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PEMP

ACD 504

Propulsion System Components


and Turbomachinery Relations
Session delivered by:
Mr. Subbaramu S.

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@ M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Session Objectives

PEMP
ACD 504

This session is intended to discuss the following:

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Construction and working principle of aircraft propulsion


system components

Axial and radial turbomachines


Euler turbine equation
Velocity triangles
Absolute and relative flow parameters

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Introduction to Turbomachinery

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A turbomachine is basically a rotating


machine
The rotating wheel is called a rotor /
runner / impeller
The rotor will be immersed in a fluid
continuum
The fluid medium can be gas / steam /
water / air
Energy transfer takes place either
from rotor to fluid, or
from fluid to rotor

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ACD 504

Turbine rotor
Compressor rotor

(extracts energy
from the fluid)

(imparts energy to
the fluid)

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Turbomachine - Definition
Compressor

Combustor

Intake

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ACD 504

Turbine

Exhaust

A turbomachine

is a device where mechanical energy in the form


of shaft work, is transferred either to or from a continuously
flowing fluid by the dynamic action of rotating blade rows.
The interaction between the fluid and the turbomachine blades also
results in fluid dynamic lift.
A turbomachine produces change in enthalpy of the fluid passing
through it.
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@ M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

PEMP
ACD 504

Turbomachine - Classifications
Turbomachines
Power producing

fluid with high


energy

fluid with high


energy

rotor
fluid with low
energy

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Power absorbing

work

impeller

work

fluid with low


energy

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Turbomachine - Classification

PEMP
ACD 504

Turbomachines may also be classified as:

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Turbines, compressors, pumps, fans , blowers


Incompressible or compressible
Axial-flow, mixed-flow or radial-flow geometry
Single stage or multi-stage
Turbo-pump, turbo-compressor or torque-converter
Impulse, reaction or impulse-reaction

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Propellers

A propeller is a device which transmits power by converting


it into thrust for propulsion of a vehicle though a fluid by
rotating two or more twisted blades about a central shaft, in a
manner analogous to rotating a screw through a solid.
The blades of a propeller act as rotating wings and produce
force through application of Newton's third law, generating a
difference in pressure between the forward and rear surfaces
of the airfoil-shaped blades.

Air propeller
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ACD 504

Marine propeller

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Propellers

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ACD 504

Slip Stream Theory


Continuity equation

m = 1 A1V1 = 4 A4V4
Thrust generated

T = m V1
Power required

P = TV1
m = mass flow rate in kg/s
T = thrust in N
P = power in W
A = area in m
V = velocity in m/s
= density in kg/m3
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Froude analysis of propeller

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Ducted Fan

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PEMP
ACD 504

A ducted fan is a propulsion arrangement, whereby a propeller is mounted within


a cylindrical shroud or duct.
The duct prevents losses in thrust from the tips of the propeller and if the duct
has an airfoil cross-section, it can provide additional thrust of its own.
Ducted fan propulsion is used in aircraft, airboats and hovercraft.
In aircraft application, ducted fans normally have shorter and more number of
blades than propellers, and thus, can operate at higher rotational speeds.
The operating speed of an unshrouded propeller is limited since tip speeds
approach the sound barrier at lower speeds than an equivalent ducted propeller.

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Ducted Fan

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ACD 504

Duct Shapes

Accelerating shroud

decelerating shroud
accelerating shroud

Decelerating shroud

noise reduction.
low speed heavily loaded propellers (improves efficiency)

Ducted fans are favoured in VTOL and other low-speed designs for their high
thrust-to-weight ratio.

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@ M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Centrifugal Compressor

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PEMP
ACD 504

The flow enters a three dimensional impeller axially through an inlet duct.
The impeller may be preceded by a row of inlet guide vanes.
The impeller, through its blades, imparts velocity and pressure to the gas,
which flows in radial direction.
The rise in pressure takes place due to the centrifugal action of the impeller
and diverging passages of the downstream diffuser and / or volute.
Vaned or vaneless diffuser with volute are provided to convert kinetic energy
at impeller exit into static pressure at compressor discharge.
Centrifugal compressors are used to produce large pressure ratios.
A single stage centrifugal compressor may have typical pressure ratio of about
4:1. Some test compressors are designed for pressure ratio up to 8:1.
Centrifugal compressors are suitable for low specific speed, high pressure ratio
per stage and low mass flow rate applications.
Based on application, the centrifugal compressors can be either single stage or
multistage type.
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Centrifugal Compressor

PEMP
ACD 504

Components of a centrifugal compressor

Impeller
Diffuser
Casing
Shaft

Diffuser
vane

Application of centrifugal
compressor

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Gas turbine
Turbocharger
Process industry
Gas compression
Oxygen plants
Instrument air

Inducer

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PEMP
ACD 504

Types of Centrifugal Compressor Impeller

Back swept impeller

2 =< 900

Forward sweep
Radial exit

Radial exit impeller

2 => 900

2 = 900

Impeller with splitter blades

Impeller with diffuser

V < U2

V = U2

Backward sweep

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Forward swept impeller

V > U2

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Radial Turbine

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ACD 504

Flow enters the impeller radially and exits axially. These machines are termed
as inward flow turbines.

A radial turbine stage consists of volute, nozzle guide vanes and impeller.

High pressure gas passes through the volute and / or nozzle guide vanes,
increasing its kinetic energy. The high velocity gas transfers its energy to the
impeller shaft by flowing radially inward through the impeller.

The nozzles with adjustable vanes provide highest efficiency.

Radial turbines employ a relatively higher pressure drop per stage with low
mass flow rate.

The specific speed and power range of the radial turbines are low.

Since rotors / impellers are made of single piece construction, they are
mechanically strong and are more reliable.

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@ M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Radial Turbine

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ACD 504

Applications of Radial Turbine

Gas turbine
Turbocharger
Process industry
Exit
Inlet

Exducer

Impeller

Nozzle
vane

Impeller and nozzle


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Radial Turbine Component

PEMP
ACD 504

Radial turbine impeller


Radial turbine volute casing

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Axial Compressor

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PEMP
ACD 504

An axial compressor consists of a row of rotor blades followed by a row of


stator blades and the working fluid traverses through these without significant
change in radius.
The energy level of the fluid flowing through it is increased by the action of
the rotor blades, which exert a torque on the fluid supplied by an external
source.
An axial compressor is a relatively low pressure ratio turbomachine with
higher mass flow rate as compared to a centrifugal compressor.
The flow stream lines passing through the bladings are nearly parallel to the
shaft axis.
Flow enters axially and discharges almost axially.
The blade passages diverge from inlet to exit, and hence the flow decelerates
Due to density variation from inlet to exit, the compressor end walls have flare
with flow area reducing from inlet to exit.

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Single Stage Axial Compressor

PEMP
ACD 504

Components of Axial Compressor

Rotor
Stator
Casing
Shaft

Applications of axial
compressor

Flow

Gas turbine
Turbocharger
Process industry
Rotor

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Stator

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Multistage Axial Compressor

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PEMP
ACD 504

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PEMP
ACD 504

Transonic and Subsonic Axial Compressors


Transonic Compressor

Subsonic Compressor

Flow is supersonic in some part of


rotor blade span and subsonic
elsewhere.

Flow throughout the rotor blade


span is subsonic.

Inlet Mach numbers are low.

Inlet Mach numbers are high.

The blades are thin. Max. thickness


to chord ratio is about 4%.

The blades are relatively thicker.


Max. thickness to chord ratio lies
between 5% to 15%.

The blade profiles are designed /


generated and seldom chosen from a
standard family of profiles. Multiple
Circular Arc (MCA), Arbitrary Mean
Camber Line (AMCL) and
Controlled Diffusion (CD) bladings
are used.

Blade leading edge is thicker than


the trailing edge.

Standard blade profiles, such as


NACA-65 or C series, are
available. Double Circular Arc
Aerofoils (DCA) need to be
generated.

Shock waves are formed at leading


end or within the blade passages.

Shock waves are not formed


during normal operation.

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@ M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Axial Turbine

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PEMP
ACD 504

The kinetic energy of combustion gas is converted to mechanical power by the


its impulse or reaction with a series of blades arranged around the circumference of a wheel or cylinder.
Stationary blades / guide blades act as nozzles and they convert fluid pressure
into kinetic energy. The following rotating blades convert kinetic energy into
useful work.
Axial turbines have low pressure drop per stage and higher mass flow rate
compared to radial turbines.
The flow stream lines through the bladings are nearly parallel to the shaft axis.
Flow enters axially and discharges almost axially.
The blade passages converge from inlet to exit, and hence the flow accelerates.
Blade profile is thicker at the inlet and thinner at the exit.
Due to density variation from inlet to exit, the turbine end walls have flare with
flow area increasing from inlet to exit.

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PEMP
ACD 504

Axial Turbine

Stator

Rotor

Axial Turbine Stage


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Multistage Axial Turbine

PEMP
ACD 504

A series of stages form


multistage turbine.

The energy transfer in a stage


is limited by the blade speed.

If more energy transfer per


unit mass is required, then more
number of stages are arranged
one after the other.

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Combustor

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PEMP
ACD 504

Combustion takes place in a combustor, which is located between the


compressor and the turbine.

Combustor design requires low velocity airflow in the combustion zone,


where the fuel and air are mixed and ignited. The flame holder in the
combustion zone allows a stable flame front to be established and maintained.

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Types of Combustor
There are three types
of combustors:

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ACD 504

1. Annular
2. Can
3. Can-annular
1

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Gas Turbine

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PEMP
ACD 504

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PEMP
ACD 504

Turbomachinery Relations

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Compression and Expansion

Compressor

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ACD 504

Turbine

Ideal adiabatic change in stagnation conditions


across a turbomachine
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Euler Turbine Equation

PEMP
ACD 504

By Newtons second law of motion,


Cw2

Torque on the rotor = Rate of change of


angular
momentum
T = m (Cw 2 r2 Cw1r1 ) N-m
Power = Torque x Angular speed

Cw1

T,

W = T

= m (Cw 2 r2 Cw1r1 )
= m (U 2Cw 2 U1Cw1 )

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Control volume for a generalised


turbomachine. Swirling fluid enters
the control volume at radius r1 with
tangential velocity Cw1 and leaves at
radius r2 with tangential velocity Cw2.

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Euler Turbine Equation

PEMP
ACD 504

For a compressor, the work is done on the fluid. Hence, the specific
work is given by

Wc

Wc =
= (U 2Cw 2 U1Cw1 ) > 0
m

watts

For a turbine, the fluid does work on the rotor. Hence, the specific
work is given by

Wt

Wt =
= (U1Cw1 U 2Cw 2 ) > 0
m

watts

Specific work can also be related to the change in total enthalpy:

Wc = (Wc m ) = (U 2Cw 2 U1Cw1 ) = (h02 h01 ) Compressor


Wt = (Wt m ) = (U1Cw1 U 2Cw 2 ) = (h01 h02 )
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Turbine
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Velocity Triangles

(1)

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ACD 504

Axial Compressor
Inlet

Direction
of rotation

Flow

Exit

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Velocity Triangles
Centrifugal
Compressor

(2)

PEMP
ACD 504

Vaneless
space

Centrifugal compressor stage and velocity diagrams at impeller entry and exit
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Velocity Triangles

(3)

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ACD 504

Axial Turbine

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Velocity Triangles

(4)

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ACD 504

Radial Turbine

Radial turbine with radial inlet flow and axial outlet flow
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Velocity Triangles

(5)

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ACD 504

Centrifugal Pump

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PEMP
ACD 504

Components of Energy Transfer

Considering the inlet velocity triangle

Ca21 = C12 CW2 1 and


Ca21 = W12 (U1 CW 1 ) 2
or
C12 CW2 1 = W12 U1 CW2 1 + 2U1CW 1
2

Representative velocity
diagrams at inlet

Similarly, from outlet velocity


triangle, we can obtain
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1 2
or U1CW 1 = C1 + U12 W12
2

U 2CW 2

1 2
= C2 + U 22 W22
2

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PEMP
ACD 504

Components of Energy Transfer


Substituting in Power Equation

W = m (Cw 2U 2 Cw1U1 )
1 2
1 2
2
2
2
2
C2 + U 2 W2 C1 + U1 W1
2

or W = m

) (

Thus the specific work is given by,


2
2
2
2
2
2
C

C
W

W
U

U
1
2
1
W = 2
+ 1
+ 2
2
2
2

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@ M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Components of Energy Transfer

PEMP
ACD 504

2
2
2
2
2
2
C

C
W

W
U

U
1
2
1
Specific Work, W = 2
+ 1
+ 2
2
2
2

(C22- C12)/2 : This term represents the dynamic enthalpy change in the
turbomachine. It appears from the expression that for maximum specific work, the
exit velocity of fluid C2 needs to be maximum. However, in a multistage
turbomachine, converting this large dynamic head into useful static head by the
next stage stator would lead to higher pressure losses.
(W12- W22)/2: This term represents the static enthalpy change. Hence W2 must be
much less than W1 for this term to be more positive. Hence in a power absorbing
machine, the rotor blade-to-blade passage will be diverging.
(U12- U22)/2: This term also represents the static enthalpy change. It represents the
centrifugal head created in the blade passage. Higher U2 would be possible if the
exit of the fluid occurs at higher radius, leading to maximum work derived.
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Absolute and Relative Total Pressure

p0 = p +

p0 r = p +

Static pressure

Dynamic
pressure

V
2

PEMP
ACD 504

Static pressure
Dynamic
pressure

p0 remains unchanged across stator


p0r remain unchanged across rotor, if there is no radius change along the streamline
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Absolute and Relative Total


Enthalpy / Temperature
Static enthalpy

C
h0 = h +
2

Kinetic energy

C2
T0 = T +
2c p

V
h0 r = h +
2

V2
T0 r = T +
2c p
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PEMP
ACD 504

Static temperature
Dynamic
temperature

Static enthalpy
Kinetic energy

Static temperature
Dynamic
temperature

h0 and T0 remain unchanged across stator


h0r and T0r remain unchanged across rotor,
(if there is no radius change along the streamline)

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Rothalpy

PEMP
ACD 504

The Euler work can be rewritten as


where the function I, termed as Rotahlpy, is a constant along the streamlines
through a turbomachine. It is a contraction of rotational stagnation enthalpy and
is a fluid mechanical property used in the study of flow within rotating systems.
The rothalpy can also be written in terms of the static enthalpy as

The Euler equation can also be written in terms of relative quantities for a
rotating frame of reference to produce the following relation

Defining a relative stagnation enthalpy as


Hence, for rotating blade rows, the h0,rel is constant through the blades provided the
blade speed is constant. In other words, h0,rel = constant, if the radius of a
streamline passing through the blades stays the same.
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PEMP
ACD 504

Rothalpy

Axial compressor

Centrifugal compressor

Compression Process on h-s Diagram


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Session Summary

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PEMP
ACD 504

The construction and working of different components of


aircraft propulsion system are briefly explained.
Euler turbine equation is derived and the significance of each
term is discussed.
Method of drawing velocity triangles for turbine and
compressor stages is explained and their importance in design
and performance analysis of turbomachinery is highlighted.
Absolute and relative quantities and concept of rothalpy are
explained.

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PEMP
ACD 504

Thank you

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