɢʄ ȴ Ⱦɢɦɢʄ ɋɪɛɢʁɚ ɭ ȼɟɥɢɤɨɦ Ɋɚɬɭ í Ʉɪɚɬɤɚ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɚȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɋɄɁíȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɢɮɨɪɭɦɡɚɫɜɟɬɪɚɜɧɨɩɪɚɜɧɢɯ On
the issue of a Greater Serbia, see [ȼ ȭ Ʉɪɟɫɬɢʄ Ɇ ɇɟɞɢʄ ɭɪɟɞɧɢɰɢ  ȼɟɥɢɤɚ
ɋɪɛɢʁɚ ɂɫɬɢɧɟ ɡɚɛɥɭɞɟ ɡɥɨɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɟ Ɂɛɨɪɧɢɤ ɪɚɞɨɜɚ ɫɚ Ɇɟɻɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝ
ɧɚɭɱɧɨɝɫɤɭɩɚɨɞɪɠɚɧɨɝɭɋɪɩɫɤɨʁɚɤɚɞɟɦɢʁɢɧɚɭɤɚɢɭɦɟɬɧɨɫɬɢɭȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɭɨɞ 
í Ɉɤɬɨɛɪɚ  Ƚɨɞɢɧɟ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ ɋɄɁ  ɑ ɉɨɩɨɜ ȼɟɥɢɤɚ ɋɪɛɢʁɚ ±
ɫɬɜɚɪɧɨɫɬɢɦɢɬɋɪɟɦɫɤɢɄɚɪɥɨɜɰɢíȻɟɨɝɪɚɞ].
90
91

39

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92

On Ferenc Deák, see [B. Kiraly, Ferenc Deak, (World Leaders), Twayne
Publishing, 1975].
93 J. ɏɨɪɜɚɬ, ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɤɟɫɬɪɚɧɤɟɭɏɪɜɚɬɚ ɢʃɢɯɨɜɟɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢʁɟ, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ, 1939,
65.
40

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41

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A Great Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Hungary before the WWI      

96 J.

Horvat, 3ROLWLþNDSRYMHVW+UYDWVNH, I, Zagreb, 1990, 62±63.
42 

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D. 3DYOLþHYLü 3RYLMHVW+UYDWVNH'UXJRL]PLMHQMHQRLSURãLUHQRL]GDQMH, Zagreb:
Naklada P.I.P. 3DYLþLü, 2000, 253.
99 0âLFHU, Riznica Ilirska 1835±1885=DJUHEí/MXEOMDQD187±190; J. âidak
et al., Hrvatski narodni preporod-Ilirski pokret, Drugo izdanje, Zagreb, 1990, 156±
160.

98

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100 On history and culture of Dalmatia, see [L. Wolff, Venice and the Slavs. The
Discovery of Dalmatia in the Age of Enlightenment, Stanford: Stanford University
Press, 2001; A. Travirka, Dalmatia: History, Culture, Art Heritage, Zadar: Forum,
2006; L. Monzali, The Italians of Dalmatia: From Italian Unification to World War I,
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009; S. Trifkovic, The Krajina Chronicle. A
History of Serbs in Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia&KLFDJRí2WWDZDí/RQGRQ7KH
Lord Byron Foundation for Balkan Studies, 2010; D. K. Reill, Nationalists Who
Feared the Nation. Adriatic Multi-Nationalism in Habsburg Dalmatia, Trieste, and
Venice, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012; M. M. Holbach, Dalmatia: The
Land Where East Meets West, Ulan Press, 2012].

45

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101

T. Macan, Povjest hrvatskog naroda, Zagreb, 1992, 283.
D. 3DYOLþHYLü 3RYLMHVW+UYDWVNH'UXJRL]PLMHQMHQRLSURãLUHQRL]GDQMH, Zagreb:
Naklada P.I.P. 3DYLþLü, 2000, 253±254; J. Horvat, 3ROLWLþNDSRYMHVWKUYDWVNRJQDURGD,
I, Zagreb, 1990, 87±90.
102

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103

About the Croatian-Hungarian struggle in 1848±1849, see [L. Kontler, Millenium
in Central Europe: A History of Hungary, Budapest: Atlantisz Publishing House,
1999, 246±261]. On the Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence in 
íVHH>/.RVVXWK,'HDNThe Lawful Revolution: Louis Kossuth and the
+XQJDULDQV í, Columbia University Press, 1979; J. Noszko, Kossuth and
Gorgey. The Political-Military Relationship in the Hungarian War of Independence, 
í, BiblioScholar, 2012; Ch. Pridham, Kossuth and Magyar Land: Personal
Adventures During the War in Hungary, Ulan Press, 2012].
104 J. Horvat, /MXGHYLW*DM1MHJRYåLYRW±njegovo doba, Zagreb, 1975, 230.
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106 On this issue, see more in [Petrovich M$+LVWRU\RI0RGHUQ6HUELDí,
,1HZ<RUNí/RQGRQ@
107 Ⱦ Ɍ Ȼɚɬɚɤɨɜɢʄ Ʉɨɫɨɜɨ ɢ Ɇɟɬɨɯɢʁɚ ɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɚ ɢ ɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢʁɚ Ⱦɪɭɝɨ
ɞɨɩɭʃɟɧɨ ɢɡɞɚʃɟ Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ ɑɢɝɨʁɚ ɲɬɚɦɩɚ ; P. V. Grujiü Kosovo Knot,
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: RoseDog Books, 2014.
108 See the table ³StanovniãWYRXMXJRVORYHQVNLP]HPOMDPD XIX veka´in [I. %RåLü
S. ûLUNRYLü M. (NPHþLü V. Dedijer, Istorija Jugoslavije, Beograd: Prosveta, 1973,
289].
109 19HOLPLURYLü, Religion and Nationality in Serbia, London, 1915.
110 ûLUNRYLü Ä5HOLJLRXV )DFWRU LQ )RUPLQJ RI &XOWXUDO DQG 1DWLRQDO ,GHQWLW\³
Religion & War, Belgrade, 1994.

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ɂɫɬɨɪɢʁɚɫɪɩɫɤɨɝɧɚɪɨɞɚ, V(1), ȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɋȺɇɍíí
I. %RåLü 6 ûLUNRYLü 0 (NPHþLü 9 'HGLMHU Istorija Jugoslavije, Beograd:
Prosveta, 1973, 293.
113 ȭɇɢɤɨɥɚʁɟɜɢʄÄȿɩɚɪɯɢʁɚɩɪɚɜɨɫɥɚɜɧɚɭȾɚɥɦɚɰɢʁɢ³ɋɪɩɫɤɨ-ɞɚɥɦɚɬɢɧɫɤɢ
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111
112

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114

On this issue, see [N. Itzkowitz, Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition, New
York, 1972; H. Inalcik, 7KH2WWRPDQ(PSLUH7KH&ODVVLFDO$JHí, New
York, 1973].
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115 Ɇ Ƚɚɜɪɢɥɨɜɢʄ ³ɋɭɫɩɟɧɞɨɜɚʃɟ ɩɪɜɨɝ ɫɪɩɫɤɨɝ ɭɫɬɚɜɚ´ ɂɡ ɧɨɜɟ ɫɪɩɫɤɟ
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116 ȼ ɋ Ʉɚɪɚʇɢʄ Äɋɪɛɢɫɜɢ ɢ ɫɜɭɞɚ³ Ʉɨɜɱɟɠɢʄ ɡɚ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɭ ʁɟɡɢɤ ɢ ɨɛɢɱɚʁɟ
ɋɪɛɚɫɜɚɬɪɢɡɚɤɨɧɚȻɟɱí27; T. Judah, The Serbs. History, Myth & The
Destruction of Yugoslavia 1HZ +DYHQí/RQGRQ <Dle University Press, 1997, 55, 
í
117 G. Tomashevich ³7KH %DWWOH RI .RVRYR DQG WKH 6HUELDQ &KXUFK´ : 6
Vucinich, T. A. Emmeret (eds.), Kosovo: The Legacy of a Medieval Battle,
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ɫɬɜɚɪɧɨɫɬȻɟɨɝɪɚɞɅɢɬɟɪɚ].
118 ɉɆɢɥɨɫɚɜʂɟɜɢʄ, ɋɪɛɢɢʃɢɯɨɜʁɟɡɢɤɏɪɟɫɬɨɦɚɬɢʁɚ, ɉɪɢɲɬɢɧɚɇɚɪɨɞɧɚ
ɢɭɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬɫɤɚɛɢɛɥɢɨɬɟɤɚ, 1997í

54

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ʬ˄ˈˍˆˊʿʼ ˃ʼˆˊˉʼ ˤˊ˔ˎˁ˔ˆˊ ʭˌʽ˄ˈʼ ˉʼ˃ʾʼˎ˄ ˍˁ ʼˇ˄ ˧ˁ ˍˁ ˋˊ ˍʾˊˤ
119 ȼ ɋ Ʉɚɪɚʇɢʄ Äɋɪɛɢɫɜɢ ɢ ɫɜɭɞɚ³ Ʉɨɜɱɟɠɢʄ ɡɚ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɭ ʁɟɡɢɤ ɢ ɨɛɢɱɚʁɟ
ɋɪɛɚɫɜɚɬɪɢɡɚɤɨɧɚȻɟɱí
120 V. Dedijer, History of Yugoslavia, New York, 1975, 103; B. Jelavich, History of
the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, Cambridge: Cambridge University
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121 ȼ ɋ Ʉɚɪɚʇɢʄ Äɋɪɛɢɫɜɢ ɢ ɫɜɭɞɚ³ Ʉɨɜɱɟɠɢʄ ɡɚ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɭ ʁɟɡɢɤ ɢ ɨɛɢɱɚʁɟ
ɋɪɛɚɫɜɚɬɪɢɡɚɤɨɧɚȻɟɱ, 6.
122 ȼ ɋ Ʉɚɪɚʇɢʄ Äɋɪɛɢɫɜɢ ɢ ɫɜɭɞɚ³ Ʉɨɜɱɟɠɢʄ ɡɚ ɢɫɬɨɪɢʁɭ ʁɟɡɢɤ ɢ ɨɛɢɱɚʁɟ
ɋɪɛɚɫɜɚɬɪɢɡɚɤɨɧɚȻɟɱ, 1.
123 ȼɋɄɚɪɚʇɢʄȼɭɤɨɜɚɩɪɟɩɢɫɤɚ, IV, Ȼɟɨɝɪɚɞ
124 On more detailed and documentary based report, see [ɉɆɢɥɨɫɚɜʂɟɜɢʄ, ɋɪɛɢɢ
ʃɢɯɨɜʁɟɡɢɤɏɪɟɫɬɨɦɚɬɢʁɚ, ɉɪɢɲɬɢɧɚɇɚɪɨɞɧɚɢɭɧɢɜɟɪɡɢɬɟɬɫɤɚɛɢɛɥɢɨɬɟɤɚ,
1997].

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125

J. R. Lampe, Yugoslavia as History. Twice there was a country, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1996, 52.
126 Ɋ ȴɭɲɢʄ Ʉʃɢɝɚ ɨ ɇɚɱɟɪɬɚɧɢʁɭ ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɧɢ ɢ ɞɪɠɚɜɧɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦ
ɤɧɟɠɟɜɢɧɟɋɪɛɢʁɟ  ȻɟɨɝɪɚɞȻɂȽɁí
57

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2Q WKH OLIH RI ,OLMD *DUDãDQLQ VHH >' 0DF.HQ]LH Ilija Garaãanin: Balkan
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128 /M $OHNVLü ÄâWD MH GRYHOR GR VWYDUDQMD µ1DþHUWDQLMD¶³ Historijski pregled, 2,
Zagreb, 1954, 68í
129 J. R. Lampe, Yugoslavia as History. Twice there was a country, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1996, 52.
127

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68

9ODGLVODY%6RWLURYLüThe Croatian National Revival Movement and the Serbs 

̧ H̱  ;HPEPWJOTLJ ËBTPQJT)JTUPSJDBM 3FWJFX 
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7 # 4PUJSPWJÅ  ̲/JOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZ JEFBT PG 4FSCJBO ̭MJOHVJTUJḒ
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ʝ ʝˌʽˊˌ˄˧  0 ˤˁ˃˄˓ˆˊˈ ˌʼˍˆˊˇˏ ʭˊ˒˄ˊˇ˄ˉʿʾ˄ˍˎ˄˓ˆ˄ ˊʿˇˁˀ˄ * 
ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
ʝ ʝˌʽˊˌ˄˧  ʭ ˤˁ˃˄ˆʼ ˉʼ ˤˁ˃˄ˆ ʭˊ˒˄ˊˇ˄ˉʿʾ˄ˍˎ˄˓ˆ˄ ˊʿˇˁˀ˄ ** 
ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
ʝʞˇʼˤ˄˧ʣˁˈ˥ʼˉ˄˓ˆ˄ ʭˌʽ˄ˍˎʼˌˊˍˁˀˁˊ˒˄ʝʼˇˆʼˉʼ˄ʫʼˉˊˉ˄ˤˁˏ
ʾˊˤˉ˄ˈ˄˒˄ʾ˄ˇˉ˄ˈˀˊʿʼ˞ʼˤ˄ˈʼˍʼʬ˄ˈ˥ʼˉ˄ˈʼ˄ʱˁˇˁˉ˄ˈʼˊˀ
*ˀˊ9ʾˁˆʼ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
ʞ ʝ ʭˊˎ˄ˌˊʾ˄˧  ̰ʱˌʾʼˎˍˆʼ ̬ˋˌʼʾʼ˔ˆʼ̭ ˄ˍˎˊˌ˄ˊʿˌʼː˄ˤʼ ˄ ʭˌʽ˄̱ 
4FSCJBO4UVEJFT3FTFBSDI   
/PWJ4BE 4FSCJB 
ʞ ʎ ʦˌˁˍˎ˄˧  ʟˁˉˊ˒˄ˀˊˈ ˀˊ ʾˁˇ˄ˆˁ ʱˌʾʼˎˍˆˁ ʠˌˏʿˊ ˀˊˋˏ˦ˁˉˊ
˄˃ˀʼ˦ˁ ʔʼʿˊˀ˄ˉʼʟʼˈʽ˄ˎ 
ʞ ʎ ʦˌˁˍˎ˄˧  ʨ ʩˁˀ˄˧ ˏˌˁˀˉ˄˒˄ 
ʞˁˇ˄ˆʼ ʭˌʽ˄ˤʼ ʤˍˎ˄ˉˁ 
˃ʼʽˇˏˀˁ  ˃ˇˊˏˋˊˎˌˁʽˁ  ʣʽˊˌˉ˄ˆ ˌʼˀˊʾʼ ˍʼ ʨˁ˞ˏˉʼˌˊˀˉˊʿ
ˉʼˏ˓ˉˊʿ ˍˆˏˋʼ ˊˀˌ˂ʼˉˊʿ ˏ ʭˌˋˍˆˊˤ ʼˆʼˀˁˈ˄ˤ˄ ˉʼˏˆʼ ˄
ˏˈˁˎˉˊˍˎ˄ ˏ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀˏ ˊˀ ΀ ʪˆˎˊʽˌʼ  ʟˊˀ˄ˉˁ 
ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀʭʦʣ 
ʞ ʦˌˁˍˎ˄˧  ʝ˄ˍˆˏˋ ʴˎˌˊˍˈʼˤˁˌ ˏ ˍʾˁˎˇˏ ˉˊʾ˄ˑ ˄˃ʾˊˌʼ  ʩˊʾ˄
ʭʼˀ 
ʞʩˊʾʼˆ ʜˉˎˊˇˊʿ˄ˤʼˤˏʿˊˍˇˊʾˁˉˍˆˁˈ˄ˍˇ˄˄ˉʼˌˊˀˉˊʿˤˁˀ˄ˉˍˎʾʼ 
ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
ʞʭʦʼˌʼ˫˄˧ ̲ʭˌʽ˄ˍʾ˄˄ˍʾˏˀʼ̰ ʦˊʾ˓ˁ˂˄˧˃ʼ˄ˍˎˊˌ˄ˤˏ ˤˁ˃˄ˆ˄
ˊʽ˄˓ʼˤˁʭˌʽʼˍʾʼˎˌ˄˃ʼˆˊˉʼ  ʝˁ˓ 
ʞʭʦʼˌʼ˫˄˧ ʞˏˆˊʾʼˋˌˁˋ˄ˍˆʼ *7 ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
69

9ODGLVODY%6RWLURYLüThe Croatian National Revival Movement and the Serbs

ʠ ʔˁʾ˞ˁʾ˄˧  ʪˀ ʤˉˀ˄ˤˁ ˀˊ ʭˌʽ˄ˤˁ ʫˌʼˍˎʼˌ˄ ˋˊ˓ˁ˒˄ ˍˌˋˍˆˁ
˄ˍˎˊˌ˄ˤˁ ʱ˄˥ʼˀˁ ʿˊˀ˄ˉʼ ˍˁˊʽˁ ˍˌˋˍˆˊʿ ˉʼˌˊˀʼ ˆˌˊ˃ ʜ˃˄ˤˏ ˄
ʡʾˌˊˋˏ ˋˌˁˈʼ ˍˋ˄ˍ˄ˈʼ ˄ ˒˄ˎʼˎ˄ˈʼ ˉʼˤʾˁ˧˄ˑ ˍʾˁˎˍˆ˄ˑ
˄ˍˎˊˌ˄˓ʼˌʼ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ  SFQSJOUGSPN 3PNF 

ʠ ʪʽˌʼˀˊʾ˄˧  ̰ʫ˄ˍˈˊ ʱʼˌʼˇʼˈˋ˄ˤˏ̱   ʢ˄ʾˊˎ ˄ ˋˌ˄ˆ˥ˏ˓ˁˉ˄ˤʼ 
ʩˊʾ˄ʭʼˀ 
ʠʬˏʾʼˌʼ˒ ʡʾˊ ˔ˎʼˍˎˁˉʼˈˆˌ˄ʾ˄Ѹ ʣˁˈˏˉ 
ʠ ʮ ʝʼˎʼˆˊʾ˄˧  ʦˊˍˊʾˊ ˄ ʨˁˎˊˑ˄ˤʼ ʤˍˎˊˌ˄ˤʼ ˄ ˄ˀˁˊˇˊʿ˄ˤʼ 
ʠˌˏʿˊˀˊˋˏ˦ˁˉˊ˄˃ˀʼ˦ˁ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀʳ˄ʿˊˤʼ˔ˎʼˈˋʼ 
ʎ ʩ˄ˆˊˇʼˤˁʾ˄˧  ̲ʡˋʼˌˑ˄ˤʼ ˋˌʼʾˊˍˇʼʾˉʼ ˏ ʠʼˇˈʼ˒˄ˤ˄̰  ʭˌˋˍˆˊ
ˀʼˇˈʼˎ˄ˉˍˆ˄ˈʼʿʼ˃˄ˉ  ʣʼˀʼˌ 
ʎʩ˄ˆˊˇʼˤˁʾ˄˧ ʭˌˋˍˆ˄ˍˋˊˈˁˉ˄˒˄ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
ʤˍˎˊˌ˄ˤʼˉʼˌˊˀʼʔˏʿˊˍˇʼʾ˄ˤˁ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
ʤˍˎˊˌ˄ˤʼˍˌˋˍˆˊʿˉʼˌˊˀʼ 7  
ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀʭʜʩʯ ΀
ʔ ʤ ʠˁˌˁˎ˄˧  ʠ ʫ ʜˉˎ˄˧  ʭ ʨ ʔʼˌ˓ˁʾ˄˧  ʤ˃ˈ˄˔˥ˁˉˊ
ˀˊˍˁ˥ʼʾʼ˦ˁʭˌʽʼ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀʭʼˌˀˊˉ˄ˤʼ 
ʧ ʨ ʦˊˍˎ˄˧  ʭˋˊˌˉˁ ˎˁˌ˄ˎˊˌ˄ˤˁ ʭˌʽʼ ˄ ʱˌʾʼˎʼ  ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ
ʠˁˌˁˎʼ 
ʕʭˎˊˤʼˉˊʾ˄˧ ʫˌ˄ˍˎˏˋˉʼʼˆʼˀˁˈˍˆʼʽˁˍˁˀʼ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ *
ʕʭˎˊˤʼˉˊʾ˄˧̰ʫˌ˄ˍˎˏˋˉʼʼˆʼˀˁˈˍˆʼʽˁˍˁˀʼʕˏʽʭˎˊˤʼˉˊʾ˄˧ʼ̱ 
ʟˇʼˍʭˌˋˍˆˁˆˌʼ˥ˁʾˍˆˁʼˆʼˀˁˈ˄ˤˁ -**̧ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
ʨ ʝˤˁˇʼˤʼ˒  ΀ ʣʼ˔ˎˊ ˌˁʾ˄˃˄ˤʼ  ʭˎʼˌˁ ˄ ˉˊʾˁ
ˆˊˉˎˌˊʾˁˌ˃ˁ ˊ ˏ˃ˌˊ˒˄ˈʼ ʫˌʾˊʿ ˍʾˁˎˍˆˊʿ ˌʼˎʼ  ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ
ʨˁˀ˄ˤʼ˒ˁˉˎʼˌ̲ʪˀʽˌʼˉʼ̰ 
ʨʔˊʾ˄˧ ʭˌʽ˄ˋˌˁʭˌʽʼ ʦˌʼ˥ˁʾˊ 
ʨ ʨ˄ˇʼˉˊʾ˄˧  ʤˍˎˊˌ˄ˤˍˆˊ ˋˊˌˁˆˇˊ ʭˌʽʼ ʠˌˏʿˊ ˀˊˋˏ˦ˁˉˊ ˄
ˋˌˊ˔˄ˌˁˉˊ˄˃ˀʼ˦ˁ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀʞʼˉˀʼˇ˄ˤʼ 
ʨ ʬʼˀˊˤˁʾ˄˧  ʕ ʠ˄ˈ˄˧  ʭˌʽ˄ˤʼ ˏ ʞˁˇ˄ˆˊˈ ʬʼˎˏ ΀
ʦˌʼˎˆʼ ˄ˍˎˊˌ˄ˤʼ  ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ ʭʦʣ΀ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀˍˆ˄ ːˊˌˏˈ ˃ʼ ˍʾˁˎ
ˌʼʾˉˊˋˌʼʾˉ˄ˑ 
ʨ ʬˁ˔ˁˎʼˌ  ̰ʩʼˤˍˎʼˌ˄ˤ˄ ˀˏʽˌˊʾʼ˓ˆ˄ ʿˊʾˊˌ̱  ʟˊˀ˄˔˦ʼˆ ʭˌˋˍˆˁ
ˆˌʼ˥ˁʾˍˆˁʼˆʼˀˁˈ˄ˤˁ  ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
ʪ ʧˏˆˊʾ˄˧ʫˤʼˉˊʾ˄˧  ʭˌʽ˄ˉʼˌˊˀ ˉʼˤˍˎʼˌ˄ˤ˄  *΀***  ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ  

ʫ ʤʾ˄˧  ʪ ˤˁ˃˄ˆˏ ˉˁˆʼˀʼ˔˦ˁˈ ˄ ˍʼˀʼ˔˦ˁˈ  ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀíʫˌ˄˔ˎ˄ˉʼ  

ʫʤʾ˄˧ ʭˌˋˍˆ˄ˉʼˌˊˀ˄˦ˁʿˊʾˤˁ˃˄ˆ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
ʫʨ˄ˇˊˍʼʾ˥ˁʾ˄˧ ʭˌʽ˄˄˦˄ˑˊʾˤˁ˃˄ˆʱˌˁˍˎˊˈʼˎ˄ˤʼ ʫˌ˄˔ˎ˄ˉʼ
ʩʼˌˊˀˉʼ˄ˏˉ˄ʾˁˌ˃˄ˎˁˎˍˆʼʽ˄ʽˇ˄ˊˎˁˆʼ 

70

9ODGLVODY%6RWLURYLüThe Croatian National Revival Movement and the Serbs

ʫ ʬˊˆʼ˄  ʣʎˁˌˁ ʮ ʫʼˇ  ʜ ʦʼˍʼ˔  ʤˍˎˊˌ˄ˤʼ ʨʼ˞ʼˌʼ  ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ
$MJP 
ʬʕˏ˔˄˧ ʦˉˁ˂ˁʾ˄ˉʼʭˌʽ˄ˤʼ ΀ 
ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀʭʜʩʯ 
ʬ ʕˏ˔˄˧  ʦ˦˄ʿʼ ˊ ʩʼ˓ˁˌˎʼˉ˄ˤˏ ʩʼ˒˄ˊˉʼˇˉ˄ ˄ ˀˌ˂ʼʾˉ˄
ˋˌˊʿˌʼˈˆˉˁ˂ˁʾ˄ˉˁʭˌʽ˄ˤˁ  
ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀʝʤʟʣ 
ʬ ʫˁˆˊʾ˄˧ ˄˃ʽˊˌ ˎˁˆˍˎˊʾʼ 
ʦˊˍˊʾˍˆʼ ʽ˄ˎˆʼ ʨ˄ˎ  ˇˁʿˁˉˀʼ ˄
ˍˎʾʼˌˉˊˍˎ ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀʧ˄ˎˁˌʼ 
ʳ ʫˊˋˊʾ  ʞˁˇ˄ˆʼ ʭˌʽ˄ˤʼ ̧ ˍˎʾʼˌˉˊˍˎ ˄ ˈ˄ˎ  ʭˌˁˈˍˆ˄
ʦʼˌˇˊʾ˒˄΀ʝˁˊʿˌʼˀ 
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;BHSFC 3B    

³Banovina Hrvatska´ ± a separate administrative unit in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1939 to
1941 as a Greater Croatia

71