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Designconceptofcrudeoildistillationcolumndesign.

DistillationColumnDesign

Thedesignofadistillationcanbedividedinthefollowingsteps.

Specifythedegreeofseparation:Setproductspecification.
Selecttheoperatingconditions:Operatingpressure.
Determinethestageandrefluxrequirement:Thenumberofequilibriumstages.
Selecttypeofcontactingdevice:Platesorpacking.
Sizethecolumn:Diameter,numberofrealstages.
Designthecolumninternals:Plates,Distributors,PackingSupportsetc.
Mechanicaldesign:VesselandInternalfittings.

ArrangementofTowers

Threetypesofarrangements(Howheatisremoved)
1. TopTrayReflux:Refluxisonlyattoptrayonly
RefluxiscooledandsentintotheTower.
Heatinput:ThroughTowerbottom.
Removal:atthetop.
Thusrequireslargetowerdiameter.
Improperrefluxandpoorqualityoffraction.Economicutilizationofheatisnotpossible.
2. Pumpbackreflux.
3. PumparoundReflux.

PumpbackReflux:

Fig:2.25VacuumDistillationUnitOverview[7]

Refluxisprovidedatregularintervals.
This helps every plate to act as a true fractionator.( because there is always good amount of
liquid).
Towerisuniformlyloaded,henceuniformandlesserdiametertowerwilldo.
Heatfromexternalrefluccanbeutilisedasitisatprogressivelyhighertemperatures.
Howeverdesignofsuchtoweriscostly,butprovidesexcelletservice.
Mostcommoninrefineries.

TopTrayreflux

PumpAroundReflux:

Fig:2.26TopTrayreflux[1,2]

Inthisarrangementrefluxfromalowerplaeistaken,cooledandfedintothecolumnatahigher
sectionby2to3plates.
Thiscreateslocalproblemofmixingunevencompositionofrefluxandliquidspresentonthetray.
Designers treat all the plate in this zone as one single platre, the result gives large number of
platesandhightowerheight.

Fig:2.27AtmosphericDistillationUnitMiddle[8]

Fig:2.28TypicalConfigurationofSingleFeedandMultipleFeedintoDistillationUnit[1,2,11]

SomeBasis

SectionabovefeedpointRectifying/EnrichmentSection
SectionbelowFeedStrippingSection
RefluxratioR=Flowreturnedasreflux/Flowoftopproductdesign
MinimumrefluxRmin:Refluxbelowwhichstagerequiredisinfinity.

Optimumrefluxratiotypicallylinesbetween1.2to1.5timestheminimumrefluxratio.
RelativeVolatilityij=Pi/Pj=Ki/Kj
y=X/(1+(1)x)forcontructionofyxdiagram.

Fig:2.29StageEquationsForDistillationUnit

MeshEquations

MaterialBalance

Vn+1Yn+1+Ln1Xn1+FnZn=VnYn+LnXn+snXn............Equ1

EnergyBalance

Vn+1Hn+1+Vn1Hn1+Fhf+qn=VnHn+Lnhn+Snhn.........Equ2

EquilibriumRelation:

Yi=KiXi........Equ3

SummationEquitation:ForLiquid&Vaporcomposition

These Four equations are the called MESH EQUATION i:e Material Equilibrium, Summation and Heat
(Energy)Balance Equation.MESH Equation can be written for each stage and for reboiler and
condenser.TheSolutionofthesetofequationsformsthebasisofrigorousmethods.

BasicProcesses

SeparationbyBoilingpointdifference.
CrudeAssayprovidesestimatesofvariousproductsobtainablefromaparticularcrude.

Table:2.9[1,2]

TypicalProducts

TBPCUTRANGE

UnstabilizedNaphtha

IBP120oC

HeavyNaphtha

120oC140oC

Kerosene

140oC270oC

LightGasOil

270oC330oC

HeavyGasOil

330oC370oC

ReducedCrudeOil

370oC+

Fig:2.30[1,2]

Fig:2.31AtmosphericDistillationUnitBottom[9]

Fig:2.32VacuumDistillationUnitOverhead[10]

ProcessDesignBasics

Heatandmaterialbalancecalculations
Computehydrocarbonmaterialbalanceforfeedandproducts.

Steamratestostrippingsectionsandsteamdistributionsbetweenoverheaddistillatesvaporsand
liquids.
Hydrocarbonmaterialbalancesaroundproductstrippers.
Atmospheric EFV Temperatures for products corresponding to the estimated strip out for each
product.
DrawTraylocations,NumberoftraysineachsectionsandtotalnumberoftraysintheTower.
Heatinputtothebasesectionofthetowerfromfeedandbottomsstrippingsteam,heatoutflow
inthebottomsliquidandexternalheatquantitiesattheflashzone.

ProductYieldDetermination

Desired ASTM distillation of product(s) of interest is decided and ASTM is converted to


TBP.ProductTBPisappliedtothewholecrudeTBPcruvetoeastimatevolumetricyieldsTBPcut
volumeiseastimate.
ASTM(595)GAP/OVERLAPbetweenadjacentcutsdetermined.

SeparationCriteria

DEGREEOFSEPARATION:Difference between ASTM 5% of heavier distillate and ASTM 95%


pointoflighterdistillate.
DEGREE OF DIFFICULTY OF SEPARATION:Difference between ASTM 50% point of the
distillatefractioninquestions.

SeparationCriteria

DegreeofSeparation
Definedintermsofproductpuritiesorcomponentrecoveries.
Greaterthedegreeofseparation,greaterwillberecoveryofthelightcomponentinthedistillate
andtheheavycomponentinbottoms.
Degreeofdifficultyofseparation:Definedastherelativedifficultyencounteredinseparating
the two compounds, regardless the purity requirements set by process specifications~ inversely
proportionaltotherelativevolatilitybetweenthetwocomponents.

ASTMGapandOverlap

Fractionationisthedifferencebetween5%ASTMcurveofHeavycutandthe95%pointonthe
ASTMcurveofalightercutoftwoadjacentsideproduct.
PositivedifferenceiscalledGap.
Negativedifferenceiscalledoverlap.
ASTMBoilingrangegivesgeneralcompositionoffractions.
595GAP:Definestherelativedegreeofseparationbetweenadjacentfractions.
Determined by subtracting 95 vol.% ASTM Temperature of a fraction from the 5 Vol. % ASTM
temperatureoftheadjacentheavyfraction.

(595)Gap=(t5HT95L)ASTM
5H=5%OFTHEHEAVIERFRACTION
95L=95%OFTHELIGHTERFRACTION
TBPCUTPOINT=(TOH+T100L)/2
TBPOverlap=[T100LTOH]

TBPCUT,GAP&OVERLAP


Fig:2.33TBPCut,Gap&Overlap[1,2]

Generalobservationforseparation

Foragivensystem

No.oftraysrequiredincreasesmarkedlyaspurityrequirementincreases,butrefluxrequirements
increasesonlyasmallamount.
Tray and reflux requirements increases as relative volatility decreases i.e separation becomes
moredifficult.

SeparationCriteria

Forafixednumberoftrays,refluxreqirementisdirectlyproportionaltothedegreeofdifficultyof
separation.
Qualitatively

At reflux condition exceeding minimum requirements =>Tray requirements are directly


proportionaltotherequireddegreeofseparation.
The degree of difficulty of separation inherent in the physical chemical system under
consideration.

CrudeColumnDesign

INPUTREQUIRED
CrudeTBP(essential)
Density/APIgravity(essential)
MolecularWeight(optional)
Viscosity(optional)

SPECIFICATIONREQUIRED
ColumnPressure
Productspecificationcanbegivenintermsoffixdrawordistillationpoint.
Pumparounddutiesneedtobespecified.
Columntoptemperaturecanbespecified.

Processdesign

PrepareTBPDistillationandequilibriumFlashVaporisationcurvesofcrudetobeprocessed.
Using crude assay data construct TBP curves for all products except gas and reduced crude.
ConvertthesetoASTM&EFV.
ConvertTBPdatatoEFVcurves.
Preparematerialbalanceofcrudedistillationcolumn,onbothvolumeandweightbasis.

Fractionationrequirements:ASTMgapandoverlap
KnowinggapsasthedesignparameterscorrelatedeviationorgapwithFfactor(productofnumberof
platesbetweentwoadjacentsidedrawsoffstreamandinternalrefluxratio.

PackiesMethod

Degree of difficulty of separation : The difference between 50 vol.% temperatures of the


fractionsunderstudy.
Convert50%TBPtemptoASTM.
SeparationCapability(F):definedastheproductoftherefluxtofeedratioattheupperdraw
tray as calculated on the volumetric basis and the number of actual trays in that section.(F,
Factorrelatedtogapandoverlap).
Packiemethod:BasedonGapandoverlap.
Numberofplatesinparticularsectiondependsongapandrefluxratio.
F=RefluxratioxNumberofplatesinthatsection.
F=(LN/DN)NT,(NT:Nooftraysofdistillationcolumn)
L/D=Refluxratio

TBPVSASTM50%B.P

Fig:2.34TBPVSASTM50%B.P[1,2]
RelationBetweenTBPandASTM50%BoilingPoint
IBPANDFBPOFASTM&TBP

Fig:2.35IBPANDFBPOFASTM&TBP[1,2]
RelationBetweenIBPandFBPofASTMandTBP


Fig:2.36RelationBetweenIBPandFBPofASTMandTBP[1,2]

EXAMPLE
Inarefinerysidestreamoperationthefractiontobecollectedisdiesel.Thedieselenteringtheside
stripper is 4000 bbl/h, the 50 percent point of the cut is 275 oCandcontainedwith Kerosine whose

midboilingpointis145 oC.Ifthestripperishaving4platesfindtheactualamountofdieselcoming
outofthestripperiftheASTMGAPis20oC.
SOLUTION
CalculateFFactorfromPackiemethodforsidestreamstripper.
ASTMT50%=275145=130oC(254oF)
ASTMGAP=20oC=36oF
F=(L/D)NT=>L/D=5/4=1.25
V=L+D=4000
HenceD(Actualamountofdiesel)=1778bbl.

Calculationofminimumnumberofstage

FenskeequationisusedforNm

Calculationofminimumrefluxratio

UsingUnderwoodEquation:

q=heattovaporize1moleoffeed/molarlatentheatofvaporization.
=Rootofunderwoodequation.
CalculateRmusingErbarMaddox(orGilliland)correlationcalculateRactual.

CALCULATIONOFREFLUXRATIO


Fig:2.37CALCULATIONOFREFLUXRATIO[1,2]

Kirkbrideequationisusedforfeedtraylocation.

log[Nr/Ns]=0.206log[(B/D)(Xf.LK/Xd.HK)2].........KrikbrideEquation

Where
Nr=Numberofstagesabovethefeed,includinganypartialcondenser.
Ns=Numberofstagesbelowthefeed,includingthereboiler.
B=Molarflowbottomproduct.
D=Molarflowtopproduct.
Xf.HK=concentrationoftheheavykeyinthefeed.
Xf.LK=concentrationofthelightkeyinthefeed.
Xd.LK=concentrationoftheheavykeyinthetopproduct.
Xb.LK=concentrationofthelightkeyinthebottomproduct.
Insimulationmethod,itisknownasshortcutmettod

OptimizationCriteriainDesign

Fig:2.38[1,2]

Maximizationofdistillates.
Maximizationofdesiredproduct(s).
Qualityofreducedcrude.
Overflashcontroltooptimizeenergy.
Optimizationofpumparoundinyield.
Optimizationofparticularproduct(s).

FlashZoneoperatingconditionsFZtemperatureislimitedbyadventofcracking.
FZ pressure is set by fixing the reflux drum pressure and adding to it to the line and tower
pressuredrop.
Over flash:Over flash is the vaporisation of crude over and above the crude overhead and side
streamproducts.
Over flash is generally kept in the range of 36 liquid volume %. Kept at minimum value as a
Largeroverflashconsumeslargerutilities.
Overflashpreventscokingofwashsectionplatesandcarryoverofcoketothebottomsidestreamsby
and the tower bottom by providing reflux to the plates between the lowest sidestream and the flash
zone.

FlashZoneTemperature

CrudeTBPprovidesestimateoftotaldistillate.
EFVcruveofthecrudeisderivedfromtheTBPandconvertedtotheflashzonepressure.
Overflashquantityisselectedincludedthismaterialbalanceandheatbalancearountthebottom
sectionincludingfeedsectionisdonetofixtheflashzonetemperature.
Flashzonetemperaturethusfixedensuresdesiredtotaldistillateyield.

ProductYieldDetrmination[1,2,6]

From ASTM curve:1 ATM EFV curve are develoved and extrapolated to() 50% VOL% vaporized
asaninitialestimate.
Stripping steam to the stripper is set at about 10LB/BBL of stripped product bubble point of
unstrippedsidestreamisestimated.

Fig:2.39
EFVTEMPVSDRAWTRAYTEMP

Fig:2.40EFVTEMPVSDRAWTRAYTEMP[1,2]
FLASHZONE

Fig:2.41FLASHZONE[1,2]
D=Sumofallstreams.
V=%OFVAPORISATIONinFlashzone.
Lo=Overflash.
SF=Totalamountofhydrocarbonsstrippedoutbysteam.
ThusV=D+LoSF
Fromtheflashcurve(EFV)ofthecrude,thetemperatureatwhichthisvaporisationisachievedat
theFZPressureisdetermined.
ThisTshouldnotexceedthemaximumpermissibletemperature.IfdoesquantitiesofOverflash
andstrippingsteamarechangeduntilapermissibletempisobtained.
StrippedoutHCFraction(Sf)dependsonamountofstrippingsteam.
W=LofzVso,(W=Vol.%Feedleavingthebottom).
Lofz=Lo(Overflash)+W
V=Lo+100W/(1Sf)vol.%ofoffeedflashedatFZinlet.
Sf=fractionofstripoutvapor(Lofz(1Sf)=W).

EXAMPLE:Itisplannedtoyieldasasidestripperfromanatmosphericcrudetower,100bblperhour
of a light distillate product having a TBP cut point range of 400525 oF (volume range 2739%, API
39.8).Theestimateddrawtraytemperatureis425oF.Theliquidistobestrippedina4traycolumn
using500oF Steam. The stripping rate is 10 lb/bbl of stripped product. Calculate the temperature of
strippedproductstrippingthebottomofthestripper.

Solution:100bblofLDtobeproducd,TBPCut2739%=12vol.%,Midvol%33
Stripoutvapor=Sf=23.8vol.%.
Feed(F)=w/1sf.
=100/(1238).

=131.2bbl/h/100BBLOFLD.
ThereforeFeedF=12X1.312=15.74%OFCRUDE.
HeatintoFZ,QFZ1=VH+WH.

SelectionofColumnPressure

Pressuretobeadequatethatdewpoint(forthecompositionoftopproduct)ismorethancoolinghot
water temperature around 45oc+T(15oc)=60oc with cooling water inlet temperature of 33oc with

condensatetemperatureof40o45ocanbeobtainedeithconsiderationof10o15oT.Thecolumn
pressuretobeadequatethatbubblespointofthetopproductis40o45o.

i.e

atcolumnpressureanddrumtempof45o
or

Picalculatedat45oCforallthecomponents.

Pi=XiPiorYiPt=XiPi

ForcrudeDistillationColumn

Thetopproductisamixtureoflightendandtopnaptha(C5140o).ThenapthaTBPissubdivided10oC
or20oCcutseg.70o80o,80o90o,90o100oetcandmidpointaretabulated.

Kvaluesestimatedfromdepriesterchart.

Table:2.10

Comp./cutrange(TBP)

B.P.T

Ki45oC,1.6
Kg/cm2g

Xi

Ki

Xi

C1

B1

K1

X1

K1

X1

C2

B2

K2

X2

K2

X2

C3

B3

C4

B4

C5

B5

70o90o

80o

90o110o

100o

110o130o

115o

130o150o

140o

Kn

Xn

Kn

Xn

ni=1KiXi

ItKiXi=1thenthepressureisOK.
Ifnot1thenrepeattrialwithanothervalueofpressuretillKiXiis1.
Same method is applied for discrete component and mixture of pure component and fixes the reflux
drumpressure.

TopTemperatureEstimation

Toptemperatureisdewpointoftopvaporatcolumntoppressure.Oncerefluxdrumpressureisfixed
PD(say)the column top pressure is estimated after adding the pressure drop across condenser/OH
line.Typically0.3kg/cm20.5kg/cm2istakenaspressuredrop.

Columntoppressure=PD+0.5
Again calculation is performed at top pressure for determining the dew point.Assume a top
temperatureandcalculate.
yi/Kitillitbecomes1.

CalculationofVapor/LiquidProfile

Fig:2.42CalculationofVapor/LiquidProfile[1,2,11]

Thisisdonebyperformingmaterialbalance&heatbalanceinenvelopes.

Atmosphericdistillationunit

TowerDia:58m.
No.ofPlates:2540(dependsonNo.ofdraws).

Maxm.Allowablepressuredropperplate:0.015kg/cm2).

PressuredropfromfurnaceoutlettoFlashzone:0.30.4kg/cm2.
Pressureattopofthetower:1.21.4kg/cm2
No.ofplatesrequiredforseparation.

LNHN(80130C):68

HNLD(180C):56
LDMD(250C):46
MDGASOIL(330C):34
FlashzonetoFirstdrawtray:3
FZTOBOTTOM:3

Refluxdrumpressure:1.11.15kg/cm2abs.
Steamrate/bblofcrude:45kgs
Refluxratios:23(forlightfractions)forHeavyfractions1.52.5.

ContactingDevice

CrossFlow
Counterflow

CrossFlow

Fig:2.43CrossFlow

CounterFlow:Packing,Heattransfertrays.

Hdry>drytraypressuredrop,inches.

Hdry=C1+C2V2/2gC
Pdry=K2(VH)2DV/DLunitfullopen.

TrayPressureDrop
HT=Hdry+How+Hw
PT=Pdry+0.4(gpm/lwi)2/3+0.4HW

PumparoundDuties

Pumarounddutiesneedtobemaximizedforenergyefficiencypointofview.
This is limited by Gap/Overlap specification between adjacent products and minimum internal
refluxspecification.
Pumparounddutiesaremaximizedandrefluxratioisbroughtcloseto1.5to1.8.

VacuumColumn

(T)Hy.DieselPA:70oC90oC
(T)LVGOPA:50oC

(T)HVGOPA:55oC

Stagesinvacuumcolumn:

TopPA=1stage.
TopHy.DieselLVGO=23stage.

LVGOPA=1stage.
LVGOHVGO=1stage.
HVGOPA=23stage.
Wash=23stage.

Washliquidatbottomofwashbed0.3M3/hr/M2columnC.Sarea.
ThermodynamicsBK10/GSI.
TransportPropertyPETRO.
DensityAPI.

VacuumDistillationUnit[1,11]

The primary objective of a vacuum distillation is to produce either feedstock for FCCU or HCU.
ThistypeofvacuumdistillationunitsaretermedasFuelTypeVacuumUnit.
TheotherkindofvacuumdistillationunitisaLubeTypeVacuumUnitanddeployedforproduction
offractionsforLubeOilBasestocks.
In a Fuel Type Vacuum distillation Unit the VGO TBP cut point is controlled for Maximizing
profitability while containing the level of contaminants acceptable by downstream secondary
Units.

VACCUMDISTILLATION

Fig:2.44VACCUMDISTILLATION[1,2]


VacuumDistillationunit:cont

Fig:2.45VacuumDistillationunit[1,2]

DifferentConfigurationofVacuumColumn

1. Dry(nostripping,nocoilsteam).
2. Wet(Precondenserlimitingcolumnoverheadpressuretocoolingwatertemperaturelimitations).
3. Dumpcolumnwithoutstripping(noprecondenser,coilsteamusedtoadjustflashzoneoilpartial
pressure).
4. Dumpcolumnwithstrippingsteam(noprecondenser,coilandstrippingsteamused).

DifferentConfigurationofVacuumColumn
Thefirstoneoperatestypicallyat812mmHg(a)attop.Thevapourdirectlygoestoejectors.
The second type operates at 6070 mm Hg (a) at top and have a precondenser, the non
condensablearepulledbyejector.
Thethirdtypeofoperationisdoneat1825mmHg(a)attop.
Withoutstrippingsteamhasaboosterejectorfollowedbycondenser.
Thisfourthtypeagainoperateswithatoppressureof1825mmHg(a)andusesstrippingsteam
and Coil steam both. This type is considered best to increase cut point of VGO limiting the
contaminantslikeV,Nietc.inVGOwithsamenumberofstagesinwashsectionascomparedto
otherconfigurations.

References
1. Rao, B.K.B.(1990). Modern Petroleum Refining Processes (2nd Edition Ed.) Oxford & IBH
Publishers.ISBN8120404815.
2. James H. Gary and Glenn E. Handwerk (2001). Petroleum Refining: Technology and Economics
(4thed.).CRCPress.ISBN0824704827.
3. http://www.simtronics.com/catalog/spm/spm2700.htm
4. http://www.alfalaval.com/industries/Oilrefinery/crudedistillationunit/Pages/crudedistillation
unit.aspx
5. James. G. Speight (2006). The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum (4th ed.). CRC Press.
ISBN0849390672.
6. RezaSadeghbeigi(2000).FluidCatalyticCrackingHandbook(2nded.).GulfPublishing.ISBN0
884152898.
7. http://www.simtronics.com/catalog/spm/spm2700Large.htm?full/spm2700f.gif.
8. http://www.simtronics.com/catalog/spm/spm2700Large.htm?full/spm2700d.gif
9. http://www.simtronics.com/catalog/spm/spm2700Large.htm?full/spm2700e.gif
10. http://www.simtronics.com/catalog/spm/spm2700Large.htm?full/spm2700g.gif.
11. Kister,HenryZ.(1992).DistillationDesign(1stEditioned.).McGrawHill.ISBN0070349096.