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Modal Analysis Testing

To Solve Resonance Problems

By

Tony DeMatteo

Consultant

Emerson Process Management / CSI Division

The objectives of this paper are to illustrate the typical steps required to solve resonance

problems and to emphasize the power and flexibility of CSIs 2120-2 Analyzer and

Vibrant Technologys MEscope ODS/Modal software.

Every analyst has faced difficult machinery vibration problems. This paper describes the

use of operational deflection shape (ODS) and Modal Analysis testing for problem

solving.

The ODS and Modal techniques are powerful tools that enhance an analyst's ability to

understand the sources of vibration. The vertical pump case history, presented in this

paper, details the testing progression from problem identification in route vibration

measurements to resonance testing, Operational Deflection Shape testing and modal

analysis.

Resonance problems are difficult to solve. ODS and Modal Analysis give a clear picture

of the machines motion, however neither tool has the capability to solve resonance

problems.

In the following example, Finite Element Analysis was used to model the pump structure

and evaluate modifications that move the natural frequencies away from forced vibrations

thus eliminating resonance.

The Problem: Vibration on Pump #1

Background: Pumps 1-4 are sewage pumps. The pumps are Morris two-vane, vertical,

centrifugal pumps. The drive motors on pumps 1 & 2 are new, 800 HP, U.S. induction

Motors, on a variable frequency drive. The motors on pumps 3 & 4 are older Reliance

motors with a liquid rheostat speed control. The operating speed range of the pumps is

700-890 rpm. The pump is bolted to the floor and the motor is supported on top of a tube

covering a 15 foot long drive shaft. Figure 1 is a picture of the motors on pumps #1 and

#3.

Figure 1

Left New Motor (pumps 1 & 2), Right Old Motor (pumps 3 & 4)

The new motor is a different design and weighs about 800 pounds more than the old

motor. A mounting plate was fabricated to connect the new motor to the top of the tube.

The vibration problem on Pump #1 began after its motor (an 800 HP, wound rotor,

Reliance motor with a liquid rheostat speed control) was replaced with a new U.S. motor.

The old motor was in service for many years. Since the new motor was installed, the

vibration on the machine has been extremely rough. Some other characteristics of the

problem are listed below.

The highest vibration is over .9 inches/second peak (IPS) at twice rotational speed.

The problem direction is in-line with the discharge piping.

The worst vibration occurs when the pump speed is above 820 rpm.

The pump cannot be operated at the desired speed.

The VFD was programmed to exclude the 820-890 rpm speed range.

Baseline Data Baseline vibration data was measured with the pump operating at 870

rpm (14.5 Hz.). The largest vibration was .7 IPS peak in the discharge direction on the

motor.

Vertical

.7 IPS @ 2x

Discharge

Cross Discharge

.88 IPS @

Discharge

.65 IPS @

Cross Discharge

.4 IPS @ 2x

Vertical

Discharge

.42 IPS @

Cross Discharge

Figure 2

Baseline Data

Copyright 2001, Computational Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

Coast-down Testing:

The pump was operated at maximum speed (899 rpm or 15 Hertz). A tachometer was

used to measure motor speed and accelerometers were placed at the top of the motor in

the discharge and cross discharge directions. The machine speed was decreased slowly

using the VFD control. Vibration and phase data was recorded during coast-down using

the Analyze | Monitor | Monitor Peak/Phase function on the 2120 Analyzer.

Accelerometer

Positions

Tachometer reading

reflective tape on shaft

The Monitor Peak/Phase function was configured to measure coast-down vibration and

phase at 2x turning speed. The screen below shows the set-up.

The Bode plot below is a trace of 2x turning speed vibration and phase during coastdown. It indicates that at speeds below 830 rpm, the vibration on the motor was smooth

(less than .1 IPS) in the discharge direction. Above 830 rpm, the 2x vibration increased

and peaked at 0.9 IPS when the motor speed was 876 rpm. The 2x vibration frequency at

this point was 1752 cpm or 29.2 Hertz. A phase changed of about 180o was noted

through the amplification area.

2x

Below 830 rpm is smooth

to 94o over amplification area

Figure 5

2x Coast-down Bode Plot data (discharge direction)

The coast-down data for the perpendicular to discharge direction indicated increasing

amplitudes as well. The Bode plot (below) shows the 2x turning speed vibration during

coast-down. The vibration amplification peaks at a point above maximum speed. The

response in this direction was less than half the amplitude of the discharge direction.

operating speed in perpendicular

to discharge direction

Figure 6

2x Coast-down Bode Plot data (perpendicular to discharge direction)

The coast-down data identified a natural frequency1 at 29.2 Hertz. Amplification due to

resonance occurs when the pump speed is between 820 890 rpm. The resonance is

coincident with 2x rotational speed. The 2x vibration level is amplified to .9

inches/second peak at 29.2 Hertz when the pump speed is 876 rpm. The direction of the

vibration is in line with the discharge pipe. Vibration from a mechanical defect at 2x

rotational speed is exciting a natural frequency of something on the pump structure.

Discharge

Figure 7

Pump1

A natural frequency is the frequency at which a part likes to vibrate. Resonant amplification results

whenever forced vibrations, from mechanical defects, coincide with the natural frequencies in a system. At

resonance, a small change in the excitation from mechanical defects can produce a significant change in

vibration. The amount of amplification depends on the system damping characteristics.

Impact Testing:

Once the pump was shut down, impact testing was performed on the motor. One sensor

was used to measure response to an impact made with a three pound impact hammer.

The impact and response were measured at the same position and direction on the motor.

Both the discharge and cross discharge directions were tested.

Impact & response direction

Hertz.

Hammer Impact TWF

30

5

39

Copyright 2001, Computational Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

and 40 Hertz.

31

40

5.1

Natural frequencies were found at 5, 30 and 39 Hertz in the discharge direction. When

the pump is operating in the 830-890 rpm range, the second harmonic of turning speed is

coincident with the 30 Hertz natural frequency resulting in resonance.

Natural

Frequencies at 5 and

30 Hertz

Figure 11

Cross-Discharge Direction Impact Test

The pump has two vanes. Vane-pass frequency (pump speed x # vanes) and/or

misalignment are potential sources exciting the resonance. The coast-down data indicates

that the 2x vibration is smooth below 830 rpm. The amount of mechanical vibration

related to vane pass or misalignment is, therefore, very small and probably cant be

reduced any further.

The natural frequency at 5 Hertz is not coincident with any forced vibrations over the

operating speed range of the pump. Vibration at this frequency is noticeable only during

start-up or coast-down of the machine.

The natural frequencies in the cross-discharge direction are very close to the frequencies

in the discharge direction. The amount of 2x vibration in the cross-discharge direction

was less than the discharge direction.

Impact tests were completed on three other pumps. Both the discharge and perpendicular

to discharge directions were measured. The natural frequencies and stiffness values are

listed in table 1 below. Only data for the natural frequency near 2x rotational speed are

included in the table. The pumps were not operating during impact testing.

Table 1

Natural Frequencies and Stiffness Values for Pumps 1-4

P1

P2

P3

P4

30.0

22.5

33.7

28.6

.011

.024

.008

.017

31.2

22.7

36.8

28.5

.011

.017

.007

.021

Note: All machines have the same pump configuration. Pumps 1 and 2 have US

Motors. Pumps 3 and 4 have the old style Reliance Motors.

The natural frequencies of pumps 1 and 2 should be similar since both pumps have U.S.

Motors. They are not. The natural frequencies of pumps 3 and 4 should be similar

because both pumps have Reliance motors. They are not. The variability in frequencies

and stiffness values of the machines is probably due to differences in the boundary

conditions at the machine base (i.e. the connection to the floor is different).

All of the natural frequencies are lightly damped as indicated by tall peaks with narrow

skirts. This means that a small amount of 2x vibration energy from misalignment or vane

pass frequency can cause large amplification in the 2x operating speed range. The

graphic below shows the proximity between natural frequency and 2x operating speed

range for each pump.

Operating S peed

P um p 1

P um p 2

2X

2D

4D 4X 1D 1X

3D

3X

P um p 3

P um p 4

.3

.0

.3

.7

38

36

35

33

.7

31

.0

30

.3

28

.7

26

.0

25

.3

23

.0

.3

.7

.0

.3

.7

21

20

18

16

15

13

11

.7

D = Disc h Dir

Direction

D = Discharge

X = P rpendic

X = Cross-Discharge

Hertz

Figure 12

Discharge and Cross-discharge Direction Natural Frequencies

near 2x Operating Speed Range for Pumps 1-4

10

The data indicates that Pump 1 (discharge direction) and Pump 4 (both directions) have

natural frequencies in the 2x operating speed range. Pump 1 has a vibration problem

related to resonance at 2x operating speed. Based on the impact data measured on Pump

1, amplification factors of 10-15 can be expected at the 30 Hertz natural frequency.

Pump 4s natural frequencies are below the upper end of the 2x operating speed range.

Pump 4 usually operates at full speed and 2x operating speed is far enough away from the

natural frequency that resonance will not occur.

Pumps 2 and 3 do not resonate because the natural frequencies fall outside of the 2x

operating speed range.

11

An Operational Deflection Shape Test2 (ODS) was completed on the #1 Pump. The

purpose of ODS testing was to determine the shape of the structure when the 2x operating

speed vibration is at high levels. MEscope Visual ODS-pro software was used for the

test.

In order to generate operational deflection shapes, the ODS program requires:

1) Phase and magnitude data for each measured position

2) A structure drawing of the machine

Data were collected on the #1 pump using the

2120-2 analyzer and the Advanced 2-Channel

DLP. The Advanced 2-channel DLP provides

the 2120 with additional cross channel

capability and allows storage of cross channel

data to analyzer memory. The Advanced 2channel DLP facilitates ODS data collection.

Motor

Motor

baseplate

during the ODS testing. One accelerometer

was positioned at the top of the motor as the

reference accelerometer. A second

accelerometer was moved to each

position/direction where cross-channel phase

and magnitude measurements were made. A

total of 250 measurements were made over the

entire length of the machine. All bolted or

welded joints were measured to show any

looseness, bending, soft joints or weakness in

the machine structure.

Steel

Tube

Pump

was created in the MEscope ODS software

representing the #1 Pump. The black dots

indicate the measurement points.

After collecting the Advanced 2-Channel DLP

data, the measurement file was downloaded

from the analyzer to a computer using VibPro

software.

Legs

Steel block

Concrete Pad

Floor

Figure 13

ODS Structure

An Operational Deflection Shape (ODS) is a non-intrusive test used to analyze the motions of rotating

equipment and structures under normal operating conditions. An ODS is an extension of phase analysis. In

an ODS, points on a computer generated model of the machine are animated using phase and magnitude

data measured during normal operation. If Frequency Response functions were measured using the

Advanced 2-channel DLP, the structure can be animated at any frequency of interest.

12

VibPro software is a CSI product used to download and analyze and print data collected

with the Advanced 2-Channel or Advanced Transient DLPs. VibPro is also used to

export data to spreadsheet format so it can be imported into the MEscope ODS software

and used to animate the structure drawing.

The graphic below shows the animation shape at 2x turning speed (29 Hertz). It indicates

that the pump tube is bending. The shape approximates the second bending mode of a

cantilevered structure. Click on the link to play the AVI file. ODS 29 Hz -2x.Avi

Figure 14

ODS Animation of Natural Frequency at 29 Hertz

In addition to bending of the tube, the ODS showed looseness on one leg of the pump

base. Another ODS study was made on the leg. Many additional points were measured

to get a better view of the problem. A new structure drawing of just the one leg was

made. It is shown below.

13

Tripod Leg

(discharge

side)

Tripod

Foot

Cast Steel

Spacer Block

Concrete

pad

Floor

Figure 15a

Picture of one Pump Foot

Figure 15b

ODS Structure of the Pump Foot

looseness in the base. Relative motion was

observed between the cast steel spacer block and

the concrete pad. The motion was largest on the

leg closest to the discharge. The predominant

motion was in the vertical direction. Click on the

link to play the AVI file.

ODS 29 Hz Foot only REPEAT TEST.Avi

natural frequency of the pump structure causing its

natural frequency to shift into the 2x operating

speed range.

The bolts holding the steel shim block to the

concrete were checked and tightened, however no

change in vibration was noted after the adjustments

were made.

Figure 16

ODS Animation of Discharge Side Leg

14

The Operational Deflection Shape test showed that at 2x turning speed, the shape of the

pump structure approximates the second bending mode of a vertical cantilevered

structure. The largest motion was in the discharge direction.

The ODS test identified relative motion between the cast steel block and the concrete pier

on the discharge side foot. The motion on this leg was noticeably larger than the other

two legs. All bolts were tightened and the base was inspected. No obvious problems

were found and it was determined that the loose foot was a separate issue and not

contributing to the bending of the tube.

About analyzing ODS data

After viewing the animations, the ODS results must to be interpreted. The ODS analysis

involves studying the views, analyzing the motions and determining what is wrong with

the machine. Some mechanical faults will be more obvious than others. For example,

misalignment or looseness between bolted joints is easily spotted. Some analysis tips are

listed below:

Look for global motions -- where the entire machine is moving together with no

relative motion between components. This could be a result of a machine mounted

on isolators or floor and building vibrations

Look for relative motions between bearing housings or shafts (if shaft data was taken)

-- an indication of misalignment

Look for phase lag and relative motion between bolted or welded joints -- indicating

looseness. Looseness problems will show similar motion at different frequencies.

Look for twisting of the machine base -- indicating torsional bending modes or

structural weakness

Look for bending of structural components an indication of resonance (note: ODS

does not prove resonance)

Look for localized motion on machine feet or bases an indication of soft-foot

Being a good vibration analyst means being a good detective. Study the ODS animations and

look for clues that will help solve the problem.

15

Resonance problems are often difficult to solve and usually require a modal survey and

Finite Element Analysis to identify a solution. Whenever possible, try to temporarily

shift the natural frequency by adding mass or stiffness. Doing so will give you an idea of

how much change is required to avoid the effects of resonance. The technique doesnt

always work, however it is a quick and inexpensive test.

Change the mass by adding sand or shot bags to the top of a machine or structure.

Another method of changing the mass is to stand on the machine and see if your body

mass reduces the amount of vibration. Adding mass lowers the natural frequency. Use

caution when climbing on rotating machinery.

Wedging steel or lumber between the machine and a solid object such as a column or

wall changes the stiffness. Increased stiffness raises the natural frequency.

In the case of the #1 pump, a 8 x 8 timber was wedged between the concrete wall of the

building and the tube. The timber was placed about half way down the tube in the

discharge direction where the bending was greatest.

Wall

Timber

Sketch showing location of the timber in the discharge direction (right)

Once the timber was wedged tightly in place, the pump was operated and another coastdown test was performed. The data indicated that the natural frequency of the structure

(near 2x operating speed) didnt change much, however the response at resonance was

cut in half. The Bode plot below shows that the vibration was reduced from .89 IPS to

.45 IPS. The vibration in the perpendicular to discharge direction also decreased. The

timber was left in place after the test and secured with a chain-fall. The speed restriction

was removed from the drive control and the Operating Department began to use the pump

in this speed range. Note: The timber should not be left in place as a permanent solution

to the resonance problem.

Copyright 2001, Computational Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

16

With Timber .46 ips

Figure 18

2x Coast-down Bode Plot of #1 Pump with a 8 x 8 Timber

Wedged Between the Building Wall and the Pump Tube

17

The ODS animation showed that the structure was bending at 2x turning speed. Bending

is an indication of resonance. The source of excitation causing resonance at 29 Hertz is

2x turning speed vibration from misalignment or vane pass frequency.

The coast-down and impact tests confirmed a natural frequency at about 29 Hertz.

Outside of the amplification curve, the amount of 2x vibration was very slight. Reducing

the amount of 2x vibration is, therefore not an option. Changing the speed of the pump is

also not desirable. Correcting the resonance problem must be accomplished by changing

the mass or stiffness of the pump structure.

Natural frequencies cannot be eliminated. Changing the mass or stiffness of the structure

changes all the natural frequencies. To correct the resonance problem, the natural

frequency at 29 Hertz must be moved out of the 2x turning speed range.

The question is how to change the mass or stiffness to get the desired results?

Sometimes, the modifications needed are obvious, simple and inexpensive to implement.

In many cases, they are not. Making structural modifications by trial and error is a roll of

the dice resulting in one of the following:

1) Vibration is reduced or eliminated at the intended frequency

2) Vibration is not reduced

3) Vibration is reduced or eliminated at the intended frequency, however changing

mass or stiffness results in excitation of a different natural frequency.

4) Vibration on the machine is reduced, however the modification element itself is

resonating.

5) The structural modification results in mechanical or structural failure causing

machine down time, expensive repairs or safety issues.

After identifying a resonance problem, the steps towards correction are a Modal survey

and Finite Element Analysis.

18

Modal Survey:

Modal survey3 data were collected on the #1 pump using the

2120-2 analyzer and the Advanced 2-Channel DLP. The

Advanced 2-channel DLP is required for modal data

collection.

The modal survey on the #1 Pump consisted of Frequency

Response Function (FRF) measurements at 194

positions/directions. At each measured point:

a) Natural frequencies were excited by striking a 12

pound impact hammer against the top of the motor

(discharge (X) direction)

b) An accelerometer was used to measure the 0-100

Hertz response at each measurement point and

direction. Four averages were acquired at each

measurement point.

Figure 19

Modal Structure

The figure below is a Modal Peaks plot. It is a summation of all 194 FRFs and makes it

easy to see the response of all points and directions in one view. Pump #1 had natural

frequencies at 4.8, 29.81 and 39.3 Hertz. Additional natural frequencies were found

above 50 Hertz. Each natural frequency has a unique shape called a mode shape. After

curve fitting the FRF data, the mode shapes were animated and analyzed.

29.81

4.817

56.3

39.3

68.8

39.9

51.4

24.6

Figure 20

Modal Peaks Plot is a Summation of all FRF Measurements

Modal Analysis is an experimental method of determining the natural frequencies, damping values and

mode shapes of a structure. A modal analysis is done with the machine off-line.

19

The modal survey confirmed that the mode shape at this frequency is the second bending

mode of a cantilevered structure.

A frames view of the deformation for the second bending mode (29.8 Hertz) is shown

below. Click on the links to play the AVI file.

Modal 2nd bending mode - In Phase - 29.8 Hz Quad View.Avi

Modal 2nd bending mode - In Phase - 29.8 Hz 3D.Avi

Modal 2nd bending mode - In Phase - 29.8 Hz 3D Closeup.Avi

Figure 21

Frames View of 29.8 Hertz Natural Frequency

20

The first bending mode was 4.82 Hertz. No mechanical vibrations are exciting this mode

into resonance except during start-up and coast-down.

The frames view of the 4.82 Hertz mode shape is shown below. Click on the link to play

the AVI file.

Modal 1st bending mode - 4.82 Hz Quad View.Avi

Figure 22

Frames View of 4.82 Hertz Natural Frequency

21

Table 2 lists the Modal Survey results and characterizes each mode shape observed.

There were seven modes between 0-60 Hertz.

Table 2

Pump #1 Modal Frequencies

Frequency

(Hz)

4.82

25

29.81

39.3/39.9

51.4

56.3

Mode Description

First bending mode

First torsional mode not sufficiently excited in the modal survey

Second bending mode, Shaft/Support Pipe in Phase

Second bending mode, Shaft/Support Pipe out of Phase

Vertical mode

Third bending mode

The products of a modal survey include a list of natural frequencies, damping values and

mode shape of each natural frequency. The existence of natural frequencies is not a

problem. A bell, for example, does not ring until it is struck. Natural frequencies exist in

machinery and structures and only become a problem when excited by forced vibrations

such as unbalance, misalignment, looseness, gearmesh, vane pass, and other mechanical

defects.

Modal analysis does not provide a solution for resonance problems. A Modal Survey is

the first step towards correcting resonance problems.

When the modal analysis is complete, the mode shapes must be evaluated.

Things to look for when evaluating modal results:

mechanical, electrical or impactive type energy?

Evaluate the mode shape -- Is the motion a global mode or a local mode? Is the

structure bending or twisting?

What component is deforming?

What are the closest adjacent modes? How will corrections affect other modes?

Structural changes affect all natural frequencies. Speed changes may coincide

with other modes.

What is the damping?

22

Natural frequencies can not be eliminated. The effect of resonance may be diminished or

natural frequencies may be shifted up or down in the frequency range. Some methods of

correcting resonance are discussed below.

Reduce the exciting force Nothing resonates without an excitation force. Forcing

frequencies (mechanical vibrations) are most often the excitation for resonance.

Reducing the exciting force, by any amount, diminishes the effect of the resonance. Its

usually less expensive to reduce or eliminate the exciting force than it is to modify the

structure. Some examples of reducing the excitation include

Precision alignment of shafts and belts

Use precision parts

Replace worn or broken isolators

Change the speed -- Move the exciting force away from the natural frequency. The rule

of thumb is to change the speed 10%-15% on either side of the natural frequency.

Depending on the damping value for a given bending mode, more or less speed change

will be required.

amplitude

move shaft speed above or

below natural frequency

Rule of thumb: Move at least

15% away for forcing frequency

frequency

Figure 23

Changing the Speed to Move a Forced Vibration Away from a Natural Frequency

23

Change the Mass -- Increasing the mass of a structure lowers its natural frequencies.

Consider this simplified natural frequency formula:

fn = 1/2 k / m

Where:

Fn = natural Frequency

K = Stiffness

M = Mass

= Constant

If K remains constant and M is decreased then Fn, increases

Examples of changing a structures mass are filling a steel base frame with concrete or

adding a steel plate to the top of a steel base frame.

Change the Stiffness -- Increasing the stiffness of a structure raises its natural

frequencies. Consider the simplified natural frequency formula below:

fn = 1/2 k / m

If K is increased and M remains constant then Fn, increases

If K is decreased and M remains constant then Fn, decreases

Examples of changing a structures stiffness include adding bracing or gussets to a base

frame and changing the thickness of components.

A modal survey alone does not indicate how to correct resonance. The SDM version of

MEscope software has some Finite Element Tools that can be used to estimate the

required structural modifications. The alternative is to have a Structural Engineer

complete a Finite Element Analysis.

24

A Finite Element Analysis4 was completed on the #1 Pump Structure. The purpose of

doing a FEA is to identify potential structural modifications to move natural frequencies

away from forced vibrations.

A finite element model of Pump 1 was created. The model is built after gathering all the

available information about the structure. The information in the model includes all

dimensions, material properties, discrete stiffnesses, component masses and boundary

conditions (how the pieces are attached). Some of the information is easy to obtain.

Other information, like the motors stiffness and inertia, may end up being an educated

guess.

The structural components in the model include the concrete pads, metal blocks, pump

base, pump volute, support pipe, motor shaft, motor adapter plate, and the motor. The

motor is included in the model using a combination of rigid and concentrated mass and

inertia elements. Given the relatively large dimensions of the motor and the cantilevered

configuration, the mass moments of inertia are important in the dynamic behavior of the

structure. However, the only mass property data available on the motor was its total

weight of 9200 pounds. Therefore, estimates of the moments of inertia are required to

accurately predict the natural frequencies of the pump. As stated in the assumptions

above, the mass moments of inertia were calculated by approximating the motor

geometry as a cylinder with uniformly distributed mass. The actual values used in the

model are shown in Table 3.

Table 3

Motor Mass Properties and Weight

Mass Moments of Inertia^

Weight

(lbf)

9200

^

Mass

2

IXX

IYY

2

IZZ

2

(lbf-sec /in)

(lbf-sec -in)

(lbf-sec -in)

(lbf-sec2-in)

23.8

21950

21950

13750

The principal mass moments of inertia are calculated at the motor center of gravity.

The pump assembly includes numerous bolted interfaces between the structural

components. Considerable effort was made to accurately model these connections. While

the bolts themselves are considered to be rigid, only assumed preloaded areas, which are

local to the bolts, are used to connect the parts. These preloaded areas are modeled using

special constraint elements that do not add stiffness to the bolted components themselves.

This technique was used to model the connections between the concrete and metal

blocks, the top of the metal blocks and the base plates of each leg of the pump base, and

the top flange of the pump base and the bottom flange of the support pipe.

4

A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is an analytical technique that utilizes a mathematical model of a

structure to predict its natural frequencies and mode shapes. A resonance problem is corrected by using the

FEA model to evaluate the effectiveness of mass, stiffness and damping modifications. Sigmadyne, Inc.

(http://www.sigmadyne.com) completed the FEA on Pump 1.

25

The finite element model was created for use in MSC/NASTRAN, a commercial finite

element code. The model includes a total of 6575 beam, shell, and solid elements. Solid

base, support pipe and adapter plates were modeled using shell elements. The thickness

and internal design of the volute is not known. It is modeled as a uniform shell structure

with a thickness of 5/8 inch. The motor shaft was modeled using beam elements

connected to the model at the base of the motor, the top of the volute, and the top of the

conical structure mounted on the volute. The conical structure inside the legs of the pump

bases was modeled using a rigid element.

The entire model is constrained at the bottom surface of each of the three concrete blocks.

Physically this represents the interface between the concrete blocks and the floor beneath

the pump. The complete model is shown below.

Figure 24

FEA Structure

26

The FEA model is only as accurate at the information used in its construction. The FEA

prediction of the natural frequencies will not be accurate if any of the information is

incorrect. In addition, the estimates for structural modification may not be valid.

Examples of things that can lead to an inaccurate FEA include:

Weakened structural members due to rusting, corrosion and cracks

Loose or weakened concrete base

Stretched or loose bolts

Incorrect estimates of material properties, masses, stiffness and boundary

conditions

The assumptions used in the FEA model of the #1 Pump are listed below.

1. The weight of the motor, specified by the customer, was 9200 lbf. Since the mass

moments of inertia are unavailable, they are calculated from this weight based on

a diameter of 67.5 inches and a height of 92.5 inches. The mass moments of

inertia are calculated using the equations for a solid cylinder with uniformly

distributed mass.

2. The motor is assumed to be rigid over the frequency range of interest.

3. Concrete is assumed to be a homogeneous and isotropic material and to behave in

a linear elastic manner. The following mechanical properties are used in the

analysis:

Modulus of elasticity:

2.0 MSI.

Poissons Ratio:

0.2

Weight density:

145 lbf/ft3

4. The rebar used in concrete does not significantly alter its mechanical properties.

5. Steel is assumed to be a homogeneous and isotropic material and to behave in a

linear elastic manner. The following mechanical properties are used in the

analysis:

Modulus of elasticity:

30 MSI.

Poissons Ratio:

0.3

Weight density:

481 lbf/ft3

6. The pump is fixed at the bottom surface of the concrete block. Any additional

compliance due to the surrounding structure is ignored.

7. All dimensions used in the creation of the model were measured on Pump 1 as

part of the modal survey or were supplied by Plant personnel.

27

Natural frequency or modal analysis is used to analytically predict the natural frequencies

and mode shapes of vibration of a structure. As previously stated a modal survey is an

experimental procedure used to measure both the natural frequencies and mode shapes of

a structure. The accuracy and validity of the finite element can be evaluated and

enhanced by correlating the predicted natural frequencies with the measured values. This

correlation is based on comparison of the mode shapes of vibration rather than a simple

comparison of the frequency values. This ensures that similar modes (i.e. the first

bending mode of a cantilevered structure) are being appropriately compared.

Once the finite element model was correlated to the modal survey, a design optimization

analysis was performed using the model. The objective of this analysis was to determine

the changes in the natural frequencies due to alterations of the pump geometry.

28

FEA Results:

Both predicted and measured values for the first eight natural frequencies of Pump 1 are

summarized in Table 4. Natural frequencies of a symmetric structure occur in orthogonal

pairs. The physical significance is that the pump can actually vibrate (bend) in any

direction based on the direction of the applied excitation. It is difficult to experimentally

measure multiple modes with nearly identical frequencies. During the modal survey of

Pump 1, the frequency resolution was insufficient to individually measure the two first

bending modes and the first set of second bending modes. The frequency separation of

the next mode pair (motor shaft and support pipe oscillating out of phase) is sufficient

and both were identified in the test.

Table 4

Correlation of Measured and Predicted Natural Frequencies of Pump 1

Measured Value

Mode Shape Description

(Hz)

Analytical

Prediction

(Hz)

st

1 Bending

4.8

st

1 Bending

4.4

4.4

Torsion

24-25

23.5

29.8

29.2

29.5

39.2

41.8

39.9

42.2

Vertical Extension

51.4

60.3

The correlation between the analytical prediction and the measured frequency values was

very good. A picture of the mode shape at 29.2 Hertz is shown below. Click on the link

below to play the FEA animations.

FEA 2nd bending mode 29.2 Hz.mpg

FEA 1st Bending mode 4.3 Hz.mpg

29

Figure 25

Second bending mode of the Pump1 structure

showing the drive shaft vibrating in-phase with the support pipe at 29.2 Hz.

Since the natural frequency at 29 Hertz is at the upper end of the 2x operating speed

range, the structural engineer recommended increasing the machine stiffness. Increasing

stiffness results in a higher natural frequency. To accomplish the change, several

potential solutions were evaluated using the FEA software including:

Increasing the wall thickness of the tube

A different motor

Improving the attachment to the floor

Bracing the tube to the building wall

The only option that was feasible was to reduce the length of the pump tube. The

customer agreed that changing the tube length was an acceptable solution. Tube length

reductions of 48, 62 and 72 inches were evaluated. All three models produced acceptable

results. Table 5 shows the change at each natural frequency based on pipe length

reductions. The stiffness of the support pipe (Tp) was considered by treating the support

pipe thickness as a design variable. It was found that this parameter has little effect on

the modes near 29 Hz.

30

Table 5

Effect of Support Pipe Length on the Predicted Natural Frequencies of Pump 1

Length Reductions

Baseline

Tp=0.75

48

62

72

(Hz)

(Hz)

(Hz)

(Hz)

(Hz)

1st Bending

4.4

4.8

5.4

5.8

6.2

1st Bending

4.4

4.9

5.4

5.9

6.3

Torsion

23.5

25.5

24.6

25.1

25.5

29.2

30.0

37.1

39.9

41.8

29.5

30.2

37.3

40.2

42.2

41.8

39.2

49.6

54.1

58.5

42.2

39.6

49.8

54.2

58.6

Vertical Extension

60.3

64.9

64.4

66.0

67.3

Decreasing the length of the support pipe and correspondingly, the overall height alters

the natural frequencies of the pump. A length reduction of 48 inches increases the

frequency of the first pair of second bending modes (shaft and support pipe bending in

phase) to approximately 37 hertz. An important assumption in this prediction is that all

other stiffnesses remain unchanged. This is especially important given the number of

bolted connections in the pump assembly.

Operating Speed

31

.

33

.

35

.

io

n

re

du

ct

io

n

re

du

ct

le

ng

th

72

en

gt

h

62

l

0

29

.

43

.

0

27

.

0

25

.

41

.

0

23

.

0

21

.

39

.

0

19

.

48

l

en

gt

h

0

17

.

.0

0

15

.

37

0

13

.

11

.0

Cu

rre

nt

c

on

di

tio

n

re

du

ct

io

n

Figure 26

Pump 1 Second bending mode Frequency Shift

With Pipe Length Reduction

The vibration measurements, made during operation of the pump, did not indicate any 3x

vibration that might excite the (new) second bending mode natural frequency.

31

Summary:

Resonance testing and Operational Deflection Shape studies are useful tools for

analyzing vibration problems. When resonance is identified as the problem, a Modal

Survey is necessary to identify all of the natural frequencies and evaluate each mode

shape. Without knowing the mode shape, it is impossible to know how to correct the

resonance.

Resonance is best corrected by using FEA tools to evaluate the effectiveness of potential

structural modifications.

The recommendations from this job were well received by the customer. To date, the

modification has not been implemented on Pump.

32

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