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Preliminary Estimate 9-22-05

Preliminary Estimate 9-22-05 Hurricane Katrina’s Impact on Low Income Housing Units Estimated 302,000 units lost or

Hurricane Katrina’s Impact on Low Income Housing Units Estimated 302,000 units lost or damaged, 71% Low Income An Assessment from the 2000 Census NLIHC Research Note #05-02

Introduction This research note looks at the number of housing units within Census block groups affected by Hurricane Katrina according to the most recent information from the National Geospatial- Intelligence Agency (NGA) made public by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The housing data is from special tabulations of the 2000 Census from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development. The impact on housing within a block group is determined according to the proportion of the block group’s area that FEMA maps indicate was damaged during and in the aftermath of the storm.

Sixty-nine percent of the area described here suffered at least moderate damage (e.g. solid structures sustain exterior damage such as missing roofs and many are damaged or displaced) due to Hurricane Katrina. The majority of the units in New Orleans and coastal areas must be considered lost due to flooding. The definition and geographic extent of the damage categories considered here can be seen in Appendix 2.

An Estimate of the Impact According to this estimate, in all Katrina affected areas of the Gulf Coast 302,000 housing units were destroyed or damaged in the storm. Of these units, 216,000 were affordable to low income households, earning 80% of the Area Median Income (AMI) or less, and 92,000 were affordable to very low income households earning less than 50% of AMI. Thus, 71% of the housing stock destroyed or damaged by Hurricane Katrina was affordable to low income households and 30% were affordable to very low income households.

In New Orleans, an estimated 142,000 units were damaged and most likely lost due to flooding. Over 112,000 of these units were affordable to low income households. Thus, fully 79% of the housing in the affected areas of the city was affordable to low income households. Over 57,000 units or 40% of the housing stock estimated to be damaged or destroyed was affordable to very low income households.

Forty-seven percent of the housing units in the entire Katrina affected area were rental units. In New Orleans, 55% were rental units. Fully 20% of the rental units lost in New Orleans were affordable to extremely low income households, i.e. households earning 30% of AMI or less, amounting to 16,000 units. This percentage was 16%, 22,000 units, for all Katrina affected areas. Thus, 73% of all the rental units affordable to extremely low income households in the Katrina affected areas were in New Orleans and likely destroyed. (HUD does not report data on extremely low income homeownership units.)

While, these estimates are based on Census 2000 numbers and do not reflect any changes in the housing stock since 1999, the proportions and numbers of units affected are not expected to have changed dramatically, particularly in older and densely developed areas such as New Orleans.

The maps used to determine the extent of the damage from Hurricane Katrina are based on comparisons of NGA "remote sensing data” before and after the storm. Indications of damage such as changes in water boundaries, foliage, and the location, density and size of human structures are used to map of the extent of the storm’s impact.

Preliminary 9-22-05

Preliminary Estimate 9-22-05

Appendix 1 Data Tables

Breakdown of Units Destroyed or Damaged by Affordability Category in Katrina Affected Areas

Table 1

ALL KATRINA AFFECTED AREAS NUMBER OF UNITS ESTIMATED BY PROPORTION OF BLOCK GROUP AREA DAMAGED

 
 

OWNERSHIP UNITS

 

RENTER UNITS

   

ALL UNITS

 

Housing Units by Affordability Category

Occupied Vacant

Total

Percent

Occupied Vacant Total

Percent

Occupied

Vacant

Total

Percent

Extremely Low Income(=<30% AMI)*

---

---

---

---

20,162

1,987 22,149

16%

---

---

---

---

Very Low Income (=< 50% AMI) Low Income (51-80%AMI) Upper Income (> 80% AMI)

31,773

1,384

33,157

21%

52,279

6,741 59,020

42%

84,052

8,125

92,177

30%

57,403

916

58,319

36%

61,659

3,587 65,246

46%

119,062

4,502 123,565

41%

68,782

1,239

70,021

43%

15,491

1,152 16,643

12%

84,273

2,391

86,664

29%

All Units All Low Income (<=80% AMI)

157,958

3,538 161,496 100% 2,299 91,475 57%

129,430

11,480 140,910

100%

287,387

15,018 302,405

100%

89,176

113,939

10,328 124,267

88%

203,115

12,627 215,742

71%

Table 2

NEW ORLEANS NUMBER OF UNITS ESTIMATED BY PROPORTION OF BLOCK GROUP AREA DAMAGED

 
 

OWNERSHIP UNITS

 

RENTER UNITS

   

ALL UNITS

 

Housing Units by Affordability Category

Occupied Vacant

Total

Percent

Occupied

Vacant

Total

Percent

Occupied

Vacant

Total

Percent

Extremely Low Income(=<30% AMI)*

---

---

---

---

14,519

1,575

16,094

20%

---

---

---

---

Very Low Income (=< 50% AMI) Low Income (51-80%AMI) Upper Income (> 80% AMI)

15,599

856

16,455

26%

36,456

4,499

40,955

52%

52,055

5,355

57,410

40%

24,757

394

25,152

39%

28,439

1,021

29,459

37%

53,196

1,415

54,611

38%

21,799

531

22,330

35%

7,942

396

8,338

11%

29,741

928

30,668

21%

All Units All Low Income (<=80% AMI)

62,155

1,782

63,937

100%

72,837

5,916

78,753

100%

134,992

7,698 142,690

100%

40,356

1,251

41,607

65%

64,895

5,520

70,415

89%

105,251

6,770 112,021

79%

*HUD does not provide data in this dataset on extremely low income homeownership units Source: Unit data from special tabulations of the 2000 Census, HUD, CHAS Data retrieved 9/8/05 from www.huduser.org/datasets/cp.html. Katrina Affected Areas data from FEMA flood map:

http://www.gismaps.fema.gov/2005pages/rsdrkatrina.shtm (September 10, 2005, 10:00).

Preliminary 9-22-05

Preliminary Estimate 9-22-05

Appendix 2: The Definition and Spatial Distribution of the Damage Categories

The breakdown of affected areas is as follows:

LIMITED DAMAGE: Generally superficial damage to solid structures (e.g. loss of tiles or roof shingles); some mobile homes and light structures are damaged or displaced.

MODERATE DAMAGE: Solid structures sustain exterior damage (e.g., missing roofs or roof segments); some mobile homes and light structures are destroyed, many are damaged or displaced.

EXTENSIVE DAMAGE:

Some solid structures are destroyed; most sustain exterior and interior damage (e.g., roofs are missing, interior walls exposed), most mobile homes and light structures are destroyed.

CATASTROPHIC DAMAGE: Most solid and all light or mobile structures are destroyed.

FLOOD: Indicates a separate severe damage category related to the specific affects of flooding.

SATURATED AREA:

Indicates the possibility of water damage due to saturated soil.

 

Square Meters

Percent of

(mil.)

Total

Flood

461.2

52%

Saturation

1.2

0%

Catastrophic

63.5

7%

Extensive

29.2

3%

Moderate

64.7

7%

Limited

260.5

30%

 

880.3

100%

29.2 3% Moderate 64.7 7% Limited 260.5 30%   880.3 100% Preliminary 9-22-05

Preliminary 9-22-05