418 views

Original Title: Lab 4 - Photoelasticity

Uploaded by Haroon Rashidi

Lab 4 - Photoelasticity

Photoelasticity Lab

© All Rights Reserved

- Manual for Advanced Design
- Photoelasticity Report
- Photo Elasticity
- CET 3135 Lab Report 2-Poisson's Ratio
- Gd 3611171122
- Deflection of Curved Bars
- Stress Concentration Factors and Notch Sensitivity
- Photo Elastic Report
- IES Sylabus
- Stress Analysis of Different Geometries of Crane Hook Using Diffused Light Polari Scope-278
- Mechanics of Materials - Principal Stresses and Strains
- Mechanics of Materials - Cantilever Flexure Test
- second_order
- structural and modal analysis of A300 wing.pdf
- Finite Element Analysis on Crane Girder With Variable Cross Sections Based on ANSYS
- Nozzle Calc
- SIGMA Tutorial[1]
- Stressman Engineering - Study - Stresses in Pipe Bends With Different Angles R2
- Project Data and Rules of Thumb
- Preboard Exam Day 3

You are on page 1of 10

Spring 2014

Laboratory Report

Lab 4 Photoelasticity Demonstration

Rashidi

Laboratory Date: February 26, 2015

Date of Submission: March 5, 2015

Submitted to: Dr. Runing Zhang

Team Members: James Pettus, Marquis Smith, Haroon

Rashidi

Haroon Rashidi

3/5/2015

CET 3135-001

Table of Contents

Abstract................................................................................................................................3

Theoretical Background.......................................................................................................3

List of Equipment................................................................................................................4

List of Materials...................................................................................................................5

Test Procedures....................................................................................................................5

Summary of Data.................................................................................................................5

Results..................................................................................................................................6

Conclusions..........................................................................................................................8

Safety...................................................................................................................................9

References............................................................................................................................9

Signature Page...................................................................................................................10

Page 2 of 10

Haroon Rashidi

3/5/2015

CET 3135-001

Abstract

The primary goal of this experiment is to learn and implement the basic principles and

procedures of photoelasticity. It will demonstrate the ability of photoelasticity to depict

visually stress distributions over significantly large areas of a test specimen. The

technique is applied also to illustrate the experimental analysis of stress concentrations in

in two different cases. One Plexiglas (Bayer Makrolon GP Polycarbonate) sample

underwent forces applied by the Instron 5569. Contour maps and lines were seen with

help from the polarized lenses. These lines showed the stress concentration of the

specimen. The second case involved a cantilever beam of the same material with one end

clamped to the table while the other end was loaded with the weight of 21.8 Newtons.

Theoretical Background

Photoelasticity is a nondestructive, optical technique for experimental stress analysis that

is particularly useful for structural components with complex geometric configurations,

or subjected to complex loading conditions. Analytical methods of stress analysis are

very cumbersome, and often unavailable for such cases, thus amplifying the importance

and the need for a suitable experimental approach. Photoelasticity has been used widely,

over an extended period of time, for problems in which stress distributions have to be

investigated over large sections, or regions, of the structure. It provides quantitative

information on highly stressed areas and the associated peak stresses. Equally important

is the capability offered by photoelasticity to discern areas of low stress levels, where

structural materials are utilized inefficiently. The method of photoelasticity can be applied

in various forms to a wide variety of problems ranging from stress wave propagation to

fracture mechanics, to three-dimensional studies. The applications illustrated and

practiced in the following experiments are restricted, however, to two-dimensional static

problems

The photoelasticity experiment showed how the material reacted under different axial

loads. The principle applied to this test is the stress concentration which follows the

formulas below (Hibbeler, 2011):

When the geometrical shape of the material is not uniform, stress concentration is not

uniform. Thus, maximum stress is important to determine where failure will occur.

Page 3 of 10

Haroon Rashidi

3/5/2015

CET 3135-001

The principles of this lab include material properties, calculations and laws used, and

procedures introduced.

Material Properties:

Determine the value of the stress fringe value for the material provided.

o N/m2 / m / fringe or N/m

o and lb/in2 / in / fringe or lb/in

Experimentally determine the stresses acting in a beam and compare measured

and calculated results

o Calculate results using an analytical, continuum, beam model

o Discuss differences in terms of the measured stress fringe value

Experimentally determine the stress state in the model supplied and compare

measured and calculated results developed using either numerically or analytical

models

Calculations and laws used:

N = n + r :where n = lowest fringe order that moves to the test point, r = fraction

read from the COMPENSATOR scale

x= [ E / (1 +) ] * f * Nx= [ E / (1 +) ] * f *(n + r) : x and y= principal

stresses in test part surface, E = elastic modulus of test part, = Poissons ratio

of test part

Kt =x /nom: where nom was calculated to be 93.1 psi.

List of Equipment

Instron 5569 Load Frame (50 kN 11,250 lb. force capacity)

Microcomputer with BlueHill Software

Two (2) tension grippers for Intron 5569 Load Frame

Two (2) 0 to 0.25-inch tension jaws for each tension gripper

Two (2), 3-inch deep, 3-foot long steel beams

A 6-inch, C-clamp

A knife edge weight hanger

Two (2) weights with a hook weight hanger totaling 21.8 N (2kg & 217.3g

hanger)

Digital calipers

18-inch long measurement ruler

High resolution digital camera (optional piece of equipment)

Page 4 of 10

Haroon Rashidi

3/5/2015

CET 3135-001

List of Materials

The specimens that were used in the photoelasticity lab were made of Bayer Makrolon

GP Polyicarbonate (Plexiglas). One was a solid rectangle shape, the other, had a hole.

Test Procedures

2. Turn on the Instron 5569 Load Frame (this is where specimen will be placed)

3. Set up the Polariscope so that its beam of light hits the mid-point marker on

the cantilever beam apparatus.

4. Set the compensator ring on the analyzer to zero and move knob B to the

magnitude position. Make sure also that the dial counter of the angle reads 90

degrees.

5. The unloaded beam viewed through the analyzer should appear black except for

the edge of the beam and areas near where the beam is clamped. Load the beam

sufficiently to produce at least 3 fringes. The fringe colors in the coating should

vary correspondingly and progress as follows: black, yellow, red, purple, blue,

yellow, red, purple, blue green, yellow green, red, green.

6. Photograph and draw the sketch colorbands that appear.

7. Set up the Polariscope so that its beam illuminates the top of the center notch.

8. The total weight exerted on the system by the hanger and weights will be 21.8 lbs.

9. Make certain that the angle display reads 0 degrees

10. Load Tension specimen into Instron 5569(with and without hole) at a load of 35

lbs.

11. Photograph and hand draw specimen while in place

12. Each group of students tests the specimen and record their own drawing of the

data on paper

13. Each group should input the group number of their student group prior to testing,

and save their data at the completion of their respective test run.

Summary of Data

The photoelastic demonstration consisted of a cantilever beam apparatus and specific

specimen properties that are included in table along with stress and strain values.

Cantilever Beam Apparatus- Photo-Elastic Demonstration

Date: February 26, 2015

Group No. : 4

Material Type: Cantilever Beam

Height towards left: 4.531cm

Height towards center: 4.305cm

Height towards end: 3.983cm

Thickness: 0.592cm

Page 5 of 10

Haroon Rashidi

3/5/2015

Results

Results from the experiment are shown in the drawings and pictures below.

Page 6 of 10

CET 3135-001

Haroon Rashidi

3/5/2015

Page 7 of 10

CET 3135-001

Haroon Rashidi

3/5/2015

CET 3135-001

Conclusions

The results from the experiment were expected according to our theoretical information.

Contour maps of the holed-specimen showed the stress concentration in both ends of the

test object as well as the middle section, which experienced the most normal stress. The

uniform area of the specimen reflected little or no stress concentration. With heavier axial

load, the contour map became clearer at where the normal stress would focus.

The contour maps of the cantilever consisted wave forms which concentrated at the right

end of the specimen where the axial load applied. The light wave spread out to the

regions with less stress. Overall, the contour maps of the cantilever test object gave more

distinct photoelastic fringe patterns.

Since this experiments outcomes were graphic demonstration. Possible errors came from

set up process and dimension measurements of the specimen. Light interference also

contributed to quality of the contour maps.

From the results from the experiments, geometry of products should be considered when

designing engineering tool to prevent potential undesired failures.

Using white light the color chosen for observing of dark fringes was red. At low stress the

darkest fringes were nor primarily red. Light-material interactions, residual stress in the

specimen and specimen twist in the fixture can account for this variation in color. At the

three highest loads the uniform color indicates the close to ideal situation of uniform

stress. The Polariscope is set up for a light field and so with zero stress in an ideally clear

specimen the specimen will appear light. As the stress in the specimen increases a relative

retardation between the light waves develops.

There are several obvious difficulties and problems with the material calibration

procedure described above. For example,

- A series of measurements is needed and so problems in obtaining load measurements at

exactly similar fringe conditions are expected,

- The cross section area of the tensile specimen changes with different loads and so

problems with specifying the stress at different loads are expected.

A way around many material calibration problems is to use a procedure in which several

fringes of different order are available from one specimen at one load. The idea is to use a

specimen in which stress varies over the specimen and for which the stress state is

known.

Page 8 of 10

Haroon Rashidi

3/5/2015

CET 3135-001

Safety

Safety while performing the test was the highest priority in the experiment. The test was

conducted according lab manual procedures. Students performing the test kept a safe

distance away from the Instron machine in order to prevent injuries from the moving

parts. While the test was running, all group members observed the equipment so that any

signs of malfunction would be immediately noticed. We further increased our safety by

having the lab coordinator present to observe our experiment.

References

Harris, D.W. and Mattivi, M (2005). Manual for Engineering Materials Laboratory.

University of Colorado at Denver, Denver, CO.

Hibbeler, R.C. (2011). Mechanics of Materials (9th Edition), Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.

Steinhauser, Edward. "Mechanics of Materials Laboratory Notes." Steel Tensile Test.

Civil Engineering Technology, 2014. 1-9. Print.

Steinhauser, Edward. Example Lab Report 01. Denver, CO: Metropolitan State

University Denver, 2013. Print.

Page 9 of 10

Haroon Rashidi

3/5/2015

CET 3135-001

Signature Page

Mechanics of Materials Testing Laboratory- CET 3135- Section 001

Laboratory No. 4- Photo-Elastic Demonstration

Group No. 4 James Pettus, Marquis Smith, and Haroon Rashidi

James Pettus

Date

Marquis Smith

Date

Haroon Rashidi

Date

Page 10 of 10

- Manual for Advanced DesignUploaded bydumitru9moldovan
- Photoelasticity ReportUploaded byAnis Badshah
- Photo ElasticityUploaded byAnis Badshah
- CET 3135 Lab Report 2-Poisson's RatioUploaded byHaroon Rashidi
- Gd 3611171122Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Deflection of Curved BarsUploaded byfahmie7221
- Stress Concentration Factors and Notch SensitivityUploaded byapi-3710585
- Photo Elastic ReportUploaded byapi-3730129
- IES SylabusUploaded by03sri03
- Stress Analysis of Different Geometries of Crane Hook Using Diffused Light Polari Scope-278Uploaded bySuresh Subbaiyan
- Mechanics of Materials - Principal Stresses and StrainsUploaded byDavid Clark
- Mechanics of Materials - Cantilever Flexure TestUploaded byDavid Clark
- second_orderUploaded byPorMaster Civil
- structural and modal analysis of A300 wing.pdfUploaded byDarshak Bhuptani
- Finite Element Analysis on Crane Girder With Variable Cross Sections Based on ANSYSUploaded byPhanHatham
- Nozzle CalcUploaded byinseniorshah
- SIGMA Tutorial[1]Uploaded byfernando_setz
- Stressman Engineering - Study - Stresses in Pipe Bends With Different Angles R2Uploaded byDesmond Chang
- Project Data and Rules of ThumbUploaded byMikeChan
- Preboard Exam Day 3Uploaded byJaynie Lee Villaran
- Using Composites Analysis to Predict Interlaminar Stresses _ CAE AssociatesUploaded byDaniel
- Made Easy Cbt 2018Uploaded byAaron
- 125760133 Buckling of Thin Metal Shells 165Uploaded bypawkom
- AEI-405Uploaded byapi-26787131
- Notes 21 Primary Stress LoadsUploaded byHeronijosh Dg
- The Effect of Bending on the Normalized Stress at Roots of Threaded ConnectorsUploaded byTon Phichit
- kumar2016.pdfUploaded byhoudafrea
- gggeawUploaded byPrasad
- 5MEUploaded byAB Vettoor
- Bruno MasseUploaded byTiago Gonçalves

- Axes ConventionsUploaded byspiblu
- SFD-EC3-EC8Uploaded byRada Ioan
- 3_hit_re_500-hasUploaded byChristopher Garcia
- A C Engines and Jet Propulsion3Uploaded byMukesh Kumar
- Effect of Indium Addition on the Physical Properties of Al-PB Bearing Alloys Rapidly Quenched from MeltUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- ml591_20150824Uploaded byLong Le Quoc
- CE 61Uploaded byAbhilash Nagavarapu
- Www Step4success ComUploaded bystuart ashraf
- 10 MagnetismUploaded byAnjj Segundo
- MThesis_KurkiTUploaded bysachin_badke
- Pure Bending.pdfUploaded byAlvin Smith
- Measuring Avogadro's Number Using Brownian MotionUploaded bylifengpei
- TAP203 0 Turning EffectsUploaded bysagarnitishpirthee
- rigid frames analysisUploaded byganesh_withucad
- Shipping saddle for horizontal pressure vessels_v08_2.pdfUploaded bygbscribd73
- randybookReadyBooksFGHIJUploaded byMarcos A. Cruz
- Using a Pitot Probe.pdfUploaded byPhi Mac
- 226976872-GATE-Solved-Question-Papers-for-Engineering-Sciences-XE-by-AglaSem-Com.pdfUploaded byRajan Pandey
- AFT_Fathom_9_ERUploaded bydelitesoft
- qpaperUploaded byRandeep Iyyad N C
- LeeUploaded by123
- Lecture10.pdfUploaded byAldren RebaLde
- Example 1 Gravity DamUploaded byeph
- Complete Textile Mechanics LabUploaded byEngr Mujahid Mehdi
- SOLUTIONS to PROBLEMS - Callister Materials Science Solutions Manual_2_10Uploaded bygessicasants
- 0712ijdps05.pdfUploaded byanjugadu
- Rock Strength Prediction During Coring OperationUploaded byantoniusnoro
- Lecture 3 Convective Mass TransferUploaded byافكر اشتري كوريا
- Stress Strain ModelUploaded byKtk Zad
- TasksUploaded byHon Monda Bw'Onchwati