Introduction Sugar is an informal term for class of edible crystalline substances, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose.

They have characteristically a sweet flavor. In food, sugar almost exclusively refers to sucrose, which primarily comes from sugar cane and sugar beet. The term sugar usually refers to sucrose, which is also called "table sugar" or "saccharose." Sucrose is a white crystalline disaccharide. Sucrose is the most popular of the various sugars for flavoring, as well as properties (such as mouthfeel, preservation, and texture) of beverages and food. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars, such as fructose, generally obtained from corn (maize) or from fruit. Candies represent a subgroup of sweet commodities generally called confectionery. Products such as long-storage cookies, cocoa and chocolate products, ice cream and invert sugar cream are also confections. Candies are manufactured from all forms of sugar and may also incorporate other foods of diverse origin (dairy products, honey, fat, cocoa, chocolate, marmalade, jellies, fruit juices, herbs, spices, malt extract, seed kernels, rigid or elastic gels, liqueurs or spirits, essences, etc.). The essential and characteristic component of all types of candy is sugar, not only sucrose, but also other forms of sugar such as starch sugar, starch syrup, invert sugar, maltose, lactose, etc. The important product groups include hard and soft caramels (bonbons, toffees), fondant, coconut flakes, foamy candies, gum candies, licorice products, dragees, pastilles, fruit pastes, chewing gum, croquant, effervescent powders, and products made of sugar and almonds, nuts and other protein-rich oil-containing seeds (marzipan, persipan, nougat).

Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right), important molecules in the body.

2.0 Materials and Method 2.1Materials and Methodology for the Relation between Boiling temperatures and the characteristics of sugar crystalline product 2.1.1 Materials Thermometers Gas burners Porcelain Glucose syrup Saucepans Spoon with long handle-Stainless steel Sucrose (white) Butter 2.1.2 Method 1. 300g of sucrose was dissolved in 180 ml of water and gently heated with stirring in a saucepan. 2. The solution was brought to boil. 3. The portion of the syrup was transferred on to the plates using spoon at the following temperatures. 111 0C , 113 0C, 118 0C, 122 0C, 1320C 145 0C and 1700C 4. When above samples are cooled to room temperature those were checked for below characters. 1. Consistency 2. Mouldability 3. Thread forming ability 4. Firmness/Brittleness of cool sample 5. Taste of sample and their solubility to the tongue.

Results -Observations 3.1 Relation between Boiling temperatures and the characteristics of sugar crystalline product. Temperature Thread of the forming sucrose ability solution 111 0C Highest Consistency Mouldability Firmness/Brittleness Taste of at the room the sample temperature Transparent liquid Soft Cannot be moulded Not easily mould. No brittleness. But threads are brittle No brittleness. Dissolve rapidly on tongue.

113 0C

Short thread forming

Dissolve rapidly on But threads are brittle tongue.

118 0C

Less Thread Semi solid forming ability than above temperatures No thread forming No thread forming No thread forming Semi solid

Not easily mould.

No brittleness

Dissolve rapidly on But threads are brittle tongue

122 0C

Good mouldamilty Not easily mould Not easily mould

Firm/Soft

Dissolve rapidly on tongue. Dissolve rapidly on tongue. Dissolve on tongue with the time Dissolve on tongue with the time

132 0C

Semi solid

Firm/soft

145 0C

Solid Brown

Hard and brittle

170 0C

No thread forming

Solid Dark brown coulr

Not easily mould

Hard and brittle

2.2 Materials and Method for the Effect of sugar mixtures 2.2.1 Materials Thermometers Gas burners Porcelain Glucose syrup Saucepans Spoon with long handle-Stainless steel Sucrose (white) Butter Pottassium bitartarate (Cream of tarta) 2.2.2 Methodology 1.100g of sucrose and 183g of commercial glucose syrup in 80 ml of water. and gently heated with stirring in a saucepan. 2. The solution was brought to boil. 3. The portion of the syrup was transferred on to the plates using spoon at the following temperatures. 111 0C , 118 0C, 1320C and 1700C 4. When above samples are cooled to room temperature and were checked for below characters. 1. Consistency 2. Mouldability 3. Thread forming ability 4. Firmness/Brittleness of cool sample 5. Taste of sample and their solubility to the tongue

Observations Temperature Thread of the forming sucrose ability solution 111 0C Form threads No threads No threads Consistency at the room temperature Semi solid (Soft) Semi solid Mouldability Firmness/Brittleness Taste of the sample

Not easily mould Good mouldability Difficult to mould

Firm

Dissolve rapidly on tongue. Dissolve rapidly on tongue. Dissolve with the time on tongue. Dissolve with the time on tongue

118 0C

High Brittleness

132 0C

Brown Solid

Brittlness high

170 0C

No threads

Very hard dark brown coilur solid

Difficult to mould

Brittleness high

2.3 Materials amd Metods for pulled candy 2.3.1Materials Butter Plate – Stainless steel 2.3.2Procedure 1. 100g of sugar was dissolved in 60ml of water in two sets.
2. One set was boiled to 1200C and the other to 1280C.

3. Then each heated sample was quickly poured on to a buttered plate and allowed to cooled in to extent which can be handled by hand. 4. Then the plastic mass repeatedly pulled as drawing it and folding the drawn strip and folding it out again, until it gains a white glossy appearance.

5. Then several mixtures of sugar as below were prepared as below and observed as above
1. 100g of sucrose, and 60 ml of water and 2.5g of tarterate heated to 1280C 2. 100g of sucrose, and 60 ml of water and heated to 1280C 3. 100g of sucrose,70g of glucose syrup and 60 ml of water heated to 1200C 4. 100g of sucrose,80g of glucose syrup and 60 ml of water heated to 1200C

Results/observations Type of Observation Sucrose solution at 1200C Light brownish colour. Semi solid Can fold until it gets glossy appearance Discussion 1280C Dark Brown colour Hard solid. Difficult to fold until it get glossy appearance

Type of candy 100g of sucrose + 60 ml water
128 0

Characters of the product Texture Hard

C Texture soft

100g of sucrose + 60 ml water+2.5 tarterate
128 0

C less soft

70g of Liquid glucose + 100g of Sucrose 120 0C 80g of Liquid glucose + 100g of Sucrose 1200C

soft

The moisture uptake of sugars in crystallized form is variable and depends, for example, on the sugar structure, isomers present and sugar purity. Solubility decreases as the sugars cake together, as often happens in sugar powders or granulates. On the other hand, the retention of food moisture by concentrated sugar solutions, e. g., glucose syrup, is utilized in the baking industry. The solubility of mono- and oligosaccharides in water is good. However, anomers may differ substantially in their solubility, as exemplified byα- and β- lactose .Monosaccharidesare soluble to a small extent in ethanol and areinsoluble in organic solvents such as ether, chloroform or benzene. Mono- and oligosaccharides and their corresponding sugar alcohols, with a few exceptions, are sweet. β-D-Mannose has a sweet-bittertaste, and some oligosaccharides are bitter, e. g. gentiobiose. The most important sweeteners are saccharose (sucrose), starch syrup (a mixture of glucose,maltose and malto-oligosaccharides) and glucose. Invert sugar, fructose-containing glucosesyrups (high fructose corn syrup), fructose, lactose and sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol,mannitol and xylitol, are also of importance.The sugars differ in quality of sweetness andtaste intensity. Saccharose is distinguished fromother sugars by its pleasant taste even at highconcentrations. The taste intensity of oligosaccharides ligosaccharides drops regularly as the chain lengthincreases. Brown-colored products with a typical caramelaroma are obtained by melting sugar or by heating sugar syrup in the presence of acidic and/or alkaline catalysts. Reference 1. Food Chemistry H.-D. Belitz · W. Grosch · P. Schieberle 4th revised and extended ed

Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Dietary fiber Fat Protein Water Riboflavin (Vit. B2) Calcium Iron Potassium

1,619 kJ (387 kcal) 99.98 g 99.91 g 0g 0g 0g 0.03 g 0.019 mg (1%) 1 mg (0%) 0.01 mg (0%) 2 mg (0%)

Discussion Nutritional Value per 100g of granulated Sugar

Nutritional Value per 100g of Brown Sugar
Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Dietary fiber Fat Protein Water Thiamine (Vit. B1) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) Niacin (Vit. B3) Vitamin B6 Folate (Vit. B9) Calcium Iron Magnesium 1,576 kJ (377 kcal) 97.33 g 96.21 g 0g 0g 0g 1.77 g 0.008 mg (1%) 0.007 mg (0%) 0.082 mg (1%) 0.026 mg (2%) 1 μg (0%) 85 mg (9%) 1.91 mg (15%) 29 mg (8%

Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc

22 mg (3%) 346 mg (7%) 39 mg (2%) 0.18 mg (2%)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.