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DISCUSSION

Hormones are organic substances


produced natuirally in small amounts
that
regulate
and
coordinate
metabolism, growth and morphogenesis.
Plant hormones (also known as
phytohormones) are chemicals that
regulate plant growth. There are five
general classes of hormones: auxins,
cytokinins, gibberellins (GA), ethylene,
and abscissic acid (ABA). Auxin
produced by seeds are known to
promote ovary tissue growth. ABA is a
growth-inhibiting
hormone
largely
responsible for seed dormancy. GA
regulates
growth
and
influences
various developmental
processes.
Cytokinin is a class of plant hormone
that promotes cell division. Ethylene is a
simple gaseous hydrocarbon produced
from an amino acid and appears in most
plant tissues in large amounts when
they are stressed (Toyomasu et al.,
1993).
Seed germination is controlled by a
number of mechanisms and is
necessary
for
the
growth
and
development of the embryo, resulting in
the eventual production of a new plant.
Under unfavorable conditions seeds
may become dormant (secondary
dormancy) to maintain their germination
ability. However, when the conditions
are favorable seeds can germinate.
There are a number of factors
controlling seed germination and
dormancy, including plant hormones,
which are produced by both plant and
soil bacteria. Interactions between plant
hormones and plant genes affect seed
germination. While the activity of plant
hormones
is
controlled
by the
expression of genes at different levels,
there are plant genes that are activated

in the presence of specific plant


hormones. Hence, adjusting gene
expression may be an effective way to
enhance seed germination (Mohammad
et al., 2014).
GA is produced in stem and root apical
meristems, seed embryos, and young
leaves. Most bioactive GAs are located
in actively growing organs on plants.
GAs are usually produced from the
methylerythritol
phosphate
(MEP)
pathway in higher plants. At early stages
of seed development, the major GAs are
active and inactive ones are produced at
the end of seed maturity. GA is
distributed unequally in seed parts such
as in testa, cotyledons and axis in
different concentrations. It can cause
dwarf mutants to grow tall and the
hyper-elongation
of
shoots
by
stimulating cell division and elongation
(Leung et al., 1981).
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a growthinhibiting hormone largely responsible
for seed dormancy. It can be isolated
from the immature seeds of many
species. It is an isoprenoid, which is
synthesized in the plastidal 2-C-methylD-erythritol-4-phosphate
(MEP)
pathway. It rises in its concentration
during seed development, reaches one
or two peaks and then generally
declines rapidly at the time of drying
(Koocheki et al., 2005).
ABA is produced in response to
environmental stress, such as heat
stress, water stress and salt stress. It is
synthesized in all plant parts, like the
roots, flowers, leaves and stems. It
inhibits precocious germination and
viviparity. It also adversely affects the
process of seed germination. For
example, a concentration of 110 M

can inhibit seed germination in plants


like Arabidopsis thaliana. However,
other hormones including GA, ethylene,
cytokinins, and brassinosteroids, as well
as their negative interaction with ABA,
can positively regulate the process of
germination. (Kucera et al., 2005; Muller
et al.,2006) When seed has the highest
ABA level, seed acumulates storage
compounds that will support seedling
growth and germination subsequently
(Koocheki et al., 2005).
Kinetin is a type of cytokinin. It is often
used in plant tissue culture for inducing
formation of callus and to regenerate
shoot tissues from the callus. They are
involved primarily in cell growth and
differentiation, but also affect apical
dominance, auxiliary bud growth, and
leaf senescence. There are two types of
cytokinins : Adenine-type represented by
kinetin, zeatin , and BAM. Phenylurea
-type like Diphenylurea and Thidiazuron
(Nikolic et al., 2007).
The amount of cytokinins increase
during seed development, particularly
while seed tissues are growing and then
declines at maturity. Cytokinins regulate
a range of plant activities including seed
germination. They are active in all
stages of germination. Cytokinins are
also able to enhance seed germination
by the alleviation of stresses such as
salinity, drought, heavy metals and
oxidative stress. They can be inactivated
by
the
enzyme
cytokinin
oxidase/dehydrogenase catalyzing the
cleavage of their unsaturated bond.
(Kucera et al.,2005).
In the experiment, the effects of three
plant hormones, gibberellic acid (GA),
abscissic acid (ABA) and kinetin

compared to distilled water as control


were observed.
Overall, ABA is a positive regulator of
dormancy induction and most likely also
maintenance, while it is a negative
regulator of germination. GA releases
dormancy, promotes germination and
counteracts
ABA
effects.
Kinetin
enhances seed germination. Given
these, comparing the rate of germination
of the seeds with the hormone and
distilled water should yield the highest
rate with GA and kinetin, and the least
number of germinated seeds with ABA.
Also, the lengths of the radicle and
shoot observed should be greatest with
GA and kinetin, with ABA yielding
shorter ones. The results yielded
vary/agree with the theoretical results.
Possible sources of error include various
human errors such as error in the
measurement of radicle and shoot
length and visual error on the onset of
germination.
REFERENCES
Koocheki A, Azizi G. 2005. Effect of
different
treatments
on
breaking
dormancy
of
Teucriumpolium,
Agricultural research magazine of Iran
3(1), 81-88.
Kucera B, Cohn MA, Leubner-Metzger
G. 2005. Plant hormone interactions
during seed dormancy release and
germination. Seed Science Research
15, 281-307.
Leung DWM, Bewley D. 1981. Red-light
and gibberelic acid enhanced galactosidase in germinating Lettuce
seeds, cv. Grand Rapids. Planta 152,
436-441.

Mohammad Miransari , D.L. Smith.


2014. Plant hormones and seed
germination.
Environmental
and
Experimental Botany 99, 110121.
Nikolic R, Mitic N, ivkovic S, Grubisic
D, Neskovic M. 2007. Cytokinins and
Urea
derivatives
stimulate
seed
germination in Lotus corniculatus L.,

Archives of Biological Science Belgrade


59(2), 125- 128.
Toyomasu T, Tsuji H, Yamane H,
Nakayama M, Yamaguchi I, Murofushi
N, Takahashi N, Inoue Y. 1993. Light
effects on endogenous levels of
gibberellins in photoblastic lettuce
seeds. Journal of Plant Growth
Regulation 12, 8590.