GRAMMAR POINT: THE PASSIVE VOICE

ACTIVE SENTENCES
The thing / person doing the action is the subject (S) of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object (O). Ex: John is washing the car. (S) (O) Ex:

PASSIVE SENTENCES
The thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing / person doing the action is mentioned (or not!) at the end of the sentence. The car is being washed (by John). (S)

HOW TO FORM THE PASSIVE VOICE

PASSIVE = BE + Past Participle (PP)
PAST PARTICIPLE OF A REGULAR VERB PAST PARTICIPLE OF AN IRREGULAR VERB

V + -ed
Ex: invent > past participle = invented Some common tenses used in the passive voice:

3rd column
Ex: break > past participle = broken

Present Simpleam / is / are + PPNice clothes are sold in this shop.Present Continuousam / is / are being + PPHe is being taught how to drive.Past Simplewas / were + PPTom was bitten by a snake.Past Continuouswas / were being + PPA story was being told when I entered the room.Present perfecthave / has been + PPThe doctor has been called.Present perfect Continuoushave / has been being + PPLately, all the work has been being done by Kate.Past Perfecthad been + PPThe cake had already been eaten when we arrived.Past Perfect Continuoushad been being+ PPThe restaurant's succulent meals had been being prepared by Chef Hall for ten years before he retired. Future with WILLwill be + PPI hope he will not be sent to prison.Future with GOING TOam / is / are going to be + PPTheir house is going to be sold.Conditional 1would be + PPThese books would be read if there were more pictures in them.Conditional 2would have been + PPA mail would have been sent if there had been a computer.Modal ("present")modal + be + PPThe doctor must be called at once.Modal ("past")modal + have been + PPHe should have been punished for that.

WHEN TO USE THE PASSIVE VOICE
We use the Passive Voice … when we do not know the agent (= the person/thing that does / is doing / did … the action). Ex: My bike was stolen last weekend. (I don’t know who stole my bike.) when the agent is not important. Ex: The dishes are being washed. (the focus here is on the dishes, not on the person who is washing the dishes.) Note: When we want to add who or what did the action, we use by. The dishes are being washed by John. (not Kate)

when the agent is obvious. Ex: The thief was arrested yesterday. (Only the police can arrest thieves.)

OTHER REMARKS
Do not use by with a pronoun. Ex: He has washed the car. → The car has been washed by him. When an active sentence has two objects (a direct object and an indirect object), it is possible to make two passive sentences. Ex: Her boyfriend sent her a dozen roses for her birthday. → A dozen roses were sent to her (by her boyfriend) for her birthday . → She was sent a dozen roses for her birthday. Impersonal Passive. Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know). Ex:They say that women are as intelligent as men. → It is said that women are as intelligent as men. Note: You can also say: → Women are said to be as intelligent as men.

TIME TO PRACTISE!
Exercise 1: Transform into PASSIVE sentences. (Pay attention to the tense.) Present Simple Tourists take many pictures of the Eiffel Tower. _____________________________________________________ Present Simple Does your mother help you? _____________________________________________________ Present Continuous Someone is cleaning your room, Sir. _____________________________________________________ Present Continuous The children are painting a fresco at their school. _____________________________________________________

1. Past Simple

Burglars broke into her house. _____________________________________________________

2. Past Simple

Did they send the letter? _____________________________________________________

3. Past Continuous

He was telling a story when I arrived. _____________________________________________________

4. Present Perfect

They have eaten all the cookies. _____________________________________________________

5. Present Perfect

Has she typed the letter? _____________________________________________________

6. Future with WILL

Kate will buy a new dress. _____________________________________________________

7. Future with WILL

He will not repair her bike. _____________________________________________________

8. Modal

You must fill in this form. _____________________________________________________

9. Modal

He should leave the window open. _____________________________________________________

Exercise 2: Transform into ACTIVE sentences. (Pay attention to the tense.). 1. Present Simple This restaurant is owned by the Jacksons. _____________________________________________________ 2. Present Continuous A new model is being tested. _____________________________________________________ 3. Past Simple Oliver Twist was written by Charles Dickens. _____________________________________________________ 4. Past Continuous The issue was being talked about when I entered the room. _____________________________________________________ 5. Present Perfect A terrible mistake has been made by our boss. _____________________________________________________ 6. Future with WILL He will be found guilty by the court. _____________________________________________________

Exercise 3: Transform into two PASSIVE sentences. 1. They told me a lie. __________________________________________ __________________________________________ 2. I have made you a cup of tea. __________________________________________ __________________________________________ 3. Kate will give them some advice. __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Exercise 4: ACTIVE voice or PASSIVE voice? 1. Present Simple (SPEAK) 2. Present Continuous (TAKE) 3. Past Simple (CALL) 4. Present Perfect (DISCOVER) 5. Future with WILL (KEEP) 6. Modal (PLANT) Italian ___________________ in this restaurant. My father ___________________ 3 foreign languages. We ___________________ our grandchildren to the zoo today. Their son ___________________ right away to the hospital. They ___________________ their grandparents last week. The firemen ___________________ immediately. They ___________________ a new virus. A new planet ___________________ in the solar system. Don’t worry! Our secret ___________________. We ___________________ all our photos in this album. These trees must ___________________ now. If he wants a beautiful garden, he should ___________________ these flowers.

SOLUTIONS Exercise 1: Transform into PASSIVE sentences. 1. Present Simple 2. Present Simple 3. Present Continuous 4. Present Continuous 5. Past Simple 6. Past Simple 7. Past Continuous 8. Present Perfect 9. Present Perfect 10. Future with WILL 11. Future with WILL 12. Modal 13. Modal Many pictures of the Eiffel Tower are taken (by tourists). Are you helped by your mother? Your room is being cleaned, Sir. A fresco is being painted at their school. Her house was broken into. Was the letter sent? A story was being told when I arrived. All the cookies have been eaten. Has the letter been typed? A new dress will be bought. Her bike will not be repaired. This form must be filled in. The window should be left open.

Exercise 2: Transform into ACTIVE sentences. (Pay attention to the tense.). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Present Simple Present Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Present Perfect Future with WILL The Jacksons own this restaurant. They / He … are / is testing a new model. Charles Dickens wrote Oliver Twist. They were talking about the issue when I entered the room. Our boss has made a terrible mistake. The court will find him guilty.

Exercise 3: Transform into two PASSIVE sentences. 1. They told me a lie. 2. I have made you a cup of tea. 3. Kate will give them some advice. → I was told a lie. → A lie was told to me. → You have been made a cup of tea. → A cup of tea has been made for you. → They will be given some advice (by Kate). → Some advice will be given to them (by Kate).

Exercise 4: ACTIVE voice or PASSIVE voice? 1. Present Simple 2. Present Continuous 3. Past Simple 4. Present Perfect 5. Future with WILL 6. Modal Italian is spoken in this restaurant. (passive) My father speaks 3 foreign languages. (active) We are taking our grandchildren to the zoo today. (active) Their son is being taken right away to the hospital. (passive) They called their grandparents last week. (active) The firemen were called immediately. (passive) They have discovered a new virus. (active) A new planet has been discovered in the solar system. (passive) Don’t worry! Our secret will be kept. (passive) We will keep all our photos in this album. (active) These trees must be planted now. (passive) If he wants a beautiful garden, he should plant these flowers. (active)

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