Name: T.L.V.Peiris Index No: GS/MSc/Food/3630/08

University : University of Sri Jayawardenapura


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Frying is a unit operation which is mainly used to alter the eating quality of a food. A secondary consideration is the preservative effect that results from thermal destruction of micro-organisms and enzymes, and a reduction in water activity at the surface of the food (or throughout the food, if it is fried in thin slices). The shelf life of fried foods is mostly determined by the moisture content after frying: foods that retain a moist interior for example doughnuts, fish and poultry products which may also be breaded or battered ,have a relatively short shelf life, owing to moisture and oil migration during storage. These foods are important in catering applications and are produced on a commercial scale for distribution to retail stores, preserved by chilling and/or gas packing. Foods that are more thoroughly dried by frying, for example potato crisps (potato chips in the USA), maize and other potato snack foods, have a shelf life of up to 12 months at ambient temperature. The quality is maintained by adequate barrier properties of packaging materials and correct storage conditions. When food is placed in hot oil, the surface temperature rises rapidly and water is vaporized as steam. The surface then begins to dry out in a similar way to that during baking and roasting. The plane of evaporation moves inside the food, and a crust is formed. The surface temperature of the food then rises to that of the hot oil, and the internal temperature rises more slowly towards 100ºC. The rate of heat transfer is controlled by the temperature difference between the oil and the food and by the surface heat transfer coefficient. The rate of heat penetration into the food is controlled by the thermal conductivity of the food. The surface crust has a porous structure, consisting of different-sized capillaries. During frying, both water and water vapour are removed from the larger capillaries first, and replaced by hot oil. Moisture moves from the surface of the food through a boundary film of oil, the thickness of which controls the rate of heat and mass transfer. The thickness of the boundary layer is determined by the viscosity and velocity of the oil. The water vapour pressure gradient between the moist interior of the food and the dry oil is the driving force behind moisture loss, in a similar way to hot air dehydration. The time taken for food to be completely fried depends on: • The type of food • The temperature of the oil • The method of frying (shallow or deep-fat frying) • The thickness of the food • The required change in eating quality

3.2 Materials Items
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Two Deep fryers with wire baskets Stainless steel spoons Stainless steel knives Cutting board Weighing scale Porcelain dishes Thermometers 250ml beakers 3.3 Examination of physical properties 3.3.1 Method

Turky soybean oil Fortune palm oil Glycerol Stearic acid Glycerol monostearate Potatoes

The oil samples were transferred to the beaker and examined the colour, odour and consistency. Then it was slightly warmed about 600 C and examined the above properties again. 3.3.2 Results Table 1(properties of soybean oil & palm Oil) Observation Soybean Oil Pale yellow Present Odour Slightly Viscous

Character Colour Odour Consistency

Vegetable Oil Dark yellow Present Odour Slightly Viscous

Table 2: properties of soybean oil & palm Oil samples at 600C Character Colour Odour Consistency Vegetable Oil Yellow Dark Yellow Present odour Present odour Viscous less than room temperature Observation Soybean Oil

3.4 Change of physical properties on heating 3.4.1 Method

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20ml of soybean oil and palm oil were transferred to two 100 ml beakers seperatly and heated up to 1000C and examined for physical changes and odour. Heating was continued until the oil decomposed. Smoke point and flash points of the samples were determined using thermometers. 3.4.2 Results Table 3 : Smoke Points & Flash Points of soybean oil Vegetable oil Type of oil soybean oil Vegetable oil Smoke points 3000 C 2800 C Flash Points 3600C 3500 C Odour an irritating odour present an irritating odour present

3.5 Effect of hydrolytic products and water on smoke point 3.5.1 Method 10% Glycerol, 10% Stearic acid and 10% Glycerol monostearate solutions were prepared and
20ml of each were added into separate 100ml beakers which contains 20ml of soybean oil & vegetable oil sample Appearance of solutions were examined and heated till smoke point and flash point obtaines.

3.5.2 Results
Table 4: Effect of hydrolytic Products & water on smoke point Smoke Points with 10% stearic acid 2400C 2200C 1300C

Type of Oil Soyabeen Oil Vegetable Oil Water

with 10% Glycerol 2600C 2400C 1400C

with 10%% Glycerol monosterate 2200C 2000C 1100C

3.6 Lipid absorption during frying 3.6.1. Effect of Different lipids Method The deep fryers were half filled with a samples of soybean & Vegetable oil and heated up to the temerature 1500 C. Peeled and sliced in same sizes Potatoes samples were divided into two equal portions

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and weighed separately. the potato samples put into two wire baskets seperatly and submerged in the oil carefully for fried potatoes till they become yellow brown colour. The time taken for frying was recorded. Then the wire baskets were removed from fryers and stand for drained off the excess oil. Then the fried samples were transferred to tissue papers nd weighed. Moisture content of the sample was determined by oven drying method and fat content was determined by soxhlet extranction method. Free fat content of raw potato was also defermined by soxhlef extraction method. Each samples were calculated for determined lipid absorption. Results & Calculations Moisture Moisture (Raw Potato) Sample 1/ g Weight of the dish Weight of the Sample Weight of the (dish + sample) Weight of the (dish + dried sample) Moisture % Moisture Average 45.3929 5.2264 50.6193 46.3298 4.2895 82.1% 82.1% Sample 2/g 44.5909 5.1166 49.7075 45.5087 4.1988 82.1%

Moisture (Fried Potato with Soybean Oil) Sample 1/ g Weight of the dish Weight of the Sample Weight of the (dish + sample) Weight of the (dish + dried sample) Moisture % Moisture 13.0235 5.1578 18.1813 18.1605 0.0208 0.4% 0.35%

Sample 2/g 46.9849 5.1802 52.1651 52.1513 0.0138 0.3%

Average Moisture (Fried Potato with Vegetable Oil) Weight of the dish Weight of the Sample Weight of the (dish + sample) Weight of the (dish + dried sample) Moisture Deep frying 12.7540 5.2390 17.9930 17.9502 0.0428

Sample 1/ g

Sample 2/g 12.9925 5.0990 18.0915 18.0863 0.0052 Page 5

% Moisture Average

0.8% 0.45%

0.1% Lipid absorption during frying Time for Soybean Oil - 90 min Time for Vegetable Oil - 75 min Soybean Oil Wt of raw Potato Sample Wt of raw potato sample (dry basis) = 200.29 g = (100 - 82.1) x 200.29 g 100 = 35.8519 g Wt of fried potato sample Wt of fried potato sample (dry basis) = 66.46 g = (100 - 0.35) x 66.46 g 100 = 66.2274 g % Lipid absorption = (Wt of fried pieces - wt of unfried pieces) x 100 wt of un fried Pieces = (66.2274 - 35.8519) x 100% 35.8519 = 84.72%

Palm Oil Wt of raw potato Sample Wt of raw Potato Sample (dry basis) Wt of fried Potato sample Wt of fried Potato sample (dry basis) = 200.99 g = (100 - 82.1) x 200.99 g 100 = 35.9772 g = 67.24 g = (100 - 0.45) x 67.24 100 = 66.9374 g Deep frying Page 6

% Lipid absorption

= (wt of fried pieces - wt of unfried pieces) x 100 wt of unfried pieces = (66.9374 - 35.9772) x 100% 35.9772 = 86.0551% Free fat Content absorpion during frying Raw potato Wt of Potato Sample Wt of Potato Sample (dry basis) = 1.2709 g = (100 - 82.1) x 1.2079 g 100 = 0.2275 g Wt of round bottom flask with boiling chips Wt of round bottom flask with boilin chips & free fat Free fat content % free fat in raw Potato = 0.0019 g = 0.0019 x 100% 0.2275 = 0.84% = 83.2267 g = 83.2248 g

Potato fried with soybean oil Wt of the Sample Wt of the Sample (dry basis) = 1.3103 g = (100 - 0.35) x 1.3103 g 100 = 1.3057 g Wt of round bottom flask with boiling chips Wt of round bottom flask with boiling chips & freefat % free fat content Deep frying = 114.9759 = 0.5756 g Page 7 = 114.4003

% free fat

= 0.5756 x 100% 1.3057 = 44.08%

Free fat content absorb by soybean oil

= (44.08 - 0.84) % = 43.24%

3.7 Conclusion Smoke point and flash points are very high for Vegetable oil and soybean oil. Then they are stable then more suitable for cooking. The smoke point was significantly decreased due to hydrolytic products (Table 3) • • Frying time of Vegetable oil is less than soybean oil. Then, using Vegetable oil we can fry something quickly than soybean oil . Lipid absorption of potato is slightly same to soybean oil and Palm oil.

Foods that retain a moist interior are fried until the thermal centre has received sufficient heat to destroy contaminating micro-organisms and to change the organoleptic properties to the desired extent. This is particularly important for comminuted meat products (for example sausages or burgers) or other foods that are able to support the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The temperature used for frying is determined mostly by economic considerations and the requirements of the product. At high temperatures (180–200ºC), processing times are reduced and production rates are therefore increased. However, high temperatures also cause accelerated deterioration of the oil and formation of free fatty acids, which alter the viscosity, flavour and colour of the oil and promote foaming. This increases the frequency with which oil must be changed and hence increases costs. A second economic loss arises from the vigorous boiling of the food at high temperatures which causes loss of oil by aerosol formation and entrainment in the product. Acrelein is a breakdown product of oil, produced at high temperatures, which forms a blue haze above the oil and is a source of atmospheric pollution. The temperature of frying is also determined by the product requirements. Foods in which a crust and a moist interior are required, are produced by high-temperature frying. The rapid crust formation is beneficial in that it seals moisture into the food but it also restricts the rate of heat transfer to the interior. The bulk of the food therefore retains a moist texture and the flavour of the ingredients. Foods which are dried by frying are processed at a lower temperature to cause the plane of evaporation to move deeper inside the food before the crust forms. They are dried before excessive changes to the surface colour or flavour occur.

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References 1. Food processing technology Principles and Practice Second Edition P. Fellows Director, Midway Technology and Visiting Fellow in Food Technology at Oxford Brookes University 2. Food Chemistry H.-D. Belitz · W. Grosch · P. Schieberle 4th revised and extended ed.

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