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Faculty of Civil Engineering

Institute of Dynamic of Structure


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Ruge

Report

Title:

The Track bridge-interaction due to longitudinal


loads.

By:

Yaseen Srewil

The lecturer:

Date:

Prof. Dr.-Ing. P. Ruge

30/04/2007

Faculty of Civil Engineering


Institute for static and Dynamic
Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden
Rehab. Eng. Master Program

Content

Summary....................................................................................................................................2
1 Introduction...............................................................................................................................2
2 Ballast Track System .................................................................................................................2
3 Longitudinal action due to uniform tempearture change ....................................................3
4 Longitudinal action dsue to braking forces............................................................................4
5 Longitudinal action dsue to traction .......................................................................................5
6 The effect of bending of the supporting bridge deck ..........................................................6
7 Sudden change of ballast stifness ..........................................................................................7
8 Conclusion .. ........................8
9 acknldegment ..9
10 References: ...............................................................................................................................9

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Faculty of Civil Engineering


Institute for static and Dynamic
Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden
Rehab. Eng. Master Program

Summary
The special lecture, which is given within frameworks of special lectures in Rehabilitation
Engineering program in Dresden University of technical for third semester by prof. Ruge,
was discussed the Track bridge railway interaction due to longitudinal loads. This lecture
concentrated at the truth the interaction between Track and structure cannot be
neglected specially for the rail continuously welded[1]. In addition, the steel bridge deck
will expand under high temperature. Therefore, there is different between the railway
before the bridge and railway behaviour on the bridge. This different behaviour should be
considered in design process.

1 Introduction
The interaction between rails and bridge aimed to recognize a safety and comfort
standards of bridges and running train vehicles. The rails are continuous between a bridge
and embankment at one or both ends of the structure, Even though the weight and
geometry of trains on rails is exactly known, as for bridges the Railway Bridges load models
do not describe actual loads. They have been selected in such a way that their effects,
within dynamics increments, which are taken into account separately. The longitudinal
rails forces have significant effect on railway bridge design, which resulted generally by:
the uniform temperature change ( t ), braking with braking forces ( P N ), changing of

[ m]

supporting structure or bending of the bridge deck[1], and sudden change of ballast
stiffness when the train cross the bridge. The longitudinal action due to traction or braking
will be resisted partly by the earthworks behind the abutment where the rails are
continuous and the remainder through bridge bearings. The thermal variations, or bending
of bridge deck, will produce indirect longitudinal at the bridge bearings. The longitudinal
action shall also be taken into consideration when designing the bridge bearings,
substructure and superstructure.[2] Moreover, the mutual influences of bridge and rail
structural behaviour are known as Track/bridge interaction. In this report will discuss these
phenomenons separately in detail. However, for the Ballasted Track Classical Track
which will get overview on it.

2 Ballasted Track System


The classical railway
track consists of a
flat
framework
made up of rails and
sleepers which is
supported
on
ballast. The ballast
bed rests on a subballast layer that
forms the transition
layer
to
the
formation[4]. Figure 1
and Figure 2 show

Figure 1 Track with it different components: rails, rialpads, fastening, sleepers,


subballast, subgrade.[5]

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Faculty of Civil Engineering


Institute for static and Dynamic
Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden
Rehab. Eng. Master Program

the construction principle of the classical track structure. Fastenings connect the rails and
sleepers. These components and other structures such as switches and crossings are all
considered as part of the track. The important development, since the begging of the
railways, was after Second World War includes introduction of continuous welded rail, use
of concrete sleepers, heavier rail-profiles, innovative elastic fastenings, mechanisation of
maintenance, and introduction of advanced measuring equipment and maintenance
management systems.

Figure 2 principle of Track structure longitudinal section.[4]

3 The longitudinal action due to uniform temperature change


The longitudinal action due to temperature variation shall determine according the
Eurocode 1-1991-3:1995 & its commentary.
For single-span bridges not more than 15 m long, carrying standard directly fastened track
that is continuous over both ends of the deck, the characteristic value of the longitudinal
action to be taken into account at the bearings is given by:
Where:
FTk = 40LT (in kN) per track
(FTk ): The characteristic value of the longitudinal action due to temperature
variation that shall be taken into account at the bearing level. This action results
from the expansion movement of the bridge relative to the continuous ballasted
track.[2]
( LT): is the expansion length in (m).
For bridges carrying directly fastened track other than those covered by the formulae
above, or for any bridge where the track has expansion devices at both ends of the deck
then: FTk = 0
For bridge carrying ballasted track which is continuous over both ends of the deck and in
which the fixed bearing is at one end, the
characteristic value of the longitudinal
action to be taken into account at the
bearings is given by:
L1
L2
FTk = 8LT (in kN) per track.
For bridge carrying ballasted track which is
continuous over both ends of the deck and in
Figure 3 Deck with the fixed bearing not
located at one end [2]
which the fixed bearing is not located at one end,

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Faculty of Civil Engineering


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Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden
Rehab. Eng. Master Program

the characteristic value of the longitudinal action to be taken into account at the
bearings is given by :
FTk = 8(L2 -L1) (in kN) per track see figure 3.
For bridge carrying ballasted track with an expansion device adjacent to the moving end
of the deck and continuous over the fixed bearing at the other end, the characteristic
value of the longitudinal action to be taken into account at the bearings is given by:
FTk = (400+5LT) (in kN) per track.
This force is limited to 1100 KN per track.

4 The longitudinal action due to the barking forces


. The braking forces which acting
at the top of the rails in
longitudinal direction of the rails
commonly assumed as constant
distributed forces (P) in section
along each wagon as illustrated in
Figure 4. The result that obtained
from this assumption will be
satisfied. The characteristic values
of braking forces (P), which are
applicable for all types of track
Figure 4 Track-bridge system with constant braking force[2]
construction,
e.g.
continues
welded rails, with or without
expansion devises, Is taken in theory as following:
The braking force (P) is caused by the vertical trainload (Pv) multiplied by the frictional
P ( x , t ) = PV ( x , t ). (t )
coefficient () [3]:
According to the German Railway code, this value is time-dependent with a peak during
the last four second before train stops:

1 (t ) = max [0.0189 t ]

if :

2 (t ) = max [0.016833 e 0.891626 ( t 22 .3) + 0.404217 ]

0 .0 s t 22 .3 s
22 .3 s t 26 .3 s

The maximum value max has to


be
fixed
according
to
environmental
conditions
like
wheel rail-contact, rain, ice,
maintenance, and so on.
A Fourier-series expansion for the
frictional coefficient in figure 5
with an active period of T=26.3
seconds
shows
some
first
significant harmonics. [2]

Figure 5 Frictional Coefficient versus time [2]

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Faculty of Civil Engineering


Institute for static and Dynamic
Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden
Rehab. Eng. Master Program

Other approaches can be use for calculating the barking forces on bridge, depending on
the influence length ( La,b) for braking effects for the structure elements considered.
The characteristic value of braking forces, which are applicable to all type of track
construction, e.g. continuous welding rails or joint rails, with or without expansion devices,
should be taken as following[6]:

Qlbk = 20 [kn / m ] .La ,b 6000 kn.

Qlbk (kn ) : The characteristic value of braking.


La ,b ( m ) : The influence length for braking.
For load models 71, SW/0, and load model HSLM, this according to the load models which
are given in EN 1991-2 for railway loading.
Qlbk = 35 kn / m .La ,b
For load model: SW/2.

Qlbk = 2 .5[kn / m ] .La ,b

For load model unloaded train.

In special cases, like for lines carrying special traffic (restricted high-speed passenger
traffic for example). The braking forces may be taken as equal to 25% of sum of axils-loads
acting on the influence length of the action effect of the structural element considered
with maximum value for Qlbk = 6000 kn . [6]

5 The longitudinal action due to traction.


According to the same previous approaches, the traction is given longitudinal forces and
these forces commonly considered as uniformly distributed over the corresponding
influence length La ,b ( m ) for traction effect for the structural element considered.[6]
The characteristic value in this case should be taken as following:

Qlak = 33[kn / m ] .La ,b 1000 kn.


Qlak (kn ) The characteristic value of traction.
La ,b ( m ) The influence length for traction.
For load models 71, SW/0, SW/2, unloaded train and HSLM.
As in case of barking forces, for line carrzing special traffic. The traction forces may be
taken as equal to 25% of sum of axial-loads acting on the influence length ( La ,b ) of the
action

Qlak

effect

for
= 1000 kn. [6]

the

structural

element

considered

with

maximum

value

for

There are other considerations for above load such as the mulicomponent action when
defining the characteristic value of traction and braking, for more information can find in
the reference [6].

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Faculty of Civil Engineering


Institute for static and Dynamic
Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden
Rehab. Eng. Master Program

6 The effect of bending of the supporting bridge deck.


The bending of the supporting bridge deck consider as one of longitudinal forces causes,
where the rail and bridge-deck are coupled throw the ballast or fastening system. The
longitudinal forces caused by the bending of structure which results of applying the live
load. The system illustrates in the figure 6.
For
donating
the
longitudinal
displacement of the upper surface will be
used the following symbol [1]; Zb, Zn, and
Za; The natural axis and left-hand side
elastic support of the bridge respectively.
The displacement of neutral axis and the
slope of the bending line w(x) define the
deformation Zb. Z b ( x ) = Z n + w( x ) h0 .
The rail stress due to bending id influenced
by relative location of the neutral axis
and the relative maximum vertical
displacement .

h
= 0,
hu

)
w
= ,
L

L
)
w = w ( x = ).
2

For single-span beam of bending


stiffness EI under constant live load q0 the
deflection of natural axis is described by
famous formula:

w( x ) =

Figure 6 Bending of the supporting structure [2]

q 0 L4 x
x
x
( 2 ( ) 3 + ( ) 4 ). Where, is a dynamic magnification factor [2]
24 EI L
L
L

Using the last equation, the maximum deflection at the centre of the span can be given

L
5 q 0 L4
)
w
=
w
(
x
=
)
=
,
as:
2
16 24 EI

5 q 0 L3
384 EI

The relative maximum deflection follows. using the last equation, the slope of bending line
can be formulated in terms of .

w ( x ) =

16
x
x
(1 6( ) 2 + 4 ( ) 3 ).
5
L
L

This equation can be rewritten in term


of a local element coordinate xj such as
illustrate in figure 7.

16
x
x
(1 6( ) 2 + 4 ( ) 3 ).
5
L
L
0 x lj
w ( x ) =

Figure 7 Embedded rail element of length lj


described by local coordinate xj. [2]

There are two cases:


6

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Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden
Rehab. Eng. Master Program

Elastic coupling[1]

Provided that the elastic coupling between rail and bridge is retained, the additional the
displacement of the rail due to bending of the structure is described by differential
equation.

EA z R c1 ( z R z B ) = 0

C1; stiffness is used since the track is loaded by live load q0.

By solving the differential equation, can be evaluated the bending of the structure
parameter.

Plastic situation (slip)[1]

For this case the additional displacement of the rail described by the following differential
equation.

EA z R = q ( x ).
The coupling between rail and structure is not effective anymore. A longitudinal restoring
force q(x) acts on the rail which depends on the available elastic deformation capacity
due to the complete preceding loading process. The situation bending (plastic) is thus
completely analogous to the loading case T (plastic). Assuming a linear variation of
longitudinal resistance q(x) between nodal values, the element stiffness matrix Kj and righthand side vector rj the vector of unknown variable.

7 Sudden change of ballast stiffness


The sudden change of ballast stiffness when the train crosses the bridge causes
considerable longitudinal forces on the bridge. Many studies about the ballast behaviour
are done to determine the actual behaviour of ballast and its stiffness where the coupling
element between rail and bridge depends on whether the track is loaded or not. Then,
the value of the parameter C [N/m2] (the distribution stiffness) change suddenly when a
train reaches the bridge. This leads to an additional restoring force, acting on both a rail
and structure[1].

q = c.u D ,

c = c1 cu .

- C1 [N/m2] for unloaded track.


- C2 [N/m2] for loaded track.

uD in the equation above is the


relative deformation of the
coupling element due to all
preceding loading cases. Which
define as following:

uD = u R u B

)
for[u R u B ] p u

)
uD = sign(uR uB )u

)
for uR uB u,

a limitation of q is given:

)
)
c.u q c.u

Figure 8 Longitudinal Track-bridge interaction


system omdel (a). (b) coupling element uB >uR- [2]

This additional restoring force should be


analysed as a separate loading case in connection with bending of the bridge deck due
7

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Faculty of Civil Engineering


Institute for static and Dynamic
Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden
Rehab. Eng. Master Program

to live load and braking. Thus, relieving load -q should be consider prior to subsequent
temperature change, if assumed that the train has left the bridge again.
The additional displacement of the rail is described in elastic coupling case by the
differential equation as the following[1]:

EA z R c1 ( z R z B ) = q
Where, c1 the stiffness of loaded ballast. And the additional displacement of the bridge
due to the sudden change of ballast stiffness is constant.
The additional displacement of rail due to the sudden change of ballast stiffness in plastic
situation is described by the following differential equation.[1]

EA z R = q ( x ) q ( x )
The relationship between the resistance and displacement for ballast track can be
presented as illustrate in figure 9 [7] [1].
The diagram illustrate that the stiffness as
soon as the load increases.
In winter the ballast, behave like concrete
due to ice action between it.

Figure 9 Resistance/Displacement relationship for


ballasted track. [2]

8 Conclusion

The longitudinal forces computation is very significant and should be taken into
account separately and the coupled track bridge analysis is required due to the
interaction between the track and structure.

Eurocode recommended an independent treatment of the loading cases


temperature change ,bending of the supporting structure and braking traction
action taking into account nonlinear stiffness law and the subsequent summation of
the results.

It is possible to use the result of single- track bridge model for double-track bridge
with an abutment stiffness KA2 using KA = KA2/2 in the calculation.

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Faculty of Civil Engineering


Institute for static and Dynamic
Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden
Rehab. Eng. Master Program

9 Acknowledgment
I would like to thank Prof. Ruge and the co-workers in the institute of Static and Dynamic,
for the efforts to organize these very useful lectures.

10 References:
[1]

[2]
[3]

[4]
[5]
[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

P. Ruge. & C. Birk.: Longitudinal forces in continuously welded rails on bridgedecks


due to nonlinear trackbridge interaction. University of TU Dresden, Faculty of civil
engineering, Elsevier Ltd. Computers and Structure (2006).
ENV 1991-3 - Eurocode 1 Basis of design and actions on structures . Part 3 Traffic
loads on bridges .
J. Toth.; P. Ruge.: Spectra assessment of mesh adaptation for the analysis of
dynamical longitudinal behavior of Railway bridges, Research Journal: Archive of
Applied Mechanics, 71, (Springer, Berlin, Germany), 453-462 (2001)
Esveld, Coenraad.: Modern Railway Track, 2nd edit. M RT- Production, the
Netherlands, 2001.
Iwnicki, Simon (eds.).: HandBook Of Railway Vehicle Dynamic, CRC, Taylor & Francis
Group. 2006.
Sanpaolesi, Luca. & Croce, Pietro. (eds.).: Design of Bridge, Guide to basic of bridge
design related to Eurocodes supplemented by practical example. Leonardo da
Vinci pilot project, Pisa, 2005.
Monnickwndam, Alan.: Track-Bridge interaction and Direct Track fixing, 3rd Network
Rail sponsored supplier Conf. on The Maintenance and Renewal of Bridges, Bristol,
2006 , p 61-64.
Johansson, A & Nielsen, J C O.: Out-of-round railway wheels- wheel-rail contact
forces and track response derived from field tests and numerical simulations.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and
Rapid Transit. Professional Engineering publishing, 217 (2003), pp 135-146.
V. Markine. & C. Esveld.: ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL AND LATERAL BEHAVIOUR OF
A CWR TRACK USING A COMPUTER SYSTEM LONGIN. TU Delft University, Railway
department.

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