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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 ................................................................................................................................................ 2
Nutrition ............................................................................................................................................. 2
Chapter 2 ................................................................................................................................................ 3
Cooking methods................................................................................................................................ 3
Foods in Catering Operations ............................................................................................................ 4
Restaurant Services ............................................................................................................................ 4
Chapter 3 ................................................................................................................................................ 5
Meat, Poultry & Game ....................................................................................................................... 5

Chapter 1
Nutrition
Calories are defined as the amount of energy or heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of
water by 1.
4 Sources: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats & Alcohol
Simple carbohydrates & Complex Carbohydrates
Simple Carbohydrates: Glucose & Fructose
Complex Carbohydrates: Starches
Complex Carbohydrates are healthier. More nutrients & Fibre.
Fibre: Soluble & Insoluble
Fat essential in dissolving fat soluble vitamins.
Fats digested slowly, slows down digestion of carbohydrates, enhance food flavour
Fats: Saturated & Unsaturated.
Saturated Fats

Solid at room temperature

Unsaturated Fats

Liquid at room temperature

Contribution to heart diseases


and health problems
Healthier than other fats

Cholesterol required to build & maintain cell membranes. All animal fats contains cholesterol
Keep cholesterol as low as possible.
Proteins are the building blocks of the body. Essential for growth & maintenance of body tissues.
Consists of amino acids.
Alcohol has no nutritional value. Made by yeast & sugar.
Vitamins are essential for regulating body functions, only present in small amount of food. Do not
supply energy but needed to utilise energy. Lack of vitamins will cause deficiency disease. Water/ fat
soluble

Water-Soluble
Fat-Soluble

Not stored in body. Must be


eaten every day.
Stored in body. Not needed to
eat every day.

Vitamin C &B
Vitamin A, D, E & K

Minerals are essential for regulating body processes. Too much minerals are harmful.

Chapter 2
Cooking methods
Dry Heat

Grilling
Broiling
Roasting
Baking

Dry Heat with Fat

Saut / Stir-fry
Pan Fry
Shallow fry
Deep Fry

Moist Heat

Steam
Boil
Simmer
Poached ( Gentle method)
Blanch

Braising

Half in water, half not.

Stewing

In bite size, completely submerged in liquid.

Drying (For preservation)

Reduce water activity, prevents bacterial growth

Smoking

Dry heat
Presentation
Aromatic smells

Pickling

Put in a jar.

Foods in Catering Operations


On Premise Catering

Food production connected to dining area


Eg, restaurants, hotel banquet departments, cruise ships
Limited capacity
Expensive to set-up

Off Premise Catering

Production & Event different venue.


Less capital required to set up
Able to handle a larger capacity

Institutional Catering

Contract feeder
Time & Money saving for client
Pays business to provide food bound by contract.
Eg, Hospitals, Airlines

Restaurant Services
American Service

Plate service
Guests seated
Foods pre-portioned, served by the left.
Used dishes & glasses removed by the right
Advantage: Portion control, less service skills needed
Disadvantage: Less personal service

Family-Style Service

Guests seated
Large serving platters
Guests help themselves
Advantages: Casual, Requires few servers
Disadvantages: Difficult to maintain food temperature, Sharing platters

Reception

Bite sized food placed on serving trays


Served by servers
Guests serve themselves from trays
Advantages: More variety, Less cutleries
Disadvantages: Labour intensive

Buffet

Cold & hot food arranged and displayed on tables


Guests move along buffet line & serve themselves
Advantages: Low cost, Require fewer servers
Disadvantages: Informal, Less personal service

Chapter 3
Meat, Poultry & Game
Beef

Culinary name for meat from bovines

o Definition of bovines

Cow female bovine that has delivered a calf


Heifer female bovine that has not delivered a calf
Steer male bovine that has been castrated
Bull mature uncastrated male bovine

o Selection Criteria

Colour: Deep red


Texture: firm
Marbled with fine fat veining

Covered with a thick layer of white firm fat


o Ways to improve tough muscles

Veals

Chemically: Marinades containing acids break down & soft muscles


Physically: Mincing, Chopping, Hammering
Aging: Moisture within meat evaporates while enzymes softens connective
tissues

o Defination

Meat from cattle with no adult teeth


<70kg dressed weight
Male/females

o Selection Criteria

Touch: Not greasy, fats is white & satiny


Smell: Milk

LAMB
o Definition

Lamb: Young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any
permanent incisor teeth
Mutton: Female/ Castrated male have more than 2 permanent incisors teeth

o Selection Criteria

Lamb: Flesh pink & tender


Mutton: Flesh redder & tougher & fattier & stronger taste

Poultry
o Definition
o

Galliformes: Land fowls


Anseriformes: Water fowls
Chicken
Categories
Cornish Game hen
Broiler
Roaster
Stewing
Capon

o Selection Criteria

Breast: Plump
Breast bone: Pliable
Skin of Leg: Smooth
Overall skin: White
Flesh: Firm

Game
o Definition

Animals that are hunted for food or not normally domesticated.


Furred & Feathered Game

o Furred

Venison: Meat of deer family, Lower in calories


Ostrich: Taste similar to beef, Red meat
Wild Boar: Usually roasted/stewed
Rabbit: Lean meat & dry

o Exotics

Bision/Buffalo: Taste like beef, but leaner


Alligator: Lean & Mild meat
Black Bear: Lean & Tough meat
Seal: Steak texture & Mild beef liver taste
Kangaroo: Very lean meat
Moose: Very lean meat