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DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

Dynamic Synthesis Load Modeling Approach


Based on Load Survey and Load Curves
Analysis
Jingchao Zhang Anhe Yan Zhuoya Chen and Kun Gao

Abstract--A novel approach to build load model utilizing load


curve analysis technique is presented in this paper. Load model
has been widely used in power system simulation currently, and
its precision directly decides the reliability of simulation result.
Through developing load survey and load curves analysis,
dynamic synthesis load model can be created and the problem of
time-varying characters of load can be overcome in certain
extent. Besides, three types of data are brought forward to verify
the validity of created load model. This approach overcomes the
deficiencies of component-based modeling approach cannot be
performed frequently and the shortage of measurement-based
modeling approach in which created load model cannot be
generalized. With the development of computer and
communication technology, this approach could create real-time
load model in the near future and provide accurate load model
for online or offline stability computations.
Index Terms--dynamic synthesis load modeling, load curves
analysis, load model, load model validity.

I. INTRODUCTION

ITH continue expansion of power grid, it becomes more


and more important that the model used in simulation
programs consist with the actual characteristics of electric
apparatus. Up to now, the model of generators, transformers
and power lines have been established perfectly, as for the
model of load, due to its randomness, time-varying and
distribution property, it could barely describe the whole
characteristics exactly by one or more groups of equations.
Accurate load modeling has become one of the most difficult
problems in power system research fields.
There are two main approaches of load modeling presently:
component-based modeling approach and measurement-based
modeling approach. Component-based modeling approach
requires detailed information regarding the mixture of various
classes of loads as well as the composition of various load
components within each class. The advantage of this method
is that it has a clear physical concept, while its disadvantage is
requiring large scale load surveys and the time-varying of load

cannot be taken into account. Measurement-based modeling


approach, which is based on modern identification theory,
regards the load on feeders or transformers as a whole, and
disinterests the concrete composition of load. Through the
microcomputer-based field data measurement devices, the
parameters of load model can be identified and neednt to
carry on large-scale load surveys. The shortage of this
approach is that investment costs are quite high. Besides,
under the influences of noises, the parameters of load model
are greatly discrete, even certain parameters cannot be
identified due to inappropriate selection of the type of load
model. Moreover, load model obtained by this approach is not
suitable to extend, and it is not realistic to install field data
measurement devices on all lines of power grid [1]-[3].
This paper proposes a novel method, dynamic synthesis
load modeling approach, which is based on load survey and
load curves analysis technique. Utilizing kinds of field data,
this approach can create load model reflecting time-varying
property of load and provides a new thought of load modeling
in modern power grid.
II. THE OVERVIEW OF DYNAMIC SYNTHESIS LOAD MODELING
APPROACH
The dynamic synthesis load modeling approach could
acquire the parameters of dynamic load model by load survey
and load curves analysis techniques, and could describe the
time-varying of the load in a certain extent. The main
procedure is as follows: At first, to make sure the types of load
through field load survey; Secondly, to extract typical load
curves and identify the proportion of load classes at certain
time intervals through analyzing the data of load curves which
come from substations or buses; Therefore, the load model of
specific feeder or bus could be created using clustering
methods. As the data of load curves change continuously, the
characteristics of time-varying of load can be incarnated in
created load models. Finally, three different types of data are
proposed to verify the created load models. The flowchart of
this approach is shown as Fig. 1.

This work is supported in part by Henan Electric Power Corporation.


Jingchao Zhang, Zhuoya Chen and Kun Gao are with the Henan Electric
Power Research Institute, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan province, China (email: zepczjc@163.com)
Anhe Yan is with the Dispatching and Communication Center, Henan
Electric Power Corporation, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan province, China (email:pyanah@371.net)

978-7-900714-13-8/08/ 2008DRPT

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A. Load Survey
Load survey is conducted regionally. The purpose of load

DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

Load survey

Load curves
analysis

Load model
aggregation

Getting
typical
load
model

Fieldmeasured
data

Faultrecorded
data

steady-state model in [8].

Transent
data
recorded by
PMU

D. The Structure of Load Model


The structure of synthesis load model considering line
impedance and reactive compensation proposed in [9] is used
in dynamic synthesis load modeling approach, and its model
structure is shown as Fig. 2. In the figure, ZIP represents the
load component of constant impedance, constant current and
constant power, C represents reactive compensation in
distribution power grid, M represents the equivalent model of
electric motor, G represents equivalent model of small power
source, Rnet+jXnet represents equivalent impedance of
distribution power grid.

Model selection and parameters


identification

Creating primary
load model
Load model
verification

220kV

Load model
stroage

Load model output

Fig. 1. The flowchart of dynamic synthesis load modeling approach

110kV

survey is to confirm the load types in specific area. The main


items of load survey include: load types of feeders, load
capacity and running characteristics. In the process of load
survey, the parameters of power lines and transformers, the
reactive compensation capacity could be recorded at the
meantime.
B. Load Curve Analysis
The aim of load curve analysis is to gain the proportion of
various classes in total load. As the data of load curves could
reflect the rule of load changing with time, the proportion data
can be calculated through a series of operation on load curves.
There are various load curves based on different taxonomies,
such as active load curve, reactive load curve, daily load
curve, mensal load curve and annual load curve. In the process
of load modeling, the daily load curve is mainly useful.
C. Clustering
The static model and dynamic model are clustered
respectively in this approach. The clustering of static model
uses capacity weighted average method, the equation is shown
as (1):
n

Pagg = j Pj

(1)

j =1

Take the multinomial model as example, Pj and Pagg


represent static model parameters (such as ap, bp, cp, aq, bq, cq )
before and after clustering, respectively.
Dynamic model adopts the three order electric motor model
in this approach, and its clustering is more complicate than
static model. The various clustering methods of electric motor
model had been summarized and the two main methods had
been compared in [4]. The transient-state load model of
electric motor is studied in [5] and proposed a classified
coefficient enlighten by [6]. A new clustering method of
electric motor is proposed based on steady-state model of
electric motor in [7]. We proposed a clustering method of
electric motor based on self-organizing neural network and

Rnet + jX net

C
Z

Fig. 2. The structure of synthesis load model considering line impedance and
reactive compensation

III. LOAD CURVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE


A. The Extraction of Typical Load Curves
Typical load curve is extracted from a large number of load
curves, including one or more curves which reflect specific
types of load changing with time. In general, it is converted to
per unit form.
Typical load curve plays a significant role in load curve
analysis, and its extent of veracity direct influence on the
precision of load modeling. To extract typical load curve from
historical load curves, the following factors should be
considered primarily:
1) At first, we should choose load curves of feeders which
only contain a few types of load, the less types of load in
given feeder is included, the more accurate typical load
curve is extracted.
2) Through clustering many daily load curves at intervals
(e.g. a month), some curves with high dispersion should
be taken out. And one or two typical daily load curve
could be calculated through applying the mean
evaluation to the remained load curves, then converting
it to per unit form.(e.g. the load value at each time
divide maximum load value in one day)
3) As load changing with seasons, typical load curves
should be updated with the time.
4) The created typical load curves should be modified
according to actual situation periodically.

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DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

B. Load Classes Proportion Analysis


Typical daily load curves are extracted from practical daily
load curves, and it is sufficient to represent load characteristics
of corresponding typical load. The proportion of typical load
classes in total load could be deduced.
Set the total load active power of given feeder as Ps(t), m
represents the load types, and Pi (t) represents active power of
different types of load . Therefore,
Ps (t ) = Pi (t )

(2)

i =1

wherei = 1,2,...,m, t = 1,2,...,n, m < n.


The value of typical load equals typical coefficient (t ) at
different time multiplies the maximum value Pi,max of this
given type of load, which is shown as (3):

Pi (t ) = i (t ) Pi ,max

(3)

Replacing (2) with (3) and writing into matrix as following

(9)

i ,max

, i = 1, 2,..., m

(10)

m (1) P1,max Ps (1)

m (2) P2,max Ps (2)

# #
P

m (t ) m,max

C. Analysis Example
An example is given to explain this approach. Load curves
of the feeder in specific substation from April 1, 2006 to April
7, 2006 are used as Fig. 3.
The main load types of this feeder are residential load,
commercial load and some light industrial load through
investigations. The load curve on 4 April is taken as example.
In the analysis, the typical residential daily load curve is
shown as Fig. 4, the typical commercial daily load curve is
shown as Fig. 5, and the typical industrial daily load curve is
shown as Fig. 6.

(4)
3.50

Ps (t )

3.00
2.50
MW

"
"
#
"

(t ) P
P (t )
i

peri =

Set
(1) (1)
2
1
(2) (2)
1
2
A=
#
#

1 (t ) 2 (t )

, i = 1, 2,..., m

The proportion of certain kind of load in total load at certain


time intervals could be calculated:

Power (MW)

"
"
#
"

Ps (t )

(1) (1)
2
1
(2) (2)
1
2

#
#

1 (t ) 2 (t )

i Pi ,max

peri (t ) =

m (1)

m (2)

#
m (t )

2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Time
(Hour)

42
43
44
45
46
47
April 2
April 3
April 4
April 5
April 6
April 7

41
April 1

P1,max
Ps (1)
P

P (2)
2,max
s
x =
b
=

#
#

Pm ,max
Ps (t )

Fig. 3. Load curves in specific substation from April 1 to 7 in 2006


90
80
70
60
50

Therefore

40
30

Ax = b

(5)
When the order of [A]and the order of [A,b] equal m, this
equation group has unique solution x.
1

(6)
x=A b
However, the above condition does not always be satisfied
in practical applications, thus, the least square solution could
be deduced. Set
n

f ( x) = ( i ( j ) Pi ,max Ps ( j ))2

20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Fig. 4. Typical residential daily load curve


100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

(7)

j =1 i =1

The equation to solve x is as follows:

x = ( AT A) 1 AT b

(8)

After solving x, the proportion of load classes in total load


could be calculated as (9):

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Fig. 5. Typical business daily load curve

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DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

C. Transient Data Recorded by PMU


PMU(synchronized Phasor Measurement Unit) has
100
different
sampling rates. Considering the sampling rate of the
80
dynamic
data
in PMU is not fit to load modeling, the transient
60
recorded
data
is used to verify the created load model. The
40
primary
data
in
PMU are three-phase fundamental voltage and
20
current,
which
could
be used on calculating active and reactive
0
power
absorbed
by
load. When voltage fluctuates, the
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
parameters
of
load
model
can be identified at certain structure
Fig. 6. Typical industrial daily load curve
of load model.
It is general to select voltage and current data coming from
The result of analyzing the proportion of different kinds of
load on 4 April is denoted as Table I.
the high-voltage side of main transformer in the verification.
TABLE I
One thing to keep in mind is that the data of tie line could not
THE PROPORTION OF D IFFERENT KINDS OF LOAD ON 4 APRIL
be utilized directly. Considering the principle of reactive
Class of Load Residential Load Commercial Load Industrial Load power local compensation, some statistic work should be done
Proportion (%)
37.2
27.2
35.6
on compensation capacity to consistent with practical load
characteristic before identification.
IV. THE VERIFICATION OF LOAD MODEL
V. CONCLUSION
It is difficult to verify the created load model due to its
Dynamic synthesis Load modeling approach has been used
nonlinear, distributed and time-varying characters. Different
areas and countries have different load models, and the in practical application of building the Henan power grid load
validity of created load model can only be examined when model dynamic database. Combined with load survey data,
fault occurs in actual power grid. In the simulations of 1996 load curves data, fault recorded data and other effective data,
Blackout of WSCC, the entire course of the accident could not this approach could establish synthesis load model changing
be recurred by previous load model. After modifying load with the time. So overcome the problem of time-varying
model, the accident recurred [10]-[11]. It is proved that the characters of load in certain extent. Moreover, load model
created in this approach could easily interface with the PSDverification of load model is extraordinarily difficult.
Three kinds of historical data are proposed to checkout the BPA and PSASP power system simulation and computation
validity of the created load model, which are Measurement- programs. With the development of computer and
based data, fault-recorded data and transient data recorded by communication technology, this approach could create realPMUs, and the rules of load model verification are discussed time load model in the near future and provide accurate load
model for many online or offline stability computations. Based
consequently.
on the accurate load model, the economical efficiency can be
A. Measurement-based Data
improved on the promise of safe operation on power grid.
Data for load modeling can be obtained by installing
measurement and identification devices at points where bus
VI. REFERENCES
loads are to be represented. Microprocessor-based transient [1] IEEE Task Force on Load Representation for Dynamic Performance,
data recording system has been developed quickly in recent
"Load representation for dynamic performance analysis," IEEE Trans.
Power Systems, vol. 8, pp. 472-482, 1993.
twenty years. But the load model created by measurement[2] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control. New York: McGrawbased approach is not convenient to extend to other buses or
Hill, 1994, pp. 271-312.
feeders if they having different load types. Moreover, the [3] C. W. Taylor, Power System Voltage Stability. New York: McGraw-Hill,
1994, pp. 67-94.
parameters of load model created at different times will be
M.D Kanham, W.W Price. Aggregation of induction motors
disaffinity [1]. However, this kind of data could be used to [4] FforNozari,
transient stability load modeling. IEEE Transactions on Power
compare with the parameters of load model created by
Systems, 1987,2(4): 1096-1103.
[5] M. Taleb, M. Akbaba,E. A. Abdullah. Aggregation of induction
dynamic synthesis load modeling approach at the same hour.
120

B. Fault-recorded Data
Fault-recording equipment can record data automatically
when power system encounters a fault or oscillation, and it has
become a significant foundation of analyzing faults in power
system. At present, important 110kV and almost all 220kV
substations have been equipped with fault-recording
equipments in China. Considering the requirement of faultrecorded data for load modeling, the data recorded by Faultrecording equipment presently can satisfy with the parameters
identification of load model in sampling rate, sample precision
and data recording duration.

[6]
[7]

[8]

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machines for power system dynamic studies. IEEE Transactions on


Power Systems, 1994,9(4): 2042-2048.
S. Ahmed-Zaid, M. Taleb. Structural modeling of small and large
induction machines using integral manifolds. ieee transactions on
energy conversion, 1991,6(3): 529-535.
D. C. Franklin, A. Morelato. Improving dynamic aggregation of
induction motor models. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,
1994,9(4): 1934-1941.
Jingchao, Zhang, Chengxue, Zhang, Anhe, Yan, etc. Aggregation of
Multi Induction Motors Based on the Self-organized Neural Network
and Steady State Model. Automation of Electric Power systems,
2007,31(11): 44-48.
China Electric Power Research Institute, PSD-BPA users handbook of
Transient stability program., 2005

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[9]

D. N. Kosterev,C. W. Taylor, W. A. Mittelstadt. :Model validation for


the August 10, 1996 WSCC system outage. IEEE Transactions on
Power Systems, 1999,14(3): 967-979.
[10] L. Pereira,D. Kosterev,P. Mackin,etc. An interim dynamic induction
motor model for stability studies in the WSCC. IEEE Transactions on
Power Systems, 2002,17(4): 1108 - 1115.

VII. BIOGRAPHIES
Jingchao Zhang was born in China, in 1973. He
received the Ph.D. degree in school of electrical
engineering, Wuhan University in 2007. Then he
joined the Henan Electric Power Research
Institute. His research interests include power
system analysis and control, load modeling,
electric energy measurement, etc.

Anhe Yan was born in China, in 1952. He


graduated from Wuhan University of Hydraulic and
Electrical Engineering in 1982. Now he is the senior
engineer and vice director of Dispatching and
Communication Center in Henan Electric Power
Corporation. His main interests are in the area of
power system operation, analysis and control.

Zhuoya Chen was born in China, in 1962. She


graduated from Zhengzhou University in 1995.
Now she is the senior engineer and director of
Electric Metering Department in Henan Electric
Power Institute. Her research interests include
power system analysis and electric energy metering.

Kun Gao was born in China, in 1984. She


received the B.E. degree in Electrical Engineering
and Automations from North China Electric Power
University, China in 2005, and the Msc degree in
Electrical Power Systems from University of Bath,
UK in 2006. Currently, she works in Henan
Electric Power Research Institute. Her research
interests are power system control, power system
analysis and operation.

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