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CAMBRIDGE IGCSE MATHEMATICS Answers

Shape, Space and Measure

6. a 40
b g = 50, h = i = 130
c j = k = l = 70
d n = m = 80

1 Geometric terms
1. a 70

b 60

2. a 60

b equilateral triangle

3. a 70 each

c 75

b j = k = 72, l = 108
7. a a = 50, b = 130
c m = n = o = p = 105
d q = r = s = 125

d 63

3 Constructions

c same length

b isosceles triangle

c same length

8. a i Construct 60 angle and bisect it


ii Bisect 30 angle
iii Construct 90 angle and bisect it to get 45,
then bisect 45 angle
iv Construct 45 angle on upper arm of
30 angle

4. x = 50, y = 80
5. a 109
6. a 90
e 77

b 130

c 135

b 150
f 131

c 80
g 92

d 80
h 131

10. b AC = 5.7 cm, BC = 6.4 cm


7. a 120
e 149

b 170
f 126

c 125
g 212

8. a a = 110, b = 55

d 136
h 114

11. b PR = 5.9 cm, RQ = 4.1 cm

b e = 87, f = 48

9. a a = c = 105, b = 75
10. a a = 135, b = 25

4 Maps and scale drawings

b g = i = 63, h = 117

1. a 73.4 km

b e = f = 94

b 15.6 km

2. 120

b c = 141, d = 37
11. a a = 58, b = 47
c e = g = 65, f = 115

3. a 59.4 km

b 8.4 km

16. a 6 cm2

4. a 15.9 km
d 052

b 24.1 km

b 120 cm2

c 30 cm2

17. 40 cm2

c 31.2 km

5. b Distance = 4.6cm which is equivalent to 2.3km

18. a 21 cm2
b 12 cm2
2
d 55 cm e 90 cm2

c 14 cm2
f 140 cm2

19. a 40 cm2

b 65 m2

c 80 cm2

20. a 96 cm2

b 70 cm2 c 20 m2

5 Congruence and similarity


1. a Yes, SAS
e Yes, ASA
h Yes, ASA

21. a 27.5 cm, 36.25 cm2 b 33.4 cm, 61.2 cm2


c 38.6 m, 88.2 m2
22. Shape b. Its area is 25.5 cm2

b Yes, SSS
f Yes, RHS

c No
d No
g Yes, SSS

2. i 60

ii 80

iii 40

iv 5 cm

3. i 110

ii 55

iii 85

iv 110

v 4 cm

23. Shape a. Its area is 28 cm2

4. a Yes, 4
b No, corresponding sides have different ratios

2 Angle properties

5. a PQR is an enlargement of ABC


c Angle R
d BA

1. a 48
f 69

b 52
g 74

c 139
h 56

d 128

2. a x = 100

b x = 110

c x = 30

3. a x = 55

b x = 45

c x = 12.5

e 27

6. 220 feet
7. a 4 : 25

i
i
i
i

45
20
15
36

ii
ii
ii
ii

8
18
24
10

iii
iii
iii
iii

b 8 : 125

8. a 16 : 49

b 64 : 343

9. 135 cm2

b x = 70, y = 120
4. a x = 34, y = 98
c x = 20, y = 80
5. a
b
c
d

b 1:3

10. a 2400 cm3

b 8100 cm3

11. 4 litres

1080
2880
3960
1440

12. 1.38 m3

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6 Symmetry
1.

8 Locus of points
b

1. a Circle with radius 2 cm


b Circle with radius 4 cm
c Circle with radius 5 cm

2. a
e

b
A

c
2. a i 5

ii 6

iii 8

3. a

b 10

c
3. a

f
d

4. 2, 1, 1, 2, 0
4.

5. a

Fence

Stake

5.
Stake

b 2

c 2

d 3

e 6

7. a 4

b 5

c 6

d 4

e 6

8. a 4

b 3

c 8

d 2

e 4

9. a 9

b 4

c 4

11. a 3

b 1

c 1

Fence

6. a 4

f 2

6.

7.

Fence
Stake

d 1

e Infinite

f 1

Fence
Fence

7 Angle properties of circles


1. a a = 50, b = 95
c g = 105, h = 99

b c = 92, x = 90
d p = 44, q = 68

2. a x = 26, y = 128
c x = 36, y = 72

b x = 48, y = 78

3. x = 93, y = 42
4. x = 14, y = 62
5. a 38
6. a 6 cm
7. a 62

b 15

c 45

b 10.8 cm
b 19

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2

9 Lengths, areas and volumes


1. a
b
c
d

10 Arc, sector and segment

8 cm, 25.1 cm, 50.3 cm2


5.2 m, 16.3 m, 21.2 m2
6 cm, 37.7 cm, 113 cm2
1.6 m, 10.1 m, 8.04 m2

2. a 440 cm

1. a
b
c
d

b 4

3. 38.6 cm
4. 38.5 m, 90 m2

6. 1 100 000 km2


b 225 m3

c 1332 m3

8. 7650 litres
9. 146 cm3
10.a
b
c
d

i
i
i
i

226 cm3
14.9 cm3
346 cm3
1060 cm3

207 cm2
61.3 cm2
275 cm2
636 cm2

ii
ii
ii
ii

5.59 cm
8.29 cm
16.3 cm
15.9 cm

ii
ii
ii
ii

22.3 cm2
20.7 cm2
98.0 cm2
55.6 cm2

2. a 73.8 cm

b 20.3 cm

3. a 107 cm2

d 34.9 cm2

4. Angle subtended at centre = 80 (as triangle is an


isosceles triangle)
Area of segment = Area of sector area of triangle
Area of sector = 80/360 x r2 = 80/360 x 82 =
44.68042885
Area of triangle = 12 absin 80 = 12 x 8 x 8 x sin 80
= 31.5138481
Area of segment = 44.68042885 31.5138481 =
13.16658075
Area of segment = 13.2 cm2 (3sf)

5. 80.2%

7. a 432 m3

i
i
i
i

5. (36 72) cm2


6. 36.5 cm2

11. $80 ($80.16)

11 Pythagoras theorem in two dimensions

12. 332 litres

1. a 10.3 cm

13.a 56 cm3
d 84 cm3

b 168 cm3
e 160 cm3

c 1040 cm3

2. a 15 cm

b 8.5 cm
b 14.7 cm

3. a 20.8 m

14. 270 cm3

4. a 32.2 cm2

15. 1.5 g/cm3

c 5 cm
c 6.3 cm

b 15.5 cm

d 10 cm
d 18.3 cm

c 15.5 m

b 2.83 cm2

d 12.4 cm

c 50.0 cm2

5. 6.63 m

16.a i 3560 cm3


ii 1430 cm2
b i 314 cm3
ii 283 cm2
3
c i 1020 cm ii 679 cm2

6. 11.3 m
7. 19.2 km

17. 140 g
8. 4.58 m

18. 65 400 cm3, 7850 cm2


19. a 1960 cm2

9. 13 units

b 8180 cm3

10. Yes, as 72+ 242 = 252

20. a 3.5 cm

b 3.3 cm

21. a 16 : 49

b 64 : 343

12 Sine, cosine and tangent in


right-angled triangles

22. 135 cm2


23. a 3750 cm3

b 3.75 cm3

24. 1.38 m3
25. a A
f L

b V
g V

c L

d V

e V

1. a 0.682
e 0.707

b 0.829
f 0.342

c 0.922
g 0.375

d 1
h 0

2. a 0.731
e 0.707

b 0.559
f 0.940

c 0.388
g 0.927

d 0
h 1

3. a 0.933
b 1.48
c 2.38
d Infinity
e 1
f 0.364
g 0.404
h 0
4. a 51.3

b 75.5

c 51.3

5. a 6.47 cm

b 32.6 cm

6. a 5.59 cm

b 46.6

c 137 cm
c 9.91 cm

d 40.1

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7. a 33.7

b 36.9

8. a 5.09 cm

b 30.4 cm

9. a 13.7 cm

b 48.4

c 1120 cm
c 7.03 cm

10. a 12.6 b 59.6 c 74.7


e 67.9 f 20.1
11. a 44.4
b 39.8
e 58.7
f 38.7
12. a 67.4
e 39.7
i 138

14 Three-dimensional trigonometry

c 52.1

d 41.2

ii 13 cm

3. a 24 cm and 20.6 cm

c 134
g 50.2

iii 9.4 cm

2. No, 6.6 m is longest length

d 16.0

c 44.4

b 11.3
f 263
j 22.8

1. a i 14.4 cm
b 15.2 cm

d 49.5

b 15.0 cm

4. 21.3 cm

d 28.1
h 51.3

13. 65

5. a 11.3 cm

b 7 cm

c 8.06 cm

6. a 50.0 cm
d 27.0 cm

b 54.8 cm

c 48.3 cm

7. a 58.6
d 64.0

b 20.5 cm

c 2049 cm3

8. a 3.46 m
d 60.3 m2

b 75.5

c 73.2

9. a 24.0
d 16.6

b 48.0

c 13.5 cm

14. 31
15. 10.1 km
16. 22
17. 429 m

15 Vectors and vector properties

18. 156 m
19. a 73.4 km

b 15.6 km

20. a 14.7 km

b 8.5 km

1. a Any 3 of AC, CF, BD, DG, GI, EH, HJ, JK

b Any 3 of BE,

c Any 3 of AO,

d Any 3 of BO,

21. 120
22. a 59.4 km b 8.4 km

b 8.05 cm

c 19.4 cm

2. a 46.6

b 112.0

c 36.2

3.

ii 40

b 19.4 m

b 22.2 m

6. a 7.71 m

b 29.1 cm

c 27.4 cm

D
G

5. a

8. 65.5 cm
c 38.3

4. a b
b 3a b
c 2a b
d ab
e a+b
f a b
g 2a b
h a 2b
i a + 2b
j a + b
k 2a 2b
l a 2b

7. a 76.2
b 125.1
c 90
d Right-angled triangle

b 41.7

K
E M

5. a 36.8 m

9. a 10.7 cm
e 54.4 cm2

C
N

3. 50.3, 129.7
4. a i 30




DH, CG, GJ, FI, IK

FC, IG, GD, DB, KJ, JH, HE






HD, DA, JG, GC, KI, IF

2. a 2a
b 2b
c a+b
d 2a + b
e 2a + 2b
f a + 2b
g a+b
h 2a + 2b
i 3a + b
j 2a
k b
l 2a + b

13 Sine and cosine rules


1. a 3.64 m

AD,

CA,

EB,

d 6.69 cm

A
C

P
E

6. Parts b and d could be, parts a and c could not be

10. 72.3

7. a Any multiple (positive or negative) of 3a b


b Will be a multiple of 3a b

b 26.7 cm2
c 243 cm2
11. a 24.0 cm2
2
2
d 21 097 cm
e 1224 cm

ii 21 (a + b)

8. a i a + b

12. 4.26 cm

iii

13. 108 cm2


14. 2033 cm2

iv 21 a + 21 b

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16 Transformations

ii 21 a 21 b

b i ab
iii

iv 21 a + 21 b

1.
b

M
O

a+b
A

d M is midpoint of parallelogram of which OA and


OB are two sides
9. a i a b
ii 21 a 21 b
1
1
iv 2 a 2 b

iii

d
x
5 4 3 2 1O 1 2 3 4 5
2
3
e
4
5
6

y
4
3
2
1

2.

b i b+a
ii 21 b + 21 a
1
1
iv 2 a 2 b

3. ai

iii

ab

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1O
S
-2
-3
-4
R
-5

4.

d N is midpoint of parallelogram of which OA and


OC are two sides
ii 31 (a + b)

10. a i a + b
b 43 a + 41 b
11. a

iii 32 a + 31 b

y
5
4
b 3
2
1

C
b

B
A
1 2 3 4 5 x
P
Q

j Reflection in the line y = x

b i a
ii b
iii a b
c 0, vectors return to starting point
d i 2b
ii 2b 2a
iii 2a
iv 2b a
v a b

12 + 12 a =
2a.
EY =

DE = DY + YE = b
2a

D
1

12 + 12 b =
2b
CX =

CD = CX + XD =
2b a

5. a

12. a

5 4 3 2 1O 1 2 3 4 5
2
3
c
4
d
5

CD = a + b = b a

y
5
4
3
2
1

b i Rotation 90 anticlockwise
ii Rotation 180

6.
c i a
ii b
iii a 2
b
iv 2
a b
v 2
a + a
vi 2
b + b
vii 2b + 2
b a 2
a
viii 2b + 2
b 2a 2
a

y
5
c4
3
2
1

5 4 3 2 1O 1 2 3 4 5
a
2
d 3
e
4
5

7. a
b
c
d

90 anticlockwise
270 anticlockwise
300 clockwise
260 clockwise

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5

8. Show by drawing a shape or use the fact that (a, b)


becomes (a, b) after reflection in the x-axis, and
(a, b) becomes (a, b) after reflection in the y-axis,
which is equivalent to a single rotation of 180

y
6

15.

5
P

4
3

9. Show by drawing a shape or use the fact that (a, b)


becomes (b, a) after reflection in the line y = x, and
(b, a) becomes (a, b) after reflection in the line
y = x, which is equivalent to a single rotation of
180

1 O

B
2

6 x

S
4

10. d All shapes are the same.


16. a Shear factor =

11.

distance between a point and the image of the point


distance between the point and the invariant line
12. a

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
O

12
4

=3

So shear factor = 3
b The area of triangle ABC and triangle ABC' is
the same

y
5
4
3
2
1

17. The distance between A and the y axis is 3 units


so the distance between A and A' is 6 units
The distance between B and the y axis is 5 units
so the distance between B and B' is 10 units
etc etc

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

5 4 3 2 1O
2
3
c
4
5

2 3 4 5

y
C

Scale factor 12, centre (1, 3)


Scale factor 2, centre (1, 3)
Scale factor 1, centre (2.5, 1.5)
Scale factor 1, centre (2.5, 1.5)
Same centres, and the scale factor are
reciprocals of each other

14. a i
v

( 13 )

ii

( 42 )

( 16)

vi

( 46 )

b i

( 1
3 )

ii

( 13)

( 23)

vi

( 33 )

c i

( 4
2 )

ii

( 54)

vi

using the point C to C'

13. ac

d
e
f
g
h

b 3:1
c 3:1
d 9:1

( 31)

iii

( 12)

iii

iv

( 41)

( 51 )

iv

( 2
3 )

iv

B
x

18. The transformation is a stretch with the line AB


invariant
The stretch factor is 2

( 24)

19.

iii

( 11)

A
D
D

B
B
x

( 04 )
C

d i

( 32 )

ii

( 42)

( 50 )

vi

( 51)

iii

( 45)

iv

( 2
7 )

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20. A translation

4. a BA is not possible

( 21 ), B reflection in y-axis,

C rotation 90 clockwise about (0, 0),


D reflection in x = 3, E reflection in y = 4,
F enlargement by scale factor 2, centre (0, 1)

b CD =

( 11 34 ) ( 32 ) = ( 119 )

c Determinant = 1

21. a T1 to T2: rotation 90 clockwise about (0, 0)


b T1 to T6: rotation 90 anticlockwise about (0, 0)
2
c T2 to T3: translation
2
d T6 to T2: rotation 180 about (0, 0)
e T6 to T5: reflection in y-axis
4
f T5 to T4: translation
0

()

5. i

()

2M = 2

ii M2 =

Inverse =

( 14 31 )

( 3xx 4x2x ) = ( 6x2x 8x4x )

3x 4x
x 2x

)(

13x2 20x2
3x 4x
=
5x2 8x2
x 2x

)(

22. (4, 3)
6. a A =

b Reflection in y-axis

23. a (5, 2)
24. (3, 1)

b B=

17Matrices
1. a

( 44 44 )

5 10
15 20

2.

( 106 128 )
(

=I

premultiplying the vector OP by the matrix


0 1
1 0

Vector OP =

( 34 ) and ( 01 10 ) ( 34 ) = ( 34 )

Hence the image P = (4, 3)


8. The positions of A, B and C can be found by

22
( 19
43 50 )

23 34
31 46

premultiplying the vectors OA, OB and OC by


the matrix individually or collectively as
follows

g 12

4 2
( 31
)

h 12

( 78 65 )

A2 =

( 37 21 ) = as MM

7. The position of P can be found by

( 52
1 4)
(

2
( 1
3 7 )

( 10 01 )(

A B C
4 3 1
2 5 4

A B C
2 5 4
= 4 3 1

) (

Hence the image A = (2, 4), B = (5, 3)


and C = (4, 1)
0 1
that
Using a graph you can see
1 0
represents a rotation of 90
clockwise about the origin.

14
( 23 24 ) ( 23 24 ) = ( 13
14 20 )

3. a Determinant = 3

b Determinant = 2

Inverse =

1
3

Inverse = 12

( 21 03 )
( 56 2
2 )

c Determinant = 10
1 23 13
Inverse = 10
22 12

)
7

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