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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Operational Deflection Shape and


Modal Analysis Testing
To Solve Resonance Problems
By
Tony DeMatteo
Consultant
Emerson Process Management / CSI Division
The objectives of this paper are to illustrate the typical steps required to solve resonance
problems and to emphasize the power and flexibility of CSIs 2120-2 Analyzer and
Vibrant Technologys MEscope ODS/Modal software.
Every analyst has faced difficult machinery vibration problems. This paper describes the
use of operational deflection shape (ODS) and Modal Analysis testing for problem
solving.
The ODS and Modal techniques are powerful tools that enhance an analyst's ability to
understand the sources of vibration. The vertical pump case history, presented in this
paper, details the testing progression from problem identification in route vibration
measurements to resonance testing, Operational Deflection Shape testing and modal
analysis.
Resonance problems are difficult to solve. ODS and Modal Analysis give a clear picture
of the machines motion, however neither tool has the capability to solve resonance
problems.
In the following example, Finite Element Analysis was used to model the pump structure
and evaluate modifications that move the natural frequencies away from forced vibrations
thus eliminating resonance.

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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Resonance Testing/ODS/Modal and FEA Case History


The Problem: Vibration on Pump #1
Background: Pumps 1-4 are sewage pumps. The pumps are Morris two-vane, vertical,
centrifugal pumps. The drive motors on pumps 1 & 2 are new, 800 HP, U.S. induction
Motors, on a variable frequency drive. The motors on pumps 3 & 4 are older Reliance
motors with a liquid rheostat speed control. The operating speed range of the pumps is
700-890 rpm. The pump is bolted to the floor and the motor is supported on top of a tube
covering a 15 foot long drive shaft. Figure 1 is a picture of the motors on pumps #1 and
#3.

Figure 1
Left New Motor (pumps 1 & 2), Right Old Motor (pumps 3 & 4)

The new motor is a different design and weighs about 800 pounds more than the old
motor. A mounting plate was fabricated to connect the new motor to the top of the tube.
The vibration problem on Pump #1 began after its motor (an 800 HP, wound rotor,
Reliance motor with a liquid rheostat speed control) was replaced with a new U.S. motor.
The old motor was in service for many years. Since the new motor was installed, the
vibration on the machine has been extremely rough. Some other characteristics of the
problem are listed below.

The highest vibration is over .9 inches/second peak (IPS) at twice rotational speed.
The problem direction is in-line with the discharge piping.
The worst vibration occurs when the pump speed is above 820 rpm.
The pump cannot be operated at the desired speed.
The VFD was programmed to exclude the 820-890 rpm speed range.

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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Baseline Data Baseline vibration data was measured with the pump operating at 870
rpm (14.5 Hz.). The largest vibration was .7 IPS peak in the discharge direction on the
motor.
Vertical
.7 IPS @ 2x

Discharge

Cross Discharge

.88 IPS @

Discharge
.65 IPS @

Cross Discharge
.4 IPS @ 2x

Vertical
Discharge
.42 IPS @
Cross Discharge

Figure 2
Baseline Data
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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Coast-down Testing:
The pump was operated at maximum speed (899 rpm or 15 Hertz). A tachometer was
used to measure motor speed and accelerometers were placed at the top of the motor in
the discharge and cross discharge directions. The machine speed was decreased slowly
using the VFD control. Vibration and phase data was recorded during coast-down using
the Analyze | Monitor | Monitor Peak/Phase function on the 2120 Analyzer.

Accelerometer
Positions

Tachometer reading
reflective tape on shaft

Figure 3 Setup for Coast-down Testing

The Monitor Peak/Phase function was configured to measure coast-down vibration and
phase at 2x turning speed. The screen below shows the set-up.

Figure 4 2120 Setup for Coast-down Testing

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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

The Bode plot below is a trace of 2x turning speed vibration and phase during coastdown. It indicates that at speeds below 830 rpm, the vibration on the motor was smooth
(less than .1 IPS) in the discharge direction. Above 830 rpm, the 2x vibration increased
and peaked at 0.9 IPS when the motor speed was 876 rpm. The 2x vibration frequency at
this point was 1752 cpm or 29.2 Hertz. A phase changed of about 180o was noted
through the amplification area.
2x

Vibration Peaks at 876 rpm


Below 830 rpm is smooth

Phase changes from 268o


to 94o over amplification area

Figure 5
2x Coast-down Bode Plot data (discharge direction)

The coast-down data for the perpendicular to discharge direction indicated increasing
amplitudes as well. The Bode plot (below) shows the 2x turning speed vibration during
coast-down. The vibration amplification peaks at a point above maximum speed. The
response in this direction was less than half the amplitude of the discharge direction.

Resonance above maximum


operating speed in perpendicular
to discharge direction

Figure 6
2x Coast-down Bode Plot data (perpendicular to discharge direction)

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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Coast-down Testing Results:


The coast-down data identified a natural frequency1 at 29.2 Hertz. Amplification due to
resonance occurs when the pump speed is between 820 890 rpm. The resonance is
coincident with 2x rotational speed. The 2x vibration level is amplified to .9
inches/second peak at 29.2 Hertz when the pump speed is 876 rpm. The direction of the
vibration is in line with the discharge pipe. Vibration from a mechanical defect at 2x
rotational speed is exciting a natural frequency of something on the pump structure.

Discharge

Figure 7
Pump1

A natural frequency is the frequency at which a part likes to vibrate. Resonant amplification results
whenever forced vibrations, from mechanical defects, coincide with the natural frequencies in a system. At
resonance, a small change in the excitation from mechanical defects can produce a significant change in
vibration. The amount of amplification depends on the system damping characteristics.

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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Impact Testing:
Once the pump was shut down, impact testing was performed on the motor. One sensor
was used to measure response to an impact made with a three pound impact hammer.
The impact and response were measured at the same position and direction on the motor.
Both the discharge and cross discharge directions were tested.
Impact & response direction

Figure 8 Impact Test Setup

Impact testing identified natural frequencies in the discharge direction at 5, 30 and 39


Hertz.
Hammer Impact TWF

Motor Response TWF

Cross Channel Coherence

Motor Response Spectrum


30
5

39

Figure 9 Discharge Direction Impact Test


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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Impact testing identified natural frequencies in the cross-discharge direction at 5.1, 31


and 40 Hertz.

Hammer Impact TWF

Motor Response TWF

Cross Channel Coherence

Motor Response Spectrum


31
40
5.1

Figure 10 Cross-Discharge Direction Impact Test

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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Impact Testing Results:


Natural frequencies were found at 5, 30 and 39 Hertz in the discharge direction. When
the pump is operating in the 830-890 rpm range, the second harmonic of turning speed is
coincident with the 30 Hertz natural frequency resulting in resonance.

Natural
Frequencies at 5 and
30 Hertz

1x and 2x operating speed ranges


Figure 11
Cross-Discharge Direction Impact Test

The pump has two vanes. Vane-pass frequency (pump speed x # vanes) and/or
misalignment are potential sources exciting the resonance. The coast-down data indicates
that the 2x vibration is smooth below 830 rpm. The amount of mechanical vibration
related to vane pass or misalignment is, therefore, very small and probably cant be
reduced any further.
The natural frequency at 5 Hertz is not coincident with any forced vibrations over the
operating speed range of the pump. Vibration at this frequency is noticeable only during
start-up or coast-down of the machine.
The natural frequencies in the cross-discharge direction are very close to the frequencies
in the discharge direction. The amount of 2x vibration in the cross-discharge direction
was less than the discharge direction.

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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Natural Frequency and Stiffness Comparison pumps 1-4:


Impact tests were completed on three other pumps. Both the discharge and perpendicular
to discharge directions were measured. The natural frequencies and stiffness values are
listed in table 1 below. Only data for the natural frequency near 2x rotational speed are
included in the table. The pumps were not operating during impact testing.
Table 1
Natural Frequencies and Stiffness Values for Pumps 1-4
P1

P2

P3

P4

Natural Frequency (Discharge Dir) - cpm

30.0

22.5

33.7

28.6

Stiffness (Discharge Dir) mils/lb.

.011

.024

.008

.017

Natural Frequency (X-Discharge Dir)- cpm

31.2

22.7

36.8

28.5

Stiffness (X-Discharge Dir) mils/lb.

.011

.017

.007

.021

Note: All machines have the same pump configuration. Pumps 1 and 2 have US
Motors. Pumps 3 and 4 have the old style Reliance Motors.

The natural frequencies of pumps 1 and 2 should be similar since both pumps have U.S.
Motors. They are not. The natural frequencies of pumps 3 and 4 should be similar
because both pumps have Reliance motors. They are not. The variability in frequencies
and stiffness values of the machines is probably due to differences in the boundary
conditions at the machine base (i.e. the connection to the floor is different).
All of the natural frequencies are lightly damped as indicated by tall peaks with narrow
skirts. This means that a small amount of 2x vibration energy from misalignment or vane
pass frequency can cause large amplification in the 2x operating speed range. The
graphic below shows the proximity between natural frequency and 2x operating speed
range for each pump.
Operating S peed

2x Operating Speed Range

P um p 1
P um p 2

2X
2D

4D 4X 1D 1X

3D

3X

P um p 3
P um p 4

.3

.0

.3

.7

38

36

35

33

.7
31

.0
30

.3
28

.7
26

.0
25

.3
23

.0

.3

.7

.0

.3

.7
21

20

18

16

15

13

11

.7

D = Disc h Dir
Direction
D = Discharge
X = P rpendic
X = Cross-Discharge

Hertz

Figure 12
Discharge and Cross-discharge Direction Natural Frequencies
near 2x Operating Speed Range for Pumps 1-4

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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

The data indicates that Pump 1 (discharge direction) and Pump 4 (both directions) have
natural frequencies in the 2x operating speed range. Pump 1 has a vibration problem
related to resonance at 2x operating speed. Based on the impact data measured on Pump
1, amplification factors of 10-15 can be expected at the 30 Hertz natural frequency.
Pump 4s natural frequencies are below the upper end of the 2x operating speed range.
Pump 4 usually operates at full speed and 2x operating speed is far enough away from the
natural frequency that resonance will not occur.
Pumps 2 and 3 do not resonate because the natural frequencies fall outside of the 2x
operating speed range.

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Operational Deflection Shape Test:


An Operational Deflection Shape Test2 (ODS) was completed on the #1 Pump. The
purpose of ODS testing was to determine the shape of the structure when the 2x operating
speed vibration is at high levels. MEscope Visual ODS-pro software was used for the
test.
In order to generate operational deflection shapes, the ODS program requires:
1) Phase and magnitude data for each measured position
2) A structure drawing of the machine
Data were collected on the #1 pump using the
2120-2 analyzer and the Advanced 2-Channel
DLP. The Advanced 2-channel DLP provides
the 2120 with additional cross channel
capability and allows storage of cross channel
data to analyzer memory. The Advanced 2channel DLP facilitates ODS data collection.

Motor

Motor
baseplate

The pump was operated normally at 870 rpm


during the ODS testing. One accelerometer
was positioned at the top of the motor as the
reference accelerometer. A second
accelerometer was moved to each
position/direction where cross-channel phase
and magnitude measurements were made. A
total of 250 measurements were made over the
entire length of the machine. All bolted or
welded joints were measured to show any
looseness, bending, soft joints or weakness in
the machine structure.

Steel
Tube

Pump

The figure to the right is the structure file that


was created in the MEscope ODS software
representing the #1 Pump. The black dots
indicate the measurement points.
After collecting the Advanced 2-Channel DLP
data, the measurement file was downloaded
from the analyzer to a computer using VibPro
software.

Legs
Steel block
Concrete Pad
Floor

Figure 13
ODS Structure

An Operational Deflection Shape (ODS) is a non-intrusive test used to analyze the motions of rotating
equipment and structures under normal operating conditions. An ODS is an extension of phase analysis. In
an ODS, points on a computer generated model of the machine are animated using phase and magnitude
data measured during normal operation. If Frequency Response functions were measured using the
Advanced 2-channel DLP, the structure can be animated at any frequency of interest.

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VibPro software is a CSI product used to download and analyze and print data collected
with the Advanced 2-Channel or Advanced Transient DLPs. VibPro is also used to
export data to spreadsheet format so it can be imported into the MEscope ODS software
and used to animate the structure drawing.
The graphic below shows the animation shape at 2x turning speed (29 Hertz). It indicates
that the pump tube is bending. The shape approximates the second bending mode of a
cantilevered structure. Click on the link to play the AVI file. ODS 29 Hz -2x.Avi

Figure 14
ODS Animation of Natural Frequency at 29 Hertz

In addition to bending of the tube, the ODS showed looseness on one leg of the pump
base. Another ODS study was made on the leg. Many additional points were measured
to get a better view of the problem. A new structure drawing of just the one leg was
made. It is shown below.

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Tripod Leg
(discharge
side)
Tripod
Foot
Cast Steel
Spacer Block

Concrete
pad
Floor

Figure 15a
Picture of one Pump Foot

Figure 15b
ODS Structure of the Pump Foot

The results of the new ODS test confirmed


looseness in the base. Relative motion was
observed between the cast steel spacer block and
the concrete pad. The motion was largest on the
leg closest to the discharge. The predominant
motion was in the vertical direction. Click on the
link to play the AVI file.
ODS 29 Hz Foot only REPEAT TEST.Avi

It was thought the looseness could lower the


natural frequency of the pump structure causing its
natural frequency to shift into the 2x operating
speed range.
The bolts holding the steel shim block to the
concrete were checked and tightened, however no
change in vibration was noted after the adjustments
were made.
Figure 16
ODS Animation of Discharge Side Leg

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ODS Test Results:


The Operational Deflection Shape test showed that at 2x turning speed, the shape of the
pump structure approximates the second bending mode of a vertical cantilevered
structure. The largest motion was in the discharge direction.
The ODS test identified relative motion between the cast steel block and the concrete pier
on the discharge side foot. The motion on this leg was noticeably larger than the other
two legs. All bolts were tightened and the base was inspected. No obvious problems
were found and it was determined that the loose foot was a separate issue and not
contributing to the bending of the tube.
About analyzing ODS data
After viewing the animations, the ODS results must to be interpreted. The ODS analysis
involves studying the views, analyzing the motions and determining what is wrong with
the machine. Some mechanical faults will be more obvious than others. For example,
misalignment or looseness between bolted joints is easily spotted. Some analysis tips are
listed below:

Look for global motions -- where the entire machine is moving together with no
relative motion between components. This could be a result of a machine mounted
on isolators or floor and building vibrations
Look for relative motions between bearing housings or shafts (if shaft data was taken)
-- an indication of misalignment
Look for phase lag and relative motion between bolted or welded joints -- indicating
looseness. Looseness problems will show similar motion at different frequencies.
Look for twisting of the machine base -- indicating torsional bending modes or
structural weakness
Look for bending of structural components an indication of resonance (note: ODS
does not prove resonance)
Look for localized motion on machine feet or bases an indication of soft-foot

Being a good vibration analyst means being a good detective. Study the ODS animations and
look for clues that will help solve the problem.

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Attempt to Stiffen the Structure:


Resonance problems are often difficult to solve and usually require a modal survey and
Finite Element Analysis to identify a solution. Whenever possible, try to temporarily
shift the natural frequency by adding mass or stiffness. Doing so will give you an idea of
how much change is required to avoid the effects of resonance. The technique doesnt
always work, however it is a quick and inexpensive test.
Change the mass by adding sand or shot bags to the top of a machine or structure.
Another method of changing the mass is to stand on the machine and see if your body
mass reduces the amount of vibration. Adding mass lowers the natural frequency. Use
caution when climbing on rotating machinery.
Wedging steel or lumber between the machine and a solid object such as a column or
wall changes the stiffness. Increased stiffness raises the natural frequency.
In the case of the #1 pump, a 8 x 8 timber was wedged between the concrete wall of the
building and the tube. The timber was placed about half way down the tube in the
discharge direction where the bending was greatest.
Wall

Timber

Figure 17 Picture showing 8 x 8 Timber used to stiffen tube (left) and


Sketch showing location of the timber in the discharge direction (right)

Once the timber was wedged tightly in place, the pump was operated and another coastdown test was performed. The data indicated that the natural frequency of the structure
(near 2x operating speed) didnt change much, however the response at resonance was
cut in half. The Bode plot below shows that the vibration was reduced from .89 IPS to
.45 IPS. The vibration in the perpendicular to discharge direction also decreased. The
timber was left in place after the test and secured with a chain-fall. The speed restriction
was removed from the drive control and the Operating Department began to use the pump
in this speed range. Note: The timber should not be left in place as a permanent solution
to the resonance problem.
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Without Timber .9 ips


With Timber .46 ips

Figure 18
2x Coast-down Bode Plot of #1 Pump with a 8 x 8 Timber
Wedged Between the Building Wall and the Pump Tube

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Conclusions based on ODS, Coast-down and Impact Testing:


The ODS animation showed that the structure was bending at 2x turning speed. Bending
is an indication of resonance. The source of excitation causing resonance at 29 Hertz is
2x turning speed vibration from misalignment or vane pass frequency.
The coast-down and impact tests confirmed a natural frequency at about 29 Hertz.
Outside of the amplification curve, the amount of 2x vibration was very slight. Reducing
the amount of 2x vibration is, therefore not an option. Changing the speed of the pump is
also not desirable. Correcting the resonance problem must be accomplished by changing
the mass or stiffness of the pump structure.
Natural frequencies cannot be eliminated. Changing the mass or stiffness of the structure
changes all the natural frequencies. To correct the resonance problem, the natural
frequency at 29 Hertz must be moved out of the 2x turning speed range.
The question is how to change the mass or stiffness to get the desired results?
Sometimes, the modifications needed are obvious, simple and inexpensive to implement.
In many cases, they are not. Making structural modifications by trial and error is a roll of
the dice resulting in one of the following:
1) Vibration is reduced or eliminated at the intended frequency
2) Vibration is not reduced
3) Vibration is reduced or eliminated at the intended frequency, however changing
mass or stiffness results in excitation of a different natural frequency.
4) Vibration on the machine is reduced, however the modification element itself is
resonating.
5) The structural modification results in mechanical or structural failure causing
machine down time, expensive repairs or safety issues.
After identifying a resonance problem, the steps towards correction are a Modal survey
and Finite Element Analysis.

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Modal Survey:
Modal survey3 data were collected on the #1 pump using the
2120-2 analyzer and the Advanced 2-Channel DLP. The
Advanced 2-channel DLP is required for modal data
collection.
The modal survey on the #1 Pump consisted of Frequency
Response Function (FRF) measurements at 194
positions/directions. At each measured point:
a) Natural frequencies were excited by striking a 12
pound impact hammer against the top of the motor
(discharge (X) direction)
b) An accelerometer was used to measure the 0-100
Hertz response at each measurement point and
direction. Four averages were acquired at each
measurement point.
Figure 19
Modal Structure

The figure below is a Modal Peaks plot. It is a summation of all 194 FRFs and makes it
easy to see the response of all points and directions in one view. Pump #1 had natural
frequencies at 4.8, 29.81 and 39.3 Hertz. Additional natural frequencies were found
above 50 Hertz. Each natural frequency has a unique shape called a mode shape. After
curve fitting the FRF data, the mode shapes were animated and analyzed.

29.81
4.817

56.3
39.3

68.8

39.9
51.4

24.6

Figure 20
Modal Peaks Plot is a Summation of all FRF Measurements

Modal Analysis is an experimental method of determining the natural frequencies, damping values and
mode shapes of a structure. A modal analysis is done with the machine off-line.

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Modal Survey Results:


The modal survey confirmed that the mode shape at this frequency is the second bending
mode of a cantilevered structure.
A frames view of the deformation for the second bending mode (29.8 Hertz) is shown
below. Click on the links to play the AVI file.
Modal 2nd bending mode - In Phase - 29.8 Hz Quad View.Avi
Modal 2nd bending mode - In Phase - 29.8 Hz 3D.Avi
Modal 2nd bending mode - In Phase - 29.8 Hz 3D Closeup.Avi

Figure 21
Frames View of 29.8 Hertz Natural Frequency

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The first bending mode was 4.82 Hertz. No mechanical vibrations are exciting this mode
into resonance except during start-up and coast-down.
The frames view of the 4.82 Hertz mode shape is shown below. Click on the link to play
the AVI file.
Modal 1st bending mode - 4.82 Hz Quad View.Avi

Figure 22
Frames View of 4.82 Hertz Natural Frequency

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Table 2 lists the Modal Survey results and characterizes each mode shape observed.
There were seven modes between 0-60 Hertz.
Table 2
Pump #1 Modal Frequencies
Frequency
(Hz)
4.82
25
29.81
39.3/39.9
51.4
56.3

Mode Description
First bending mode
First torsional mode not sufficiently excited in the modal survey
Second bending mode, Shaft/Support Pipe in Phase
Second bending mode, Shaft/Support Pipe out of Phase
Vertical mode
Third bending mode

About analyzing Modal data


The products of a modal survey include a list of natural frequencies, damping values and
mode shape of each natural frequency. The existence of natural frequencies is not a
problem. A bell, for example, does not ring until it is struck. Natural frequencies exist in
machinery and structures and only become a problem when excited by forced vibrations
such as unbalance, misalignment, looseness, gearmesh, vane pass, and other mechanical
defects.
Modal analysis does not provide a solution for resonance problems. A Modal Survey is
the first step towards correcting resonance problems.
When the modal analysis is complete, the mode shapes must be evaluated.
Things to look for when evaluating modal results:

Evaluate modal frequencies -- What is the source of the excitation? Is it


mechanical, electrical or impactive type energy?
Evaluate the mode shape -- Is the motion a global mode or a local mode? Is the
structure bending or twisting?
What component is deforming?
What are the closest adjacent modes? How will corrections affect other modes?
Structural changes affect all natural frequencies. Speed changes may coincide
with other modes.
What is the damping?

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Natural frequencies can not be eliminated. The effect of resonance may be diminished or
natural frequencies may be shifted up or down in the frequency range. Some methods of
correcting resonance are discussed below.
Reduce the exciting force Nothing resonates without an excitation force. Forcing
frequencies (mechanical vibrations) are most often the excitation for resonance.
Reducing the exciting force, by any amount, diminishes the effect of the resonance. Its
usually less expensive to reduce or eliminate the exciting force than it is to modify the
structure. Some examples of reducing the excitation include

Balance to precision levels


Precision alignment of shafts and belts
Use precision parts
Replace worn or broken isolators

Change the speed -- Move the exciting force away from the natural frequency. The rule
of thumb is to change the speed 10%-15% on either side of the natural frequency.
Depending on the damping value for a given bending mode, more or less speed change
will be required.

amplitude

system natural frequency


move shaft speed above or
below natural frequency
Rule of thumb: Move at least
15% away for forcing frequency
frequency
Figure 23
Changing the Speed to Move a Forced Vibration Away from a Natural Frequency

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Change the Mass -- Increasing the mass of a structure lowers its natural frequencies.
Consider this simplified natural frequency formula:

fn = 1/2  k / m

Where:
Fn = natural Frequency
K = Stiffness
M = Mass
= Constant

If K remains constant and M is increased then Fn, decreases


If K remains constant and M is decreased then Fn, increases
Examples of changing a structures mass are filling a steel base frame with concrete or
adding a steel plate to the top of a steel base frame.
Change the Stiffness -- Increasing the stiffness of a structure raises its natural
frequencies. Consider the simplified natural frequency formula below:

fn = 1/2  k / m
If K is increased and M remains constant then Fn, increases
If K is decreased and M remains constant then Fn, decreases
Examples of changing a structures stiffness include adding bracing or gussets to a base
frame and changing the thickness of components.
A modal survey alone does not indicate how to correct resonance. The SDM version of
MEscope software has some Finite Element Tools that can be used to estimate the
required structural modifications. The alternative is to have a Structural Engineer
complete a Finite Element Analysis.

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Finite Element Analysis (FEA):


A Finite Element Analysis4 was completed on the #1 Pump Structure. The purpose of
doing a FEA is to identify potential structural modifications to move natural frequencies
away from forced vibrations.
A finite element model of Pump 1 was created. The model is built after gathering all the
available information about the structure. The information in the model includes all
dimensions, material properties, discrete stiffnesses, component masses and boundary
conditions (how the pieces are attached). Some of the information is easy to obtain.
Other information, like the motors stiffness and inertia, may end up being an educated
guess.
The structural components in the model include the concrete pads, metal blocks, pump
base, pump volute, support pipe, motor shaft, motor adapter plate, and the motor. The
motor is included in the model using a combination of rigid and concentrated mass and
inertia elements. Given the relatively large dimensions of the motor and the cantilevered
configuration, the mass moments of inertia are important in the dynamic behavior of the
structure. However, the only mass property data available on the motor was its total
weight of 9200 pounds. Therefore, estimates of the moments of inertia are required to
accurately predict the natural frequencies of the pump. As stated in the assumptions
above, the mass moments of inertia were calculated by approximating the motor
geometry as a cylinder with uniformly distributed mass. The actual values used in the
model are shown in Table 3.
Table 3
Motor Mass Properties and Weight
Mass Moments of Inertia^
Weight
(lbf)
9200
^

Mass
2

IXX

IYY
2

IZZ
2

(lbf-sec /in)

(lbf-sec -in)

(lbf-sec -in)

(lbf-sec2-in)

23.8

21950

21950

13750

The principal mass moments of inertia are calculated at the motor center of gravity.

The pump assembly includes numerous bolted interfaces between the structural
components. Considerable effort was made to accurately model these connections. While
the bolts themselves are considered to be rigid, only assumed preloaded areas, which are
local to the bolts, are used to connect the parts. These preloaded areas are modeled using
special constraint elements that do not add stiffness to the bolted components themselves.
This technique was used to model the connections between the concrete and metal
blocks, the top of the metal blocks and the base plates of each leg of the pump base, and
the top flange of the pump base and the bottom flange of the support pipe.
4

A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is an analytical technique that utilizes a mathematical model of a
structure to predict its natural frequencies and mode shapes. A resonance problem is corrected by using the
FEA model to evaluate the effectiveness of mass, stiffness and damping modifications. Sigmadyne, Inc.
(http://www.sigmadyne.com) completed the FEA on Pump 1.

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CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

The finite element model was created for use in MSC/NASTRAN, a commercial finite
element code. The model includes a total of 6575 beam, shell, and solid elements. Solid
base, support pipe and adapter plates were modeled using shell elements. The thickness
and internal design of the volute is not known. It is modeled as a uniform shell structure
with a thickness of 5/8 inch. The motor shaft was modeled using beam elements
connected to the model at the base of the motor, the top of the volute, and the top of the
conical structure mounted on the volute. The conical structure inside the legs of the pump
bases was modeled using a rigid element.
The entire model is constrained at the bottom surface of each of the three concrete blocks.
Physically this represents the interface between the concrete blocks and the floor beneath
the pump. The complete model is shown below.

Figure 24
FEA Structure

Copyright 2001, Computational Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

26

CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

The FEA model is only as accurate at the information used in its construction. The FEA
prediction of the natural frequencies will not be accurate if any of the information is
incorrect. In addition, the estimates for structural modification may not be valid.
Examples of things that can lead to an inaccurate FEA include:

Incomplete or inaccurate information about the structure


Weakened structural members due to rusting, corrosion and cracks
Loose or weakened concrete base
Stretched or loose bolts
Incorrect estimates of material properties, masses, stiffness and boundary
conditions

The assumptions used in the FEA model of the #1 Pump are listed below.
1. The weight of the motor, specified by the customer, was 9200 lbf. Since the mass
moments of inertia are unavailable, they are calculated from this weight based on
a diameter of 67.5 inches and a height of 92.5 inches. The mass moments of
inertia are calculated using the equations for a solid cylinder with uniformly
distributed mass.
2. The motor is assumed to be rigid over the frequency range of interest.
3. Concrete is assumed to be a homogeneous and isotropic material and to behave in
a linear elastic manner. The following mechanical properties are used in the
analysis:
Modulus of elasticity:
2.0 MSI.
Poissons Ratio:
0.2
Weight density:
145 lbf/ft3
4. The rebar used in concrete does not significantly alter its mechanical properties.
5. Steel is assumed to be a homogeneous and isotropic material and to behave in a
linear elastic manner. The following mechanical properties are used in the
analysis:
Modulus of elasticity:
30 MSI.
Poissons Ratio:
0.3
Weight density:
481 lbf/ft3
6. The pump is fixed at the bottom surface of the concrete block. Any additional
compliance due to the surrounding structure is ignored.
7. All dimensions used in the creation of the model were measured on Pump 1 as
part of the modal survey or were supplied by Plant personnel.

Copyright 2001, Computational Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

27

CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Natural frequency or modal analysis is used to analytically predict the natural frequencies
and mode shapes of vibration of a structure. As previously stated a modal survey is an
experimental procedure used to measure both the natural frequencies and mode shapes of
a structure. The accuracy and validity of the finite element can be evaluated and
enhanced by correlating the predicted natural frequencies with the measured values. This
correlation is based on comparison of the mode shapes of vibration rather than a simple
comparison of the frequency values. This ensures that similar modes (i.e. the first
bending mode of a cantilevered structure) are being appropriately compared.
Once the finite element model was correlated to the modal survey, a design optimization
analysis was performed using the model. The objective of this analysis was to determine
the changes in the natural frequencies due to alterations of the pump geometry.

Copyright 2001, Computational Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

28

CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

FEA Results:
Both predicted and measured values for the first eight natural frequencies of Pump 1 are
summarized in Table 4. Natural frequencies of a symmetric structure occur in orthogonal
pairs. The physical significance is that the pump can actually vibrate (bend) in any
direction based on the direction of the applied excitation. It is difficult to experimentally
measure multiple modes with nearly identical frequencies. During the modal survey of
Pump 1, the frequency resolution was insufficient to individually measure the two first
bending modes and the first set of second bending modes. The frequency separation of
the next mode pair (motor shaft and support pipe oscillating out of phase) is sufficient
and both were identified in the test.
Table 4
Correlation of Measured and Predicted Natural Frequencies of Pump 1
Measured Value
Mode Shape Description

(Hz)

Analytical
Prediction
(Hz)

st

1 Bending

4.8

st

1 Bending

4.4
4.4

Torsion

24-25

23.5

2nd Bending, Shaft/Support Pipe in Phase

29.8

29.2

2nd Bending, Shaft/Support Pipe in Phase

29.5

2nd Bending, Shaft/Support Pipe out of Phase

39.2

41.8

2nd Bending, Shaft/Support Pipe out of Phase

39.9

42.2

Vertical Extension

51.4

60.3

The correlation between the analytical prediction and the measured frequency values was
very good. A picture of the mode shape at 29.2 Hertz is shown below. Click on the link
below to play the FEA animations.
FEA 2nd bending mode 29.2 Hz.mpg
FEA 1st Bending mode 4.3 Hz.mpg

Copyright 2001, Computational Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

29

CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Figure 25
Second bending mode of the Pump1 structure
showing the drive shaft vibrating in-phase with the support pipe at 29.2 Hz.

Since the natural frequency at 29 Hertz is at the upper end of the 2x operating speed
range, the structural engineer recommended increasing the machine stiffness. Increasing
stiffness results in a higher natural frequency. To accomplish the change, several
potential solutions were evaluated using the FEA software including:

Shortening the length of the pump tube


Increasing the wall thickness of the tube
A different motor
Improving the attachment to the floor
Bracing the tube to the building wall

The only option that was feasible was to reduce the length of the pump tube. The
customer agreed that changing the tube length was an acceptable solution. Tube length
reductions of 48, 62 and 72 inches were evaluated. All three models produced acceptable
results. Table 5 shows the change at each natural frequency based on pipe length
reductions. The stiffness of the support pipe (Tp) was considered by treating the support
pipe thickness as a design variable. It was found that this parameter has little effect on
the modes near 29 Hz.

Copyright 2001, Computational Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

30

CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Table 5
Effect of Support Pipe Length on the Predicted Natural Frequencies of Pump 1
Length Reductions
Baseline

Tp=0.75

48

62

72

(Hz)

(Hz)

(Hz)

(Hz)

(Hz)

1st Bending

4.4

4.8

5.4

5.8

6.2

1st Bending

4.4

4.9

5.4

5.9

6.3

Torsion

23.5

25.5

24.6

25.1

25.5

2nd Bending, Shaft/Support Pipe in Phase

29.2

30.0

37.1

39.9

41.8

2nd Bending, Shaft/Support Pipe in Phase

29.5

30.2

37.3

40.2

42.2

2nd Bending, Shaft/Support Pipe out of Phase

41.8

39.2

49.6

54.1

58.5

2nd Bending, Shaft/Support Pipe out of Phase

42.2

39.6

49.8

54.2

58.6

Vertical Extension

60.3

64.9

64.4

66.0

67.3

Mode Shape Description

Decreasing the length of the support pipe and correspondingly, the overall height alters
the natural frequencies of the pump. A length reduction of 48 inches increases the
frequency of the first pair of second bending modes (shaft and support pipe bending in
phase) to approximately 37 hertz. An important assumption in this prediction is that all
other stiffnesses remain unchanged. This is especially important given the number of
bolted connections in the pump assembly.
Operating Speed

31
.

33
.

35
.

io
n

re
du
ct
io
n

re
du
ct

le
ng
th

72

en
gt
h
62
l

0
29
.

43
.

0
27
.

0
25
.

41
.

0
23
.

0
21
.

39
.

0
19
.

48
l
en
gt
h

0
17
.

.0

0
15
.

37

0
13
.

11

.0

Cu
rre
nt
c

on
di
tio
n

re
du
ct
io
n

2x Operating Speed Range

Figure 26
Pump 1 Second bending mode Frequency Shift
With Pipe Length Reduction

The vibration measurements, made during operation of the pump, did not indicate any 3x
vibration that might excite the (new) second bending mode natural frequency.

Copyright 2001, Computational Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

31

CSI RBM University 2001 ODS & Modal

Summary:
Resonance testing and Operational Deflection Shape studies are useful tools for
analyzing vibration problems. When resonance is identified as the problem, a Modal
Survey is necessary to identify all of the natural frequencies and evaluate each mode
shape. Without knowing the mode shape, it is impossible to know how to correct the
resonance.
Resonance is best corrected by using FEA tools to evaluate the effectiveness of potential
structural modifications.
The recommendations from this job were well received by the customer. To date, the
modification has not been implemented on Pump.

Copyright 2001, Computational Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

32