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CAMBRIDGE IGCSE MATHEMATICS Answers

Number
1 The number system
1. a 12
g 16

b9
h 18

c6
d 13
e 15
i 17
j 8 (or 16)

f 14

2. 1, 2, 3, 22, 5, 2 3, 7, 23, 32, 2 5, 11, 22 3, 13,


2 7, 3 5, 24, 17, 2 32, 19, 22 5, 3 7,
2 11, 23, 23 3, 52, 2 13, 33, 22 7, 29,
2 3 5, 31, 25, 3 11, 2 17, 5 7, 22 32, 37,
2 19, 3 13, 23 5, 41, 2 3 7, 43, 22 11,
33 5, 2 23, 47, 24 3, 72, 2 52
3. a 20
g 24

b 56
h 30

c 6

d 28

b 7
h 4

c 4
i 3

6. a ii and iii

4. a Listing the elements of each set:

f 15

= {Positive integers less than 15} = {1, 2, 3, 4,

4. a 168
b 105
c 84
f 54
g 75
h 144
5. a 8
g 5

e 10

d 14
j 16

d 84

..14}

e 48

D = {Odd numbers} = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13}


e 12
k 5

f 9
l 18

F = {Factors of 12} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12}

b iii

8 10 14

2 Sets and set notation


1

1. a A B = {o, u}

5 7 9
11 13

b A B = {a, b, e, h, i, m, o, r, s, u}

2 4
6 12

c A' B = {r, h, m, b, s}
d A B' = {a, e, i}

e n (B) = 7

b D F' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13}{5, 7, 8, 9, 10,


11, 13, 14, 15}

f n (B') = 19

D F' = {5, 7, 9, 11}

g n (A B) = 10

n(D F') = 4

2. a A B' = {11, 12, 13, 14} {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13,


15, 17, 19} = {11,13}

5. a and b

b A C = {11, 12, 13, 14} {7, 14} = {7, 11, 12,


13, 14}
n(A C) = 5

C
8

c A B C = {11, 12, 13, 14} {2, 4, 6, 8, 10,


12, 14, 16, 18} {7, 14} = {14}

13

3. a

c P M = or P M = {}
d n(P C) = 2

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3 Powers, roots and reciprocals

6. Completing a Venn diagram to show the situation


more clearly

= 15

1. 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144, 169, 196, 225, 256,
289, 324, 361, 400

3 pupils do
not take
either subject.

2. a 25, 169, 625, 1681, 3721


b Answers in each row are the same
3. a 2
g 8
m 20

History = 11

Geography = 6

4. a
e
i

The number of students shown on the diagram


= 11 + 6 + 3 = 20
But there are only 15 students in the class so that
5 students are being counted twice.
These 5 students take both history and geography.

= 15

History = 11

3 pupils do
not take
either subject.

+5

+8

+1

c 7
i 6
o 13

+6

+4

+ 12

b
f
j

c
g

d 1
j 4

+ 10

+3

e 9
k 11

f 10
l 12

e 36
k 121

f 15
l 16

+7

+9

d
h

5. a 81
g 49
m 64

b 40
h 12
n 17

c 100
i 25
o 441

6. a 24
g 3.6

b 31
h 6.5

c 45
d 40
e 67
i 13.9 j 22.2

7. a 27
f 256

b 125
g 625

d 14
j 21

c 216
h 32

f 101

d 1728
i 2187

e 16
j 1024

8. a 100
b 1000
c 10 000
d 100 000
e 1 000 000
f The power is the same as the
number of zeros.
g i 100 000 000
ii 10 000 000 000
iii 1 000 000 000 000 000

Geography = 6

4 Indices

The diagram confirms that 5 students take both


history and geography.

1. a 24
g 41

7. a

b 5
h 3
n 30

2. a
c
e
f
i

b 35
h 17

d 53
e 107
3
j 100

f 64

3333
b 999
66
d 10 10 10 10 10
2222222222
8
g 0.1 0.1 0.1
h 2.5 2.5
0.7 0.7 0.7
j 1000 1000

3. a 1

b 1

c 1

1
6
1

d 1
1
105
1

1
53
1
f 9

2
g w

h t

5. a 32

b 51

c 103

4. a

c 72
i 0.54

1
32
1

1
82
4

m
i x

3
j m

d m1

e t n

b n(B) = 4
If n(C) = 6 and n(A) = 2 then the maximum that n(B)
could be is 4 since A C C and B C C, and
AB=

6. a
b
c
d

i
i
i
i

24
103
53
32

ii
ii
ii
ii

21
101
51
33

iii
iii
iii
iii

24
102
52
34

iv
iv
iv
iv

23
106
54
35

7. a 54

b 53

c 52

d 53

e 55

8. a 63

b 60

c 66

d 67

e 62

9. a 46

b 415

c 46

d 46

e 46

f 40

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10. a 5
f 6

b 9
c 10
g 51
h 98
i 41

d 20

7 Standard form

e 3

1. a 0.65
11. a 16

b 25

c 216

b 0.065

2. a 65
12. a 4
13. a 51

b 9
b 61

c 64
c 21

d 31

e 41

f 21

g 21

1
d
27

3. a
d
g
j

h 31

1
e
32

1. a 15
f 2
k 24

b 14
g 2
l 10

c 24
h 8
m 18

d 6
i 4
n 16

e 14
j 3
o 36

2. a 9
f 18
k 8

b 16
g 6
l 48

c 3
h 4
m 13

d 32
i 20
n 13

e 18
j 16
o 8

3. a 2

b 30

c 15

d 27

e 7

4. a 9

b 3

c 1

5. a 16

b 2

c 12

6 Fractions and decimals


2. a 97

31
b 3
45

3. a 61

b 20

4. a 12

b 3 10

c 30

5. a 43

b 1 52
h 1 75

1
c 1
15
i 94

g 5

c 31
43
c 1
48

31
d 1
84

c 85

1
d 1
14
j 1 53

e 4

f 4

6. 40
7. a 81

89

b 100

7
c
32

8. 31
9. 260
10. 16
2
11. a 2
15

9
b
32

256
c
625

12. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, etc. Digit in decimal fraction same


as numerator.

15. a

98

94

b 24

d 65 000

250
34.6
246
0.008 65

b
e
h
k

34.5
0.020 789
7600
60 000 000

c
f
i
l

0.004 67
5678
897 000
0.000 567

3.45 101
c 4.67 104
10
2.078 10
f 5.678 104
2
7.6 10
i 7.6 104
k 2.3456 102
m 6 104
o 5.60045 101

5.67 103
3.46 101
5.6 102
7 103
2.3 107
2.56 106
1.12 102
2.8 102

b
d
f
h
j
l
n

6 102
7 104
6 105
1.6
3 106
4.8 102
6 105

6. a
c
e
g
i

1.08 108
1.2 109
6.4 102
2.88
8 106

b
d
f
h

4.8 106
1.08
1.2 101
2.5 107

7. a
c
e
g
i
k

1.1
1.6
9.6
2.1
1.5
1.6

108
109
108
103
102
104

b
d
f
h
j

6.1
3.9
4.6
3.6
3.5

8. a
c
e
g
i

2.7 107
2 107
2 101
2 101
2 105

b
d
f
h

1.6 106
4 102
6 102
5 108

9. a
c
e
g

5.4
1.1
2.8
4.9

b
d
f
h

2.9
6.3
5.5
8.6

105
102
102
108

106
102
107
107
109

109
104
102
102

10. 2 1013, 1 1010, mass = 2 103 g (2 kg)


11. a 6 107 sq miles

13.0.444 , 0.454 , 0.428 , 0.409 , 0.432 ,


9 3 16 4 5 6
0.461 ,
22 ,
7 ,
37,
9 ,
11,
13
14. a 24.242 42

c 6500

5. a
c
e
g
i
k
m
o

6. Any appropriate divisions.

b 10

b 650

b
4. a 2.5 102
d 3.4 109
e
g 2.46 103
h
1
j 9.99 10
l 9.876 54 101
n 5.67 103

Directed numbers

1. a 15

d 0.000 65

d 3125

1
1
1

14. a
b 12
c
100 000
25
1
1
1
f
g
h
32
81
13

c 0.0065

d 81

b 30%

12. 5 104

24

c 99

13. 9.41 104

2 97

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8 Rounding and estimating

5. 5525
6. a 25%

1. a 50 000

b 0.5

c 10

2. a 56 000

b 1.7

c 0.80 d 0.0098

7. 32%

3. a 60 000

b 1.1

c 0.2

8. 6.49%

4. a 4.8

b 11.1

5. a 5.78

b 2.31

6. a 4.6
d 0.1

d 1000

b 20.8%

c 1.9%

c 213.9

d 51.0

12 Reverse percentages

c 7.81

d 0.01

1. a 800 g

b 11.99
e 0.01

c 899.996

b 60 cm

c $400

2. $833.33
3. $300

7. a 80 000

b 1000

c 5000

d 75

e 100
4. 240

9 Limits of accuracy

5. 4750 blue bottles


1. a 7.5, 8.5
c 0.055, 0.065
2. a <65.5 g

b 84.5, 85.5
d 365.5, 366.5

b 64.5 g

6. $22

c <2620 g

7. less by 41%

d 2580 g

3. 79.75 m2  area  100.75 m2

13 Simple and compound interest

4. 216.125 m  volume  354.375 m

1. 12 years

5. 20.9 m  length  22.9 m (3 sf)

2. a i 2550

ii 2168 iii 1331

3. a $6800

b $5440

6. a 14.65 s  time  14.75 s


b 99.5 m  length  100.5 m
c 6.86 m/s (3 sf)

4. a 21 years

7. 3.41 cm  length  3.43 cm (3 sf)

10 Ratios
7

1. 10

2. 25
3. a

4. a 92

53

b 31

c $3481.60

b 21 years

14 Using a calculator

8. 14 s  time  30 s

2
5

b 7 years

c 92

5. a 160 g : 240 g
b 175 min : 125 min
c 50 g : 250 g : 300 g

1. a 35 000
e 1200

b 15 000
f 500

c 960

d 5

2. a 39 700
e 1130

b 17 000
f 550

c 933

d 4.44

3. a 4000
f 18

b 10

c 1

4. a 4190
f 18.5

b 8.79

c 1.01 d 20.7

5. a i 27.57142857
b i 16.89651639
c i 704.4198895

d 19

e 3

e 3.07

ii 27.6
ii 16.9
ii 704

6. a 28.6%

b 250 kg

7. a 1 : 400 000

b 1 : 125 000

c 1 : 250 000

15 Practical graphs

e 1 : 20 000

f 1 : 40 000

b 47 km

c 0.8 cm

1. a 32F
b 59 (Take gradient at C =10 and 30.)
c F = 59 C + 32

d 1 : 25 000
8. a 1 : 1 000 000

2. a 0.07 (Take gradient at U = 0 and 500.)


b $10
c C = $(10 + 0.07U) or Charge = $10 + 7cents/unit

11 Percentages
1. a $62.40

b $38.08

c 253.5 g

2. a $9.40

b 731 m

c 360 cm

d $30.24

b $20
3. a 25 (Take gradient at D = 0 and 40.)
5D
c C = $(20 +
) or Charge = $20 + $2.50/day
2
1

4. a 10
b 24.5 cm
c 0.1 cm or 1 mm
W
d L = 24.5 +
or Length = 24.5 + 1 mm/kg
10

3. 1 690 200
4. 575 g

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5. a i 9 am
b i 40 km/h

ii 10 am
ii 120 km/h

iii 12 noon
iii 40 km/h

6. a i 125 km
ii 125 km/h
b i between 2 pm and 3 pm
ii about 12 21 km/h
7. a Patrick ran quickly at first, then had a slow middle
section but he won the race with a final sprint. Araf
ran steadily all the way and came second. Sean set
off the slowest, speeded up towards the end but
still came in third.
b i 1.67 m/s
ii 6 km/h
8. a 2 21 km/h

b 3.75 m/s

c 2 21 km/h

9. a AB: 30 km/h, BC: 6 km/h, CD: 0 km/h,


DE: 36 km/h (in opposite direction)
b FG: 4 m/s, GH: 16 m/s, HI: 2 m/s (in opposite
direction), IJ: 16 m/s (in opposite direction)
10. a 20 m/s2

b 7.0 m/s2

11. a 3.5 m/s2

b 3.5 m/s2

12. a between 2 and 4 hours, and between 8 and


10 hours
b 10 km/h2, 0 km/h2, 5 km/h2, 0 km/h2,
6.25 km/h2, 3.75 km/h2

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b y=x+1
9. a y = 34 x 2 or 3y = 4x 6
c y = 2x 3
d 2y = x + 6
e y=x
f y = 2x

1 Linear graphs
1.

y = 3x + 4

20

2.

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

y = 2x 5

10.a y = 2x + 1
d 5y = 2x 5
1

2 Patterns and sequences


1. a 21, 34: add previous 2 terms
b 49, 64: next
square number c 47, 76: add previous 2 terms

2
0

2. 15, 21, 28, 36


0

3.

3. 12, 35, 23, 57, 34

7
y=

4. a 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 b It is the sums of the natural


numbers, or the numbers in Pascals Triangle.

x
+4
3

5
4
3
2
1
8

4. a

b 2y = x
c y = x + 1
e y = 23 x 3

x
2
2
x
y= 1
3
y=

4
3

1
0

10

12

6. a 3n + 1, 151
c 8n 6, 394
e 3n + 18, 168

b 5n 2, 248
d 5n + 1, 251

7. a 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024


b i 2n 1 ii 2n + 1 iii 3 2n

b 33, 38, 5n + 3
d 21, 25, 4n 3

b (6, 1)

5. a 13, 15, 2n + 1
c 20, 23, 3n + 2
e 42, 52, 10n 8

14

2
3

8. b 4n 3

c 97

d 50th diagram

9. b 2n + 1

c 121

d 49th set

ii 3n + 2

10. a i 14

5. a 2 b
j 43

31

6. a 1

b 1 They are perpendicular and


symmetrical about the axes.

c 3

d1

e 2

31

g5

h 5

51

iii 41

b 66

3 Substitution

7.

1. a 13

b 3

c 5

2. a 2

b 8

c 10

3. a 6

b 3

c 2

4. a 4.8

b 48

c 32

5. a 13

b 74

c 17

6. a 75

b 22.5

c 135

7. a 2.5

b 20

c 2.5

4 Simplifying expressions
8. a

1. a 2 + x
e x+3

y = 3x + 1, y = 2x + 3
8

i 8x

b x6
f d+m
j hj

c k+x
g by

k x 4 or

6
4
2
6

0
2

m y t or

i
ii
Linear (ii)
Linear (i)

y
t

2. a x + 3 yr

n wt

x
4

o a2

d xt
h p+t+w
2
l 2 x or

p g2

b x 4 yr

3. F = 2C + 30

4
6

4. a 3n

b 3n + 3

c n+1

d n1

b (2, 7)

5. a $4

b $(10 x)

c $( y x)

d $2x

6. a 75p

b 15x p

c 4A p

d Ay p

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1. a 30 b 72 c 6 d 10 e 4

7. $(A B)
c 2w2

8. a 6t

b 8w

9. a $t

b $(4t + 3)

d 6t2

3. a x = 2 b p = 2 c d = 6 d y = 1 e b = 9

10.a 5a
f 4i
k 6x2

b 6c
g 4j
l 5y2

c 9e
h 3q
m 0

d 6f
i 0

e 3g
j w

11. a 7x
f 5k

b 6y
g 2m2

c 3t
h 0

d 3t
i f2

e 5x

12. a 7x + 5
b 5x + 6
e 5p + t + 5
f 8w 5k
h 8k 6y + 10

c 5p
g c

13. a 2c + 3d
d 2i + 3k
g 7m 7n
j 2v
m y2 2z

c
f
i
l

b
e
h
k
n

5d + 2e
2k + 9p
6n 3p
2w 3y
x2 z2

4. 55p
5. a 121 cm

7. 3 years old
d 5x + 6

8. 5

7 Rearranging formulae
f + 3g + 4h
3k + 2m + 5p
6u 3v
11x2 5y

1. k =
2. r =

T
3

A9
4

3. m = gv

4. r =
3

1. a 6 + 2m b 6 12f c t + 3t d k 5k
e 15a3 10ab
b 9d
g 5ab

b 6.75 cm2

6. 17 sweets

5 Expanding and factorising

2. a 7t
f 4y2

b 4 c 1 21 d 2

2. a 3

c 3e
d 2t
h 3a2d

C
2

m2
5. p =

e 5t 2

6. d =

4A

7. a t = u2 v

b u =
v+t

3. a 2 + 2h
c 17k + 16

b 9g + 5
d 6e + 20

8. a w = K 5n 2

4. a 9t 2 + 13t
c 10e2 6e

b 13y2 + 5y
d 14k2 3kp

9. a 8y

10. a b =

Ra
aR

5. a 6(m + 2t) b 3m(m p) c 2(2a2 + 3a + 4)


d 3b(2a + 3c + d ) e 2ab(4b + 16 2a)
6. a x 2 + 5x + 6
c x 2 + 2x 8
e x 2 + x 12
g x2 9
i m2 16

b m2 + 6m + 5
d f2 f 6
f y2 + 3y 10
h t 2 25

b n=

K w

a(q p)
q+p

b a=

6 + st
2+s

Rb
bR

2 + 2y
y1
d Same formula as in a

11. a

12. a Cannot factorise the expression.


3 3V
3V
b 2
c Yes, 5
r (2r + 3h)

7. a 6x 2 + 11x + 3 b 10m2 11m 6


c 6a2 7a 3 d 6 7t 10t 2 e 4 + 10t 6t 2

8 Functions

8. a x 2 + 10x + 25 b m2 + 8m + 16 c t 2 10t + 25
d 9x2 + 6x + 1 e x2 + 2xy + y2

1. a f(1) = 2 + 1 = 3

9. a (x + 2)(x + 3) b ( p + 2)( p + 12) c (a + 2)(a + 6)


d (t 2)( t 3) e (c 2)(c 16) f ( p 3)( p 5)
g (n + 3)(n 6) h (d + 1)2

b g(2) = (2)2 = 4
c fg(x) = f(x2) = x2 + 1
d f1(x) = x 1

10. a (x + 3)(x 3) b (t + 5)(t 5) c (m + 4)(m 4)


d (k + 10)(k 10) e (x + y)(x y)
f (3x + 1)(3x 1)

e fg1(x) = f(x2 ) = x2 + 1
f gf1(x) = g(x 1) = (x 1)2

11. a (2x + 1)(x + 2) b (3t + 2)(8t + 1)


c 3( y + 7)(2y 3) d (2t + 1)(3t + 5)

6 Solving equations

2. a f : x 1/x

is not defined when x = 0

kamalmath.wordpress.com
7

b g : x (x 5)

is not defined when x  5

ii gf(x) = g(x3) = 1/( x3 1)

c h : x 10/(x +1)

is not defined when x = 1

iii gg(x) = g(1/(x 1)) =


=

3. The function f(x) is defined as f(x) = x(x 1)

a i f(3) = 3(3 1) = 6
ii f(3) = 3(3 1) = 12
b If f(x) = 6, then

1
(1/(x 1) 1)
1
(1 (x 1))/(x 1)
x1
1 (x 1)
x1
1 x + 1
x1
2x

x(x 1) = 6

x x=6
x2 x 6 = 0

c i fg(x) =1/(x 1)3

(x + 2)(x 3) = 0

is not defined when x =1

ii gf(x) = 1/( x3 1)

is not defined when x = 1

iii gg(x) = x 1
2x

is not defined when x = 2

x = 2 or x = 3
4.

9 Algebraic indices
1. a 53

b 6

1
2x3

2. a 7x3

5. a i f(100) = 100 = 10

d 44

m2
3
4t 4

3. a i 25 ii 125
iii 54

b i 64

4. a a3

4
5y3

c 5t 2

1
ii
32

e 10
5

b 10p1

c i 8

1
2

1
2m

d 8m5
1
ii
16

c a7

d a4

7
8x5
e 3y1

iii 256

iii 4 21 d 1 000 000

b a5

ii 1000
iii 41

e a2

f a1

ii g(1) = 3(1) + 4 = 7

5. a 6a5
b 9a2
3
f 10a

1
2

iii fg(2) = f(3(2) + 4) = f(16) = 16 = 4


1

b 4a3
f 5a4

6. a 3a
e 4a7

b gf(x) = g(x2) = 3(x2)2 + 4 = 3x + 4


6. The function f(x) is defined as f(x) = 2/(x + 2)

c 8a6
c 3a4

a If f(x) = 5 then 2/(x + 2) = 5 and x = 8/5

7. a 8a5b4
d 2ab3

b 10a3b
e 8a5b7

b Let y = 2/(x + 2)

8. a 3a3b2

b 3a2c4

y (x + 2) = 2

9. a t 3

b m4

d 6a4

e 8a8

d 6a1

c 30a2b2
c 8a2b2c3
2

c k5

d x2

yx + 2y = 2

10 Linear programming

yx = 2 2y
2 2y
x= y
1

So f (x) =

2 2x

1. a x  3

or 2/x 2

7. f : x x and g : x 1/(x 1)
3

ii gf(1) = g(1) = 1/2

c x6

2. a x  6
e w  5.5

b t  38
5
f x  14

c y4

3. a x  2
e t  10

b x  38
f y  75

c x  6 12

4. a x  1
e x  1

a i fg(2) = f(1) = 1

b x5

b x3
f x1

c x2

d t  18
d x  2
d x7
d x  1

b i fg(x) = f(1/(x 1)) = (1/(x 1))3 =1/(x 1)3

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9.

5. a
0

y
2

b
2

2 x

1
1

x = 2

d
1

10.

e
2

x=1

y
5

y=4

f
1

g
1

h
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
2

6. a x  4

1
1

y = 1

b x  2

11. a

y
8

c x  312

6
0

d x  1
e x

2
2

8 6 4 2 0
2

112

4
6

f x  2

g x  50

b i Yes
20

30

40

50

60

ii Yes

iii No

12. ad 10

h x  6

8
7

7.

2 x

2
0

8.

10

4
2

2 x

1
1

0
1

e i No

2x
x=2

2
3

ii No

iii Yes

13. a 45x + 25y  200 9x + 5y  40


b yx+2
y = 3

14. a i Cost 30x + 40y  300 3x + 4y  30


ii At least 2 apples, so x  2
iii At least 3 pears, so y  3
iv At least 7 fruits, so x + y  7

b Draw graph with inequalities and shading as


question

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d x = 1, y = 2 21 e x = 21, y = 6 21

c Three apples and five pears


15. a i Space 4x + 3y  48

5. Amul $7.20, Kim $3.50

b ii Cost 300x + 500y  6000 3x + 5y  60


Draw graph with inequalities and shading as
question

6. 84p
7. 4.40

c Six sofas and eight beds

8. $195

Number of seats required is 40x + 50y 


300 4x + 5y  30
ii Number of 40-seaters x  6
iii Number of 50-seaters y  5

16. a i

13 Quadratic equations
1. a 2, 5 b 3, 2 c 1, 2 d 3, 2
2. a 4, 1 b 3, 5 c 6, 2 d 2 e 2, 6

b Draw graph with inequalities and shading as


question

3. a 6, 4 b 6, 4

c Five 40-seater coaches and two 50-seater


coaches cost $740

11 Direct and inverse proportion

4. a (x + 2)2 4
d (x + 1)2 1

b (x 2)2 4

c (x + 5)2 25

b (x 2)2 5

c (x + 4)2 22

b 5.32, 1.32

c 4.16, 2.16

1.

a 15

b2

5. a (x + 2)2 5
d (x + 1)2 10

2.

a 75

b6

6. a 1.45, 3.45

3.

a 150

b6

4.

a 22.5

b 12

7. a 1.77, 2.27 b 3.70, 2.70 c 0.19, 1.53


d 0.41, 1.84 e 2.18, 0.15 f 1.64, 0.61

5.

a 175 miles

b 8 hours

8. 6, 8, 10

6.

a 100

b 10

9. 15 m, 20 m

7.

a 27

b 5

10. 6.54, 0.46

8.

a 56

b 1.69

11. 48 km/h

9.

a 192

b 2.25

12. 5 h

10. a 25.6

b 5

11. a 3.2 C

b 10 atm

14 Algebraic fractions
1.

12. a 388.8 g

b 3 mm

13. Tm = 12

a 3

b 2.5

14. Wx = 60

a 20

b 6

15. Q(5 t) = 16

a 3.2

b 4

16. Mt 2 = 36

a 4

b 5

17. WT = 24

a 4.8

b 100

18. gp = 1800

a $15

b 36

19. td = 24

a 3 C

b 12 km

20. ds2 = 432

a 1.92 km

b 8 m/s

21. WF = 0.5

a 5 t/h

b 0.58 t/h

2. a

5x
6

7x 3
4

x
6

3. a 3
4. a

5. a

6
3
2

6. a x

12 Simultaneous equations
1. a (4, 1) b (5, 5) c (2, 6) d (2, 6) e (7 21 , 3 21 )
2. a x = 4, y = 1 b x = 5, y = 2 c x =

x2

2 41,

y=

3x + 2y
6
12x 23
10

d
3x 2y
6

b 5

8x + 7
10

c 3
6x2 + 5x + 1
d
8

2xy
3

2xy
3

c 1

b 3

7. a 3, 1.5

x1

2x

2x

3x2 5x 2
d
10

2x2 6y2
9

b 0, 1

6 21
8. a

3. a x = 2, y = 3 b x = 2, y = 5 c x = 21, y = 43

x1
2x + 1

x+1
x1

4. a x = 5, y = 1 b x = 7, y = 3 c x = 3, y = 2

10

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15 Quadratic and cubic graphs

gradient = 3

d x = 1.5

gradient = 0

3. Draw graph of y = x3 3 with tangents at the


following points

1. a Values of y: 27, 12, 3, 0, 3, 12, 27


b 6.8
c 1.8 or 1.8
2. a Values of y: 27, 18, 11, 6, 3, 2, 3, 6, 11, 18, 27
b 8.3
c 3.5 or 3.5
3. a Values of y: 27, 16, 7, 0, 5, 8, 9, 8, 5, 0, 7
b 8.8
c 3.4 or 1.4

ax=2

gradient = 12

b x = 1

gradient = 3

c x = 2

gradient = 12

4. a Gradient when x = 2 is 9
NB graph is y = x3 3x 2

b 0.25
4. a Values of y: 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 7, 14
c 0.7 or 2.7
e (1.1, 2.6) and (2.6, 0.7)

b (1, 0) and (1, 4)

5. a Values of y: 15, 9, 4, 0, 3, 5, 6, 6, 5, 3, 0,
4, 9
b 0.5 and 3

5. Draw graph of the curve y = sinx for 0 < x < 360


with tangents at the following points

6. a Values of y: 5, 0, 3, 4, 3, 0, 5, 12
b 4 and 0
7. a Values of y: 16, 7, 0, 5, 8, 9, 8, 5, 0, 7, 16
b 0 and 6
8. a Values of y: 9, 4, 1, 0, 1, 4, 9
c Only 1 root

cx=0

a x = 60

gradient = 0.5

b x = 90

gradient = 0

c x = 240

gradient = 0.5

6. a Draw a graph of the curve y = x2

b +2

9. a Values of y: 10, 5, 4, 2.5, 2, 1.33, 1, 0.67, 0.5


b i 0.8
ii 1.6
10. a Values of y: 10, 5, 2.5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.4, 0.25, 0.2
c 4.8 and 0.2

c Gradient = 2x

11. a Values of y: 25, 12.5, 10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.33,


0.25
c 0.5 and 10.5

d They should be the same as the curves are


transformed vertically

12. a Values of y: 24, 12.63, 5, 0.38, 2, 2.9, 3,


3.13, 4, 6.38, 11, 18.63, 30
b 4.7
13. a Values of y: 27, 15.63, 8, 3.38, 1, 0.13, 0, 0.13,
1, 3.38, 8, 15.63, 27
b 0.2
14. a Values of y: 16, 5.63, 1, 4.63, 6, 5.88, 5, 4.13,
4, 5.38, 9, 15.63, 26
c 1.6, 0.4, 1.9

16 Gradients and tangents


1. Draw graph of y = x2 + 1 with tangents at the
following points
ax=5

gradient = 10

bx=1

gradient = 2

c x = 2

gradient = 4

d x = 5

gradient = 10

2. Draw graph of y = x (x 3) with tangents at the


following points
ax=5

gradient = 7

bx=3

gradient = 3

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11