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Question 1

G= G0 + RTlnQ
Concentration of Hydrogen
At standard state is given: 10^-7M
At a ph=7.6 is: 10^-7.6
Therefore concentration ratio of hydrogen is :( 10^-7.6/10^-7)=0.2511886
100
1 atm
The concentration ratio of Oxygen is: [ O2 ]= 760
=0.13158
1 atm
+
NA D

H 2 O 2

+
H

[O
2]
Q=
=481.8

0.2511886 2(0.13158)

NADH 2

lnQ=6.1775
G0=220.31 03 J /mol (given)
Therefore:
G=204.986 kJ /mol

Question 2

Figure 1 Typical Chemostat Reactor


(http://2008.igem.org/Team:ETH_Zurich/Modeling/Chemostat_Selection)

Mass balance on the substrate concentration around the chemostat reactor in figure 1;
Accumulation= In-Out+Generated-Consumed
F SO FSV R X

1
1
dS
V R q p X
=V R ( )
M
Y
dt
YX
P
..1

( )

( )

Monod Equation
Assuming:no extracellular product formation,
Equation 1 reduces to:
F
1
( S S ) =X M
VR O
YX

( )

)1a

But

F
=D
VR

Therefore
D ( S OS )=X

1
M
YX

( )
S

..1b

q p =0

,and steady state operation, dSdt=0.

But dilution rate is equal to the cell growth rate for a batch process at steady state,i.e.
D= .
Thus,

( SO S )= X

1
Y MX

( )

..1c

In terms of rearranging Equation 1c ,

X =( S OS ) Y MX
S

..1d

Monod equation
S=

ks D
max D

Substitute monod equation into equation 1d

X = SO

ksD
M
Y
max D XS ..1e

Assuming there is endogenous metabolism,


=D+ k d

..(2)

Substitute eqution 2 into 1b,


D ( S OS )=( D+ k d ) X

1
Y MX

( )

..3

Rearranging eqution 3
D ( SO S ) D
k
M dM =0
X
YX YX
..3a
S

Substitute equation 1d into 3a

D ( SO S )

( S OS ) Y

M
X
S

k
D
dM =0
M
YX YX
..(4)
S

Therefore,
k
D
D
M Md =0
M
Y X YX Y X
..(5)
S

Maintenance coefficient based on substrate concentration


m s=

kd
Y MX ..(6)
S

Substitute equation 6 into 5


D
D
M ms=0
AP
YX YX
..(7)
S

Rearranging equation (7) gives and proves that indeed:


1
1
= M +m s / D
AP
YX YX
..(8)
S

2b)

1/Yx/s vs 1/D
2.5
2

f(x) = 0.06x + 1.6


R = 0.99

1.5
1/Yx/s

1/Yx/s vs 1/D
Linear (1/Yx/s vs 1/D)

1
0.5
0
0

8 10 12

1/D(hr)

Figure 2
Used microsoft excel to plot figure 2 above,from the plot I got a linear line of best fit for the
points and an R squared value.
From the line of best fit equation y-intercept is 1.5958,i.e
1
The gradient is 0.0555,which means ms=0.06 h

.But

ms=k d /Y Mx
s

thus; k d =0.060.63=0.0378 h

1
( 1.5958
)=0.63

Y Mx =
s

1/(D+Kd) vs 1/S
8
f(x) = 100.27x + 1.25
R = 1

6
1/(D+kd)

1/(D+Kd) vs 1/S
Linear (1/(D+Kd) vs
1/S)

2
0
0

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08


1/S

Figure 3
Used microsoft excel to plot figure 3 above,from the plot I got a linear line of best fit for the
points and an R squared value.
From the line of best fit equation y-intercept is 1.248 which means

The gradient is 100.27h/mg/L.But


K s =100.270.80=

80.216 mg
L

Ks
=100.27 .Therefore
m

m=

1
( 1.248
)=0.80 h

Question 3
3A)Cone shape
Volume is
V=

1
2
D H
12

Surface area,

1
D2
SA= D
+H2
2
4
Ratio of H(height) to D(diameter) is 1/1
Therefore
V=

1
3
12

And

1
5 D2
SA= D
2
4
Cylinder shape
1
2
V= D H
4
And
1
SA=DH + D2
2

Ratio of H(height) to D(diameter) is 2/1


i.e. H=2D
therefore

1
V = D3
2

and
5
SA= D2
2
Total Volume is;
VT=

7
D3
12

Total surface area is;

5
5 D2
2 1
SA= D + D
2
2
4
Small fermenter:volume is 0.1m^3
Therefore from

VT=

7
D3
12

D=0.397 m

And

5
1
5 D2
SA= D2 + D
=1.383 m2
2
2
4
Big fermenter(scale up):volume 25m^3
D=2.389 m

And
SA=53.867 m2
Mass produced on surface of scale up fermenter is;

0.3200 g
SA ( big fermenter )=2380.35 g
SA (small fermenter)
Mass produced on volume of scale up fermenter is;
0.7200 g
V ( big fermenter )=35000 g
V (small fermenter )
Therefore
Total mass produced is : 2380.35 g+ 35000 g=37380.35 g
The volume increased by a factor of 250,whereas the production rate increased by (
37380.35 g /200 g =186.9 . If there was no growth on the surface,i.e there was growth
only in the liquid phase the overall yield would be 70000g which implies that surface
growththe yield in a system when we scale up.
3B)A batch reactor is filled only once up to full capacity, i.e. no more substrate addition takes
place as the reaction progress until the end, where the product is removed.
A fed batch reactor is partly filled in the beginning of the reaction and certain amounts of
substrate are intermittently added as the reaction progresses. The product is removed
periodically and this type of operation helps in preventing the inhibition of substrate thus
increases production rate.
A chemostat reactor with a recycle is a continuous process where you put feed once, get
product periodically whilst its concentration is increasing due to the recycle stream.

Batch reactor

Fed-Batch reactor

Advantages
Allows for flexibility in the
operation in that one reactor
is able to manufacture one
product one time and a
another product the next
time.
Has a high conversion per
volume in a single pass
Allows for the control of the
growth limiting substrate,
hence allows control over
production of by-products.

Disadvantages
Does not allow for the
control of the growth limiting
substrate, hence theirs is an
over production of byproducts.
Gives product that has a
quality with a great degree of
variation.
There is a need an
understanding of the
physiology microorganism
used , and what it requires.

Chemostat with recycle

Does not require any


additional parts of equipment
in comparison to the batch
reactor.
Helps keep the cell
concentration higher than the
normal level.
Increases the productivity of
biomass.

Caution must be taken in the


design stage to ensure that
toxins do not accumulate to
levels that lead to inhibitions.
Greatly inflexible, for it
cannot be used in various
processes without major
retrofitting.
Requires that processing be
adjusted to the flow through
the bioreactor by fitting
holding tanks, thus high
costs.

Question 4
A) Mass balance around the reactor is:
F X O + FC X 1( 1+ ) F X 1 +V R X 1 =V R (

Steady state

dX
)
dt ..1

dX
F X O =0
=0)
and sterile feed (
assumptions reduce equation 1 into:
dt

FC X 1 ( 1+ ) F X 1 +V R X 1=0 ..1b

B) Rearranging equation 1a and writing it in terms of

=F ( ( 1C ) +1)/V R
=1/ 3 (given)
C =1.5(given)

Because this is a continuous system problem , D=Dopt. Essentially, dilution rate is not equal
to the growth rate.
Therefore;

1 k s/(k + S )
D=max )
s

D=7.853105 s1
By definition
D=F /V R
This means,

(( ) (

=7.85310

1
5
11.5 )+ 1 =6.54410 s
3

Monod equation

( maxS )/(k s +S )
=
Therefore
S=0.366 g /L

(Concentration of substrate in reactor effluent)

A mass balance on the substrate concentration around reactor is:


F SO + FS( 1+ ) FSV R (

Assuming steady state,

VR

X1
Y

M
X
S

)=V R (

( dSdt )=0

,thus:

X 1= ( D / )Y MX ( SO S ) =14 .22 g/ L
S

dS
)
dt

(Concentration of biomass in reactor effluent)

A mass balance on the cell concentration around reactor is:

( 1+ ) F X 1=F X 2 + FC X 1
=1/ 3 (given)
C =1.5(given)

Therefore
X 2=

( 56 )X

Then
X 2=11 . 85 g/ L

(Concentration of biomass in the effluent from cell separator)

Concentration of biomass in the recycle stream is:


CX 1=21. 33 g/ L