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for all real values of x.

[4]

Solution

Two conditions must be satisfied:

256 4(k 2 18k 45) 0

64 k 2 18k 45 0

1

k 2 18k 19 0

(k 1)(k 19) 0

19

Using GC, k 1 or k 19

Since (k 15) 0 , reject k 19

Hence, the set of values is {k : k 1} .

1 y

2 4 x 2 ,

2

3y

3xy

Solution

2 y1 22( x2)

y 1 2x 4

--- (1)

y 2x 5

3 y xy 33

y xy 3

2 x 5 x(2 x 5) 3

2 x 2 3x 2 0

(2 x 1)( x 2) 0

1

, y6

2

When x 2, y 1

When x

27 .

[4]

2

3

y

10

and part of the

1 2x

(1 2 x) 2

Use integration to find the exact area of the shaded region.

curve y 1

Solution

Area

4

0

10

9

1

dx

(1 2 x)2

1 2x

4

9

5ln(1 2 x) x

2(1 2 x) 0

1 9

5ln 9 4

2 2

5ln 9 8 units2

[4]

x 1

and y e x1 1 ,

2 x

indicating clearly the equations of any asymptotes for each of the graphs.

x 1

e x1 1 .

Hence find the range of values of x such that

2

2 x

Solution

y

y e x1 1

x 1

y

[3]

[2]

2 x2

y0

x

y 1

x 2

x 2

Asymptotes at x 2 , x 2 , y 0 and y 1 .

Intersection point at x 0.38790 .

The range of values: x 2 or 0.38790 x 2 .

5

(a)

Find

(i)

(ii)

(b)

32 x

dx

[1]

x2 2 x

dx .

x

[2]

Show that

d xln x

e

(1 x) e x .

dx

Solution

(a)(i)

32 x

1

dx e32 x c

2

( x 1) e x dx

1

e

e3 4 .

[5]

(ii)

x2 2 x

dx

x

1

32

2 dx

x

2

x

5

3

2

4

x2 x2 c

5

3

d xln x

e

dx

1

e xln x 1

x

1 x

e x eln x

(b)

(1 x) e x

( x 1) e x dx

1

4

e xln x

e4ln 4 e1

1 1

4 eln 4

e e

1

4 e3 4

e

6

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

20 x

The equation of a curve is y ln

, where 0 x 10 .

10 x

dy

10

Show that

.

dx x(10 x)

2

. Show that the y coordinate of

5

P is ln 20 and hence find the exact equation of the tangent to the curve at P.

The tangent to the curve at P cuts the x axis at Q. Find the exact coordinates

of Q.

R is the point on the x-axis vertically below P. Show that the area of triangle

5

PQR is (ln 20)2 .

4

Solution

(i)

20 x

y ln

10 x

y ln 20 x ln(10 x)

dy 1

1

dx x 10 x

dy

10

(shown)

dx x(10 x)

(ii)

10

2

x(10 x) 5

50 20 x 2 x2

2 x2 20 x 50 0

x2 10 x 25 0

( x 5)2 0

x5

20 x

Sub. x 5 into y ln

,

10 x

y ln 20 (shown)

y ln 20

y

(iii)

[2]

2

( x 5)

5

2

x 2 ln 20

5

5

5

At Q, y = 0, x 5 ln 20 . Q 5 ln 20, 0 .

2

2

[4]

[1]

[3]

(iv)

P (5, ln 20)

M1

R(5, 0)

1

5

2

2

5

(ln 20) 2 .

4

M1M1

R (5, 0)

7

(a)

(b)

A bag contains 3 red balls, 4 green balls and 5 blue balls. Three balls are

drawn from the bag at random without replacement. Calculate the

probability that

(i) all three balls are red;

(ii) the third ball is red;

(iii) the first two balls are of the same color given that the third ball is

red.

Are the events given in part (i) and part (ii) mutually exclusive? Explain

your answer.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[1]

The independent events A and B are such P(A) = 0.6 and P(A B) =

1

0.3. Show that P(B) is .

[3]

4

Solution

There are 12 balls altogether, 3 are red and 9 are not red.

(i)

P(all three balls are red)

3 2 1

=

12 11 10

1

=

or 0.00455 (3 sf)

220

(ii)

= P(RRR) + P(RRR) + P(RRR) + P(RRR)

3 9 2

9 3 2

9 8 3

1

=

+

+ +

220 12 11 10 12 11 10 12 11 10

1

= or 0.25

4

(iii)

X: the first two balls are the same color

Y: the third ball is red

P(XY) = P(RRR) + P(GGR) + P(BBR)

7

1

4 3 3 5 4 3

220 12 11 10 12 11 10

17

=

or 0.0773 (3 sf)

220

P(X Y)

P(X|Y) =

P(Y)

17

= 220

1

4

17

=

or 0.309 (3 sf)

55

The 2 events are not mutually exclusive.

Let W denote the event all three balls are the red.

When W occurs, the third ball is red. Hence, W Y .

W and Y cannot be mutually exclusive. [B1 with correct reason]

(b)

P(A B) = 1 P(A B) = 0.7

0.7 = P(A) + P(B) P(A B) = 0.6 + P(B) 0.6 P(B)

0.1 = 0.4 P(B)

1

Hence, P(B) =

(shown)

4

purchased. Based on a survey of 500 randomly chosen diners last year, 411

did not win anything while the rest received a prize.

(a)

Nine students plan to have their dinner at the restaurant every weekday

for one week this year.

(i)

Show that the probability that a randomly chosen student will first

win a prize on his third meal at the restaurant is 0.120. State an

assumption that you have used in your calculation.

(ii)

Find the probability that less than three of the students will each

first win a prize on their third meal at the restaurant.

(b) Using a suitable approximation, find the probability that at least 100 but

less than 190 of the first 1000 diners this year will win a prize.

(c) A disgruntled diner decides to conduct a survey of n diners this year.

Find the minimum value of n if the probability that at most 90% of the

diners did not win a prize exceeds 0.75.

[2]

[2]

[4]

[3]

8

Solution

(i)

P(a diner will first win a prize on his third meal at the restaurant)

= (0.822)2(1 0.822)

= 0.12027

= 0.120 (3 sf)

Assumption: The figures from the survey last year still holds true for this

year./The sample is representative/The probability of winning each day is the

same/The event of winning on one day is independent of winning on another

day/etc.

(ii)

Let X denote the random variable representing the number of students who

will win a prize only on their third meal at the restaurant out of 9.

X B(9, 0.120)

P(X < 3) = P(X 2) = 0.91674

= 0.917 (3 sf)

(iii) Let Y denote the random variable representing the number of diners, out of

1000, who will win a prize.

Y B(1000, 0.178)

Since n = 1000 is large, np = 178 > 5, nq = 822 > 5,

Y N(178, 146.316) approximately

(iv)

c.c

P(100 Y 190)

P(99.5 Y 189.5)

= 0.82913

= 0.829 (3 sf)

Let W denote the random variable representing the number of customers, out

of n, that did not win a prize.

W B(n, 0.822)

P(W 0.9n) > 0.75

Using the GC, we have

n

P(W 0.9n)

7

0.746

8

0.792

9

0.829

least n = 8

9

9

four in five companies gave retired workers they re-employ the same pay as

before. The records at the Labour Ministry, which tracks the practices of all

companies in the country, revealed the actual figure to be 60% of all local

companies instead.

(i)

had used systematic sampling in his selection of companies for the

survey.

[1]

A large company with 180 re-employed workers, agrees to help the student

researcher in his research. He selected 60 re-employed workers from the

company for a survey on the work that they do after re-employment. The

satisfaction index, x, of each of the worker was recorded.

It was found that (x 5) = 45.1 and ( x 5)2 = 1516.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Explain how the student researcher could have selected the workers for

the survey using the systematic sampling method.

[2]

Find the probability that the mean satisfaction index of a sample of 60

randomly chosen workers lies between 5 and 7.5.

[4]

State two assumptions or approximations used in your calculations in

part (iii).

[2]

10

Solution

(i)

select regular or evenly spaced out numbers in a list, for example every 10th

company, the student researcher may have used a sampling frame that listed

the companies in a particular manner that led to the over representation of

companies that re-employ employees with the same pay.

(ii)

180

Since

3 , randomly choose a number from 1 to 3, say r.

60

A systematic sample can be obtained by selecting the

rth, (r + 3)th, (r + 6)th, , (r + 57)th worker.

(iii)

x

45.1

5

60

= 5.75167

= 5.75 (3 sf)

45.1

1

1516

s

59

60

= 25.12034

= 25.1 (3 sf)

25.12034

approximately.

60

P( P 5 X 7.5 = 0.87387

= 0.874 (3 sf)

(iv)

distribution of the sample mean to be normal.

2. Assume that the satisfaction index of two randomly chosen workers will be

independent.

3. Assume that the sample is representative of the population such that the

unbiased estimates are good approximations to the population mean and

variance.

11

10

The mass, x kg, of the contents of each packet in a random sample of 60 cereal

packets is measured, and the results are summarized by

x 59.6475 , ( x x )2 15.9772 .

(i) Find the unbiased estimates of the population mean and variance.

(ii) Test, at the 5% significance level, whether the population mean mass of

the contents is less than 1.10 kg.

[1]

x kg . The results are to be used to test, at the 5% significance level, the

hypothesis that the population mean mass of the contents differs from 1.10 kg.

It may be assumed that the masses of the contents are normally distributed

with standard deviation 0.53 kg. Find the range of values of x for which the

null hypothesis would not be rejected.

[4]

H0 : 1.10

H1 : 1.10

against

Use one-tail Z-test at 5% significance level

Since n = 60 is large, by CLT

0.2708

approximately

60

Using GC,

p-value = 0.0575 > 0.05, hence we do not reject H0 and conclude that there is

insufficient evidence that the population mean mass of the contents is less than 1.10

kg at 5% level of significance.

(iii)

[3]

the question.

Solution

(i)

x 59.6475 0.994125

x

n

60

1

( x x ) 2

s2

n 1

1

15.9772

59

0.2708

(ii)

To test

[2]

of concluding that the mean mass of the contents is less than 1.10 kg when

actually it was not.

12

Assume that the mass of the contents follows a normal distribution with standard

deviation 0.53 kg.

H0 : 1.10

To test

H1 : 1.10

against

Use two-tail Z-test at 5% significance level

0.532

X ~ N 1.10,

Under H0,

30

X 1.10

~ N 0, 1

0.53

30

At 5% significance level, zcritical 1.960

x 1.10

ztest

0.53

30

Test statistic: Z

x 1.10

1.960

1.960

0.53

30

0.910 x 1.29

13

11

known to be normally distributed with mean 150 grams and standard deviation

10 grams. The weight of a bunch of bananas is known to be normally

distributed with mean 780 grams and standard deviation 70 grams.

(i)

Find the probability that the total weight of ten randomly chosen apples

will exceed twice the weight of a bunch of bananas.

[3]

The supermarket sells the apples for $0.46 each. Each bunch of bananas is

sold by weight at a price of $1.80 per kilogram.

(ii)

Find the probability that two randomly chosen bunches of bananas will

cost more than six apples.

[4]

(iii) The supermarket now wants to grade its apples into Grade A, Grade B

and Grade C by weight, with Grade A apples being the lightest and

Grade C apples being the heaviest.

Find the range of the weight of a Grade B apple if the supermarket wants

15% of its apples to be of Grade A and 20% of its apples to be of Grade

B.

[3]

Solution

(i)

Let X denote the random variable representing the weight of an apple.

X ~ N(150, 102)

Let Y denote the random variable representing the weight of a bunch of

bananas.

Y ~ N(780, 702)

E X1 X 2 ... X10 2Y 10E X 2E Y

= 10(150) 2(780)

= 60

Var X1 X 2 ... X10 2Y 10Var X 4E Y

= 10(100) + 4(4900)

= 20600

X1 X 2 ... X10 2Y ~ N( 60, 20600)

From GC,

P( X1 X 2 ... X10 2Y > 0)

= 0.33796

= 0.338 (3 sf)

(ii)

Let W denote the random variable representing the cost of two randomly

chosen bunches of bananas.

1.8

W=

(Y1 Y2 )

1000

1.8

1.8

E(W) =

2 780

E Y E Y

1000

1000

= 2.808

3.24

3.24

Var(W) =

2 702

Var Y Var Y

1000000

1000000

= 0.031752

14

(iii)

W ~ N(2.808, 0.031752)

From GC,

P(W > 0.46 6)

= P(W > 2.76)

= 0.60618

= 0.606 (3 sf)

Let X denote the random variable representing the weight of an apple.

X ~ N(150, 102)

Suppose an apple is a Grade B apple if it weighs between a grams and b

grams, then

P(X a) = 0.15 and P(X b) = 0.35

From GC,

a = 139.6357 = 140 (3 sf)

and b = 146.1468 = 146 (3 sf)

a Grade B apple weighs between 140 grams and 146 grams.

15

12

noon on a certain day at each of 8 locations in a lake. The results are

summarized in the table below.

D

T

10

25.0

20

23.5

40

18.9

80

14.3

150

10.2

200

5.6

250

4.1

300

4.0

(i)

Give a sketch of the scatter diagram for the data, as shown on your

calculator.

(ii) Find the product moment correlation coefficient and comment on its

value in the context of this question.

(iii) Find the equation of the regression line of T on D. Sketch this line on

your scatter diagram.

(iv) Calculate an estimate of the water temperature at noon at a place in the

region with depth 120 metres. Comment on the reliability of this

estimate.

(v) It has been found that due to equipment error, all readings of

temperature are 0.5oC higher than the actual water temperature. Without

performing any further calculations, state with a reason, if you would

expect a change in the value found in part (ii).

[2]

[2]

[2]

[2]

[2]

16

Solution

(i)

T

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

D

0

(ii)

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Since the r value is close to 1, there is a strong negative linear

correlation between the water temperature and the depth. This suggests

that the deeper in the lake it is, the lower the temperature of the water.

(iv) T = 22.94945 0.07428155(120) = 14.0 (3 s.f.)

The temperature is 14.0 degrees Celsius.

The estimate is reliable as D = 120 is within the data range so

interpolation is carried out. Furthermore, the r value is close to 1

which suggests a strong negative linear correlation within the data range.

(v)

As the actual values are all reduced by the same amount, the degree of

scatter remains the same. Hence, the r value will remain unchanged.

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