You are on page 1of 1

2D FINITE-DIFFERENCE SIMULATIONS: EFFECTS OF PATH, SOURCE

AND ANELASTIC ANISOTROPY ON MICROSEISMIC WAVEFORMS


Hoda Rashedi* and David Eaton
Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, AB, Canada

SUMMARY
Anelastic attenuation refers to amplitude losses due to conversion of
elastic strain energy to other types of energy, such as heat. The effects
of attenuation are often approximated using a constant, isotropic Q
model. On the other hand, anisotropy refers to the dependence of
elastic properties on propagation and polarization directions. Here,
these phenomena are combined to evaluate the potential effects of
attenuation anisotropy for microseismic recordings.
Finite-difference simulations are used to investigate the changes on the
waveforms. This will provide a valuable data that model the wave
propagation in realistic media due to various rock behavior during
hydraulic fracturing with different moment tensors.

Work Flow: Theory, Methodology and Inputs


Equation of motion
( , ), =

Souce: Moment tensors with various focal


mechanism

Attenuation
(Anelastic Medium)

Realistic Velocity Model

Step 1 : Solve it using FINITE DIFFERENCE

Vs

=
.

Vp

ISOTROPIC

Step 2 : Assign properties of medium into


Stiffness Tensor

N: Damping Factor
C: Stiffness Tensor Matrix
: Angular Frequency
Q: Quality Factor Matrix

VTI

5 independent elements

2 independent elements

VTI

ISOTROPIC

(Vertically Transverse Isotropic)

Thomsen Parameters:

Shear modulus: K
bulk modulus:

Figure2: Sample realistic velocity


model, Central Alberta Velocity
model.

13 = 33

33 255
33
55

12 = 11

33 255

11 266

11 266 11
66

RESULTS

INTRODUCTION
P-Wave Radiation pattern

S-Wave Radiation pattern


P-Wave Radiation pattern

In this research, microseismic synthetic data produced in order to


investigate the effect of moment tensor, velocity model, anisotropy and
attenuation on the waveforms. This data generated by 2D acoustic
finite-difference modeling program which originally developed by
Boyd[3].
These realistic synthetic data provide an effective way to benchmark
processing and interpretation algorithms. An excellent example is
provided by the Marmousi dataset created by IFP[2] a shown in Figure1.

0 0 1
= 0 0 0
1 0 0

ISOTROPIC

Double Couple
ISOTROPIC
&
ANELASTIC

VTI

Tensile Crack Opening


VTI & ANELASTIC

ISOTROPIC

1 0
= 0 1
0 0

0
0
3

ISOTROPIC
&
ANELASTIC

VTI

S-Wave Radiation pattern

VTI & ANELASTIC


Attenuating

VTI

Attenuating

Attenuating

VTI

VTI

Attenuating

VTI

P-S conversion

Therefore, realistic suite of synthetic


microseismograms for a scenario in
which the source location, mechanism
and background model are known and
the complete wavefield containing
multiples, guided waves etc, is accurately
simulated.

P-wave

S-wave

Artifacts
Velocity Dispersion

P-wave

S-wave

Figure1: Prestack FD dataset created by IFP in 1988

SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVE

Understand the effects of moment tensor on the waveforms


Investigate the wave propagation pattern in different medium with
or without anisotropy
Study the impact of various degrees of attenuation during
propagation on waveform
Produce a suite of synthetic data to be used for benchmarking and
calibration

CONCLUSION
Case studies of finite-difference simulations involving various source types and positions incorporating varying degrees of anisotropy establishes a tool to study the
behaviour of waves. On the other hand, simulations involving attenuation anisotropy are scarce in microseismic monitoring, , hence, synthetic data can provide valuable
insights for an interpretation of microseismic wave propagation and waveforms. This approach enables analysis and identification of wave-field elements such as head
waves, post-critical reflections and guided waves. Imperfect absorbing boundaries create artifacts that require model dimensions to be extended to ensure that artifacts do
not interfere with desired signals.
The effects of strong anisotropy are evident. The main goal of this study is to build a series of synthetic data including attenuation anisotropy for both isotropic and vertically
transverse isotropic medium and investigate the wave-field elements and the effect of the attenuation to them.

REFERENCES
[1] Arts, R. J., and P. N. J. Rasolofosaon, 1992: Approximation of velocity and attenuation in general anisotropic rocks: 62nd Annual International Meeting: SEG, Expanded abstract, 640- 643.
[2] Bourgeois, A. M. Bourget, P. Lailly, M. Poulet, P. Ricarte, and R. Versteeg. Marmousi, model and data. Proceedings of the 1990 EAGE workshop on Practical Aspects of Seismic Data Inversion: Eur. Assoc. Expl. Geophys, 5-16, 1991.
[3] Boyd, O., 2006, An efficient MATLAB script to calculate heterogeneous anisotropically elastic wave propagation in three dimensions: Comp.Geoscince, 32, 32, 259-264.
[4] Carcine, J. M., 2001: Wavefields in real media: Wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic and porous media: Nature, 277:528-531.
[5] Hosten, B., M. Deschamps, and B. R. Tittmann, 1987: Inhomogeneous wave generation and propagation in lossy anisotropic solids: Application to the characterization of viscoelastic composite materials: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 82, 1763-1770.
[6] Tao, G., and M. S. King, 1990: Shear-wave velocity and Q anisotropy in rocks: A laboratory study: International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, 27, 353- 361.
[7] Thomsen, L., 1986: Weak elastic anisotropy: GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 51, NO 10, (October 1986); P.1954-1966.
[8] Toksoz, M. N., Johnston, D. H., and Timur, A., 1979: Attenuation of seismic waves in dry and saturated rocks: I. laboratory measurements: Pergamon Press, Inc.

[9] Tsvankin, I., 1997: Anisotropic parameters and P-wave velocity for orthorhombic media: GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 62, NO.4, (July-August 1997); P.1292-1309.
[10] Sinha, S., Abaseyev, S. and Chesnokov, E., 2007: Full waveform synthetics and its spectral characteristics in multilayered anisotropic attenuating media: SEG 2007 Annual Meeting.
[11] Winkler, K. and Nur, A., 1979: Pore fluids and seismic attenuation in rocks: GEOPHYSICS, Res,Lett., VOL 6, P. 1-4.
[12] Winkler, K., Nur, A., and Gladwin, M., 1979: Friction and seismic attenuation in rocks: Nature, 277:528-531.
[13] Zhu, Y and Tsvankin, I., 2006: Plane-wave propagation in attenuative transversely isotropic media: GEOPHYSICS, VOL.71, NO 2, (March-April 2006); P. T17-T30.