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You are on page 1of 10

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Ruge

Report

Title:

loads.

By:

Yaseen Srewil

The lecturer:

Date:

30/04/2007

Institute for static and Dynamic

Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden

Rehab. Eng. Master Program

Content

Summary....................................................................................................................................2

1 Introduction...............................................................................................................................2

2 Ballast Track System .................................................................................................................2

3 Longitudinal action due to uniform tempearture change ....................................................3

4 Longitudinal action dsue to braking forces............................................................................4

5 Longitudinal action dsue to traction .......................................................................................5

6 The effect of bending of the supporting bridge deck ..........................................................6

7 Sudden change of ballast stifness ..........................................................................................7

8 Conclusion .. ........................8

9 acknldegment ..9

10 References: ...............................................................................................................................9

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Institute for static and Dynamic

Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden

Rehab. Eng. Master Program

Summary

The special lecture, which is given within frameworks of special lectures in Rehabilitation

Engineering program in Dresden University of technical for third semester by prof. Ruge,

was discussed the Track bridge railway interaction due to longitudinal loads. This lecture

concentrated at the truth the interaction between Track and structure cannot be

neglected specially for the rail continuously welded[1]. In addition, the steel bridge deck

will expand under high temperature. Therefore, there is different between the railway

before the bridge and railway behaviour on the bridge. This different behaviour should be

considered in design process.

1 Introduction

The interaction between rails and bridge aimed to recognize a safety and comfort

standards of bridges and running train vehicles. The rails are continuous between a bridge

and embankment at one or both ends of the structure, Even though the weight and

geometry of trains on rails is exactly known, as for bridges the Railway Bridges load models

do not describe actual loads. They have been selected in such a way that their effects,

within dynamics increments, which are taken into account separately. The longitudinal

rails forces have significant effect on railway bridge design, which resulted generally by:

the uniform temperature change ( t ), braking with braking forces ( P N ), changing of

[ m]

supporting structure or bending of the bridge deck[1], and sudden change of ballast

stiffness when the train cross the bridge. The longitudinal action due to traction or braking

will be resisted partly by the earthworks behind the abutment where the rails are

continuous and the remainder through bridge bearings. The thermal variations, or bending

of bridge deck, will produce indirect longitudinal at the bridge bearings. The longitudinal

action shall also be taken into consideration when designing the bridge bearings,

substructure and superstructure.[2] Moreover, the mutual influences of bridge and rail

structural behaviour are known as Track/bridge interaction. In this report will discuss these

phenomenons separately in detail. However, for the Ballasted Track Classical Track

which will get overview on it.

The classical railway

track consists of a

flat

framework

made up of rails and

sleepers which is

supported

on

ballast. The ballast

bed rests on a subballast layer that

forms the transition

layer

to

the

formation[4]. Figure 1

and Figure 2 show

subballast, subgrade.[5]

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Institute for static and Dynamic

Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden

Rehab. Eng. Master Program

the construction principle of the classical track structure. Fastenings connect the rails and

sleepers. These components and other structures such as switches and crossings are all

considered as part of the track. The important development, since the begging of the

railways, was after Second World War includes introduction of continuous welded rail, use

of concrete sleepers, heavier rail-profiles, innovative elastic fastenings, mechanisation of

maintenance, and introduction of advanced measuring equipment and maintenance

management systems.

The longitudinal action due to temperature variation shall determine according the

Eurocode 1-1991-3:1995 & its commentary.

For single-span bridges not more than 15 m long, carrying standard directly fastened track

that is continuous over both ends of the deck, the characteristic value of the longitudinal

action to be taken into account at the bearings is given by:

Where:

FTk = 40LT (in kN) per track

(FTk ): The characteristic value of the longitudinal action due to temperature

variation that shall be taken into account at the bearing level. This action results

from the expansion movement of the bridge relative to the continuous ballasted

track.[2]

( LT): is the expansion length in (m).

For bridges carrying directly fastened track other than those covered by the formulae

above, or for any bridge where the track has expansion devices at both ends of the deck

then: FTk = 0

For bridge carrying ballasted track which is continuous over both ends of the deck and in

which the fixed bearing is at one end, the

characteristic value of the longitudinal

action to be taken into account at the

bearings is given by:

L1

L2

FTk = 8LT (in kN) per track.

For bridge carrying ballasted track which is

continuous over both ends of the deck and in

Figure 3 Deck with the fixed bearing not

located at one end [2]

which the fixed bearing is not located at one end,

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Institute for static and Dynamic

Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden

Rehab. Eng. Master Program

the characteristic value of the longitudinal action to be taken into account at the

bearings is given by :

FTk = 8(L2 -L1) (in kN) per track see figure 3.

For bridge carrying ballasted track with an expansion device adjacent to the moving end

of the deck and continuous over the fixed bearing at the other end, the characteristic

value of the longitudinal action to be taken into account at the bearings is given by:

FTk = (400+5LT) (in kN) per track.

This force is limited to 1100 KN per track.

. The braking forces which acting

at the top of the rails in

longitudinal direction of the rails

commonly assumed as constant

distributed forces (P) in section

along each wagon as illustrated in

Figure 4. The result that obtained

from this assumption will be

satisfied. The characteristic values

of braking forces (P), which are

applicable for all types of track

Figure 4 Track-bridge system with constant braking force[2]

construction,

e.g.

continues

welded rails, with or without

expansion devises, Is taken in theory as following:

The braking force (P) is caused by the vertical trainload (Pv) multiplied by the frictional

P ( x , t ) = PV ( x , t ). (t )

coefficient () [3]:

According to the German Railway code, this value is time-dependent with a peak during

the last four second before train stops:

1 (t ) = max [0.0189 t ]

if :

0 .0 s t 22 .3 s

22 .3 s t 26 .3 s

be

fixed

according

to

environmental

conditions

like

wheel rail-contact, rain, ice,

maintenance, and so on.

A Fourier-series expansion for the

frictional coefficient in figure 5

with an active period of T=26.3

seconds

shows

some

first

significant harmonics. [2]

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Institute for static and Dynamic

Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden

Rehab. Eng. Master Program

Other approaches can be use for calculating the barking forces on bridge, depending on

the influence length ( La,b) for braking effects for the structure elements considered.

The characteristic value of braking forces, which are applicable to all type of track

construction, e.g. continuous welding rails or joint rails, with or without expansion devices,

should be taken as following[6]:

La ,b ( m ) : The influence length for braking.

For load models 71, SW/0, and load model HSLM, this according to the load models which

are given in EN 1991-2 for railway loading.

Qlbk = 35 kn / m .La ,b

For load model: SW/2.

In special cases, like for lines carrying special traffic (restricted high-speed passenger

traffic for example). The braking forces may be taken as equal to 25% of sum of axils-loads

acting on the influence length of the action effect of the structural element considered

with maximum value for Qlbk = 6000 kn . [6]

According to the same previous approaches, the traction is given longitudinal forces and

these forces commonly considered as uniformly distributed over the corresponding

influence length La ,b ( m ) for traction effect for the structural element considered.[6]

The characteristic value in this case should be taken as following:

Qlak (kn ) The characteristic value of traction.

La ,b ( m ) The influence length for traction.

For load models 71, SW/0, SW/2, unloaded train and HSLM.

As in case of barking forces, for line carrzing special traffic. The traction forces may be

taken as equal to 25% of sum of axial-loads acting on the influence length ( La ,b ) of the

action

Qlak

effect

for

= 1000 kn. [6]

the

structural

element

considered

with

maximum

value

for

There are other considerations for above load such as the mulicomponent action when

defining the characteristic value of traction and braking, for more information can find in

the reference [6].

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Institute for static and Dynamic

Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden

Rehab. Eng. Master Program

The bending of the supporting bridge deck consider as one of longitudinal forces causes,

where the rail and bridge-deck are coupled throw the ballast or fastening system. The

longitudinal forces caused by the bending of structure which results of applying the live

load. The system illustrates in the figure 6.

For

donating

the

longitudinal

displacement of the upper surface will be

used the following symbol [1]; Zb, Zn, and

Za; The natural axis and left-hand side

elastic support of the bridge respectively.

The displacement of neutral axis and the

slope of the bending line w(x) define the

deformation Zb. Z b ( x ) = Z n + w( x ) h0 .

The rail stress due to bending id influenced

by relative location of the neutral axis

and the relative maximum vertical

displacement .

h

= 0,

hu

)

w

= ,

L

L

)

w = w ( x = ).

2

stiffness EI under constant live load q0 the

deflection of natural axis is described by

famous formula:

w( x ) =

q 0 L4 x

x

x

( 2 ( ) 3 + ( ) 4 ). Where, is a dynamic magnification factor [2]

24 EI L

L

L

Using the last equation, the maximum deflection at the centre of the span can be given

L

5 q 0 L4

)

w

=

w

(

x

=

)

=

,

as:

2

16 24 EI

5 q 0 L3

384 EI

The relative maximum deflection follows. using the last equation, the slope of bending line

can be formulated in terms of .

w ( x ) =

16

x

x

(1 6( ) 2 + 4 ( ) 3 ).

5

L

L

of a local element coordinate xj such as

illustrate in figure 7.

16

x

x

(1 6( ) 2 + 4 ( ) 3 ).

5

L

L

0 x lj

w ( x ) =

described by local coordinate xj. [2]

6

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Institute for static and Dynamic

Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden

Rehab. Eng. Master Program

Elastic coupling[1]

Provided that the elastic coupling between rail and bridge is retained, the additional the

displacement of the rail due to bending of the structure is described by differential

equation.

EA z R c1 ( z R z B ) = 0

C1; stiffness is used since the track is loaded by live load q0.

By solving the differential equation, can be evaluated the bending of the structure

parameter.

For this case the additional displacement of the rail described by the following differential

equation.

EA z R = q ( x ).

The coupling between rail and structure is not effective anymore. A longitudinal restoring

force q(x) acts on the rail which depends on the available elastic deformation capacity

due to the complete preceding loading process. The situation bending (plastic) is thus

completely analogous to the loading case T (plastic). Assuming a linear variation of

longitudinal resistance q(x) between nodal values, the element stiffness matrix Kj and righthand side vector rj the vector of unknown variable.

The sudden change of ballast stiffness when the train crosses the bridge causes

considerable longitudinal forces on the bridge. Many studies about the ballast behaviour

are done to determine the actual behaviour of ballast and its stiffness where the coupling

element between rail and bridge depends on whether the track is loaded or not. Then,

the value of the parameter C [N/m2] (the distribution stiffness) change suddenly when a

train reaches the bridge. This leads to an additional restoring force, acting on both a rail

and structure[1].

q = c.u D ,

c = c1 cu .

- C2 [N/m2] for loaded track.

relative deformation of the

coupling element due to all

preceding loading cases. Which

define as following:

uD = u R u B

)

for[u R u B ] p u

)

uD = sign(uR uB )u

)

for uR uB u,

a limitation of q is given:

)

)

c.u q c.u

system omdel (a). (b) coupling element uB >uR- [2]

analysed as a separate loading case in connection with bending of the bridge deck due

7

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Institute for static and Dynamic

Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden

Rehab. Eng. Master Program

to live load and braking. Thus, relieving load -q should be consider prior to subsequent

temperature change, if assumed that the train has left the bridge again.

The additional displacement of the rail is described in elastic coupling case by the

differential equation as the following[1]:

EA z R c1 ( z R z B ) = q

Where, c1 the stiffness of loaded ballast. And the additional displacement of the bridge

due to the sudden change of ballast stiffness is constant.

The additional displacement of rail due to the sudden change of ballast stiffness in plastic

situation is described by the following differential equation.[1]

EA z R = q ( x ) q ( x )

The relationship between the resistance and displacement for ballast track can be

presented as illustrate in figure 9 [7] [1].

The diagram illustrate that the stiffness as

soon as the load increases.

In winter the ballast, behave like concrete

due to ice action between it.

ballasted track. [2]

8 Conclusion

The longitudinal forces computation is very significant and should be taken into

account separately and the coupled track bridge analysis is required due to the

interaction between the track and structure.

temperature change ,bending of the supporting structure and braking traction

action taking into account nonlinear stiffness law and the subsequent summation of

the results.

It is possible to use the result of single- track bridge model for double-track bridge

with an abutment stiffness KA2 using KA = KA2/2 in the calculation.

01/04/2007 10:27:00

Institute for static and Dynamic

Report of Special Lectures

TU .Dresden

Rehab. Eng. Master Program

9 Acknowledgment

I would like to thank Prof. Ruge and the co-workers in the institute of Static and Dynamic,

for the efforts to organize these very useful lectures.

10 References:

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

due to nonlinear trackbridge interaction. University of TU Dresden, Faculty of civil

engineering, Elsevier Ltd. Computers and Structure (2006).

ENV 1991-3 - Eurocode 1 Basis of design and actions on structures . Part 3 Traffic

loads on bridges .

J. Toth.; P. Ruge.: Spectra assessment of mesh adaptation for the analysis of

dynamical longitudinal behavior of Railway bridges, Research Journal: Archive of

Applied Mechanics, 71, (Springer, Berlin, Germany), 453-462 (2001)

Esveld, Coenraad.: Modern Railway Track, 2nd edit. M RT- Production, the

Netherlands, 2001.

Iwnicki, Simon (eds.).: HandBook Of Railway Vehicle Dynamic, CRC, Taylor & Francis

Group. 2006.

Sanpaolesi, Luca. & Croce, Pietro. (eds.).: Design of Bridge, Guide to basic of bridge

design related to Eurocodes supplemented by practical example. Leonardo da

Vinci pilot project, Pisa, 2005.

Monnickwndam, Alan.: Track-Bridge interaction and Direct Track fixing, 3rd Network

Rail sponsored supplier Conf. on The Maintenance and Renewal of Bridges, Bristol,

2006 , p 61-64.

Johansson, A & Nielsen, J C O.: Out-of-round railway wheels- wheel-rail contact

forces and track response derived from field tests and numerical simulations.

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and

Rapid Transit. Professional Engineering publishing, 217 (2003), pp 135-146.

V. Markine. & C. Esveld.: ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL AND LATERAL BEHAVIOUR OF

A CWR TRACK USING A COMPUTER SYSTEM LONGIN. TU Delft University, Railway

department.

01/04/2007 10:27:00

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