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INDIA has been known to be an Agrarian country since centuries.

Her great physio

graphy, climate, latitude, etc. has led to the production of great varieties of
food consumed.
Since ancient times, man has been practising agriculture and also other activiti
es like the animal husbandry, poultry, etc. but the difference here is that he c
arried out 'Shifting Cultivation' until when the time came in that he learned to
grow crops using different techniques on one same land only. This is how stabil
ity came into their life.
Agriculture has also been one of the major reasons for the British, French, Dutc
h, and Portuguese to come and settle down in India for years. But today the scen
ario has changed. Globalisation has brought in some positive and also some negat
ive change within society and the activities. On one hand, the scope of agricult
ure has widened, while on other-its contribution to India's total national incom
e has come down.
Historically over 80% land is suitable for raising crops but over 15% out of it
has been laid waste by poor management practices. The frequent climatic changes
taking place has caused damage and a great loss to the farmers wherein committin
g suicide is found to be the best solution to this problem for them. On the othe
r side, some have found in new techniques and new varieties of crops as well. Du
e to growing population there is more need for food and due to urbanization ther
e is more demand for land so producing more in less available and cultivable lan
d is a great challenge.
Nowadays, Organic Farming, Vertical Farming, Multicrop Farming, Greenhouse Farmi
ng, Polytunnel or Polyhouse Farming, Terrace Farming, etc. are practised on a la
rge scale.
Organic farming is an agricultural form that relies on Crop Rotation, Green Manu
re, Compost, Biological Pest Control and also Mechanical Cultivation. This helps
to maintain soil quality and also limits use of synthetic fertilizers and pesti
cides. The growth of MARKET for organic products since 1990, has led to the dema
nd for organic farming.
Multi crop farming helps farmers to avail MONEY from different types of crops an
d it also helps to enhance the fertility of the soil. This almost gives farmers
an opportunity for continuous income.
While green house farming not being a that very new concept, has been used in nu
rseries, floriculture industry, etc. These farms help controlled and favourable
environment for the crops to grow in all seasons and also reduces consumption of
irrigation water. Low- cost, medium- cost and hi-tech green house are the diffe
rent types of greenhouses found.
The Polyhouse or Polytunnel farming meaning cultivating crops under protected co
nditions has advantages and also disadvantages. Whereas terrace farming is mostl
y carried out in city area. India has thus been since years the largest producer
s of various agricultural products like Fresh Fruits, Jute, Cotton, Rice, Wheat,
Groundnuts, Tea, Coffee, etc. etc.
The major problems of farmers have been large families that is the land is fragm
ented into small portions among the family members which reduces its productivit
y power and also less quantity gets produced. Seeds, excess use of fertilizers a
nd pesticides, lack of irrigation method i.e less availability of proper water,
lack of skills and mechanism, etc has also been reasons affecting farming and th
e farmers. There are also few economic related problems like inadequate transpor
t, inadequate storage, scarcity of capital, agricultural marketing and much more

The general stores selling every type of product are taking in all customers of
the vendors selling their produce in general MARKETS. This can also be considere
d as a reason for less price to agricultural produce sold in markets as compared
to the price in malls or general stores.
For this scenario to be changed the farmers in India need to adopt new technique
s, the government needs to give a good price for the farmers produce. There's a
need for giving employment to people in an organised sector and also implementin
g properly the various policies planned and designed for the betterment of farme
rs. The farmers should be given opportunity to contribute in the planning for th
e policies for them as a person who has actual experience in this field can brin
g out better solutions than the one who has just seen it.
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