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You are on page 1of 44

ACD 504

and Turbomachinery Relations

Session delivered by:

Mr. Subbaramu S.

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Session Objectives

PEMP

ACD 504

03

system components

Euler turbine equation

Velocity triangles

Absolute and relative flow parameters

Introduction to Turbomachinery

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machine

The rotating wheel is called a rotor /

runner / impeller

The rotor will be immersed in a fluid

continuum

The fluid medium can be gas / steam /

water / air

Energy transfer takes place either

from rotor to fluid, or

from fluid to rotor

PEMP

ACD 504

Turbine rotor

Compressor rotor

(extracts energy

from the fluid)

(imparts energy to

the fluid)

Turbomachine - Definition

Compressor

Combustor

Intake

PEMP

ACD 504

Turbine

Exhaust

A turbomachine

of shaft work, is transferred either to or from a continuously

flowing fluid by the dynamic action of rotating blade rows.

The interaction between the fluid and the turbomachine blades also

results in fluid dynamic lift.

A turbomachine produces change in enthalpy of the fluid passing

through it.

03

PEMP

ACD 504

Turbomachine - Classifications

Turbomachines

Power producing

energy

energy

rotor

fluid with low

energy

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Power absorbing

work

impeller

work

energy

Turbomachine - Classification

PEMP

ACD 504

03

Incompressible or compressible

Axial-flow, mixed-flow or radial-flow geometry

Single stage or multi-stage

Turbo-pump, turbo-compressor or torque-converter

Impulse, reaction or impulse-reaction

Propellers

it into thrust for propulsion of a vehicle though a fluid by

rotating two or more twisted blades about a central shaft, in a

manner analogous to rotating a screw through a solid.

The blades of a propeller act as rotating wings and produce

force through application of Newton's third law, generating a

difference in pressure between the forward and rear surfaces

of the airfoil-shaped blades.

Air propeller

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PEMP

ACD 504

Marine propeller

Propellers

PEMP

ACD 504

Continuity equation

m = 1 A1V1 = 4 A4V4

Thrust generated

T = m V1

Power required

P = TV1

m = mass flow rate in kg/s

T = thrust in N

P = power in W

A = area in m

V = velocity in m/s

= density in kg/m3

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Ducted Fan

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PEMP

ACD 504

a cylindrical shroud or duct.

The duct prevents losses in thrust from the tips of the propeller and if the duct

has an airfoil cross-section, it can provide additional thrust of its own.

Ducted fan propulsion is used in aircraft, airboats and hovercraft.

In aircraft application, ducted fans normally have shorter and more number of

blades than propellers, and thus, can operate at higher rotational speeds.

The operating speed of an unshrouded propeller is limited since tip speeds

approach the sound barrier at lower speeds than an equivalent ducted propeller.

Ducted Fan

PEMP

ACD 504

Duct Shapes

Accelerating shroud

decelerating shroud

accelerating shroud

Decelerating shroud

noise reduction.

low speed heavily loaded propellers (improves efficiency)

Ducted fans are favoured in VTOL and other low-speed designs for their high

thrust-to-weight ratio.

03

10

Centrifugal Compressor

03

PEMP

ACD 504

The flow enters a three dimensional impeller axially through an inlet duct.

The impeller may be preceded by a row of inlet guide vanes.

The impeller, through its blades, imparts velocity and pressure to the gas,

which flows in radial direction.

The rise in pressure takes place due to the centrifugal action of the impeller

and diverging passages of the downstream diffuser and / or volute.

Vaned or vaneless diffuser with volute are provided to convert kinetic energy

at impeller exit into static pressure at compressor discharge.

Centrifugal compressors are used to produce large pressure ratios.

A single stage centrifugal compressor may have typical pressure ratio of about

4:1. Some test compressors are designed for pressure ratio up to 8:1.

Centrifugal compressors are suitable for low specific speed, high pressure ratio

per stage and low mass flow rate applications.

Based on application, the centrifugal compressors can be either single stage or

multistage type.

@ M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

11

Centrifugal Compressor

PEMP

ACD 504

Impeller

Diffuser

Casing

Shaft

Diffuser

vane

Application of centrifugal

compressor

03

Gas turbine

Turbocharger

Process industry

Gas compression

Oxygen plants

Instrument air

Inducer

12

PEMP

ACD 504

2 =< 900

Forward sweep

Radial exit

2 => 900

2 = 900

V < U2

V = U2

Backward sweep

03

V > U2

13

Radial Turbine

PEMP

ACD 504

Flow enters the impeller radially and exits axially. These machines are termed

as inward flow turbines.

A radial turbine stage consists of volute, nozzle guide vanes and impeller.

High pressure gas passes through the volute and / or nozzle guide vanes,

increasing its kinetic energy. The high velocity gas transfers its energy to the

impeller shaft by flowing radially inward through the impeller.

Radial turbines employ a relatively higher pressure drop per stage with low

mass flow rate.

The specific speed and power range of the radial turbines are low.

Since rotors / impellers are made of single piece construction, they are

mechanically strong and are more reliable.

03

14

Radial Turbine

PEMP

ACD 504

Gas turbine

Turbocharger

Process industry

Exit

Inlet

Exducer

Impeller

Nozzle

vane

03

15

PEMP

ACD 504

Radial turbine volute casing

03

16

Axial Compressor

03

PEMP

ACD 504

stator blades and the working fluid traverses through these without significant

change in radius.

The energy level of the fluid flowing through it is increased by the action of

the rotor blades, which exert a torque on the fluid supplied by an external

source.

An axial compressor is a relatively low pressure ratio turbomachine with

higher mass flow rate as compared to a centrifugal compressor.

The flow stream lines passing through the bladings are nearly parallel to the

shaft axis.

Flow enters axially and discharges almost axially.

The blade passages diverge from inlet to exit, and hence the flow decelerates

Due to density variation from inlet to exit, the compressor end walls have flare

with flow area reducing from inlet to exit.

17

PEMP

ACD 504

Rotor

Stator

Casing

Shaft

Applications of axial

compressor

Flow

Gas turbine

Turbocharger

Process industry

Rotor

03

Stator

18

03

PEMP

ACD 504

19

PEMP

ACD 504

Transonic Compressor

Subsonic Compressor

rotor blade span and subsonic

elsewhere.

span is subsonic.

to chord ratio is about 4%.

Max. thickness to chord ratio lies

between 5% to 15%.

generated and seldom chosen from a

standard family of profiles. Multiple

Circular Arc (MCA), Arbitrary Mean

Camber Line (AMCL) and

Controlled Diffusion (CD) bladings

are used.

the trailing edge.

NACA-65 or C series, are

available. Double Circular Arc

Aerofoils (DCA) need to be

generated.

end or within the blade passages.

during normal operation.

03

20

Axial Turbine

03

PEMP

ACD 504

its impulse or reaction with a series of blades arranged around the circumference of a wheel or cylinder.

Stationary blades / guide blades act as nozzles and they convert fluid pressure

into kinetic energy. The following rotating blades convert kinetic energy into

useful work.

Axial turbines have low pressure drop per stage and higher mass flow rate

compared to radial turbines.

The flow stream lines through the bladings are nearly parallel to the shaft axis.

Flow enters axially and discharges almost axially.

The blade passages converge from inlet to exit, and hence the flow accelerates.

Blade profile is thicker at the inlet and thinner at the exit.

Due to density variation from inlet to exit, the turbine end walls have flare with

flow area increasing from inlet to exit.

21

PEMP

ACD 504

Axial Turbine

Stator

Rotor

03

22

PEMP

ACD 504

multistage turbine.

is limited by the blade speed.

unit mass is required, then more

number of stages are arranged

one after the other.

03

23

Combustor

03

PEMP

ACD 504

compressor and the turbine.

where the fuel and air are mixed and ignited. The flame holder in the

combustion zone allows a stable flame front to be established and maintained.

24

Types of Combustor

There are three types

of combustors:

PEMP

ACD 504

1. Annular

2. Can

3. Can-annular

1

03

25

Gas Turbine

03

PEMP

ACD 504

26

PEMP

ACD 504

Turbomachinery Relations

03

27

Compressor

PEMP

ACD 504

Turbine

across a turbomachine

03

28

PEMP

ACD 504

Cw2

angular

momentum

T = m (Cw 2 r2 Cw1r1 ) N-m

Power = Torque x Angular speed

Cw1

T,

W = T

= m (Cw 2 r2 Cw1r1 )

= m (U 2Cw 2 U1Cw1 )

03

turbomachine. Swirling fluid enters

the control volume at radius r1 with

tangential velocity Cw1 and leaves at

radius r2 with tangential velocity Cw2.

29

PEMP

ACD 504

For a compressor, the work is done on the fluid. Hence, the specific

work is given by

Wc

Wc =

= (U 2Cw 2 U1Cw1 ) > 0

m

watts

For a turbine, the fluid does work on the rotor. Hence, the specific

work is given by

Wt

Wt =

= (U1Cw1 U 2Cw 2 ) > 0

m

watts

Wt = (Wt m ) = (U1Cw1 U 2Cw 2 ) = (h01 h02 )

03

Turbine

30

Velocity Triangles

(1)

PEMP

ACD 504

Axial Compressor

Inlet

Direction

of rotation

Flow

Exit

03

31

Velocity Triangles

Centrifugal

Compressor

(2)

PEMP

ACD 504

Vaneless

space

Centrifugal compressor stage and velocity diagrams at impeller entry and exit

03

32

Velocity Triangles

(3)

PEMP

ACD 504

Axial Turbine

03

33

Velocity Triangles

(4)

PEMP

ACD 504

Radial Turbine

Radial turbine with radial inlet flow and axial outlet flow

03

34

Velocity Triangles

(5)

PEMP

ACD 504

Centrifugal Pump

03

35

PEMP

ACD 504

Ca21 = W12 (U1 CW 1 ) 2

or

C12 CW2 1 = W12 U1 CW2 1 + 2U1CW 1

2

Representative velocity

diagrams at inlet

triangle, we can obtain

03

1 2

or U1CW 1 = C1 + U12 W12

2

U 2CW 2

1 2

= C2 + U 22 W22

2

36

PEMP

ACD 504

Substituting in Power Equation

W = m (Cw 2U 2 Cw1U1 )

1 2

1 2

2

2

2

2

C2 + U 2 W2 C1 + U1 W1

2

or W = m

) (

2

2

2

2

2

2

C

C

W

W

U

U

1

2

1

W = 2

+ 1

+ 2

2

2

2

03

37

PEMP

ACD 504

2

2

2

2

2

2

C

C

W

W

U

U

1

2

1

Specific Work, W = 2

+ 1

+ 2

2

2

2

(C22- C12)/2 : This term represents the dynamic enthalpy change in the

turbomachine. It appears from the expression that for maximum specific work, the

exit velocity of fluid C2 needs to be maximum. However, in a multistage

turbomachine, converting this large dynamic head into useful static head by the

next stage stator would lead to higher pressure losses.

(W12- W22)/2: This term represents the static enthalpy change. Hence W2 must be

much less than W1 for this term to be more positive. Hence in a power absorbing

machine, the rotor blade-to-blade passage will be diverging.

(U12- U22)/2: This term also represents the static enthalpy change. It represents the

centrifugal head created in the blade passage. Higher U2 would be possible if the

exit of the fluid occurs at higher radius, leading to maximum work derived.

03

38

p0 = p +

p0 r = p +

Static pressure

Dynamic

pressure

V

2

PEMP

ACD 504

Static pressure

Dynamic

pressure

p0r remain unchanged across rotor, if there is no radius change along the streamline

03

39

Enthalpy / Temperature

Static enthalpy

C

h0 = h +

2

Kinetic energy

C2

T0 = T +

2c p

V

h0 r = h +

2

V2

T0 r = T +

2c p

03

PEMP

ACD 504

Static temperature

Dynamic

temperature

Static enthalpy

Kinetic energy

Static temperature

Dynamic

temperature

h0r and T0r remain unchanged across rotor,

(if there is no radius change along the streamline)

40

Rothalpy

PEMP

ACD 504

where the function I, termed as Rotahlpy, is a constant along the streamlines

through a turbomachine. It is a contraction of rotational stagnation enthalpy and

is a fluid mechanical property used in the study of flow within rotating systems.

The rothalpy can also be written in terms of the static enthalpy as

The Euler equation can also be written in terms of relative quantities for a

rotating frame of reference to produce the following relation

Hence, for rotating blade rows, the h0,rel is constant through the blades provided the

blade speed is constant. In other words, h0,rel = constant, if the radius of a

streamline passing through the blades stays the same.

03

41

PEMP

ACD 504

Rothalpy

Axial compressor

Centrifugal compressor

03

42

Session Summary

03

PEMP

ACD 504

aircraft propulsion system are briefly explained.

Euler turbine equation is derived and the significance of each

term is discussed.

Method of drawing velocity triangles for turbine and

compressor stages is explained and their importance in design

and performance analysis of turbomachinery is highlighted.

Absolute and relative quantities and concept of rothalpy are

explained.

43

PEMP

ACD 504

Thank you

03

44

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