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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

HSC Physics Topic 3

FROM IDEAS to IMPLEMENTATION

What is this topic about?

To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:
1. FROM CATHODE RAYS to TELEVISION
2. FROM RADIO to PHOTOCELLS: QUANTUM THEORY
3. FROM ATOMS to COMPUTERS: SEMICONDUCTORS
4. FROM CRYSTALS to SUPERCONDUCTORS
...all in the context of how Physics has contributed to modern technology

but first, an introduction...


The History of Physics

About the Same Time

is marked by a number of landmark discoveries that


changed our understanding of the Universe...

as Cathode Rays were becoming understood, other


scientists were studying electromagnetic radiation and
obscure phenomena such as the Photoelectric Effect.

Newtons Laws of Motion, and Gravitation, and


Einsteins Theory of Relativity
have already been studied.

Photo: Oliver Ransom

No-one could have


guessed that this led
to, not only the radio
and mobile phone, but
to solar cells...

This topic covers a number of other great discoveries,


experiments and scientists, so it is definitely a study of the
History of Physics, from about 1850 into the 20th century.

Solar cells being used to


make electricity on a
remote outback property

However, it is not just history. Along the way, you will be


studying some concepts, theories and facts that are vital to
your overall understanding of this subject.

and Meanwhile,

In addition, as you learn both the history and some of the


foundation ideas of modern Physics, you will see that much
of our modern technology is a direct result these
discoveries...
When Cathode Rays
were being studied
between 1850-1900,
people said
interesting, but whats
the use of it??
Little did they know...

the unravelling of atomic


structure and study of
electrical conductivity in
weird substances like
Germanium and Silicon,
led to the discovery of
semiconductors.
The invention of the
transistor followed... the
basis of all modern
electronics and computer systems.

Photo: John de Boer

...the study of
Cathode Rays led
directly to the
invention of the
TV set, so familiar
today.

HSC Physics Topic 3

and the Study

of Crystal Structure

led to the discovery of


Superconductors,
the applications of which are only just
beginning to be implemented.
1

copyright 2005-2006

keep it simple science

Photo: Adam Page


www.atomdriven.com

Photo: Peter Hamza

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

CONCEPT DIAGRAM (Mind Map) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and
important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the
whole. At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this Mind Map to practise on.
F = QE
&
E= V
d

F = QvBsin

Behaviour of a
Charged Particle in
a Magnetic Field

Failure to
follow-u
up

The TV screen.
Main parts and
their role

Revision of
Electric Fields

Revision of
Black Body
Radiation

Hertzs
Discovery of
Radio Waves

Cathode Rays.
Discovery &
Properties

Planks
Quantum
Theory

From CATHODE RAYS


to TELEVISION

From RADIO
to PHOTOCELLS:
Quantum Theory

From IDEAS
to
IMPLEMENTATION

From CRYSTALS
to
SUPERCONDUCTORS

Conductivity in
Metals.
Superconductivity

Current & Potential


Applications of
Superconductivity

Einsteins
Contribution

Particle-W
Wave
Duality
of Light

Photoelectric
Effect
&
Applications:
solar cells
photocells

E = hf
and
c=f

From ATOMS
to COMPUTERS

The Braggs &


X-rray
Crystalography

HSC Physics Topic 3

Confirmation of EMR.
Measurement of c

Discovery of the
Electron...
Thompsons
Experiment

Band Theory of
Conductors,
Insulators &
Semiconductors

Electrons & Holes


in Conductivity

Revision of
Atomic Structure
&
Structures of Solid
Lattices

Doping.
n-ttype & p-ttype
Semiconductors

Differing views
on
Sciences place
in society

Valves to Transistors to
Microprocessors...
Impacts on Society

copyright 2005-2006

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

1. FROM CATHODE RAYS TO TELEVISION


Experiments with CRTs

Discovery of Cathode Rays


By the 1850s, scientists had developed the technology to
produce quite high voltages of electricity and to make
sealed glass tubes from which most of the air had been
removed using a vacuum pump.

Maltese Cross Tube


CATHODE ( -v
ve)

It wasnt long before these 2 things were combined, and


some mysterious phenomena were discovered.
You may have done some laboratory investigations with
Discharge Tubes as follows...
Each tube contains a different pressure of gas.
(All are very low pressure, but some lower than
others.) High voltage from an induction coil is
applied to each tube in turn.

ANODE (+ve)
in the shape
of a Maltese
Cross

Shadow of the
cross in the
glow at the end
of the tube

What does this prove?


Cathode Rays travel in straight lines, from the Cathode.
Furthermore, Crookes tried this experiment with many
different metals as his electrodes. The type of metal made
no difference... Cathode Rays are identical, regardless of
the materials used.

This tube is
glowing and
showing light
and dark
bands, or
striations

Tube With a Fluorescent Screen


Beam of Cathode Rays causing a fluorescent screen to glow

The result is that each tube shows glowing


streamers, or light and dark bands, or glows at
the end(s).

Fluorescence was known


to be caused by certain
waves, such as ultraviolet (UV) rays

The patterns change at different gas pressures.


At the very lowest pressure, there is no glow
from gas in the tube, but the glass itself glows at
one end of the tube.

Tube With a Rotating Paddle-Wheel


Wheel spins when cathode
rays strike the paddles

It was soon established that whatever was causing these


glows or discharges in the tubes was coming from the
negative electrode, or cathode...so these emissions were
called Cathode Rays.

This shows that the rays


have momentum, and
therefore have mass

Over the following 20 years these mysterious rays were


studied by many scientists, most notably Sir William
Crookes. He devised so many clever variations on these
Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) that they were known as
Crookes Tubes.

This evidence from these various experiments was very


inconsistent... some of the features of cathode rays
suggested they are particles, other results suggested they
are waves.

You will have seen, in the school laboratory, a number of


different CRTs and repeated many of Crookess famous
experiments...
HSC Physics Topic 3

Copyright 2005-2006 keep it simple science

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Revision of Electric Fields

Tube Containing Electric Plates

In a Preliminary Course topic you learned that:


Electric Charges exert force on each other...
...like charges REPEL each other.
...opposite charges ATTRACT each other
Charges act as if surrounded by a Force Field.

CRT with
fluorescent
screen
Beam of
cathode rays on
screen
Electric plates
on either side
of beam
(no voltage
applied yet)

When voltage
is applied to
the plates, the
beam deflects

-ve

FIELDS AROUND POINT CHARGES

+ve
+

FIELDS BETWEEN POINT CHARGES

What does this prove?


Cathode Rays must be a stream of charged particles.

Repulsion

In fact, by considering the charge on the plates above, it


follows that the particles must be negatively charged,
because the beam is deflected by repulsion from the
negative plate, and attraction towards the positive.

Attraction

Early Confusion About Cathode Rays


Unfortunately, when the early experimenters tried
something similar to the above, they did NOT detect a
deflection of the beam. So, they concluded there was NO
charge associated, and were confused about the nature of
the Cathode Rays.

The strength of the field is defined as the force per unit


of charge experienced by a charge in the field...
E= F
Q
However, in this topic we are more interested in
calculating forces, so

Evidence that CRs were Waves:


Cathode Rays:
Travel in straight lines like light waves.
Cause fluorescence, like ultra-violet waves.
Can expose photographic film, as light does.

F = Q.E

is more useful.

F = Force, in newtons (N), experience by the charge.


Q = Electric charge in coulombs (C).
E =Electric field strength, in newtons per coulomb (NC-1)

Evidence that CRs were Particles


Cathode Rays:
Carry kinetic energy and momentum, and therefore must
have mass.
Carry negative electric charge.
(but this vital clue was missed!)

Note: In this topic the most common charged particle


we deal with is the electron.
The value of its charge is Qe = ( -)1.602 x 10-19C.
Get used to this very small value.
Example Calculation:
In the CRT shown at top left of this page, a stream of
electrons passes between 2 electrically charge plates. The
electric field strength is 400NC-1.
What is the force acting on each electron?

This debate was finally settled by a famous


experiment you will study soon...
In 1897, J.J. Thomson showed that cathode
rays had both mass and negative charge.

Solution:

F = Q.E
= -1.602x10-19 x 400
= -6.41x10-17N.
The negative sign simply means that the direction of the
force will be in the opposite direction to the electric field.

He had discovered the electron.


Note that all these investigations and discoveries involved
the Cathode Ray Tube...
a relatively simple device that allows the
manipulation of a stream of charged particles.
HSC Physics Topic 3

By definition,
the direction of
the field is the
way a positive
charge would
move in the
field

TRY THE WORKSHEET at the end of this section.


4

copyright 2005-2006

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Electric Field Between


Parallel Charged Plates

Force on a Moving Charge


in a Magnetic Field

The field around and between point charges is irregular in


direction, and varies in strength at every point. The field
between parallel charge plates, however, is uniform in
strength and direction at every point (except at the edges).
The direction of the field is the way a positive charge would
move.

In the previous topic you learned that when an electric


current flows through a magnetic field, the wire
experiences a force... the Motor Effect.

Positively (+ve)
charged plate

Now you need to realise that the reason is that every


electric charge, if moving through a magnetic field, will
experience a force.

You may have seen the following experiment with a CRT in


the laboratory:
CRT with fluorescent screen.
Cathode Ray beam goes
straight across.

Negatively (-ve)
charged plate

Uniform Field
Between Plates

If a magnet is
brought near, the
beam deflects.

The strength of the field depends on the Voltage applied


to the plates, and the distance between them:
E= V
d

A force is acting
on the moving
charged particles.

E = Electric Field strength, in NC-1.


V = Voltage applied to the plates, in volts (V).
d = distance between the plates, in metres (m).

The size of the force can be calculated as follows:

F = QvBsin
Example Calculation:
Two parallel plates are 1.25cm apart.(convert to metres)
A voltage of 12.0V is applied across the plates.
What is the magnitude of the field between the plates?
Solution:

F = Force acting, in newtons (N).


Q = Electric charge, in coulombs (C).
v = velocity of the charged particle, in ms-1.
B= Magnetic Field strength, in Tesla (T).
= Angle between the velocity vector and magnetic
Field vector lines.

E=V/d
= 12.0 / 0.0125
= 960NC-1.

B
Since sin90o = 1,
o
and sin0 = 0,
Mag.
then maximum force occurs
Field
when the charge moves at right angles to the field.

TRY THE WORKSHEET at the end of the section.

Example Calculation:
In the CRT above, the cathode rays
(electrons; Qe=-1.602x10-19C)
are moving at a velocity of 2.50x106ms-1.
The magnet provides a field of 0.0235T.
Held as shown, the field lines are at an
angle of 70o to the beam.
What force acts on each electron?
Solution:

F = QvBsin
= -1.602x10-19x2.50x106x0.0235xsin70o
= -8.84 x 10-15N. (negative sign
simply refers to direction)
HSC Physics Topic 3

How do you know the direction of the force?


Remember the Right-Hand Palm Rule?
Velocity vector,

Magnetic
B
Field

Force,

However, this applies to positive (+ve) charges.


For negative charges ( -ve) the force is in the
opposite direction... back of hand side.
Can you verify the upward deflection in the
photo above is consistent with theory?
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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Discovery of the Electron...


Thomsons Experiment

How a TV Screen Works


Thomson used a fluorescent screen at the end of his CRT
to detect and measure the deflection of the cathode rays
(electrons). Over the following 30 years, CRT technology
evolved into the television screen. By the middle of the
20th century, TV was developing to become the major
system for home entertainment and by the 1980s the same
screens became the vital display units for computers.

In 1897, the confusion and debate about Cathode rays was


settled by one of the most famous, and critically important,
experiments in the history of Science.
The British physicist J.J. Thomson set up an experiment in
which cathode rays could be passed through both an
electric field, and through a magnetic field, at the same
time.
Electric Field Effect
Cathode Rays

Photo: Peter Hamza

(charged plates)

+ve
E down page
-ve
Variable voltage

Magnetic Field Effect

Fluorescent screen to
measure deflection

(Adjustable Electromagnets)

A TV picture-tube is really just a more sophisticated


version of Thomsons CRT. The image on the screen is
made up of thousands of spots of light, created as cathode
rays strike a fluorescent screen on the inside of the glass.

Cathode Rays

The 3 main parts of a TV picture-tube are:


B into page

The Electron Gun


produces the beam of cathode rays (electrons).

Thomson was able to adjust the strengths of the 2 fields so


that their opposite effects exactly cancelled out, and the
beam went straight through to the centre of the screen.
At this point,

The electrons leave a cathode, and are accelerated towards


a series of anodes by the high voltage electric field between
them, just like in the CRTs of Crookes or Thompson.

Force due to = Force due to


Electric Field Magnetic Field

The Deflection Plates


are used to deflect the beam to create spots of light at
different points on the screen.

Since the strengths of the fields could be calculated from


the currents and voltages applied to the plates and
electromagnets, Thomson was able to calculate the ratio
between the charge and mass of the cathode rays.
Charge to mass ratio = Q
m
This established beyond doubt that cathode rays were
particles, not waves.

One set of charged plates are arranged so the field can


deflect the beam up or down. Another set are arranged at
right angles to cause deflection left or right.
Between them, the sets of plates can steer the beam onto
any point on the screen.

Furthermore, he repeated the experiment with many


different cathode materials and always got the same result.
This meant that the exact same cathode ray particles were
coming from every type of atom.

The Fluorescent Screen


glows with light when the electron beam strikes the
fluorescent chemical coated on the inside of the glass.

Other experimenters had already determined the chargemass ratio for the hydrogen atom (the smallest atom). It
was apparent that the cathode ray particle was much smaller
than a hydrogen atom. The conclusion was that all atoms
must be made of smaller parts, one of which was the
cathode ray particle, soon re-named ELECTRON.

The total image is built from many thousands of light-spots


(pixels = picture elements). The illusion of movement is
achieved by replacing each full-screen picture many times
per second.
To produce colour TV there are actually 3 electron guns,
and 3 sets of deflection plates. Three separate beams are
steered onto separate spots of fluorescent chemicals which
glow red, green or blue (RGB). The final colour is a
combination of these 3 colours combined.

This was a vital piece of knowledge for better


understanding of atoms and electricity, and the
development of many new technologies.
HSC Physics Topic 3

copyright 2005-2006

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Worksheet 1
Part A Fill in the blanks.
Check answers at the back.
An electric u)............................. is created around
anything with electric charge. The direction of
the field is defined as v)........................
...............................................................................
Any charge within a field will experience a
w)............................ The field between 2
x)........................... .................................. plates is
uniform in both y)..................................... and
..........................................., and is determined by
the z)................................... applied to the plates
and the aa).................................. between them.

The discovery of a).............................. Rays was


made with simple b)................................... tubes
from which most of the air was removed with a
c)....................................... pump. When high
d)................................ was applied to electrodes at
each end of the tube, it would produce a variety
of e)........................, .................................... and
.............................. The exact pattern changed as
the f)..................................... in the tube was
altered. It was discovered that the effects were
due to mysterious emissions coming from the
cathode (or g)............................. electrode).

Electric charges also experience a force if they


are ab)....................................... through a
ac)................................... field. This is easily
observed by bringing a ad).............................. near
a CRT with a fluorescent screen; the magnet
causes the beam to ae)...........................................
The direction of the force and the deflection of
the CR beam is easily determined by the
af)..................................................... Rule.

About the 1870s, Sir William h)............................


and others, built special CRTs to study the
cathode rays. The famous i)...................................
cross tube showed that the rays travelled in
straight lines. Tubes with j)....................................
screens showed that the rays caused fluorescence,
and tubes equipped with a paddle-wheel
proved that the rays carried both k).........................
energy and l).....................................................

In 1897, J.J. ag)........................................... used the


deflection of a CR beam by both
ah)..................................... and .................................
fields
to
measure
the
ratio
of
ai)...................................................... of a cathode
ray. This established, beyond doubt, that CRs are
aj)............................. and are a small part contained
within all ak)........................... Thomson had
discovered the al).............................................. The
simple CRT was later used as the basis to invent
the am).......................................... screen.

Unfortunately, attempts to detect deflection by


applying an m)......................................... field were
unsuccessful, so for many years there was
confusion
over
whether
CRs
were
n)................................. or ............................................
Evidence they were waves:
CRs travel in o)...................................... like light.
They cause p).......................................... like UV
rays.
They can expose q)..................................................

The main parts of the picture tube are:


The an).................................. Gun, which
produces a beam of ao)........................... from a
ap).................................... and accelerates them
towards a series of aq)..................................
The ar)..................................... plates, which use
electric fields to as).................................... the beam
onto the screen.
The at)..................................... screen, which
forms the image when fluorescent chemicals
au)............................ with spots of light when
struck by av)...........................................

Evidence they were particles:


Carry r)................................ and .............................
and therefore must have s)...........................
Carry t)............................ electric charge

COMPLETED WORKSHEETS
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

HSC Physics Topic 3

Copyright 2005-2006 keep it simple science

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Force on a Moving Charge


in a Magnetic Field

Part B Practice Problems


Field Between Charged Plates
& Force on a Charge

6.
An electron (Q=-1.60x10-19C) is travelling north
at 3.00x107ms-1 in a cathode ray tube when it
enters a magnetic field of strength 4.96x10-2T.
The field is directed vertically upwards through
the CRT.
Find the magnitude and direction of the force
experienced by the electron.

1. Two parallel plates are 4.00cm apart in a


vacuum tube. A voltage of 50.0V is applied
across the plates.
An alpha particle with charge of (+)3.20x10-19C
passes between the plates.
a) What is the size of the electric field between
the plates?
b) What force will act on the alpha particle?
c) Describe the direction of the
i) field
ii) force
relative to the +ve and -ve plates.

7.
In a nuclear accelerator, a charged ion has been
accelerated up to a velocity of 2.90x108ms-1. As it
enters a magnetic field of strength 8.05T (field is
perpendicular to ions velocity vector) it
experiences a force of magnitude 3.75x10-9N.
What is the magnitude of the charge on the ion?

2. An electron (Q=-1.60x10-19C) experiences a


force of -7.82x10-15N within an electric field
created by parallel plates which are 2.50mm apart.
a) Find the size of the electric field.
b) Find the voltage applied to the plates.

8.
A particle of the solar wind with charge of
(+)1.60x10-19C (it is in fact a proton) encounters
the Earths magnetic field at an angle of 25o to
the field lines. At this point the field has a
strength of 5.48x10-4T. The proton experiences a
force of 7.40x10-15N.
Find the velocity of the proton.

3. A speck of dust carrying a static electric


charge, experiences a force of 2.29x10-12N in a
field produced by 2 plates 5.00cm apart. A 200V
potential difference is applied across the plates.
a) Find the strength of the field between the
plates.
b) What charge does the speck of dust carry?
c) The static charge was created when some
electrons were either removed from, or added to,
the speck of dust.
How many electrons were added or removed?
d) The speck of dust was observed to move
toward the negative plate. Did the speck lose or
gain electrons?

9.
In an experiment similar to Thomsons, a stream
of electrons in a CRT are each experiencing a
force of magnitude 4.06x10-15N when travelling
through a perpendicular magnetic field at a
velocity of 7.80x106ms-1.
a) What is the strength of the magnetic field?
The force on the electrons is exactly counteracted
by an electric field produced by charged plates
which are 8.00mm apart.
b) What is the strength of the electric field?
c) What is the voltage being applied across the
plates?

4. Two parallel plates have a 40.0V potential


difference between them. An electron between
them experiences a force of (-)5.88x10-17N.
How far apart are the plates?
5. In an inkjet printer, small droplets of ink are
given an electric charge, then steered onto the
paper by accelerating them in electric fields to
achieve the desired velocities and directions.

FULLY WORKED SOLUTIONS


IN THE ANSWERS SECTION

What force would be experienced by a droplet


with charge of (+)9.75x10-10C, which is between
parallel plates with potential difference of 100V,
and separated by 5.00mm?
HSC Physics Topic 3

Remember that for full marks


in calculations, you need to show
FORMULA, NUMERICAL SUBSTITUTION,
APPROPRIATE PRECISION and UNITS

Copyright 2005-2006 keep it simple science

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

2. FROM RADIO to PHOTOCELLS: QUANTUM THEORY


The Radio Experiments of Hertz

Investigating Radio Waves

By the 1880s, the theory of electromagnetic radiation


(EMR) had been around for 20 years, but no-one had
found proof that these waves existed. Until, that is, the
famous experiment of Heinrich Hertz in 1887.

You may have done some simple studies in the


laboratory, such as:
Array of wire connected to
induction coil acts as a
transmitting antenna

Using the familiar induction coil to produce sparks


across a gap, Hertz showed that some invisible waves were
being produced... he had discovered radio waves.
Radio waves
Emitted from
spark

Sparks produced in
small gap in receiving
loop

spark
gap

High-voltage
Induction coil

Wire loop acts as a receiving


antenna.
The radio waves induce
currents in the wire, and sparks
in the gap.

Induction coil & Power Pack

Radio receiver picks up


loud bursts of noise,
from some distance away

By adding a tapping key switch to the transmitter


circuit, it is easy to send messages to the receiver in the
form of dots-and-dashes of static noise.

Hertz went on to experiment with these invisible waves and


showed that they could be reflected, refracted, polarized
and diffracted just like light waves. The clincher was when
he measured their velocity and got an answer of 3x108ms-1...
the speed of light!

What Hertz Failed to Investigate


In one of his many experiments with the new waves he had
discovered, Hertz found that his receiving loop became
more sensitive and sparked more if it was exposed to other
radiations coming from his transmitter.

This was powerful evidence supporting the theory that


light was just one of a whole spectrum of Electromagnetic
waves that had been predicted earlier.

He didnt realize the significance of this observation, and


failed to follow up on it.

How did Hertz measure the speed of the radio waves?

We now know (with perfect hind-sight) that he had


produced the Photoelectric Effect:

He reflected the radio waves (from metal sheets) so


that they set up interference patterns. By moving his
receiving loop around the lab. he could measure
exactly where the peaks of interference occurred
(where the waves added in amplitude). From this, the
wavelengths of the waves were calculated.

Ultra-violet rays give their


energy to electrons on the
metal surface.
Wire of receiving loop.

The frequency could be determined from the settings


of his wave transmitter.

This can eject an


electron from the surface
so sparks are more likely.
Spark gap

Later, this phenomenon was used by Einstein as proof of


the new Quantum Theory... read on.

Then the wave equation was used: V = .f

This Photoelectric Effect was exploited in the 20th century


to develop the technology of photocells and solar cells.

He found the radio waves travelled at the speed of light.


In recognition of Hertzs contribution to our knowledge of
waves, the unit of wave frequency (Hz) is named in his
honour.

Solar
Cells

Within another 20 years, radio was being used for longdistance communications using morse code. Within 100
years the world was blanketed with radio transmissions for
communication and entertainment.
HSC Physics Topic 3

The induction coils


high-voltage
sparking produces
all sorts of EMR,
including radio,
light, UV & even
X-rays

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Black Body Radiation

Planks Quantum Theory proposed that the amount of


energy carried by a quantum of light is related to the
frequency of the light:

In a previous Preliminary topic (Cosmic Engine) you


learned about the way that energy is radiated from hot
objects. A perfect emitter of radiation had become
known as a black-body...

E = h.f
E = energy of a quantum, in joules ( J)
h = Planks constant, which has a value of 6.63x10-34
f = frequency of the wave, in hertz (Hz)

Amount of Energy Radiated

BLACK BODY
RADIATION
CURVES

You are reminded also, of the wave equation:

very hot
object

peak
wavelength
shorter

V = .f

c = .f

c = velocity of light (in vacuum) = 3.00x108ms-1.


= wavelength, in metres (m).
f = frequency, in hertz (Hz)

hot
object

peak
wavelength

(or, for light)

Example Calculation:
A ray of red light has a wavelength of 6.50x10-7m.

warm
object

a) What is its frequency?


b) How much energy is carried by one quantum of this light?

peak wavelength
longer

shorter

longer

Solution:
a)
c = .f
3.00x108 = 6.50x10-7x f
f = 3.00x108/6.50x10-7
= 4.62x1014Hz.
b) E = h.f
= 6.63x10-34 x 4.62x1014
= 3.06x10-19 J.

Wavelength of Radiation

It was well known that as a black body became hotter, it


not only emitted more energy as radiation, but that the
wavelength of the peak of the radiation became shorter,
and frequency became higher.

TRY THE WORKSHEET at the end of this section

The problem was that the standard Physics theories of the


time could not explain the shape of these graphs, which
were obtained from experiment.

Problems with Classical Physics


At the same time that Plank was proposing his Quantum
Theory to explain the Black Body radiation details, the
Photoelectric Effect (that Hertz had observed but failed
to study) was being investigated by others.

Planks Quantum Theory


In 1900, Max Plank proposed a radical new theory to
explain the black body radiation. He found that the only
way to explain the exact details coming from the
experiments, was that the energy was quantised: emitted or
absorbed in little packets called quanta (singular
quantum).

What IS the Photoelectric Effect?


When metal surfaces are exposed to light waves
(especially high frequency light or ultra-violet) some
electrons are found to be ejected from the metal surface,
as long as a certain critical energy level is exceeded.

The existing theories of classical Physics assumed that


the amount of energy carried (say) by a light wave could
have any value, on a continuous scale. Planks theory was
that the energy could only take certain values, based on
units or quanta of energy.

Experiments on the photoelectric effect were producing


results that could NOT be explained by the existing theory
of light. For a century or more, light had been accepted as
a wave. This explained its reflection, refraction,
interference, and many other phenomena.

Its the same as with matter: The smallest amount of (say)


carbon you can have is 1 atom. Then you can have 2 atoms,
3 atoms and so on, BUT you cannot have 1/2 atoms of
carbon... the matter is quantised, with whole atoms as the
minimum quantum. Well, says Plank, energy is the same!
HSC Physics Topic 3

However, the photoelectric effect experiments were giving


results that suggested light was best explained as a stream
of particles... this could turn Science on its ear!
Enter Albert Einstein...
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Einstein and Quantum Theory

Applications of the Photoelectric Effect

It was Albert Einstein who came to the rescue and neatly


combined Planks Quantum Theory with the classical wave
theory of light, in a way that solved all the apparent
conflicts, and explained the Photoelectric Effect as well!

Solar Cells
Solar Cells (or photovoltaic cells) are devices which
produce electricity directly from light energy. They are very
familiar in the popular garden lights which need no wiring
or battery replacements.

To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S. Principle) Einstein


proposed that:

During the day, the solar cell(s) charge up a small rechargable battery.

Light is a wave, but


the energy of the wave is concentrated in little packets
or bundles of wave energy, now called Photons.
Each photon of light has an amount of energy given by
E = h.f, according to Planks Quantum Theory.
When a photon interacts with matter, it can either transfer
all its energy, or none of it... it cannot transfer part of
its quantised energy.

At night, the battery provides electricity to a low-power


garden lamp.
Small array of solar cells
powering a small electric
motor and fan

Light is NOT
a stream of
particles
Light is NOT
a wave

More importantly, solar cells hold the promise of cheap,


efficient, environmentally-friendly electricity production.
Already they are used in remote areas (see photo on front
page) and in special situations, such as power for orbiting
satellites.

Light is a stream of wave packets... PHOTONS.


They have wave properties... refraction, interference, etc.
They can also behave like a particle sometimes.
Each photon is a Quantum of light energy.

Einsteins model for light involves a duality... light must


have a dual nature. Many of its properties are wave related;
e.g. ability to reflect, refract and show interference patterns.
In other cases, especially when energy transfers are
occurring, the light photons are like little particles. This
explained the Black Body Radiation curves, and the weird
features of the Photoelectric Effect.

Solar cells produce electricity from the Photoelectric Effect:


Light photons falling on the cell give up their quantum of
energy to electrons in a sandwich of semiconductor material,
called a p-n junction. The energy gained by electrons
causes them to be emitted so that they travel through the
semiconductor structure and create a potential difference
across it. This voltage causes a current to flow in the
electrical circuit.

Confirmation of the Einstein Model


Einsteins idea is very neat, but is it correct?

Photocells
A photocell is a device which can detect and measure light.
Photocells are used in light meters (photography), electriceyes and a variety of light-measuring scientific equipment,
such as photometers.

Einstein was able to make certain mathematical predictions


regarding further features of the Photoelectric Effect.
(The exact details are complicated, and not required
learning)

Once again, the photoelectric effect is involved. When a


photon of light strikes the receiving surface, its energy causes
emission of an electron, which is collected on a nearby
anode.

In 1916, the experiments were done to test Einsteins


predictions, and the results agreed with his predictions
precisely!
This was confirmation that the photon theory of light, and
the quantum theory of energy were both correct. Einstein
was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921, for his
contribution to understanding the Photoelectric Effect.

HSC Physics Topic 3

A sensitive electric circuit is able to measure the level of


electron emission, and this gives a measure of the amount of
light being received.
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Assessment of Einsteins Contribution to Quantum Theory


Assess means to measure or judge the value of something. The syllabus requires you to assess
Einsteins contribution to the Quantum Theory in relation to Black Body Radiation.
To begin with, you might note that Einstein did NOT think up the Quantum Theory... Max Plank did
that in 1900. However, it seems that Plank invented the quantum idea purely as a mathematical trick
to explain the Black Body Radiation curves. Plank never proposed that the quanta might give light a
particle-like nature. Plank never suggested that the old ideas of classical Physics might need changing.
It was Einstein who did that! His particle-wave (photon) idea combined Planks Quantum Theory
with the classical idea that light is a wave. This totally new way to look at things was one of the turning
points of modern Physics, and set other scientists off into new and innovative directions of research.
It should be noted that the other major turning point for Physics was Einsteins Theory of Relativity,
which he proposed in the same year (1905).
No wonder we credit him as being one of the greatest!

Is Science Research Removed from Social & Political Forces?


In World Wars I & II, Science and scientists played a major
role in research and development of new weapons and war
technologies. Some examples include:

Einstein was German-born, but became a Swiss citizen,


and later American. In WW I he (and only 3 others) signed
an anti-war declaration. He spent the war in neutral
Switzerland, lobbying for peace and an end to war. In the
1930s he was forced to flee Nazi Germany because he was
of Jewish descent. In America, he fought against the
development of the atomic bomb (developed directly from
his own theories) and was appalled when it was used against
Japan in 1945.

radio communications and Radar.


nuclear weapons.
rockets.
new aircraft designs and jet engines.
chemical weapons such as poison gas systems.
There are two contrasting views about the morality of
weapons research, and the two great scientists of this
section of the topic epitomise these different views.

Einstein believed that Science is a process that should work


for peace and the good of all people, and not be involved
in the political & social forces that come and go.

Max Plank was a patriotic German who believed that it was


his duty to help his country fight a war. He gladly
contributed to weapons research in WW I, and leading up
to WW II he was the director of the main Scientific
Institute in Nazi Germany. Planks outlook seems to have
been that Science is part of the political & social structure,
and must take an active role in it.

Who was right? There is no correct, nor simple, answer to


that. You must form your own opinion... just be sure you
have an informed opinion.

A-bomb Dome,
Hiroshima, Japan
by
Kathy de la Cruz

HSC Physics Topic 3

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Worksheet 2

Part B Practice Problems


Quantum Theory
(Planks Constant = 6.63x10-34)
( c = 3.00x108 ms-1)
1.
A light wave has a wavelength of 4.25x10-7m.
a) What is its frequency?
b) How much energy is carried by one photon?

Part A Fill in the blanks. Check answers at the back.


In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered a).............................
waves. His experiment involved high voltage from an
b)..................................... coil which produced c).....................
across a gap. The sparking produced radio waves which he
detected with a d)...................................................... in which a
small gap also sparked. He was able to show that the new
radiations showed typical wave properties such as
e).................................. and ................................................
Hertz was also able to measure the f)....................................
of the waves, and show it was equal to the speed of
g)...................................... He also produced evidence of the
h)................................................. Effect, but failed to
investigate it further.

2.
Compare the amount of quantum energy carried by a
photon of
i) infra-red (heat) radiation ( = 5.45x10-6m)
and
ii) UV radiation ( = 5.45x10-9m)
3.
A photon of radiation is carrying 8.75x10-14J of energy.
Calculate
a) its frequency
b) its wavelength

Meanwhile, other researchers had studied the way energy is


emitted from hot objects. The i).............................................
Radiation curves showed a shape that could not be
explained by the accepted theories. In 1900, j)........................
proposed the k)....................................... Theory to
account for the problem. The basic idea of his theory is
that the energy of light (or other EMR) is l)........................
the same way that matter is. The minimum quantity of
matter is one m)............................., and fractions cannot
occur. Plank proposed that the energy of EMR is the same,
and that the amount of energy carried by one
n)................................ is related to the o)................................
of the wave.

4.
To cause emission of an electron from the surface of a
certain metal requires the electron to gain a minimum of
2.38x10-20J of energy.
a) Find the frequency and wavelength of the photon of
EMR which carries this threshold amount of energy.
b) What happens if the electron is struck by a photon with
a longer wavelength than this?
c) What will happen if the electron was struck by a photon
of higher frequency than calculated in (a)?
5.
An electron was emitted from a metal surface after being
struck by a photon of EMR.
The electron left the surface with energy of 6.22x10-17J. It
firstly had to use 9.28x10-19J of energy to escape the
metal surface. All of this energy was gained by interaction
with a single photon.
Find the frequency and wavelength of the photon.

The Photoelectric Effect occurs when p)............................


is absorbed at a metal surface. The energy is transferred to
an q).................................... which may then be r).....................
from the surface. Experiments with this effect were
producing results that could not be explained.
In 1905, Einstein used Planks s)........................... Theory to
explain all the difficulties. His idea was:
Light is a wave, but the energy is concentrated in
bundles called t)....................................
Each bundle carries a u)............................ of energy, as
described by Planks theory.
When a photon interacts with matter, it can either
transfer v)............... of its energy, or w)....................... of it,
but cannot transfer x)............................................................

FULLY WORKED SOLUTIONS


IN THE ANSWERS SECTION

This idea allows light to have its wave properties such as


y).........................................., ................................................. and
............................................., but to also sometimes show
z)..............................-like properties when it transfers energy.
Based on his theory, Einstein made certain mathematical
aa)................................. regarding the ab)..................................
Effect. These were confirmed by ac).................................. in
1916. This confirmed Planks ad)............................. Theory,
and explained all the problems with ae)..............................
...................... radiation & the af).................................. Effect.
HSC Physics Topic 3

Remember that for full marks


in calculations, you need to show
FORMULA, NUMERICAL SUBSTITUTION,
APPROPRIATE PRECISION and UNITS

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3. FROM ATOMS to COMPUTERS: SEMICONDUCTORS


Band Structure Theory

Revision of Atomic Structure

The explanation just given for conductors and insulators is


OK, until you find out about Semiconductors.
Elements such as Silicon and Germanium have a number
of strange properties including being rather poor
conductors of electricity until given a little jolt of energy.
Then, suddenly they become quite good conductors.

After Thomson identified the electron as a particle present


in all atoms, it didnt take long for scientists to figure out
the details of atomic structure. You are reminded of the
basic model of a typical atom:
Structure
of an
ATOM

Electrons in orbit at different


Energy Levels

This ability, called Semiconductivity, allows


these materials to act as electrical switches,
turning electrical currents on and off, according to
their energy state.

Electrons are
relatively easy
to remove
from some
atoms...
this leads to
electrical
conductivity,
Photoelectric
Effect, etc

Atomic Nucleus

of protons & neutrons

This is the basis of all modern


electronics & computer systems
To understand semiconductivity, you need to learn about
Band Structures.
We have known since the early 20th century that the
electrons around an atom can occupy different orbits or
energy levels surrounding the nucleus. These energy levels
are quantised (Quantum Theory applies) so there may be
forbidden energy zones between them. An electron
cannot exist in this fobidden zone because the energy
level there does NOT correspond to a whole quantum.

Electrical Conductivity
When millions and billions of atoms form a lattice
structure (most strong solids are like this) they do so by
forming chemical bonds with each other in a regular array.
ATOMS in a SOLID ARRAY

Electrical Conduction occurs when electrons can migrate


freely from one atom to the next

Forbidden
energy gap.
Electrons
cannot exist
there.

Migrating
electron

Chemical
Bonds

The highest energy


level that has
electrons in it, is
called the
valence band
v

Electrons in
quantised
energy bands

In a conductor, electrons
can jump from one atom
to the next

Some bands
overlap

Nucleus

Electrons can jump up and down through the different


bands as they gain or lose energy. To jump up over a
forbidden zone they must have enough energy to achieve
the quantum energy level required to occupy the next band.

In a metal atom, the outer (valence) electrons are very


loosely held by the atomic nucleus. They feel the force of
attraction from other, surrounding atoms just as strongly as
the attraction from their own atom. The result is that
these outer electrons can easily move from atom to atom.

In any atom in its rest state, the highest band occupied by


electrons is the Valence Band. If an electron has enough
energy to get to the unoccupied levels above there, the
electron is effectively free to wander off . If an electric
field is applied, the electron becomes part of a flowing
current, and the substance is conducting electricity.

If an electric field is present (due to a voltage being


applied) billions of electrons begin moving in the same
direction... an electric current is flowing, and we say the
metal is a good Conductor.
In other solids such as plastic or glass, the outer valence
electrons are more strongly attracted to their own atom,
and cannot easily escape from it, to move from atom to
atom. We say these things are poor conductors, or good
Insulators.
HSC Physics Topic 3

The unoccupied band


above the valence
band, is called the
conduction band
c

Thats why any energy band above the valence band is


called a Conduction Band.

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Conduction of Electrons & Holes

Conductors, Insulators & Semiconductors

Normally we imagine that an electric current is composed of


a flow of negative electrons. However, in a semiconductor,
when an electron jumps out of the valence band and flows off
somewhere, it leaves behind a hole in the valence band. This
hole, is a space that an electron from elsewhere can jump into.

In terms of Band Theory, the difference in conductivity


between different substances is simply the relationship
between the Valence Band and the Conduction Band.
In Conductors,
these bands
overlap.

In Insulators,
In Semiconductors,
the bands are
there is a small gap
separated by a
between the bands.
wide forbidden
energy gap.

Imagine a line of atoms in a semiconductor lattice:


Electron has enough energy to conduct away,
leaving a hole behind.

Conduction
Band
Conduction
Band

Valence
Band

Forbidden
Energy gap
Valence Band

hole

Now imagine a sequence of movements in which the next


electron in the valence band has enough energy to jump into
the hole, leaving its own hole behind...

Conduction
Band

Valence Band

In metals, electrons can move into the conduction band at


any time, so the solid array of atoms is a good conductor
at all times.

Electrons are jumping to the right

In an insulator, such as plastic, the electrons can never


achieve the conduction band unless they are given a huge
boost of energy. At normal temperatures and voltage
levels, the substance will not carry a current.
...and the hole is jumping left.

A semiconductor, like Silicon, will not normally carry


current, because electrons lack the energy to jump the
forbidden energy gap. However, if the temperature is
increased, and a voltage applied, there comes a point when
electrons jump the gap in great numbers, and the substance
suddenly conducts very well indeed.

If you can imagine this sequence like the pictures making a


motion cartoon, you can imagine that an electron flows to the
right and the hole flows to the left.

This effect does not occur at room temperature unless the


semiconductor substance is Doped.

In fact, in terms of electrical energy, it makes no difference


whether the current really is negative electrons going one way,
or holes going the other way... either way, it constitutes an
electric current. The holes are considered as positively charged
spaces (relative to the electrons) and so the flow of positive
holes may be thought of as genuine Conventional Current.

Doping a Semiconductor

Doping means to add a very small quantity of a different


type of atom to an otherwise pure solid lattice of
semiconductor atoms.
Atoms of Semiconductor substance
e.g. Silicon, normally have 4 valence electrons

Each
chemical
bond is
formed by
atoms

So, there is another way to Dope a semiconductor.


The diagram on the left shows the use of atoms with an
extra valence electron. The other way to do it is to use atoms
with only 3 valence electrons, creating extra holes in the
lattice.

extra valence
electron

sharing 2
electrons.

Atom with
3 valence
electrons
used to
Dope the

These
electrons
are in the
valence
energy
band

extra hole in
the lattice

lattice.
Atom with 5 valence electrons
used to Dope the lattice.

DOPING increases the conductivity of the lattice


HSC Physics Topic 3

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p-Type and n-Type Semiconductors

Invention of the Transistor

The two different ways to dope the lattice result in two


different types of semiconductor material:

Thermionic valves had been widely used in radios for some


years and were vital components of the new industry of
television.

n-Type Semiconductors
are doped with atoms with 5 valence electrons, such as
arsenic or antimony. This adds extra valence electrons to
the lattice. Electrical current is carried mainly by this flow
of negative charges (hence n-type).

Valves were also important in the switching of connections


in telephone exchanges, where the growing communication
demands required automatic dialing and connection
technology. (The original system involved human
operators manually plugging wires into sockets to
connect phone calls.)

p-Type Semiconductors
are doped with atoms with 3 valence electrons, such as
aluminium or gallium. This adds extra holes to the lattice.
Electrical current is carried mainly by this flow of positive
holes (hence p-type).

However, the valve-based technology was proving too slow,


too unreliable and too expensive for the booming
telephone industry. The major U.S. phone company Bell
Telephone set its scientists the task of researching new
materials and processes to replace the valves.

Some History: Electronics & Computers


The concept of a machine to carry out high speed
calculations and logical operations has been around for
centuries. Prior to the 20th century, any such device had to
be mechanical, using clockwork gears and so on. There
were some notable successes with control devices for
weaving looms, and mechanical adding machines, but
applications were very limited.

In 1947, 3 scientists at Bell Laboratories, invented the


transistor, using a sandwich of p-type and n-type doped
semiconductor material.
Transistors

2 cm

During World War II the first electronic computers were


built (in tight secrecy) to help decode enemy radio
messages. Instead of gears and dials, the Collosus
computer used thermionic valves to electronically switch
circuits on and off, to store and manipulate data.
Thermionic Valves are Cathode Ray Tubes
Thermionic refers to the way these CRTs would emit
many electrons from the cathode (and thereby carry a
current) when the cathode became hot. Once warmed
up the valve can act as an electronic switch in a
circuit, when the voltage to the anode is varied.

Because of the properties of the semiconductor


(conductivity that can be switched on and off) the transistor
can do the same job as the thermionic valve, but

Characteristics:
relatively large & expensive

is only a fraction of the size and costs much less to make.

consume relatively large


amounts of electricity

consumes only tiny amounts of electricical power.

produce large amounts of


waste heat

produces virtually no waste heat.

Photo by Ben Merghart

operates much faster than a valve.

10 cm

although faster than


mechanical switches, valves
are slow-acting by modern
standards

does not need to warm-up.


is highly reliable, and rarely needs maintenance.

require time to warm up


have a limited lifetime, and
can burn out like a light
bulb. Therefore their
reliability is low, and
maintenance needs are high.

Photo by Don Jolley

HSC Physics Topic 3

The comparison is a no-brainer...


The transistor replaced
Thermionic valves
as rapidly as electronics industries could re-design
their products, and begin mass production

Despite these limitations,


Collosus was very important in helping to win the
war.

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Assessment of
Impacts of the Transistor on Society

Silicon v Germanium
To make semiconductor material with the desired
conductivity properties, it is necessary to firstly prepare
extremely pure samples, then add minute amounts of the
doping chemical, and finally grow crystals of the
semiconductor from the molten material in a furnace.

It could be argued that the invention of the transistor was


one of the most profound technological developments in
history. It ranks right up there beside the developments
such as:
fire, by ancient humans around 500,000 years ago.
Fire transformed human society because of its power to
warm people, cook food and protect from predators.
agriculture, about 10,000 years ago.
This transformed society from nomadic hunting-gathering
to settled communities that invented law, commerce,
government and civilization.
metallurgy and the Industrial Revolution, which led to
new tools, machinery, mass production, urbanization, and
mass transport systems.

The original transistors were made from Germanium


because the technology to produce crystals of the pure
element was already known. However, Germanium is a rare
element, whereas its close sister element Silicon, is one of
the most abundant elements on Earth.
By the 1960s, the technology to obtain pure crystals of
Silicon had been developed, and because Silicon is so
abundant and therefore cheaper, it quickly replaced
Germanium. Silicons electrical properties turned out to be
better too. For example, it held its semiconductive
properties constant over a wider range of temperatures.

The transistor ushered in the Information &


Communication Revolution, which is still developing
today. Electronic circuits, using microchips, are the basis of
all the computers which allow:

Also in the 1960s, the technology of the computer began


to emerge for financial and communication uses. The
solid-state transistor technology allowed a computer to
be built to fit a table-top, rather than fill a room. Every
teenager had a brick-size transistor radio, in the same
way that in this decade everyone has an MP3 and a mobile
phone the size of a matchbox.

instant access to (virtually) all the information on the


planet via the internet.
instant access to money from your bank account from
(virtually) any town or city on Earth.
instant communication via your mobile phone to and
from (virtually) anywhere.
Computers are the key to the global economy and mass
consumerism which keeps thing cheap through mass
production & distribution. Computers keep track of the
billions of business transactions that feed us, clothe us,
entertain us, transport us and service all our needs.

Photo by John de Boer

Silicon Chip

Like it or hate it, (some people think we should have stayed


in the trees) the modern world could not exist without the
invention of the transistor!

Photo
pipp

The miniature integrated circuit board led to the


technology of the silicon chip where thousands, and now
millions of transistor-equivalents can be printed
microscopically in the space of a postage stamp...
a microchip.
In the 1980s the first cheap PCs (personal computers)
could process a magnificent 2x103 bytes of information.
Twenty years later, these notes are being typed on an even
cheaper PC which can process 2x109 bytes, (2 GB). The
computers have become a million times more powerful!
Photo: Martin Boulanger

HSC Physics Topic 3

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In a semiconductor, the valence and conduction


bands are separately by a x).............................. gap.
In the rest state, electrons cannot get across,
and
the
substance
does
not
y).......................................... However, it only
requires a slight increase in energy and suddenly
many electrons z)................. the gap and the
substance begins aa).......................................

Worksheet 3
Fill in the blanks. Check your answers at the
back.
a)........................... orbit around the nucleus of
atoms at various b)............................... levels.
Basically, a substance will be an electrical
conductor if c)................................ can move from
d)............................................................ freely. If
electrons cannot do this at all, the substance is an
e)..................................................

The semiconductor material can be made more


sensitive and conductive if ab)..........................
quantities of other elements are added to the
atomic lattice. This is called ac..............................
the semiconductor.

A semiconductor is a substance which has very


low f)............................................... until its
electrons are given just a little energy. Then, at a
certain
point,
it
suddenly
becomes
g)......................................... This allows electrical
circuits to be h)................................. on and off,
and is the basis of modern i)........................... and
j).................................

Semiconductors can carry electricity in 2 ways: by


the flow of ad).................................... which have
reached the conduction band, or by the flow of
ae)............................ left behind by departing
electrons.
If a af)....................................... is doped with
atoms with 5 valence electrons, this results in
ag)........................................... in the lattice to carry
the current. This is an ah).......-Type
semiconductor.

The best explanation of semiconductivity


involves k).......................................................
Theory, summarized as follows:
the highest energy level in an atom that has
electrons in it, is called the l)..................................
band.
any further (unoccupied) levels above this are
called m).......................................... bands.
If an electron has enough energy to get to a
m)...................................... band, then it is free to
flow,
and
form
an
electric
n).......................................

If it is ai)................................... with atoms with


only aj)................. valence electrons, this creates
extra ak)..................................... in the lattice to
carry current. This is a al)........-Type
semiconductor.
Before semiconductors, electronic switching was
done by am).................................... valves. These
were an)................................................. tubes. The
ao)............................................ was invented to
replace these valves. Compared to a valve, a
transistor is
ap) ........................ (size) and aq)................... (cost)
consumes ar)...................... electricity and
produces almost no as)........................................
operates at a at)............................ rate
does not need to au)...............................................
is highly av)..........................................................

However, between the bands there may be


forbidden o).....................................................
The energy levels are quantised, so a forbidden
level is where the energy is not equal to a whole
p)...............................
In a conductor, the q)...................... band and
r)...................... bands s)................................... each
other. This means electrons can freely enter the
conduction band and t).........................................
can flow through the substance.

The early transistors were made from


aw)..............................., but this was later replaced
by ax).................................. because it is more
ay)................................ and a lot az)............................
Miniaturization of electronics on silicon
ba)........................ has led to the development of
bb)................................... which are at the heart
of all modern computers.

In an u)....................................., these bands are


separated by a wide v)..............................................
so that electrons can never reach the
w)................................... band.
COMPLETED WORKSHEETS
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES
HSC Physics Topic 3

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4. FROM CRYSTALS TO SUPERCONDUCTORS


Crystal Structure of Metals

Investigating Crystal Structures...


Bragg and Son

Unlike silicon, salt and other crystals, metal atoms are not
chemically bonded to each other by the sharing or
exchanging of electrons.

The regular shapes of crystals (such as salt) had long been


assumed to be due to a regular arrangement of the atoms
or ions in a lattice-like structure. However, until the early
20th century, there was no way to prove or confirm this
idea.

You will remember that the outer valence electrons in


metals are weakly held, and can access the conduction
band at any time. The result is that the valence electrons
on each atom are NOT confined to that atom, but freely
wander around from atom to atom.

The discovery of high frequency EMR in the form of Xrays opened up a new line of investigation. Sir William
Bragg and his son Lawrence, beamed X-rays through
crystals and studied the diffraction patterns which were
formed as the crystal lattice scattered the X-rays.

Each metal atom is, therefore, ionized because its valence


electron(s) are on the loose. The metal lattice is often
described as
an array of ions, embedded in a sea of electrons.

Photographic film
sensitive to x-rays

+
+

Crystal

x-ray
beam

The Braggs were able to analyse the interference pattern in


order to deduce the arrangement of the atoms within the
crystal. For this, they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize
for Physics in 1915.

Si

Each
chemical
bond is
formed by
atoms
sharing 2
electrons
with each
neighbour

Si

HSC Physics Topic 3

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

+
+

Any impurities in the metal distort the shape of the lattice


and impede the electron flow. Also, as the ions vibrate due
to thermal energy, the vibration causes more collisions
among electrons, so their flow is resisted. As temperature
increases, the vibrations increase too, and thats why
resistance in metals increases with temperature.

Si

Si

So why is there resistance in a metal wire?


Although the electrons can flow quite easily, their
movement is not totally free.

Thanks to scientists like the Braggs, we now understand the


atomic-level structure of most substances. You learned
previously how a substance like the semiconductor Silicon
is a lattice of atoms chemically bonded together:
Si

Resistance in Metals

Crystal Structures

Si

This sea of electrons shifts and flows freely. If an electric


field is present, the electrons will all flow in the same
direction as an electric current. Thats why metals are all
good conductors.

This opened up a whole new investigative technique,


allowing scientists to probe the structure of matter as never
before. It was X-ray diffraction crystallography, for
example, that allowed the structure of DNA to be
determined in the 1950s.

Si

X-rays diffracted by the crystal


lattice, form Interference patterns
which are captured on the film.

Logically, if you re-read the previous paragraph and think


backwards, you might infer that if you had a really pure
metal, and cooled it right down so that all lattice vibrations
stopped, then it would become a perfect conductor.

Superconductivity!
19

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Superconductivity in Metals and Ceramics

How Superconductivity Occurs...


BCS Theory

In 1911, a Dutch physicist managed to cool mercury down


to about 4oK (-269oC) and found that its electrical
resistance dropped to zero.

How do we explain the phenomenon of superconductivity?


The accepted explanation is known as BCS Theory,
where BCS are the initials of the 3 scientists who
developed the theory in the 1950s.

Over the following years, various other metals were found


to become superconducting at very low temperatures. The
potential to build electrical generators and equipment with
zero resistance was a very attractive idea, but the
temperatures involved (no higher than about 20oK) were so
low that there seemed no practical way to take advantage.

Imagine part of the solid lattice of positive ions in a


conducting metal or ceramic. As an electron (part of an
electric current) approaches, it attracts the positive ions and
distorts the crystal structure slightly:

Then in 1986, Swiss scientists discovered some ceramic


materials containing rare elements like Yttrium and
Lanthanum, which became superconductors at much
higher temperatures. Still cold by human standards, but
100o higher than the metal superconductors, these ceramics
had zero resistance at temperatures as high as 130oK
(around -150oC). This is a temperature that is much more
practical to achieve.

This distortion concentrates the positive charge in this part


of the lattice, and attracts other electrons.
In a normal conductor, this distortion leads to collisions
and loss of energy by the flowing electrons which repel
each other... this is the normal electrical resistance within
the conductor.
But in a superconductor below its transition temperature,
something very strange occurs; due to Quantum Energy
Effects, 2 nearby electrons pair up to form what is called
a Cooper Pair: (Cooper is the C in BCS Theory)

The Meissner Effect

You may have seen a practical demonstration of a


superconductor in action, in class. The Meissner Effect
is named after the scientist who discovered it.

If a disk of superconductor ceramic is chilled below its


transition temperature, a small magnet placed close
above it will levitate; spinning freely if prodded, but
held up against gravity by unseen forces.

Cooper Pair
of electrons forms
+

Small
Levitating magnet

Approaching
electron

The syllabus requires that you identify some of the


superconducting metals and compounds. Here is a very
short list...
Temperature
Superconductor
of Transition (oK)
Metals
to Superconductivity
Mercury
4
Lead
9
Alloy
Niobium-Germanium
23
Ceramics
Yttrium-Barium-Copper oxide
92
Thallium-Barium-Calcium-Copper oxide
125 (-148oC)

Disk of
Superconducting
Ceramic

Liquid
Nitrogen

Due to quantum effects (which are beyond the scope of


this Course... KISS Principle) each electron of the Cooper
Pair helps the other to pass through the lattice without any
loss of energy. This means there is ZERO resistance.

dish

However, at a temperature above the transition, the


thermal vibrations in the lattice keep breaking up the
Cooper Pairs as fast as they can form. This destroys the
superconductivity, and the normal electrical resistance of
the substance returns.

Explanation:
As the magnet is brought near, its magnetic field induces
currents in the ceramic. Since there is NO electrical
resistance, the currents flow freely, non-stop and generate
a magnetic field that repels the approaching magnet.
Superconductors will never allow an external
magnetic field to penetrate them.
HSC Physics Topic 3

20

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Using Superconductor Technology

Advantages
Superconductor technology offers
Possible Future Applications
high efficiency in any electrical
situation, because there is no energy
loss due to resistance.
the ability to generate extremely
strong magnetic fields from
superconducting electromagnets.
faster operation of computers, since
superconducting switching devices
could be 10 times faster than a
semiconductor transistor

Current computer technology is based on


semiconductor microchips. Although these become
faster and more powerful every year, there is a limit to
how far they can go.
A superconductor computer could open a whole new
level of enhanced performance due the possible high
speed switching of circuits.
Electricity generation & distribution could be made
much more efficient with superconductor technology.

Limitations
Superconducting metals must be
chilled with liquid helium. This is
impractical and expensive.
New, superconducting ceramics can
be chilled with liquid nitrogen, which is
cheaper and much more practical, BUT
these ceramics:
are fragile and brittle and difficult
to make into wires.
can be chemically unstable and
have a limited life span.

A lot of energy is lost due to resistance heating in


transmission lines. This could be eliminated if power
lines were superconductors.
Generators lose energy by resistance heating in the coils
needed to produce magnetic fields, and are limited in
the strength of the fields they can produce.
Superconducting coils would allow generators to be
much more powerful and efficient.
Greater efficiency generally in electrical technology
would reduce associated environmental problems, such
as Greenhouse gas emissions.

The Maglev Train


The idea of using superconducting electromagnets to levitate a
train above a magnetic guide-rail has been around for many years
and experiments have been going on for decades.

MAGLEV = MAGnetic LEVitation


Shanghai Maglev Train
Photo 2004 Matthew Hillier
used with permission

The guiderail(s) under the train contain conventional


electromagnets. On board, helium-chilled superconducting electromagnets produce powerful magnetic
fields.
The fields in the rail and the train repel each other so
that the entire train is levitated 1-2cm above the track.
Propulsion and braking is also done magnetically, by the
fields in front and behind the train attracting and
repelling it. The actual motive power is supplied from
the rail, not from onboard the train.

Experiments have been going on for years in Germany


and in Japan. The first truly operational Maglev now
connects the city of Shanghai in China, with its airport
30km away. German built, it cost US$1.2 billion, and
reaches speeds of around 430km/hr.

The big advantage is the high speed possible without


any rail friction, and the low maintenance and low noise
that goes with this. A disadvantage is the very high cost
of building the guide rail track.
HSC Physics Topic 3

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Worksheet 4
Fill in the blanks.
Check your answers at the back.
The explanation of superconductivity is
v)...................... Theory, which states:
an approaching electron causes a slight
w)............................ of the ion lattice.
this concentrates the density of
x)............................ charge, which attracts more
electrons.

2
electrons
can
form
a
y)..................................................... which results
in both of them z)............................................... the
lattice without energy loss, due to
aa)....................................... energy effects.

Sir William Bragg, and his son Lawrence beamed


a).................................. through crystals. The waves
were b)......................................... by the atom/ion
array, and formed c).........................................
patterns,
which
were
recorded
on
d).................................... film. By measurements of
these images, they could deduce the exact
structure
and
geometry
within
the
e)..................................................
Unlike other crystals, metals have a structure
described as an array of f)..........................,
enbedded in a sea of g)......................................
The electrons have free access to the
h)..................................... band, so the metal is a
good
i)....................................................
of
electricity. There is some j)........................................
because of collisions caused by thermal
k).................................. of the lattice.

The advantages and possible applications offered


by superconductor technology include high
ab)............................................. of electrical
generation and ac).............................................,
because it could eliminate energy losses due to
ad)..........................................
Another possiblity is in computers, which could
operate ae)............................................ because a
superconducting af)...................................... can
work ag)............. times faster than a
ah)................................................

l).......................................... was first discovered in


mercury
metal
which
had
been
m)............................. to a temperature of about
n).......................... In the 1980s, a new class of
superconducting o)....................................... were
discovered, with transition temperatures up
around p)..........................

A limitations of superconductor technology is


the need to ai)............................... a metal using
aj)......................................, which is very
ak).................................. and ...............................
The higher temperature al)................................
superconductors solve part of this problem, but
they
are
am)..................................
and
................................... and difficult to make into
an)........................................ They may also be
ao)............................................................................
and have a short life-span.

If a magnet is placed above a superconductor, it


will q)......................................, being held up by
r)........................... forces. The field is created by
s)......................................... in the superconductor,
induced by the external t)........................................
Superconductors will never allow an external
field to u)...................................................... them.

One superconductor technology that has been


implemented is the ap)................................ train,
which uses superconductor magnets to
aq)......................................... the train above its
guide rail.

COMPLETED WORKSHEETS
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

HSC Physics Topic 3

22

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

CONCEPT DIAGRAM (Mind Map) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic
helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts.
Practise on this blank version.

From CATHODE RAYS


to TELEVISION

From RADIO
to PHOTOCELLS:
Quantum Theory

From IDEAS
to
IMPLEMENTATION

From CRYSTALS
to
SUPERCONDUCTORS

HSC Physics Topic 3

From ATOMS
to COMPUTERS

23

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

5.
If you were to alter the voltage to the anode in the
electron gun part of a TV picture tube, this would alter:
A. the position of the image on the screen.
B. the speed of the cathode ray beam.
C. the brightness & colours of the fluorescent image.
D. the size of the image.

Practice Questions

These are not intended to be "HSC style" questions, but to


challenge your basic knowledge and understanding of the
topic, and remind you of what you NEED to know at the
K.I.S.S. principle level.
When you have confidently mastered this level, it is
strongly recommended you work on questions from past
exam papers.

6.
Which of the following best describes the outcome of
Hertzs famous experiments of 1887?
A. His discoveries led to the Quantum Theory of light.
B. He showed that light gives interference patterns.
C. He confirmed that light is an electromagnetic wave.
D. He determined a more accurate value for the speed of
light.

Part A
Multiple Choice
1.
The Maltese Cross cathode ray
tube proves that cathode rays:
A. travel from anode to cathode.
B. travel in straight lines.
C. are particles with mass.
D. are electrically charged.

7.
According to Quantum Theory, if you compared the
energy of 2 photons of light and found that one had more
energy than the other, then the one with more energy must
have:
A. more mass.
B. longer wavelength.
C. higher frequency.
D. a higher velocity.

2.
A cathode ray beam is passing through
an electric field directed as shown in
the diagram.
E field
This is part of an experiment in
which the beam will simultaneously cathode rays
pass through a magnetic field.
The arrangement and strengths of the 2 fields is such that
the effects will cancel out so the beam travels through
without deflection.

8.
The Photoelectric Effect involves:
A. emission of electrons that have absorbed a quantum of
energy from a photon.
B. emission of a photon of light that has absorbed the
excess energy from a falling electron.
C. using photographic film to get an image of x-ray
interference patterns.
D. using an electrical induction coil to cause sparks in a
separate receiving coil or antenna.

In which direction must the magnetic field be directed in


order to achieve this?
A. into the page
B. up the page
C. to the left
D. out of the page
3.
Which of the following diagrams correctly shows the electric
field between point charges and/or charged plates?
A.

D.
+

C.
-

9.
According to Einstein, light often behaves like a wave, but
sometimes acts like a particle. A phenomenon in which the
particle nature of a photon is noticeable, is:
A. interference of photons scattered by crystals.
B. refraction of light by a glass lens.
C. photoelectric effect occurring in a solar cell.
D. polarization of light by sunglasses.

B.

10.
According to Band Structure Theory of electrical
conductivity, the valence band and the conduction
band in a semiconductor:
A. overlap each other.
B. are sparated by a very wide forbidden energy gap.
C. are inverted in reverse order to normal.
D. are separated by a narrow energy gap.

4.
Thomsons famous cathode ray experiment was able to
get a value for:
A. the charge to mass ratio, of cathode rays.
B. the mass of the electron.
C. the strength of crossed electric and magnetic fields.
D. the electric charge of an electron.
HSC Physics Topic 3

24

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

17.
In a superconductor above its transition temperature:
A. lattice vibrations break up the Cooper Pairs as fast as
they can form.
B. lattice distortions attract electrons to form Cooper Pairs.
C. the Meissner Effect can levitate a magnet.
D. the holes in a doped lattice allow electrons to tunnel.

11.
Which line of information below, best describes a p-type
semiconductor?
Valence of atoms
Current mainly
used to dope lattice
carried by
A.
5
electrons
B.
3
holes
C.
5
holes
D.
3
electrons

Longer Response Questions


Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give you
an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate.

12.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a
transistor, compared to a thermionic valve?
A. consumes less power.
B. needs time to warm up.
C. operates faster.
D. smaller and more reliable.

18. (5 marks)
Explain why the apparent behaviour of cathode rays caused
debate as to whether they were charged particles or
electromagnetic waves.
19. (6 marks)
Two parallel charged plates +
are 6.00cm apart, in vacuum, +
and have a potential
+
difference of 30.0V between +
them.
An electron (Qe = -1.60x10-19C) is located between the
plates.
a) Find the magnitude of the electric field between the
plates.
b) Calculate the force that will act on the electron due to
this field.
c) At what rate will the electron accelerate?
(electron mass = 9.11x10-31kg)

13.
The original transistors were made from Germanium, but
the technology later switched to use Silicon, because:
A. Silicon crystals are easier to grow.
B. Germanium supplies were running out.
C. Silicon is more abundant and cheaper.
D. Germanium crystals couldnt be miniaturized as well.
The following diagram describes a famous experiment
carried out by Sir William & Lawrence Bragg.
The diagram refers to Q 14 & Q15.
Photographic film

20. (8 marks)
An alpha particle
(Q = + 3.20x10-19C) is
about to enter a magnetic
field of strength 5.22T at
a velocity of
2.95x103ms-1.
a) Find the magnitude and (initial) direction of the force
due to the magnetic field it will experience.
b) A pair of charged plates (not shown in the diagram)
are arranged so that the force due to the magnetic field
will be exactly cancelled out by the force due to the
electric field.
Sketch where the plates need to be to do this, and indicate
the type of charge on each plate.
c) If these electric plates are 10.0cm apart, what voltage
must be applied to exactly cancel the magnetic deflection?

Crystal

14.
The radiation used by the Braggs was:
A. x-rays
B. radio waves
C. ultra-violet
D. visible light
15.
The pattern captured on the photographic film was due to
the phenomenon of:
A. refraction.
B. photoelectric effect.
C. polarization.
D. interference.

21. (6 marks)
A TV picture tube is made up of several main
components. Outline the role of the
a) electrodes of the electron gun.
b) deflection plates or coils.
c) fluorescent screen.
22. (4 marks)
As part of your studies you have carried out an
investigation to demonstrate the production and
reception of radio waves.
Describe briefly how you did this.

16.
Superconductor technology is currently limited by:
A. lack of suitable applications to apply it to.
B. superconducting chemicals being fragile and brittle.
C. the operating temperatures being too low to achieve.
D. semiconductors do the same job more efficiently.
HSC Physics Topic 3

25

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

23. (6 marks)
Two different photons of light have wavelengths of
5.00x10-7m (photon P) and 2.40x10-8m (photon Q).
Qualitatively (no calculation required) compare P & Qs:
a) speed
b) frequency
c) energy
Explain your answers in each case.

28. (5 marks)
Compare and contrast a p-type semiconductor and an
n-type semiconductor.

24. (4 marks)
For an electron to escape from the surface of a particular
metal, it needs to absorb a minimum of 6.75x10-19J of
energy. Calculate the
a) frequency
b) wavelength
of a photon with just enough energy to cause this.

30. (4 marks)
Assess the impact of the invention of the transistor on
society, with particular reference to their use in microchips.

25. (3 marks)
Identify the contribution made by Einstein to Quantum
Theory.

32. (3 marks)
Discuss the BCS Theory of superconductivity.

29. (4 marks)
Describe the differences between a solid state and
thermionic device in terms of structure and discuss why
solid state devices replaced thermionic devices.

31. (3 marks)
Outline the methods used by the Braggs to determine
crystal structure.

33. (3 marks)
Outline the possible benefits from applying
superconductor technology to computers, generators and
electrical transmission systems.

26. (4 marks)
a) What is the photoelectric effect?
b) Summarize how this effect is used in a solar cell.
27. (5 marks)
In relation to the Band Structure Theory of conductivity,
a) what is meant by the valence band of an atom?
b) what is meant by the conduction band of an atom?
c) explain the difference between
conductors
insulators
semiconductors

Remember that for full marks


in calculations, you need to show
FORMULA, NUMERICAL SUBSTITUTION,
APPROPRIATE PRECISION and UNITS

HSC Physics Topic 3

26

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335

Answer Section

Moving Charges in Magnetic Fields


6.
F = QvBsin
= -1.60x10-19x3.00x107x4.96x10-2xSin90o
= -2.38x10-13N. (Negative sign indicates direction is opposite
to whatever the RH Palm rule tells us)
RH Palm rule: if v vector is north, and B vector vertically up, then
F vector is east for a +ve charge. Therefore, for -ve electron, is
west.
Force = 2.38x10-13 N, west.
7.
F = QvBsin, so Q = F/vBsin
= 3.75x10-9/(2.90x108x8.05xsin90o)
= 1.61x10-18C.
8.
F = QvBsin, so v = F/QBsin
= 7.40x10-15/(1.60x10-19x5.48x10-4xSin25o)
= 2.00x108ms-1. (2/3 light speed!)
9.
a) F = QvBsin,
so B = F/QvSin
= 4.06x10-15/(1.60x10-19x7.80x106xsin90o)
= 3.25x10-3T.
b) The force due to the electric field must be equal,
so F = 4.06x10-15N.
E = F/Q = 4.06x10-15/1.60x10-19
= 2.54x104NC-1.
c) E = V/d, so V = E.d = 2.54x104x0.00800
= 203 V.

Worksheet 1
Part A
a) cathode
b) discharge
c) vacuum
d) voltage
e) glows, streamers and striations
f) gas pressure
g) negative
h) Crookes
i) Maltese
j) fluorescent
k) kinetic
l) momentum
m) electric
n) waves or particles
o) straight lines
p) fluorescence
q) photographic film
r) kinetic energy & momentum
s) mass
t) negative
u) field
v) the direction a positive test charge would move
w) force
x) parallel, charged
y) strength & direction
z) voltage
aa) distance
ab) moving
ac) magnetic
ad) magnet
ae) deflect
af) Right-Hand Palm
ag) Thomson
ah) electric & magnetic
ai) charge to mass
aj) particles
ak) atoms
al) electron
am) TV
an) electron
ao) electrons
ap) cathode
aq) anodes
ar) deflection
as) steer/direct
at) fluorescent
au) glow
av) electrons

Worksheet 2
Part A
a) radio
b) induction
c) sparks
d) wire loop antenna
e) reflection & diffracted
f) velocity
g) light
h) Photoelectric
i) Black Body
j) Max Plank
k) Quantum
l) quantised
m) atom
n) quantum
o) frequency
p) light energy
q) electron
r) emitted
s) Quantum
t) photons
u) quantum
v) all
w) none
x) part of its energy.
y) reflection, refraction and diffraction (plus others)
z) particle
aa) predictions
ab) Photoelectric
ac) experiment
ad) Quantum
ae) Black Body
af) Photoelectric

Part B
Electric Fields & Forces
1.
a)
E = V/d = 50.0/0.0400 = 1250 = 1.25x103NC-1.
b) F = Q.E = 3.20x10-19x1.25x103 = 4.00x10-16N.
c) i) Field is directed from +ve plate to -ve plate.
ii) Force is also directed towards -ve plate.
2.
a) F = Q.E, so E = F/Q = -7.82x10-15/-1.60x10-19
= 48.9x104 NC-1.
b) E = V/d, so V = E.d = 48.9x104 x 0.00250 = 122V.
3.
a) E = V/d = 200/0.0500 = 4.00x103NC-1.
b) F = Q.E, so Q = F/E = 2.29x10-12/4.00x103
= 5.73x10-16C.
c) No. electrons = charge on speck/ Qe
= 5.73x10-16/1.60x10-19 = 3.58x103 electrons.
d) Attracted to -ve plate, therefore speck must have +ve charge,
therefore must have lost electrons.
4.
First find field, from force on electron:
E = F/Q
= -5.88x10-17/-1.60x10-19
= 368NC-1.
Now use E = V/d, d = V/E = 40.0/368 = 0.109m. (10.9cm)
5.
Find E: E = V/d = 100/0.00500 = 20,000NC-1
Next use: F = Q.E = 9.75x10-10x20,000 = 1.95x10-5N.

HSC Physics Topic 3

Part B Quantum Theory Problems


1.
a) c = .f, so f = c/
= 3.00x108/4.25x10-7
= 7.06x1014Hz.
b) E = h.f = 6.63x10-34x7.06x1014 = 4.68x10-19 J.
ii) UV
2. i) infra-red
c = .f, so f = c/
c = .f, so f = c/
= 3.00x108/5.45x10-9
= 3.00x108/5.45x10-6
13
= 5.50x10 Hz
= 5.50x1016 Hz
E = h.f
E = h.f
= 6.63x10-34x5.5x1016
= 6.63x10-34x5.5x1013
= 3.65x10-20 J.
= 3.65x10-17 J.
Comparison: UV photon carries 1,000 times more energy

27

copyright 2005-2006

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Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335


k) vibrations
m) cooled
o) ceramics
q) levitate
s) currents
u) penetrate
w) distortion
y) Cooper Pair
aa) quantum
ac) distribution/ transmission
ae) much faster
ag) 10
ai) cool/chill
ak) expensive & impractical
am) brittle & fragile
ao) chemically unstable
aq) levitate

Worksheet 2
Part B (continued)
3.
a) E = h.f, so f = E/h = 8.75x10-14/6.63x10-34
= 1.32x1020 Hz.
b) c = .f, so = c/f = 3.00x108/1.23x1020
= 2.44x10-12m.
(this is extremely high energy, high frequency, short wavelength
EMR in the range of hard x-ray or gamma radiation)
4.
a) E = h.f, so f = E/h = 2.38x10-20/6.63x10-34
= 3.59x1013 Hz.
c = .f, so = c/f = 3.00x108/3.59x1013
= 8.36x10-6 m.
b) A longer wavelength photon would have lower frequency, and
therefore less energy. Since this would be below the threshold
energy for emission of an electron, no emission would occur.
c) A higher frequency photon will transfer all its energy to an
electron. The threshold energy is used to escape the metal
surface, while any excess becomes the kinetic energy of the
electron.
5.
Total energy of the photon = 6.22x10-17 + 9.28x10-19
= 6.31x10-17J.
Frequency, f = E/h = 6.31x10-17/6.63x10-34
= 9.52x1016Hz.
Wavelength, = c/f = 3.00x108/9.52x1016
= 3.15x10-9m.

Practice Questions
Part A Multiple Choice
1. B
5. B
9. C
2. D
6. C
10. D
3. D
7. C
11. B
4. A
8. A
12. B

a) Electrons
b) energy
c) electrons
d) atom to atom
e) insulator
f) conductivity
g) conductive
h) switched
i) electronics
j) computers
k) Band Structure
l) valence
m) conduction
n) current
o) energy gaps
p) quantum
q & r) conduction & valence s) overlap
t) currents/electricity
u) insulator
v) forbidden energy gap
w) conduction
x) narrow
y) conduct
z) cross
aa) to conduct
ab) minute / very small
ac) doping
ad) electrons
ae) holes
af) semiconductor
ag) extra electrons
ah) n-type
ai) doped
aj) 3
ak) holes
al) p-type
am) thermionic
an) cathode ray
ao) transistor
ap) much smaller
aq) cheaper
ar) less
as) waste heat
at) faster
au) warm up
av) reliable
aw) Germanium
ax) Silicon
ay) abundant/ common
az) cheaper
ba) chips
bb) microchips / microprocessors

17. A

c) Force on particle
must be equal to (a)
F = 4.93x10-15N.

-v
ve

E = F/Q = 4.93x10-15/3.20x10-19 = 1.54x104NC-1


and E = V/d, so V = E.d = 1.54x104x0.100 = 1.54x103V.
21.
a) Electron gun has a cathode to act as a source of cathode rays
(electrons), and a series of anodes to accelerate the electrons up
to the desired velocity.
b) The deflection plates are parallel charged plates (or magnetic
coils) which deflect the electron beam with the electric (or
magnetic) field, to steer the beam to any point on the screen.
One set of plates/coils deflect left/right, another set deflect
up/down.
c) Fluorescent screen glows when struck by electrons. The image
is formed by many glowing spots of fluorescence.

Worksheet 4

HSC Physics Topic 3

13. C
14. A
15. D
16. B

Part B Longer Response Questions


In some cases there may be more than one correct answer. The
following model answers are correct but not necessarily perfect.
18.
Cathode rays were found to have some waves properties
(e.g. travel in straight lines, fluorescence, expose photo film) and
also to have some particle properties (e.g. carry kinetic energy and
momentum). This caused confusion and debate about their
nature, finally resolved when Thomson measured the
charge/mass ratio, proving them to be particles.
19.
a) E = V/d = 30.0/.0600 = 500NC-1.
b) F = Q.E = -1.60x10-19x500 = -8.00x10-17N. (left in diag.)
c) F = ma, so a = F/m = -8.00x10-17/9.11x10-31
= 9.78x1013ms-2.
20.
a) F = QvBsin
= 3.20x10-19x2.95x103x5.22xSin90o
= 4.93x10-15N. Initial direction up the page. (RH Palm rule)
b) Plates need to be as
+ve
shown in diagram.

Worksheet 3

a) x-rays
c) interference
e) crystal lattice
g) electrons
i) conductor

l) Superconductivity
n) 4oK (-269oC)
p) 125oK (approx -150C)
r) magnetic
t) field
v) BCS
x) positive
z) pass through
ab) efficiency
ad) resistance heating
af) switch
ah) semiconductor/ transistor
aj) liquid helium
al) ceramic
an) wires
ap) Maglev

b) diffracted
d) photographic
f) ions
h) conduction
j) resistance

28

copyright 2005-2006

keep it simple science

Coffs Harbour High School SL#703335


28.
Compare and contrast means to point out similarities and
differences... be sure to shown both.
Similarities
Both types of semiconductor are solid crystals of silicon with a
lattice structure made up of atoms chemically bonded to 4
neighbours. The atoms have a narrow forbidden gap between
valence and conduction bands, and can switch from being a nonconductor, to a good conductor with a very small change in
energy. The sensitivity to this switching on can be increased by
doping the lattice with other atoms.

22.
(many possible answers) A spider web of wire was connected
to an induction coil. When switched on, the fluctuating, high
voltage from the coil caused the wire to act as a tranmitting
antenna, giving off radio frequency waves.
This was proven by placing a modern radio receiver on the other
side of the room. It picked up loud bursts of static noise
whenever the coil was on.
23.
a) both travel at the same velocity (= 3x108ms-1 in vacuum)
because ALL EMR waves travel at this speed of light.
b) Photon Q has a shorter wavelength, and therefore must have
higher frequency.
c) Photon Q carries more energy, because quantum energy is
proportional to frequency.
24.
a) E = h.f, so f = E/h = 6.75x10-19/6.63x10-34
= 1.02x1015 Hz.
b) c = .f, so = c/f = 3.00x108/1.02x1015
= 2.94x10-7m.
25.
Quantum Theory was proposed by Max Plank as a mathematical
convenience to explain the shape of the Black Body Radiation
curves. However, it was Einstein who used quantum theory to
cause a major change in the direction of Physics. His photon
idea changed classical Physics, and caused physicists to look at
the things quite differently.

Differences
In n-type semiconductors, the lattice has been doped with
atoms with 5 valence electrons. This places extra valence
electrons in the lattice and increases the sensitivity of the
substance to carrying currents by the flow of negative electrons.
In p-type semiconductors, the lattice has been doped with
atoms with only 3 valence electrons. This leaves extra holes in
the lattice and increases the sensitivity of the substance to
carrying currents by the flow of positive holes.
29.
A Thermionic valve is a cathode ray tube: a glass tube containing
metal electrodes in a vacuum. Typically the valve is 10-20cm in
size. A solid state transistor is a sandwich of n-type and p-type
semiconductor material (i.e. doped silicon crystals). A transistor
can range in size from 1-2 cm, down to microscopic layers etched
into the crystal in a microchip.
Transistors can do exactly the same job as valves, but
are much smaller and cheaper.
use much less electricity, and produce hardly any waste heat.
are faster, more reliable, and do not need time to warm up.
For all these reasons, the transistor replaced the valve in
electronics.
30.
The invention of the transistor has had an enormous impact on
society by making possible the development of electronics,
especially computers, operated by cheap, efficient and miniature
microchips. This has allowed the development of:
business and financial systems for cheap, efficient operation of
a global economy.
instant access to information, communication and entertainment
via the internet, TV, DVD technology, mobile phones, etc.
31.
Sir William & Lawrence Bragg beamed x-rays through crystals.
The atomic or ionic lattice in the crystal diffracted the x-rays,
which then formed interference patterns. These were captured as
geometric patterns on photographic film. Analysis of the
geometry of the x-ray diffraction pattern allowed them to
calculate the spacing and geometry of the lattice.
32.
BCS theory states that:
an electron (in the conduction band of a conductor) causes a
slight distortion of the ionic lattice.
This increases the density of +ve charge in this area, which
attracts more electrons.
Normally this causes electron collisions and heating in a
conductor, resulting in electrical resistance.
In a superconductor below its transition temperature, the
electrons can form cooper pairs which use quantum effects to
tunnel through the lattice with zero resistance.
33. Possible benefits:
faster computers, because superconducting switches are 10
times faster than transistors.
more efficient generation of electricity from superconducting
coils producing more powerful magnetic fields in generators.
Elimination of restistance heating losses in transmission lines
could save energy, and reduce costs and environmental impacts.

Einsteins contribution was to combine Planks theory with


classical wave ideas so that phenomena (like the photoelectric
effect) could be explained and understood.
26.
a) The photoelectric effect occurs when light waves are absorbed
by a metal surface so that the energy of the light causes electrons
to be emitted from the surface.
b) In a solar cell (or photovoltaic cell) the photoelectric effect
occurs in a sandwich of semiconductor materials called a p-n
junction. The light energy promotes valence electrons to the
conduction band in such a way that a potential difference is set up
across the junction.
This can cause a flow of current in an external circuit, so the
device is a way to generate electricity directly from light energy.
27.
a) The valence band is the highest orbit or energy level of an
atom that has electrons in it (when the atom is in its ground
state)
b) The conduction band is any energy level above the valence
band. In an atoms ground state, the conduction bands would
normally be empty. If an electron can reach a conduction band it
is effectively free to flow through the lattice of the substance.
c) In a conductor, the valence & conduction bands overlap with
each other, so that valence electrons can access the conduction
band at any time, and thereby flow as a current.
In an insulator the valence and conduction bands are separated by
a very wide forbidden energy gap in which an electron cannot
exist because the energy required does not correspond to a whole
quantum of energy. To get to the conduction band, an electron
needs a huge amount of energy, and at normal temperatures and
voltages, this does not happen.
In a semiconductor, the gap between valence and conduction
bands is narrow. A small energy input can kick and electron up
so the substance goes from non-conducting to conductor.
HSC Physics Topic 3

29

copyright 2005-2006

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