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CET 3135-(002)

Mechanics of Materials with Laboratory


Spring 2014
Laboratory Report
Lab (2) (Poisson Ratio)

Submitted by: Haroon Rashidi


Laboratory Date: 02/06/14
Date of Submission: 02/13/14
Submitted to: Dr. Runing Zhang
Team Members: Haroon Rashidi, Anson Turner, Ceana Prado
Nickel, Von Watren, Samuel Douglas
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................3
THEORECTICAL BACKGROUND.................................................................................4
LIST OF EQUIPMENT......................................................................................................5
LIST OF MATERIALS......................................................................................................5
PROCEDURES..................................................................................................................6
DATA & RESULTS........................................................................................................7
CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................................9
REFERENCES..........................................................................................................10
APPENDIX A Test Data & Computed Material Properties............................................11
SIGNATURE PAGE..12

Abstract
The purpose of the following experiment is to determine Poisson's ratio for an aluminum bar.
Poisson's ratio refers to a characteristic dimensionless number which accurately predicts the
amount of strain experienced in non-parallel directions to an applied load. To find this value, the
Instron 5569 was used to apply force to an aluminum bar with dual strain gages to record
changes in lateral and longitudinal strain. Poisson's ratio for the aluminum specimen was found
to be 0.347, which is less than 3.75% from the scientifically accepted 0.334.

Introduction & Background


When a material experiences deformation, it not only changes on the axis of the applied load, but
also in the perpendicular direction as well. This is known as Poisson's effect and can be predicted
by Poisson's ratio. For a specimen experiencing a simple uniaxial load, this ratio is expressed as:

lateral
longitudinal

An axial, concentric load will be applied to the aluminum tension specimen by the Instron Load
Frame. This load application will cause deformation of the specimen. The axial elongation is
measured directly using the BLH Strain Gage Recorder which will be attached to the specimen. From
the axial load, the axial engineering stress can be determined using the following equation:
= /
Where is the axial engineering stress; P is the axial tensile load applied to the specimen; and A is
the original cross-sectional area of the specimen. To determine true stress, rather than engineering
stress, the same equation above is used. However, the actual cross-sectional area of the specimen, at
the time the load measurement is taken, is used in the above equation to determine the true stress. In
our case, the cross-sectional area of the specimen will always be decreasing as axial tensile load is
applied.
When the specimen is subjected to load, the shape of the specimen is altered. The change in any
linear dimension is called deformation. This deformation is typically reported as engineering strain
which is deformation divided by the original specimen length and can be determined by the
following equation:
= /
Where is the axial engineering strain; L is the total deformation or change in length due to the
axial load application; and L is the original length of the specimen. To determine true strain, rather
than engineering strain, the same equation above is used. However, the actual length of the specimen,
at the time the load measurement is taken, is used in the above equation to determine the true strain.
In our case, the length of the specimen will always be increasing as axial tensile load is applied.

LIST OF EQUIPMENT
Several pieces of equipment will be necessary to perform the Steel Tension Test. A 30 minute
setup up time is recommended in advance of the start of the test. The list of equipment for this
test is as follows:
1.
Instron 5569 Load Frame (50 kiloNewton 11,250 lb. force capacity)
2.
BlueHill Software
3.
Tension grippers for Instron 5569 Load Frame
4.
BLH Strain Gage Recorder (Wheatstone Bridge)
5.
All of the equipment was essential for the success and safety of the experiment. The
Instron Load Frame was the equipment applying and taking away the load to the bar. The
BlueHill Software was what controlled the Instron, and thereby the compressive load applied to
the bar. BlueHill also collected all the data in the experiment, such as the amount of load applied
and the deflection of the bar. The tension grippers for Instron 5569 Load Frame held the material
in place. And the BLH Strain Gage Recorder recorded the strain.
LIST OF MATERIALS
The specimen in the experiment was an aluminum bar.

PROCEDURES
1. Start the computer with the BlueHill software.
2. Turn on Instron 5569 Load Frame. (this is where specimen will be placed)
3. Install BLH Strain Gage Recorder
4. Initiate BlueHill software on microcomputer.
5. Open the pre-programmed spring compression test from BlueHill software menu.
6. Ensure proper connections of the BLH Strain Gage Recorder to the specimen.
7. Begin loading and unloading.

Data
Load
[lb]
0
200
400
600
800
1000
800
600
400
200
0

Stress [psi] Strain


Strain
Young's Modulus Poiss
[]
(longitudinal) [l]
(Transverse) [t]
[psi]
Ratio
0
0
0
0
519.48
5.10E-05
-1.70E-05
1.02E+07
1038.96
1.00E-04
-3.40E-05
1.04E+07
1558.44
1.49E-04
-5.20E-05
1.05E+07
0
2077.92
1.98E-04
-6.90E-05
1.05E+07
2597.4
2.50E-04
-8.60E-05
1.04E+07
2077.92
2.00E-04
-6.90E-05
1.04E+07
1558.44
1.49E-04
-5.30E-05
1.04E+07
1038.96
1.00E-04
-3.50E-05
1.04E+07
519.48
5.00E-05
-1.80E-05
1.04E+07
0
0
0
0

Young's Modulus [sample] [psi]=

E=/

Poisson's Ratio [sample]=

=-(t/l)
G=E/
(2(1+))

Modulus of rigidity [for all values] =

1.02E+0
7
0.333333
333
3822205.
551
3876865.
672
3876974.
625
3893503.
411
3880208.
333
3862453.
532

3831968.
725
3848148.
148
3819852.
941

Conclusion
The results obtained in this experiment were acceptable. The percentage errors of this lab werent
as high as they could be considering human error. The tools used in this experiment can also
contribute to the high percentage error. Collecting more data could have brought the percentage
error down slightly, but ultimately, a 3.75% error is not too unacceptable.

References
"Poisson's Ratio." Engineering Tool Box. N.p.. Web. 13 Feb 2014.
<http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/poissons-ratio-d_1224.html>.

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Appendix

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SIGNATURE PAGE
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Mechanics of Materials Testing Laboratory CET 3135 Section 002


Laboratory No. 2 Poissons Ratio
Group No. 3: Haroon Rashidi, Anson Turner, Ceana Prado Nickel, Von Watren,
Samuel Douglas

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