2 views

Uploaded by Florin Nastasa

trei

- SEIT Research Report 2011_Final
- Hextran 9.0
- 110 TOP MOST TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION - Electrical Engineering Objective Type Questions and Answers Electrical Engineering Multiple Choice Questions
- 4-2
- UPDATED WORKSHOP OUTLINE
- High voltage plannner1.doc
- Pacific-Power--Exhibit-No-HS-2
- Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) Application in Transmission Grid-A Literature Review
- AI
- AMD64
- supplyact1948
- Software-Arena.docx
- 2013
- Automatic breaking system control_ieee paper_01254670
- Transmission Planning Criteria
- Hvdc&Facts Syllabus
- SEMINARTopics
- smib
- Epira and Irr
- 2.Mr._Sommai.pdf

You are on page 1of 5

Based on Load Survey and Load Curves

Analysis

Jingchao Zhang Anhe Yan Zhuoya Chen and Kun Gao

curve analysis technique is presented in this paper. Load model

has been widely used in power system simulation currently, and

its precision directly decides the reliability of simulation result.

Through developing load survey and load curves analysis,

dynamic synthesis load model can be created and the problem of

time-varying characters of load can be overcome in certain

extent. Besides, three types of data are brought forward to verify

the validity of created load model. This approach overcomes the

deficiencies of component-based modeling approach cannot be

performed frequently and the shortage of measurement-based

modeling approach in which created load model cannot be

generalized. With the development of computer and

communication technology, this approach could create real-time

load model in the near future and provide accurate load model

for online or offline stability computations.

Index Terms--dynamic synthesis load modeling, load curves

analysis, load model, load model validity.

I. INTRODUCTION

and more important that the model used in simulation

programs consist with the actual characteristics of electric

apparatus. Up to now, the model of generators, transformers

and power lines have been established perfectly, as for the

model of load, due to its randomness, time-varying and

distribution property, it could barely describe the whole

characteristics exactly by one or more groups of equations.

Accurate load modeling has become one of the most difficult

problems in power system research fields.

There are two main approaches of load modeling presently:

component-based modeling approach and measurement-based

modeling approach. Component-based modeling approach

requires detailed information regarding the mixture of various

classes of loads as well as the composition of various load

components within each class. The advantage of this method

is that it has a clear physical concept, while its disadvantage is

requiring large scale load surveys and the time-varying of load

approach, which is based on modern identification theory,

regards the load on feeders or transformers as a whole, and

disinterests the concrete composition of load. Through the

microcomputer-based field data measurement devices, the

parameters of load model can be identified and neednt to

carry on large-scale load surveys. The shortage of this

approach is that investment costs are quite high. Besides,

under the influences of noises, the parameters of load model

are greatly discrete, even certain parameters cannot be

identified due to inappropriate selection of the type of load

model. Moreover, load model obtained by this approach is not

suitable to extend, and it is not realistic to install field data

measurement devices on all lines of power grid [1]-[3].

This paper proposes a novel method, dynamic synthesis

load modeling approach, which is based on load survey and

load curves analysis technique. Utilizing kinds of field data,

this approach can create load model reflecting time-varying

property of load and provides a new thought of load modeling

in modern power grid.

II. THE OVERVIEW OF DYNAMIC SYNTHESIS LOAD MODELING

APPROACH

The dynamic synthesis load modeling approach could

acquire the parameters of dynamic load model by load survey

and load curves analysis techniques, and could describe the

time-varying of the load in a certain extent. The main

procedure is as follows: At first, to make sure the types of load

through field load survey; Secondly, to extract typical load

curves and identify the proportion of load classes at certain

time intervals through analyzing the data of load curves which

come from substations or buses; Therefore, the load model of

specific feeder or bus could be created using clustering

methods. As the data of load curves change continuously, the

characteristics of time-varying of load can be incarnated in

created load models. Finally, three different types of data are

proposed to verify the created load models. The flowchart of

this approach is shown as Fig. 1.

Jingchao Zhang, Zhuoya Chen and Kun Gao are with the Henan Electric

Power Research Institute, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan province, China (email: zepczjc@163.com)

Anhe Yan is with the Dispatching and Communication Center, Henan

Electric Power Corporation, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan province, China (email:pyanah@371.net)

978-7-900714-13-8/08/ 2008DRPT

1067

A. Load Survey

Load survey is conducted regionally. The purpose of load

Load survey

Load curves

analysis

Load model

aggregation

Getting

typical

load

model

Fieldmeasured

data

Faultrecorded

data

Transent

data

recorded by

PMU

The structure of synthesis load model considering line

impedance and reactive compensation proposed in [9] is used

in dynamic synthesis load modeling approach, and its model

structure is shown as Fig. 2. In the figure, ZIP represents the

load component of constant impedance, constant current and

constant power, C represents reactive compensation in

distribution power grid, M represents the equivalent model of

electric motor, G represents equivalent model of small power

source, Rnet+jXnet represents equivalent impedance of

distribution power grid.

identification

Creating primary

load model

Load model

verification

220kV

Load model

stroage

110kV

items of load survey include: load types of feeders, load

capacity and running characteristics. In the process of load

survey, the parameters of power lines and transformers, the

reactive compensation capacity could be recorded at the

meantime.

B. Load Curve Analysis

The aim of load curve analysis is to gain the proportion of

various classes in total load. As the data of load curves could

reflect the rule of load changing with time, the proportion data

can be calculated through a series of operation on load curves.

There are various load curves based on different taxonomies,

such as active load curve, reactive load curve, daily load

curve, mensal load curve and annual load curve. In the process

of load modeling, the daily load curve is mainly useful.

C. Clustering

The static model and dynamic model are clustered

respectively in this approach. The clustering of static model

uses capacity weighted average method, the equation is shown

as (1):

n

Pagg = j Pj

(1)

j =1

represent static model parameters (such as ap, bp, cp, aq, bq, cq )

before and after clustering, respectively.

Dynamic model adopts the three order electric motor model

in this approach, and its clustering is more complicate than

static model. The various clustering methods of electric motor

model had been summarized and the two main methods had

been compared in [4]. The transient-state load model of

electric motor is studied in [5] and proposed a classified

coefficient enlighten by [6]. A new clustering method of

electric motor is proposed based on steady-state model of

electric motor in [7]. We proposed a clustering method of

electric motor based on self-organizing neural network and

Rnet + jX net

C

Z

Fig. 2. The structure of synthesis load model considering line impedance and

reactive compensation

A. The Extraction of Typical Load Curves

Typical load curve is extracted from a large number of load

curves, including one or more curves which reflect specific

types of load changing with time. In general, it is converted to

per unit form.

Typical load curve plays a significant role in load curve

analysis, and its extent of veracity direct influence on the

precision of load modeling. To extract typical load curve from

historical load curves, the following factors should be

considered primarily:

1) At first, we should choose load curves of feeders which

only contain a few types of load, the less types of load in

given feeder is included, the more accurate typical load

curve is extracted.

2) Through clustering many daily load curves at intervals

(e.g. a month), some curves with high dispersion should

be taken out. And one or two typical daily load curve

could be calculated through applying the mean

evaluation to the remained load curves, then converting

it to per unit form.(e.g. the load value at each time

divide maximum load value in one day)

3) As load changing with seasons, typical load curves

should be updated with the time.

4) The created typical load curves should be modified

according to actual situation periodically.

1068

Typical daily load curves are extracted from practical daily

load curves, and it is sufficient to represent load characteristics

of corresponding typical load. The proportion of typical load

classes in total load could be deduced.

Set the total load active power of given feeder as Ps(t), m

represents the load types, and Pi (t) represents active power of

different types of load . Therefore,

Ps (t ) = Pi (t )

(2)

i =1

The value of typical load equals typical coefficient (t ) at

different time multiplies the maximum value Pi,max of this

given type of load, which is shown as (3):

Pi (t ) = i (t ) Pi ,max

(3)

(9)

i ,max

, i = 1, 2,..., m

(10)

# #

P

m (t ) m,max

C. Analysis Example

An example is given to explain this approach. Load curves

of the feeder in specific substation from April 1, 2006 to April

7, 2006 are used as Fig. 3.

The main load types of this feeder are residential load,

commercial load and some light industrial load through

investigations. The load curve on 4 April is taken as example.

In the analysis, the typical residential daily load curve is

shown as Fig. 4, the typical commercial daily load curve is

shown as Fig. 5, and the typical industrial daily load curve is

shown as Fig. 6.

(4)

3.50

Ps (t )

3.00

2.50

MW

"

"

#

"

(t ) P

P (t )

i

peri =

Set

(1) (1)

2

1

(2) (2)

1

2

A=

#

#

1 (t ) 2 (t )

, i = 1, 2,..., m

time intervals could be calculated:

Power (MW)

"

"

#

"

Ps (t )

(1) (1)

2

1

(2) (2)

1

2

#

#

1 (t ) 2 (t )

i Pi ,max

peri (t ) =

m (1)

m (2)

#

m (t )

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Time

(Hour)

42

43

44

45

46

47

April 2

April 3

April 4

April 5

April 6

April 7

41

April 1

P1,max

Ps (1)

P

P (2)

2,max

s

x =

b

=

#

#

Pm ,max

Ps (t )

90

80

70

60

50

Therefore

40

30

Ax = b

(5)

When the order of [A]and the order of [A,b] equal m, this

equation group has unique solution x.

1

(6)

x=A b

However, the above condition does not always be satisfied

in practical applications, thus, the least square solution could

be deduced. Set

n

f ( x) = ( i ( j ) Pi ,max Ps ( j ))2

20

10

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

(7)

j =1 i =1

x = ( AT A) 1 AT b

(8)

could be calculated as (9):

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

1069

PMU(synchronized Phasor Measurement Unit) has

100

different

sampling rates. Considering the sampling rate of the

80

dynamic

data

in PMU is not fit to load modeling, the transient

60

recorded

data

is used to verify the created load model. The

40

primary

data

in

PMU are three-phase fundamental voltage and

20

current,

which

could

be used on calculating active and reactive

0

power

absorbed

by

load. When voltage fluctuates, the

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

parameters

of

load

model

can be identified at certain structure

Fig. 6. Typical industrial daily load curve

of load model.

It is general to select voltage and current data coming from

The result of analyzing the proportion of different kinds of

load on 4 April is denoted as Table I.

the high-voltage side of main transformer in the verification.

TABLE I

One thing to keep in mind is that the data of tie line could not

THE PROPORTION OF D IFFERENT KINDS OF LOAD ON 4 APRIL

be utilized directly. Considering the principle of reactive

Class of Load Residential Load Commercial Load Industrial Load power local compensation, some statistic work should be done

Proportion (%)

37.2

27.2

35.6

on compensation capacity to consistent with practical load

characteristic before identification.

IV. THE VERIFICATION OF LOAD MODEL

V. CONCLUSION

It is difficult to verify the created load model due to its

Dynamic synthesis Load modeling approach has been used

nonlinear, distributed and time-varying characters. Different

areas and countries have different load models, and the in practical application of building the Henan power grid load

validity of created load model can only be examined when model dynamic database. Combined with load survey data,

fault occurs in actual power grid. In the simulations of 1996 load curves data, fault recorded data and other effective data,

Blackout of WSCC, the entire course of the accident could not this approach could establish synthesis load model changing

be recurred by previous load model. After modifying load with the time. So overcome the problem of time-varying

model, the accident recurred [10]-[11]. It is proved that the characters of load in certain extent. Moreover, load model

created in this approach could easily interface with the PSDverification of load model is extraordinarily difficult.

Three kinds of historical data are proposed to checkout the BPA and PSASP power system simulation and computation

validity of the created load model, which are Measurement- programs. With the development of computer and

based data, fault-recorded data and transient data recorded by communication technology, this approach could create realPMUs, and the rules of load model verification are discussed time load model in the near future and provide accurate load

model for many online or offline stability computations. Based

consequently.

on the accurate load model, the economical efficiency can be

A. Measurement-based Data

improved on the promise of safe operation on power grid.

Data for load modeling can be obtained by installing

measurement and identification devices at points where bus

VI. REFERENCES

loads are to be represented. Microprocessor-based transient [1] IEEE Task Force on Load Representation for Dynamic Performance,

data recording system has been developed quickly in recent

"Load representation for dynamic performance analysis," IEEE Trans.

Power Systems, vol. 8, pp. 472-482, 1993.

twenty years. But the load model created by measurement[2] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control. New York: McGrawbased approach is not convenient to extend to other buses or

Hill, 1994, pp. 271-312.

feeders if they having different load types. Moreover, the [3] C. W. Taylor, Power System Voltage Stability. New York: McGraw-Hill,

1994, pp. 67-94.

parameters of load model created at different times will be

M.D Kanham, W.W Price. Aggregation of induction motors

disaffinity [1]. However, this kind of data could be used to [4] FforNozari,

transient stability load modeling. IEEE Transactions on Power

compare with the parameters of load model created by

Systems, 1987,2(4): 1096-1103.

[5] M. Taleb, M. Akbaba,E. A. Abdullah. Aggregation of induction

dynamic synthesis load modeling approach at the same hour.

120

B. Fault-recorded Data

Fault-recording equipment can record data automatically

when power system encounters a fault or oscillation, and it has

become a significant foundation of analyzing faults in power

system. At present, important 110kV and almost all 220kV

substations have been equipped with fault-recording

equipments in China. Considering the requirement of faultrecorded data for load modeling, the data recorded by Faultrecording equipment presently can satisfy with the parameters

identification of load model in sampling rate, sample precision

and data recording duration.

[6]

[7]

[8]

1070

Power Systems, 1994,9(4): 2042-2048.

S. Ahmed-Zaid, M. Taleb. Structural modeling of small and large

induction machines using integral manifolds. ieee transactions on

energy conversion, 1991,6(3): 529-535.

D. C. Franklin, A. Morelato. Improving dynamic aggregation of

induction motor models. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,

1994,9(4): 1934-1941.

Jingchao, Zhang, Chengxue, Zhang, Anhe, Yan, etc. Aggregation of

Multi Induction Motors Based on the Self-organized Neural Network

and Steady State Model. Automation of Electric Power systems,

2007,31(11): 44-48.

China Electric Power Research Institute, PSD-BPA users handbook of

Transient stability program., 2005

[9]

the August 10, 1996 WSCC system outage. IEEE Transactions on

Power Systems, 1999,14(3): 967-979.

[10] L. Pereira,D. Kosterev,P. Mackin,etc. An interim dynamic induction

motor model for stability studies in the WSCC. IEEE Transactions on

Power Systems, 2002,17(4): 1108 - 1115.

VII. BIOGRAPHIES

Jingchao Zhang was born in China, in 1973. He

received the Ph.D. degree in school of electrical

engineering, Wuhan University in 2007. Then he

joined the Henan Electric Power Research

Institute. His research interests include power

system analysis and control, load modeling,

electric energy measurement, etc.

graduated from Wuhan University of Hydraulic and

Electrical Engineering in 1982. Now he is the senior

engineer and vice director of Dispatching and

Communication Center in Henan Electric Power

Corporation. His main interests are in the area of

power system operation, analysis and control.

graduated from Zhengzhou University in 1995.

Now she is the senior engineer and director of

Electric Metering Department in Henan Electric

Power Institute. Her research interests include

power system analysis and electric energy metering.

received the B.E. degree in Electrical Engineering

and Automations from North China Electric Power

University, China in 2005, and the Msc degree in

Electrical Power Systems from University of Bath,

UK in 2006. Currently, she works in Henan

Electric Power Research Institute. Her research

interests are power system control, power system

analysis and operation.

1071

- SEIT Research Report 2011_FinalUploaded bycgarciahe5427
- Hextran 9.0Uploaded bymaryjosc9609
- 110 TOP MOST TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION - Electrical Engineering Objective Type Questions and Answers Electrical Engineering Multiple Choice QuestionsUploaded byRavi Raj
- 4-2Uploaded byassoka
- UPDATED WORKSHOP OUTLINEUploaded byAli
- Pacific-Power--Exhibit-No-HS-2Uploaded byGenability
- Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) Application in Transmission Grid-A Literature ReviewUploaded byIRJET Journal
- High voltage plannner1.docUploaded byMd. Monzur A Murshed
- AIUploaded byVanathi Vanmathi97
- supplyact1948Uploaded bykaimmoottil
- Software-Arena.docxUploaded byAlex -
- Transmission Planning CriteriaUploaded byChintan Meena
- AMD64Uploaded byJoshua
- 2013Uploaded byavinashavi93
- Hvdc&Facts SyllabusUploaded byChristopher Ortega
- SEMINARTopicsUploaded byKunzes Dolkar
- Automatic breaking system control_ieee paper_01254670Uploaded byBadr Amer
- smibUploaded bySwagat Pradhan
- Epira and IrrUploaded byRain Rivera Ramas
- 2.Mr._Sommai.pdfUploaded byravi474
- PSA TA TEST 1 - Copy.docxUploaded byprajwal patil
- Bte2413-Electrical Power System 11516Uploaded byABDUL AZIZ ZULKIFLI
- Efficient and cooperative failure control in smart gridUploaded byHgoglez
- Spv ConsultancyUploaded byLakshmann Chettiar
- Falla3F - CompleteUploaded byFernando Ramos Albarran
- Planning PoweUploaded byBelayneh Tadesse
- SMIUploaded byRitesh Singh
- Utilization of Scientific Method as a Tool of ArchUploaded bymaus1945
- Mngmnt Game Manual 2010Uploaded byarnab_sit85
- The Clean Power[1]Uploaded bytptejen

- 06722802Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- p208 SajjadUploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- dsUploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- 06991841Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- 06599011hhUploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- 06839095Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- 07047330Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- 06980137Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- 05483980Uploaded byBogdan Neagu
- 06865032Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- 06698769Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- 06549589Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- Load Management in Smart Grids Considering Harmonic Distortion and Transformer DeratingUploaded byShubha Yaji
- 04523565Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- Full Page Photo2Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- Full Page PhotoUploaded byFlorin Nastasa

- Power System Operation and ControlUploaded byindhu.cs
- EE2401 PSOC notes.pdf-www.chennaiuniversity.net.unlocked.pdfUploaded byClement Raj
- urn_nbn_de_0011-n-3601777-1Uploaded byIvanZec
- EE1401Uploaded byKiran Yaddanapudi
- TIMES_Basics.pdfUploaded byHafeez Khan Tareen
- UTILTS User GuideUploaded byNishant Jain
- GRUNDFOS COMMERCIAL BUILDING SERVICESUploaded byGrundfosEgypt
- Transmission Line and Distribution LossesUploaded byjaythakar8887
- EE153 Notes No. 1 - The Electric Distribution SystemUploaded byAnonymous EnggrUsm
- Distribution Technical Loss Calculation and Costing for Network Planning and DesignUploaded bygtgreat
- Excel Lcc Calculation Transformer5Uploaded bySergio Provenzano Junior
- Energy Savings Calculator_pump and Fan VFDUploaded byASHUTOSH RANJAN
- 45_16255_EE543_2015_1__1_1_week_3-4Uploaded byMekaNo1D
- Duke-Energy-Ohio-Inc-Customer-Choice-Enrollment-and-Participation-GuidelinesUploaded byGenability
- San-Diego-Gas-and-Electric-Co-EECC---DR-SES-NEM-2.0Uploaded byGenability
- Load forecastingUploaded bypowerman619
- A strategy for the management of energy losses in a local electricity distribution networkUploaded byFelix Zamuriano
- TransformerUploaded bySruthy Arun
- TLMS-CEPSI2010Uploaded byAndrew Yang
- my przzzzUploaded byVidura Sucharitha
- Development of Physical-Based Demand Response-Enabled Residential Load ModelsUploaded byAmritanshu Pandey
- Capítulo 02 - Load Characteristics (1)Uploaded byRolando Brañez Cosme
- 2012-Optimal Operation of Residential Energy Hubs InUploaded byShahid Younas
- 52902320-AC-UPS-SizingUploaded byPeanut d. Destroyer
- 04523565Uploaded byFlorin Nastasa
- 2018-2027 Soreco II PsppUploaded byJohnCzyril Deladia Domens
- Interval Billing White PaperUploaded byjoebucket
- Energy Flow Models for the Estimation of Technical Losses InUploaded bySebastian Lorca
- Power Plant Mechanical GATE IES PSU Study MaterialUploaded byAbhilash OS
- Evaluation of Distributed Generation Impacts on Distribution Networks Under Different Penetration ScenariosUploaded byMiguel Quispe