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AFM 280 Organizational Behaviour



Best Buy has a management practice of Results Only Work Environment (ROWE) at corporate headquarters;
gives employees responsibility for managing their own job performance.
o pitfalls with using results to measure job performance
results dont tell the whole picture (employees can have the same bottom-line, but through
different methods)
results are often influenced by factors beyond the employees control
results only does not tell employees how to improve their future performance (reverse a bad year)
job performance: employee behaviours that contribute either positively or negatively to the accomplishment of
organizational goals
o task performance: employee behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational
resources into the goods or services that the organization produces
routine task performance (robot-like actions to predictable demands)
adaptive task performance (thoughtful actions to unique or unusual demands)
creative task performance (ideals/physical outcomes that are novel/useful)
task performance measures are generated from a job analysis
job analysis: a process by which an organization determines requirements of specific jobs
list of all job activities generated (observations, surveys, etc.)
each activity line item is rated by a subject matter expert
subject matter expert: manager, or experience performing the job
o line items are rated in terms of importance and frequency (highest ones are
o National Occupational Classification (NOC) is a national database of occupations
in Canada organizing 30,000 job titles into 520 occupational group descriptions
o citizenship behaviour: voluntary employee behaviours that contribute to organizational goals by improving
the context in which work takes place
two types of citizenship behaviour:
organizational: going beyond normal expectations to improve operations of the
organization, as well as defending and being loyal to it
o voice (constructive suggestions)
o civic virtue (voluntary meetings and functions)
o boosterism (representation outside of work)
interpersonal: going beyond normal job expectations to assist, support, and develop
o helping
o courtesy (keeping everyone up to date)
o sportsmanship
o counterproductive behaviour: employee behaviours that intentionally hinder organizational goal
property deviance: sabotage, theft
production deviance: wasting resources, substance abuse
political deviance: gossiping, incivility
personal aggression: harassment, abuse
a good performer performs both task and citizenship measures, while avoiding to exhibit any counterproductive
application of performance management:
o management by objectives: a management philosophy that bases employee evaluations on whether
specific performance goals have been met
o behaviourally anchored rating scales: use of examples of critical incidents to evaluate an employees job
performance behaviours directly
o 360-degree feedback: a performance evaluation system that uses ratings provided by supervisors, coworkers, subordinates, customers, and the employees themselves
o forced ranking (vitality curve): a performance management system in which managers rank subordinates
relative to one another



Due to high workload of Accenture consultants, Accenture faces a high attrition rate every year. Accenture uses
community events, employee training, benefits and sabbaticals to try to keep employee loyalty.
organizational behaviour: an employees desire to remain a member of an organization
withdrawal behaviour: employee actions that are intended to avoid work situations
forms of commitment:
o affective commitment: stays due to a feeling of emotional attachment (friendships, culture, enjoyment)
staying because you want to
employees who display this are likely to also display citizenship behaviours
o continuance commitment: stays due to an awareness of the costs of leaving (kids, spouse, area, etc.)
staying because you have to
employees with strong continuance commitment perform at minimal acceptable standards
o normative commitment: due to a feeling of obligation (investment in development, second chances)
staying because you ought to
focus of commitment: the people, places, and things that inspire a desire to stay (i.e. team, manager, company)
social network diagram (affective): a diagram that summarizes the bonds among employees
o thicker lines represent frequent communication with more emotional depth
o some employees are nodes, while others are at the fringe of the network
o erosion model: suggests that employees with fewer bonds with co-workers are more likely to quit
o social influence model: suggests that employees with direct linkages to co-workers who leave will become
more likely to leave also
embeddedness (continuance): an employees connection to and sense of fit in the organization and community
(reasons to stay and not generate sources of anxiety)
reactions to negative work events suggests that you might respond in one of four general ways:
o exit: (destructive) one becomes often absent from work of voluntarily leaves
o voice: (constructive) one offers constructive suggestions for change
o loyalty: (passive, constructive) one publicly supports the situation but privately hopes for improvement
o neglect: (passive, destructive) ones interest and effort in work decline
o organizational commitment should increase voice and loyalty, while decreasing exit and neglect
forms of withdrawal behaviour:
o physiological (neglect)
looking busy
o physical withdrawal (exit)
long breaks
missing meetings
independent forms model: a model that predicts that the various withdrawal behaviours are uncorrelated, so that
engaging in one type of withdrawal has little bearing on engaging in other types
compensatory forms model: a model indicating that the various withdrawal behaviours are negatively correlated,
so that engaging in one type of withdrawal makes one less likely to engage in other types
progression model (most likely, supported by research showing positive correlation): a model indicating that the
various withdrawal behaviours are positively correlated, so that engaging in one type of withdrawal makes one
more likely to engage in other types
psychological withdrawal usually will lead into physical withdrawal behaviour
psychological contracts: employee beliefs about what employees owe the organization and what the organization
owes them
transactional contracts: psychological contracts that focus on a narrow set of specific monetary obligations
relational contracts: psychological contracts that focus on a broad set of open-ended and subjective obligations
o downsizing will harm ones psychological contract

o outsourcing might lead to employees viewing relationship as only transactional contracts

perceived organizational support: the degree to which employees believe that the organization values their
contributions and cares about their well-being

Exam question: How does organizational commitment and job performance impact an employee?