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i

ii
iii
iv
v
a
b
c
d

Base Year
Current Total Population
Adopted Growth rate
Domestic Water Demand
Other Uses of Water:
Commerce and Industry
Institutions
Fire Services
Horticulture
Total Other Uses

vi

Allowance for:

vii

2008
106469
4
50

%
Lpd

20
20
5
5
50

%
%
%
%
%

Backwashing of Treatment Facilities

Flushing of Sludge in Sedimentation Tank

Laboratory Works (Chemical Mixing etc)

d
Total Allowance =

Staff Quarters Use etc.


10

Adopted Operation Hour

22

hrs

Population Estimation
Year

Population Figure at 4% annual growth rate

a
b
c
d
e
f

2008
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030

106469
115157
140106
170460
207391
252323

viii
a
b
Total =

Total Water Demand:


4.16
0.42
4.58

mgd
mgd
mgd

ix
a

Scheme Design:
Intake Works
Raw Water Draft

Domestic Demand

Per Capita Water Demand


(Lpd)
50
50
50
50
50
50

Other Uses Demand

m3/day

mgd

m3/day

5323
5758
7005
8523
10370
12616

1.17
1.27
1.54
1.87
2.28
2.78

2662
2879
3503
4262
5185
6308

946.21 m3/h
0.263 m3/s

Detention Time in well =

262.84 L/s
0.15 h

Storage in Well

141.93 m3

Adopted Height of Water in Well

4.5 m

Are of Well

31.54 m2

No of Chambers

Area of each Chamber

7.89 m2

Width of Chamber
Length of Chamber

2m
3.94 m

Chamber Dimensions
Length
Breath
Assumed Freeboard
Adopted Height

4.5 m
2m
0.5 m
5m

Raw Water Mains:


Capacity

0.263 m3/s

Diameter of Mains

500 mm
0.5 m

Area of Mains
Length of Mains
Velocity of Flow
Hazen Williams Constant
Head Loss (Hi)

0.20 m2
1000 m
1.34 m/s
130 Note: Decrease in the Constant will increase the Head Loss in mains
3.1933 m/Km

1.852

6.819
.D 1.167
C
wh
Total Head Loss in mains line
Raw Water Pumps
No of Pumps

3.19 m

Potential Head at Treatment Works

96.55 m

Potential Head at Intake Works


Static Head Difference (SHD)

50.96 m
45.59 m

Note: This is Determined From Spot heigths from Survey Report

Fittings Losses

10 % of SHD
4.559 m
53.34 m

Total D Head (TDH)


Pump Min. Specification
No of Duty
No of Standby

3
1

Capacity of Each

315.40 m3/h
0.088 m3/s
87.61 L/s
53.34 m

Min. Allowable Head


Assumed Pump Efficiency

0.70 (Adopt between 0.7 and 0.9)

Acc. Due to Gravity (g)

9.81 m/s2

Density of liquid ()

1.00 ton/m3

Pump Power Consumption


Conversion Factor to Horse Power (Divide by)
Pump Power Consumption
Generator Power Rating
Genset Power Rating
ii Aerators
Type of Aerator
No. of Aerator

65.49 KW
745.7
87.83 HP
0.80 use 0.75 or 0.8 or 0.85
327.4741282521 KW

Spray Aerators
2 Nos

Capacity of each

0.13 m3/s

Assumed Diameter of Riser Pipe

350 mm
0.35 m

Area of Mains
Length of Mains
Velocity of Flow
Hazen Williams Constant
Head Loss (Hi)

0.10 m2
5m
1.37 m/s
140 Note: Decrease in the Constant will increase the Head Loss in mains
4.3818 m/Km

1.852

6.819
.D 1.167
C
wh
Total Head Loss in mains line

0.02 m

Header Pipe
No of Header Pipe

2.00

Flow Through each

0.07 m3/s

Assumed Diameter of Riser Pipe

250 mm
0.25 m

Area of Mains
Length of Mains
Velocity of Flow
Hazen Williams Constant
Head Loss (Hi)

0.05 m2
5m
1.34 m/s
140 Note: Decrease in the Constant will increase the Head Loss in mains
6.2508 m/Km

1.852

6.819
.D 1.167
C wh
Total Head Loss in mains line
Laterals
No of Laterals
Flow Through each
Assumed Diameter of Riser Pipe

0.03 m

5.00
0.01 m3/s
100 mm
0.1 m

Area of Mains
Length of Mains
Velocity of Flow
Hazen Williams Constant
Head Loss (Hi)

0.01 m2
4m
1.67 m/s
140 Note: Decrease in the Constant will increase the Head Loss in mains
27.5303 m/Km

1.852

6.819
.D 1.167
C wh
Total Head Loss in mains line

0.11 m

Nozzles
Lateral Length
Spacing of Laterals
No of Nozzles

4.00 m
0.25 m
32.00

Flow / Nozzle

0.00 m3/s
1.48 m3/h

Flash Mixer Design


No of Flash Mixer

Capacity of each Chamber

473.1054071489 m3/h

Assumed Detention Time

1 mins

Volume

7.89 m

Assumed Depth

1.5 m

Area

5.2567267461 m2

Length

4.7 m

30 - 60 secs

Width

4.3 m

Area

20.21 m2

Flocculators
Number of Flocculators
Assumed Detention Time

2
15 mins

Capacity of each Chamber

473.1054071489 m3/h

Volume

118.28 m3

Assumed Tank Height

4.5 m

Area

26.2836337305 m2

Length
Width

4.7 m
4.7 m

Area

22.09 m2

Sedimentation Tank Design


No of Sedimat
Capacity of Each Chamber
Assumed Detention Time
Volume
Assumed Depth of Tank

236.5527035744 m3/h
3 Hrs
709.66 m

Note: Depth of Sedimat is 0.6 to 1.2m much than the depth of

3.3 flocculator

Length
Breath

18.3 m
6.5 m

Area

118.95 m2

Assumed filtration rate

1.9886734222 m/hr

9 m3/m2/h
105.134534922
52.567267461
9.1 m
7m

Area of Bed

63.7 m2

Assumed Depth of Sand

80 cm

Underdrainage System:
Total Area of Holes =
Assumption
Area of Lateral =
Area of Manifold
So, area of Manifold =

0.2 to 0.5% of Bed Area


0.25 %
2 (Area of Holes of Lateral)
2 (Area of Laterals)
4 (Area of Holes)

Area of Holes =

0.15925 m2

Area of Manifold =

0.637 m2

Diameter of Manifold =

0.90 m
90.0 cm

Assume c/c of Lateral (Btw 15 and 30) =

30 cm

Length of lateral ((Width of Bed/no of beds)


- (Diameter of Manifold/no of Beds) =

Error!!!: Redsign
Ok

Area of Filter
Area of Each Bed
Adopted Length
Adopted Width

Total Number (Length/c/c of Lateral) =

3 - 4 hrs

215.0479123404 m2

Rapid Sand Filter


No of Beds

Error!!!: Redesign

Surface Area

Surface Loading (overflow Rate)

Ok

Ok

Ok
Ok

Ok

30.3333333333 on either side

4.0997980251 m

CS area of Lateral (2 x area of perforation


per Lateral)
Take dia of holes

Total Area of Holes =


Number of Holes
Adopt
Number of Holes/ Lateral
Area of Perforations/lateral
Spacing of Holes = (Length of
Lateral/Number of Laterals)

12 mm
0.012 m
1.2 cm

Ok

0.15925 m2
1407.5126262626 Numbers
1410 Numbers
17.625

(Number of Holes /Depth of Sand


Bed

1994.1428571429 mm2
0.2326126539 m
23.2612653908 cm

CS area of Lateral

39.8828571429 cm2

Diamter of Lateral =

7.1246052522 cm

Check: Length of Lateral < 60 d =

427.4763151334 cm
4.2747631513 m

Rising Washwater Velocity in Bed =

Ok

50 cm/min
0.5 m/min

Washwater discharge/bed=

0.5308333333 m3/s

Velocity of Flow through Lateral


Manifold Velocity =

1.6637265086 m/s
1.3309812069 m/s

WashWater Gutter

Ok
Ok

Discharge of Washwater/ bed


Size of Bed:
Length
Width
Assume 3 troughs running lengthwise at =
Discharge of each trough = (Q/3)
Q=
Assume b =
h=
Free Board =
Adopted h =

0.5308333333 m3/s
9.1 m
7m
2.3333333333 m c/c
0.1769444444 m3/s
1.71.b.h^(3/2)
0.3 m
0.6408330623 m
0.05 m
0.69 m

Clear Water Reservoir for Backwashing


For 4 Hour Filter Capacity,

Capacity of Tank =

4586.4 m3

Assume Depth =

4m

Surface Area =

1146.6 m2

B=
L=

23.9436839271 m
47.8873678542 m

Diameter of Inlet Pipe coming from two filter


Velocity =
Diameter of washwater pipe to overhead
tank
Air Compressor unit
For
Air required =

150 mm
< 0.6m/s
67.5 cm
1 air/min/m2
5 mins
10.6166666667 m3/ of air

Rapid Pressure Filter Design:


Flow Rate =
Filter Loading Rate =
With Combined sand & anthracite media
No of Filters =
2 Sets in Parallel/ Sed Tank

946.21 m3/h
35 m3/m2/h

Ok

27.0345946942 m2
4

Area of each Filter =

6.76 m2

Diameter of each filter =


Adopted Diameter =

2.932902401 m
2.9 m

Transfer Pumps
No of Duty pumps =
No of Standby =
Pump Rate =
Assumed Head =

2
1
236.5527035744
15 m

Backwashing:
Backwashing Water rate =
Filter Surface Area =
Backwash Pumping Rate =
Allowable Head
Assumed Pump Efficiency
Acc. Due to Gravity (g)
Density of liquid ()
Pump Power Consumption
Conversion Factor to Horse Power (Divide by)
Pump Power Consumption
Genset Power Rating
Clear Water Tank:
Detention Time =
Volume =
No of Tanks =
Capacity of each =

35 m3/m2/h

Ok

6.76 m2
236.55 m3/h
15.00 m
0.70 (Adopt between 0.7 and 0.9)
9.81 m/s2
1.00 Kg/m3
13.81 KW
745.7
18.52 HP

3 Hrs
2838.6324428933 m3
2
1419.3162214467 m3

for efficient treatment works, the clear water tank should have a minimum storage of 3 hrs. this will allow for a timely warning to the communities being
served during any emergency situation at the plant.
Circular Ground Tank:
Heigth of Tank =

9m

Surface Area of Tank =

157.701802383 m2

Diameter of Tank =
Adopted Diameter =
Free Board =
Total Height =

14.1672645508 m
14 m
0.6 m
9.6 m

Chemical Dosing:
Chlorine Dosing =

Normal Water =

4.5 - 5 mg/L

Heavily Polluted Water =

10 mg/L

Alum Dosing =
Lime Dosing =

40 - 60 mg/L
45 mg/L

2
5
5
5
5

Other Uses Demand

rvey Report

Total Water Demand


mgd

m3/day

mgd

0.59
0.63
0.77
0.94
1.14
1.39

7985
8637
10508
12785
15554
18924

1.76
1.90
2.31
2.81
3.42
4.16

Design of Air Scour Blower


Design Parameters
1 Filtration Rate
Air Scour Flow Rate
Recommended Flow mean Velocity

6
1
0.01666

Filter Type
Filter Dimensions
B

Number of Filters

Number to backwash simultaneously

Air Density

1.225
1.1839
1.1644
1.1455

Effective diamter of Sand


Dynamic Viscosity of Air

1
1.85E-05
1.96E-05
2.08E-05

Porosity of Sand,

Height of Sand Bed, l

0.55

1.3

Head Losses Within Filter Tank using Carman - Kozeny developed equation which predicts the headloss due
Delta P

93.0950986747

Head Losses along the Pipe Length


Diameter of air Pipe
Density of Air

80
0.96725

Velocity

0.15

Length of Pipe

48

Reynold's Number

27607.54

Roughness Ratio

0.001875

Lander

0.024

Head Loss based on Darcy Weishbach Equation becomes


g

9.81

35.9633027523

Pressure Loss, Hp in N/mm2

341.2458

Atmospheric Pressure
For Barometic Reading
Ha

24.45

Density of Mecury

0.0254

Barometic Head

13600

Ha

82855.33848

Total Head to be overcome by the air between the compressor nd the free surface of the water in the filter
H

83289.6793787

Air flow required


Total Air flow to be supplied

Flow demand per M2 X cross sectional Area

Volume flow rate through the layer is Q determined from the continuity equation
Q

Au

Where U

mean velocity of air through the bed

Cross sectional Area of porous portion of bed

Total Area cross section area * bed porosity

Therefore

0.250733
902.6388

Air Blower Sizing

20883.4711797
20.8834711797

Range
m3/hr/m2

6 - 7 m3/hr/m2

m3/min/m2
m/s

m
m

Kg/m3

Kg/m3

Kg/m3

Kg/m3

mm
Ns/m2

Ns/m2

For
the fluuidized (when passing a fluid
Ns/m2
@
upwards through a packed bad of solids
the point at which fluid drag force is equal
to the bed weigth the and particles no
longer rest on each other; this is the point
of fluidization] state of the bed the heith
increases hnce the porosity increases to
m
Assumed
0.55

0.43

ozeny developed equation which predicts the headloss due to fluid flow through media such that

mm
Kg/m3

m/s

6 - 10 m/s sufficiently low to prevent


excessive pressure drops on the most
systems and also will allow moisture to
precipate

mm
m

from Moody Diagram

m2/s

m
N/m2

inches of mercury
Kg/m3

Pa

he compressor nd the free surface of the water in the filter tank can be expressed as

emand per M2 X cross sectional Area

ned from the continuity equation

velocity of air through the bed

sectional Area of porous portion of bed

Area cross section area * bed porosity

m3/s
2590

KW

Design Manual for Water Supply in Kenya

15oC
25oC
30oC
30oC

300K
325K
350K

0.602