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Original Title: Biochemical Engineering

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G= G0 + RTlnQ

Concentration of Hydrogen

At standard state is given: 10^-7M

At a ph=7.6 is: 10^-7.6

Therefore concentration ratio of hydrogen is :( 10^-7.6/10^-7)=0.2511886

100

1 atm

The concentration ratio of Oxygen is: [ O2 ]= 760

=0.13158

1 atm

+

NA D

H 2 O 2

+

H

[O

2]

Q=

=481.8

0.2511886 2(0.13158)

NADH 2

lnQ=6.1775

G0=220.31 03 J /mol (given)

Therefore:

G=204.986 kJ /mol

Question 2

(http://2008.igem.org/Team:ETH_Zurich/Modeling/Chemostat_Selection)

Mass balance on the substrate concentration around the chemostat reactor in figure 1;

Accumulation= In-Out+Generated-Consumed

F SO FSV R X

1

1

dS

V R q p X

=V R ( )

M

Y

dt

YX

P

..1

( )

( )

Monod Equation

Assuming:no extracellular product formation,

Equation 1 reduces to:

F

1

( S S ) =X M

VR O

YX

( )

)1a

But

F

=D

VR

Therefore

D ( S OS )=X

1

M

YX

( )

S

..1b

q p =0

But dilution rate is equal to the cell growth rate for a batch process at steady state,i.e.

D= .

Thus,

( SO S )= X

1

Y MX

( )

..1c

X =( S OS ) Y MX

S

..1d

Monod equation

S=

ks D

max D

X = SO

ksD

M

Y

max D XS ..1e

=D+ k d

..(2)

D ( S OS )=( D+ k d ) X

1

Y MX

( )

..3

Rearranging eqution 3

D ( SO S ) D

k

M dM =0

X

YX YX

..3a

S

D ( SO S )

( S OS ) Y

M

X

S

k

D

dM =0

M

YX YX

..(4)

S

Therefore,

k

D

D

M Md =0

M

Y X YX Y X

..(5)

S

m s=

kd

Y MX ..(6)

S

D

D

M ms=0

AP

YX YX

..(7)

S

1

1

= M +m s / D

AP

YX YX

..(8)

S

2b)

1/Yx/s vs 1/D

2.5

2

R = 0.99

1.5

1/Yx/s

1/Yx/s vs 1/D

Linear (1/Yx/s vs 1/D)

1

0.5

0

0

8 10 12

1/D(hr)

Figure 2

Used microsoft excel to plot figure 2 above,from the plot I got a linear line of best fit for the

points and an R squared value.

From the line of best fit equation y-intercept is 1.5958,i.e

1

The gradient is 0.0555,which means ms=0.06 h

.But

ms=k d /Y Mx

s

thus; k d =0.060.63=0.0378 h

1

( 1.5958

)=0.63

Y Mx =

s

1/(D+Kd) vs 1/S

8

f(x) = 100.27x + 1.25

R = 1

6

1/(D+kd)

1/(D+Kd) vs 1/S

Linear (1/(D+Kd) vs

1/S)

2

0

0

1/S

Figure 3

Used microsoft excel to plot figure 3 above,from the plot I got a linear line of best fit for the

points and an R squared value.

From the line of best fit equation y-intercept is 1.248 which means

K s =100.270.80=

80.216 mg

L

Ks

=100.27 .Therefore

m

m=

1

( 1.248

)=0.80 h

Question 3

3A)Cone shape

Volume is

V=

1

2

D H

12

Surface area,

1

D2

SA= D

+H2

2

4

Ratio of H(height) to D(diameter) is 1/1

Therefore

V=

1

3

12

And

1

5 D2

SA= D

2

4

Cylinder shape

1

2

V= D H

4

And

1

SA=DH + D2

2

i.e. H=2D

therefore

1

V = D3

2

and

5

SA= D2

2

Total Volume is;

VT=

7

D3

12

5

5 D2

2 1

SA= D + D

2

2

4

Small fermenter:volume is 0.1m^3

Therefore from

VT=

7

D3

12

D=0.397 m

And

5

1

5 D2

SA= D2 + D

=1.383 m2

2

2

4

Big fermenter(scale up):volume 25m^3

D=2.389 m

And

SA=53.867 m2

Mass produced on surface of scale up fermenter is;

0.3200 g

SA ( big fermenter )=2380.35 g

SA (small fermenter)

Mass produced on volume of scale up fermenter is;

0.7200 g

V ( big fermenter )=35000 g

V (small fermenter )

Therefore

Total mass produced is : 2380.35 g+ 35000 g=37380.35 g

The volume increased by a factor of 250,whereas the production rate increased by (

37380.35 g /200 g =186.9 . If there was no growth on the surface,i.e there was growth

only in the liquid phase the overall yield would be 70000g which implies that surface

growththe yield in a system when we scale up.

3B)A batch reactor is filled only once up to full capacity, i.e. no more substrate addition takes

place as the reaction progress until the end, where the product is removed.

A fed batch reactor is partly filled in the beginning of the reaction and certain amounts of

substrate are intermittently added as the reaction progresses. The product is removed

periodically and this type of operation helps in preventing the inhibition of substrate thus

increases production rate.

A chemostat reactor with a recycle is a continuous process where you put feed once, get

product periodically whilst its concentration is increasing due to the recycle stream.

Batch reactor

Fed-Batch reactor

Advantages

Allows for flexibility in the

operation in that one reactor

is able to manufacture one

product one time and a

another product the next

time.

Has a high conversion per

volume in a single pass

Allows for the control of the

growth limiting substrate,

hence allows control over

production of by-products.

Disadvantages

Does not allow for the

control of the growth limiting

substrate, hence theirs is an

over production of byproducts.

Gives product that has a

quality with a great degree of

variation.

There is a need an

understanding of the

physiology microorganism

used , and what it requires.

additional parts of equipment

in comparison to the batch

reactor.

Helps keep the cell

concentration higher than the

normal level.

Increases the productivity of

biomass.

design stage to ensure that

toxins do not accumulate to

levels that lead to inhibitions.

Greatly inflexible, for it

cannot be used in various

processes without major

retrofitting.

Requires that processing be

adjusted to the flow through

the bioreactor by fitting

holding tanks, thus high

costs.

Question 4

A) Mass balance around the reactor is:

F X O + FC X 1( 1+ ) F X 1 +V R X 1 =V R (

Steady state

dX

)

dt ..1

dX

F X O =0

=0)

and sterile feed (

assumptions reduce equation 1 into:

dt

FC X 1 ( 1+ ) F X 1 +V R X 1=0 ..1b

=F ( ( 1C ) +1)/V R

=1/ 3 (given)

C =1.5(given)

Because this is a continuous system problem , D=Dopt. Essentially, dilution rate is not equal

to the growth rate.

Therefore;

1 k s/(k + S )

D=max )

s

D=7.853105 s1

By definition

D=F /V R

This means,

(( ) (

=7.85310

1

5

11.5 )+ 1 =6.54410 s

3

Monod equation

( maxS )/(k s +S )

=

Therefore

S=0.366 g /L

F SO + FS( 1+ ) FSV R (

VR

X1

Y

M

X

S

)=V R (

( dSdt )=0

,thus:

X 1= ( D / )Y MX ( SO S ) =14 .22 g/ L

S

dS

)

dt

( 1+ ) F X 1=F X 2 + FC X 1

=1/ 3 (given)

C =1.5(given)

Therefore

X 2=

( 56 )X

Then

X 2=11 . 85 g/ L

CX 1=21. 33 g/ L

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