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WORD

Technology
Chemistry
Matter
Volume
Mass
Weight
Properties
Structure
Laws/ Principles

TERMS
DEFINITION
Application of science to improve the quality of life
The branch of science that deals with matter, its properties, changes
,composition and laws or principles governing the changes
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Other word for space
Amount of matter present in an object
(kg, g, mg, lb, oz)
Gravitational pull acting on an object
(N, dyne)
Characteristics/ qualities
Arrangement of matter
Explanation to the changes

IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY

We need to study Chemistry because we and the environment are matter ant to
familiarize the matter around us
BRANCH OF CHEMISTRY
Biochemistry
Analytical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry
General Chemistry

BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY
DEFINITION
Study of organic compounds where humans are made of
Analysis of the composition of substances/ materials
Study of carbon and its compounds
Study of non carbon containing compounds
Deals with the energy changes happening in chemical
reactions
Basic concepts of chemistry
STATES OF MATTER

Molecules are
compress
Molecules are slightly
apart

Solid
Liquid
Gas

Molecules are far from


each other

Plasma

A form of gas

Bose-Enstein
Condensate

A form of liquid

Definite volume
Fixed volume
Dont have fixed
volume

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Systematic way of finding answers in a problem


STEPS
1. Know the problem
2. Making observation
3. Making hypothesis
4. Test the hypothesis through experimentation
5. Analyze the data gathered
6. Make a conclusion
SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES

Has definite shape


Only
occupies
the shape
of the
container
Composed of energy
charged particles
Produced only in a
temperature near
absolute zero
Dont
have
fixed
shape

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Keen observer/ Curiosity


Open-mindness/ Objectivity
Resourcefulness
Intellectual Honesty
Patience/ Perseverance
Humility
Acceptance of failure
Healthy skepticism
PROPERTIES OF MATTER

PROPERTY
Chemical Properties

Physical Properties

DEFINITION
Can be observed/ measured only
after a matter underwent a change in
composition
Can be observed/ measured even
without the matter undergoing a
change in composition

EXAMPLE
combustibility
chemical reactivity
rusting formation

5 senses

Mass
Volume
Taste
Odor
Density
Boiling point
Elasticity

EXAMPLE
Breaking
Melting
Freezing
Grinding
Rusting
Decomposition
Cooking
Digestion

TYPES OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


Extensive/ extrinsic

Properties that depend on the amount


of matter present

Intensive/ intrinsic

Properties that depend on the kind of


matter present
CHANGES IN MATTER

CHANGE

DEFINITION

Physical Change

Changes that do not alter the


composition of substance

Chemical Change

Changes in the composition of


substances to form a new substance

Melting

Solid to liquid

Evaporation

Liquid to gas

Sublimation

Solid to gas

Freezing

Liquid to solid
(solidification)

Condensation
Deposition

Gas to solid

PHASE CHANGES
Melting of snow and ice
Evaporation of water or
refrigerant
Sublimation of dry ice,
free-drying of coffee
Freezing of water or a
liquid metal
Formation of dew
Formation of frost and
snow

Heat is absorbed by the


matter

Heat is released by the


matter

CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
(Classified according to composition)

Pure substance
o A matter that is composed of only one kind of particle
KINDS
o
o
o

OF PARTICLES
Atoms
Molecules
Ions

KINDS OF PURE SUBSTANCES


o Elements Periodic Table

Simplest form of matter

Made up of only one kind of atom or molecule


METALS
Usually hard and solid except
Hg, which is a liquid. Cs and

KINDS OF ELEMENTS
NONMETALS
Some are solid, liquid
(bromine), or gas. Usually soft

METALLOIDS
Solids

Ga melt in unprotected hand


Malleable and ductile
Conductor of heat and
electricity
Lustrous and shiny
High density
High melting and boiling
points
High tensile strength

except diamond
Brittle
Basically insulators
Dull except diamond
Low density
Low melting and boiling
points
Low tensile strength

Brittle
Intermediate electrical
conductivity
Intermediate reflectance
Intermediate density
Low melting and boiling
points
Low tensile strength

Compounds

Formed when 2 or more elements combined chemically in fixed


proportions

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOUNDS

According to Composition

Organic C6H12O6 , CH4


o with carbon

Inorganic NaCl , H2O , H2 , SO4


o without carbon
According to Chemical Bond

Ionic M + NM , ENaCI
o Ionic bond is present

Covalent NM + NM , H2O
o Covalent bond is present

Mixture
o Composed of 2 or more substances that combined physically in variable
proportions
CLASSIFICATION OF MIXTURE
(According to number of phases)
o Homogenous/ Solutions sea water, air

Single-phased mixtures

All the parts are identical


o Heterogeneous Salad, soup, garbage

Mixtures consisting of 2 or more phases

With parts that are dissimilar


KINDS OF HETEROGENEOUS

Suspension

The suspended particles can be seen and are large to be


trapped in a filter

Colloid

Mixture with particles bigger than the particles of a solution but


smaller than those of a suspension

Coarse Mixture

The particles can be separated mechanically

Brownian Movement
o Rapid, haphazard motion of colloidal particles
o Caused by the collision of the colloidal particles with
the molecules of the dispersion medium
o Colloidal particles do not settle because of the
Brownian Movement

Tyndall Effect
o The reflection of light by colloidal particles

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMPOUND AND MIXTURE


COMPOUND
MIXTURE
Fixed proportion

Variable proportion
Cant be separated by ordinary

Cant be separated by ordinary


physical means
physical means
Chemically combined

Physically combined
Can be expressed in formulas

Cant be express in formulas

METHODS OF SEPARATING MIXTURES

Filtration
o The pouring of the mixture through a piece of paper (filter paper) which lets
the liquid (filtrate) pass through but catches the solid (residue)
Flotation
o The removal of suspended particles either by sedimentation or coagulation
o Used in mining to separate precious metals/ minerals from impurities
Distillation
o Makes use of the differences in boiling points (evaporation and condensation).
The gas is then condensed back to a liquid (distillate)
Decantation
o The pouring of the liquid from a mixture to separate the liquid (decante) from
the solid particles
Crystallization
o Occurs when simple sea water is allowed to evaporate
Centrifugation
o The settling of tiny suspended particles using a centrifuge. Tis hastens the
settling of the precipitate in a suspension.

Centrifugate

The liquid that comes from centrifugation


Chromatography
o A solution ca nbe separated by allowing it to flow along a stationary substance
o Uses the different degrees of adsorption of the components to a stationary
substance
KINDS OF CHROMATOGRAPHY

Paper Chromatography

Column Chromatography
Magnetism
o Used to separate a metal from a non metal
Mechanical Spearation
o Use machines to separate mixtures

EVIDENCE OF CHEMICAL CHANGE


1. Change in color, taste, odor
2. formation of a new substance
3. evolution of gas
4. production of heat and light
5. formation of precipitate
6. production of sound and mechanical energy
ENERGY

capacity to do work or to transfer heat


POTENTIAL ENERGY

the energy stored in an object because of its position or composition


KINETIC ENERGY

energy in motion

LAVOISIER, ANTOINE LAURENT (1743-1794)


Father of Modern Chemistry
chemist, politician, lawyer, farmer, banker
born in Paris, France on August 26, 1743, son of a wealthy lawyer
suited law, also attended lectures on scientific studies
in 1771, married Marie Paulze (acted as secretary and made many drawings for his
book)
they had no children
member of farm General (collect taxes for the king)
during French Revolution; members were arrested tried and sentenced to death
on May 8, 1794, Lavoisier was beheaded (guillotine)

IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS

Oxygen Theory of Burning (Phlogiston Theory of Burning)


o Accepted explanation of burning

Found out that water is composed of 2 gases (O2,H2)


Explained the respiration process ( the body uses breathened oxygen to burn food,
which gives the body its heat)
Worked with other chemists to set up a system of naming chemicals

IMPORTANT QUALITIES

Lavoisier didnt make any discoveries of his own but he gave correct explanations to
the discoveries of others
He insisted on exact measurements in all his experiments
He helped introduce methods of exactness in chemistry
He would accept no idea unless it could be proved
LAWS OF CHEMICAL COMBINATION
Law of Conservation of Mass
o The total mass in any chemical or physical change does not change.
o The number of substances may change, the properties may change, but the
total amount of matter remains constant.
Fe
S
FeS
+
=
(10g)
(5g)
(15g)

Law of Definite Composition


o Formulated by Joseph Proust (1754 1826), a French chemist
o Elements combine to form compounds in definite proportions by mass
H2
O
+
=
2H:1O
11.11%
88.89%

Law of Multiple Proportions


o When 2 elements combined to form 2 or more compounds, the masses of one
element that combined with a fixed mass of the elements are in a ratio of
small whole numbers
C
O
1st compound
3.00g
5.00g
2nd compound
6.00g
10.00g
Ratio
(mass of O)

Mass of O (1st compound)


Mass of O (2nd compound)

5.00g
10.00g

or 1:2

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ANATOMIC THEORY

Leucippus (teacher) and Democritus (student)


o Believed that the atoms were invisible, indestructible, and the smallest particle
of matter called atomos.
o He believed that these atoms differ in shape, size, weight, sequence, and
position
Aristotle
o Rejected the idea of the atomism of matter
o Believed that theres no limit in subdividing matter
4 ELEMENT THEORY OF EMPEDOCLES

All the matter were made of water, air, fire, and earth

John Dalton (1766-1844)


o An English chemist and physicist
o Stated that his atomic theory based on approximately 150 years of
investigation by scientists such as Robert Boyle, Joseph Priestley, and Antoine
Lavoisier
IDEAS OF JOHN DALTON

Matter is composed of tiny indivisible spheres called atoms

Atoms of the same element are identical, but atoms of one element
are different from those of all other elements

Atoms cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical change

Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to


form compounds

William Crookes (1832- 1919)


o Studied matter using a powerful vacuum pump called the Crookes Tube
o Discovered the cathode rays by connecting the tube to an external source of
electricity and noticing that a flash of light or ray coming from the negative
electrode (cathode) and moving to the positive electrode (anode)

Joseph
o
o
o

John Thomson
Gave the name of electron to the cathode rays
Discoverer of the electrons
Used magnetic and electric fields to measure the value of the ratio of the
electron charge to its mass

E
M
o
o

1.759 x 108

coulomb/ gram

Found out that hydrogen is the lightest atom with its mass of 1/1840
Proposed a model of an atom as a positively charged sphere where the
electrons are embedded. This model is called the raisin cake model or
watermelon model where the raisins or seeds are the electrons

Robert Millikan (1868- 1953)


o Measured the charge of the electron with the use of his oil-drop experiment
E = -1.602 x 10-19 coulomb
o

And later the results of Thomson and Millikan, the calculation of the mass of an
electron
(E) -1.602 x 10-19 c
(M) -1.759 x 108c/g
M = 9.11 x 10-28g = mass of a negative electron

Eugen Goldstein
o Discovered the canal rays

Particle that were left out of the atoms or molecules after electrons
had been pulled out

Wilhel Prentgen (145- 1923)


o Discovered that highly energetic rays could penetrate matter and later called
these X-rays

Henri Becquerel (1852- 1908)


o Associated X-rays with fluorescent materials by using a used uranium ore
o Discovered radioactivity (uranium)

Any material such as uranium that spontaneously emits radiation said


to radioactive

Ernest Rutherford
o Discovered the 2 types of radiation from radio active materials alpha and beta
TYPE OF
RADIATION
Alpha
Beta
Gamma

SYMBOL

NATURE

CHARGE

Helium nuclei
Electron
Radiant energy

+2
-1
0

PENETRATIN
G POWER
1
100
10,000

o Performed the alpha-scattering except to test the raisin bread


RESULTS OF THE ALPHA-SCATTERING EXPERIMENT

Most of the gamma particles passed through undeflected

The atom is mostly an empty space

o
o

A few passed through with large angles of deflection

Gamma particles hit the side of the tiny solid part in the atom
A few gamma particles bounced back

They had a head on collision with the tiny solid part of the
atom

proposed that most of the mass and positively charged parts of the atom, the
protons, must be concentrated in a small region called the nucleus
Thought that the electrons are distributed in the space outside the nucleus of
the atom

James Chadwick (1871- 1974)


o Atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but with
different atomic mass

Isaac Newton
o A scientist that works on light
o Believed that the light was made of corpuscles or particles, although a later
theory held that light was made of waves

ISOTOPES

atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

ATOMIC NUMBER (Z)

gives the number of protons or electrons in an atom

It is shown by the subscript


ATOMIC MASS (A)

gives the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

it is shown by the superscript


EXAMPLES
A. NEUTRAL ATOMS
17
13
75
33
B. MONOANATOMIC IONS
24
12
80
35

DALTON MODEL
THOMSON MODEL
NUCLEAR MODEL
BOHR MODEL

Al

Protons : 13
Electrons : 13
Neutrons : 14

As

Protons : 33
Electrons : 33
Neutrons : 42

Mg
Br

+2

-1

Protons : 12
Electrons : 10
Neutrons : 12
Protons : 35
Electrons : 36
Neutrons : 45

EARLY MODELS OF AN ATOM


Atoms are solid indestructible spheres
Raisin bread model
Rutherford discovered that the atom possessed a small dense
core(nucleus)
First quantum model of the atom w/ the electrons following circular
orbits around the nucleus

BOHRSUMMERFELD
MODEL

Electrons in elliptical orbit

QUANTUM
MECHANICAL
MODEL

Schrodinger proposed a wave equation from which atomic orbitals are


derived. It is concerned w/ the probability of finding a given electron in
the space outside the nucleus

Excited state-transfer to higher energy level

Ground state-lowest possible state

Energy absorbed

Energy released-light

QUANTUM NUMBERS

numbers used to describe the probable locations of the electron


PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBERS

Tells the number of main energy level where e- can be found


o n = 1,2,3,4
o if n = 1 -1st energy level

o
o

n=2 -2nd energy level


n=3 3rd energy level..

AZIMUTHAL QUANTUM NUMBERS

defines the shape of the orbital

tells the kind of sublevel occupied by the eo


l=0s
o
l=1p
o l=2d
o l =3 - f
MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBERS

Describes the orientation of orbitals in space

Tells the number of orbitals occupied by the eo ml = -1 0 +l

l = 0 ml =0 1 orbital 2e- s

o
o
o

l = 1 ml = -1 0 +1 3 orbital 6e- p
l = 2 ml = -2 -1 0 +1 +2 5 orbital 10e- d
l = 3 ml = -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 7 orbital 14e- f

SPIN QUANTUM NUMBERS

tells how the e- spin in their axes as they revolve around the nucleus
o clockwise- Ms= -1/2

counterclockwise Ms = +1/2

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION

arrangement of electrons in an atom


RULES TO BE FOLLOWED
1. Aufbau Principle

e- occupy the orbitals in order of increasing energy level


2. Paulis Exclusion Principle
3.

2 e- occupying the same orbital should have opposite spins


Hunds Rule

when e- enter a sublevel w/ more than 1 orbital (p,d,f), e- will occupy


first all the available orbitals w/ their spins in the same direction before
they can pair up w/ another e- of opposite spin
8e- = d sublevel

THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE

periods/series
o horizontal rows
o 7 periods/series

groups/families
o vertical columns
o 18 groups/families

A-8 groups/families (representative elements)

IA Alkali metals

IIA Alkaline Earth Metals

IIIA Boron group

IVA Carbon group

VA Nitrogen group

VIA Oxygen group

VIIA Halogen group

VIIIA Noble gases/ Inert gases

B- 10 groups/families (transition metals/elements)


VALENCE ELECTRON

electron in the outer most main energy level


DETERMINING THE PERIOD AND FAMILY ON AN ELEMENT

11

22

Na 1s2 2s2 2p5 3s1


o n=3
o val e- = 1
o period=3
o family=IA
Ti 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2
o n=4
o val e- = 2
o period = 4
o family = IVB

DETERMINING ATOMIC NUMBER


1A
2A
3A
4A

ns1
ns2
ns2np
1

ns2np
2

ns2np

5A

ns np

6A

ns2np

7A

ns np

8A

ns1md

1B

10

ns md

2B

10

ns2md

3B

ns md

4B

ns md

5B

ns2md

6B

ns md

7B

ns2md
6

ns md

8B

ns md
8

period-3
Family-3A
o 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
o Z = 13

period-4
Family-4A
o 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p2
o Z = 32

PERIODIC PROPERTIES

Properties of an element seem to be determined largely by the


electron configuration of the outermost electrons and by how far away those electrons
are from the nucleus
IONIZATION ENERGY

Amount of energy needed to remove an e- from atom to form (+) ions

Ionization
o
when an atom loses or gains electrons to form ions
ELECTRON AFFINITY

Amount of energy released when an atom or molecule gains e- forming a


(-)ion
IONIC RADIUS

Isoelectric
o

equal numbers of electrons in identical configurations

ELECTRONEGATIVITY

General tendency of an atom to attract e- toward itself


METALLIC PROPERTY

w/ few valence e
tend to give up or donate e E, IE, EA
AS, MP, IS

Octet rule
o an atom should have 8 valence e- to become stable
Duet rule
o needs 2 valence e- to be stable

WAYS OF REPRESENTING AN ATOM

Electron Configuration

Use of Orbitals

Use of Main energy level

Lewis electron dot formula


o consists of a chemical symbol surrounded by dots(Gilbert Newton Lewis)

Chemical symbol
o represents the nucleus and inner e
Dots
o represents the valence e- of the atom